The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Location: MC 8-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Challenges of Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
Transitions to land tenure rights based on the ‘living customary law’: innovations to secure land rights in peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa
1University of Venda, South Africa; 2Stellenbosch University
The ‘living’ customary land tenure system describes the shifting policies and practices that characterize access to land, and secure land rights emerging from peri-urban areas. These policies and practices illustrate legal pluralism: the existence of multiple legal systems within a given community or residential space. We use sub-Saharan case studies on Zimbabwe and South Africa to illustrate these research concerns. Generally, peri-urbanity is on the increase in most sub-Saharan Africa because of migration and urbanization processes resulting in increased mix of legal systems on access to land, and secure land rights in these areas. Participatory Geographic Information Systems is identified as a useful planning tool for peri-urban areas. Implementation of this planning tool in land allocation can enhance equity and security for all residents, including children, women, and the poor in particular.
Institutional Framework and Access to Land in Peri-urban Tanzania: A Perspective from Actors
Ardhi University, Tanzania
Peri-urban land access in Tanzania is adversely embroiled by the existing of two institutional arrangements; the formal and the informal. The operation of these arrangements is undertaken by different actors with divergent interests on peri-urban land. The aim of this study is to explore the existing institutional arrangements and to demonstrate actors’ views. Data were obtained through questionnaires, document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results indicate that although the guiding formal arrangement to access land is available, this process is complicated and characterized by overlapping power among the land authorities. Furthermore, it was revealed that although the informal process of access to land face challenges, it remains to be predominant as it is used to bridges the gap of high demands of serviced land. Therefore, the government with consultation with other actors may consider adoption of a new approach that can integrate all systems in order to establish a single one.
Planning rural areas in an urbanized world: Critical issue for Colombia
1Colombia Rural, Colombia; 2RIMISP, Colombia
Municipality planning in Colombia has largely focused its efforts in studying urban demand for goods and services, especially in space demand for city growth. However, provision of goods and public services in rural areas has not been sufficiently addressed. There is no clarity upon how much rural area has to be protected to ensure food production and provision, to provide public services such as aqueduct and sewage systems or how to appropriately design and provide logistics and distribution services for producers in rural areas.
This paper studies the extent to which local governments engage with rural areas and their inhabitants in planning exercises and some of the barriers they could face with regards to land administration. Given the actual demographics -average age of 40 in rural areas - this paper argues that adequate planning for rural areas and provision of goods and services is crucial for people seeking opportunities and growth.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Approaches to Land Delivery for Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Sue Bannister, City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Market-led Initiatives To Land Tenure Security In Ghana: Contribution Of Gated Communities
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Ghana, like many Sub-Saharan African countries, has instituted a system of land title registration to address problems in its land market, namely; multiple sales of customary lands, endless land litigations and indeterminate boundaries of customary lands. Yet, despite this intervention, the problems bedeviling the land market persist. Gated communities have emerged to solve these problems and to further guarantee homeowners land tenure security. This paper examines how developers of gated communities provide tenure security for their homeowners. Using Greater Accra Metropolitan Area as case study and collecting data from six gated communities through self-administered surveys and interviews with key stakeholders and residents living in gated communities, the study found that most residents in gated communities strongly perceive that the presence of fence walls, and security systems in gated communities provided them the assurance that their land tenure security was guaranteed and hence only a few have secured land title certificate.
Impact and Effectiveness of Urban Planning on City Spatial Development – A Case of Tanzania Secondary Cities
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Ardhi University, Tanzania
This is the phase 1 findings from an ongoing study investigating the spatial development characteristics of Tanzania secondary cities with and without urban plans, and attempting to assess the impact and effectiveness of such urban plans. In this 1st phase, we focused on establishing the context, determining the case cities and study area, as well as developing the detailed Background Profile of Cities. The case write-ups feature qualitative and empirical description of these cities, including the history/evolution of urban plans, local urban planning policies, processes and associated broad physical, economic, social and environmental development trends or relevant incidents which had significant influence on the city’s physical development. Findings from this first phase will inform the 2nd phase where we will investigate: (i) the urban form and city development of the selected cities based on the identified spatial and socioeconomic metrics; and (ii) effectiveness in the implementation of urban plans.
Impact of Litigation on the Real Estate Market in Mumbai
1Tata Institute of Social Sciences; 2IDFC Institute; 3George Mason University; 4Brookings India and Member, Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council
The formal housing market in Indian cities has not been responsive to the growth in urban population. A striking feature of land and real estate markets in urban India is weak property rights, unclear titles, encroachment and complex regulatory processes which increase the likelihood of legal disputes and choke supply of land and housing. This paper aims to understand the impact of litigation on the real estate market in Mumbai by making use of a unique dataset on ongoing real estate projects. We find that litigations have a positive and statistically significant effect on completion times of projects and may be contributing to severe delays. Policy reforms focusing on improving land titling and tenure for urban land, simplifying regulations and process of granting approvals could help resolve this problem.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-08: The Link Between Planning and Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
Enabling Market to Deliver Affordable Urban Land and Housing at Scale: What Can We Learn and Adapt from China to Ethiopia?
1World Bank; 2The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing
Ethiopia is urbanizing rapidly and faces tremendous challenge in delivering affordable land and housing at scale. With a public land ownership regime, the country has taken steps to enable market forces to shape the allocation of urban land through the land lease system. Despite progress made, supply of land, housing, and financing needed for urbanization has been lagging. Access to urban land continues to be one of the key constraints for business. An estimated 70–80 percent of the urban population lives in informal dwellings. China’s successful urbanization has been underpinned by land reforms, which enabled the trading of land use rights and a market-driven land allocation, Moreover, urban china has successfully delivered affordable housing at scale, with an average of 5.56 million units constructed every year. This paper reviews China’s experience with rapid urbanization supported by land-based infrastructure financing, with a focus on the lessons learned, adaption needed, and pitfalls to be voided.
Land Use Problems and Land Management: A Land Inventory Study in Istanbul
1Avrasya Land Management and Urban Regeneration Strategy Development Center, Istanbul - Turkey; 2Emlak Konut Real Estate Investment Trust, Turkey; 3Okan University, Geomatics Engineering Department, Turkey
In Turkey; integrated land management policies to ensure the protection of our country’s natural, ecological, and cultural assets as well as sustainable development of its resources are required. Creation of an “land resource inventory” is a top priority for sustainable land management.
This paper seeks an answer to question how it can be achieved land management that meets national needs and expectations by adopting the principles of “Sustainability” and “Integrated Approach.” At this point, the study adopts a holistic perspective as it examines the entire land asset of Istanbul, which is the heart of finance and Turkey’s most populated metropolitan area with its natural structure, historical and cultural accumulation, and industrial structure. The study involves compiling a “land inventory” and “land use plans with the 1/25000 scale” to managing Istanbul’s all land assets centrally as well as creating policies and strategies for such management.
Spatial Planning Beyond Boundaries
Spatial Planning in India is still mostly limited to the urban agglomerations. With a strong urban growth a new type of urbanism arises, that seems to be neither rural nor urban. This so called “Peri-Urban” growth encompasses a large amount of valuable land, and if not regulated, causes high costs for the construction of public (technical) infrastructure and leads to conflicts with other land uses such as agriculture or with environmentally protected areas . Consistent and systematic spatial planning at the level of the region can be an important contribution to plan the rural-urban linkage and to prevent negative consequences of the aforementioned current spatial developments. In this regard, the Land Use Planning and Management Project, jointly implemented by the Indian Mistry of Rural Development and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, want to revive Spatial District Planning as provided for in the Indian Constitution.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-08: Policy Options for Shaping City Form|
Session Chair: Michael Sutcliffe, City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Achieving Urban Spatial justice in South Africa: Context, Reality and the Integrated Urban Development Framework
City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
By 2050 eight in ten South Africans will live in urban areas. Colonialism and the apartheid state have created a highly fragmented and unequal urban system. South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP), argues that sustainable development depends on the particular local context in which the settlement development is taking place, including the need for spatial justice, spatial sustainability, spatial resilience, spatial quality and spatial efficiency. This paper describes the methodology used to both define the South African urban system as a whole and also the fragmentation within the urban areas themselves, as part of the process of defining the Integrated Urban Development Framework in South Africa. It calls for a measured and differentiated approach to the New Urban Agenda, taking into account looking at this new deal for South African cities and towns, by steering urban growth towards a sustainable growth model of compact, connected and coordinated cities and towns.
The Concentration Dilemma: Urban-Rural Transition in Metropolitan Area of Chengdu Since Early 2000s
Future Cities Laboratory, ETH Zurich
During the last one and half decade in China, a policy of spatial concentration of rural settlements is widely favored to manage the urbanization of the countryside. And yet, many of the projects developed under this policy have triggered radical and disruptive changes in the social and morphological structure of the countryside, without necessarily delivering the continuous social harmony or economic growth originally envisioned. This paper focuses on this misalignment of policy goals and effects, what we call the “concentration dilemma”, and also some emerging alternative development strategies. Drawing on case studies supported by first-hand interviews, innovative mapping techniques and archival documents, the paper assesses both state-led policy and bottom-up alternatives in terms of short- and long-term socio-economic, community and environmental criteria. In the end, it concludes towards a discussion on the potential of developing more site-specific policies for a more resilient and sustainable scenario for urban-rural transition.
Changing rural to urban in extractive territories. Land administration comparing Argentina, Chile, and Peru
MIT, United States of America
Latinamerica extractive sector is growing and changing rural territories. Extractive cities are developing but they depend on non-renewal resources. Their temporality is, as well, limited. The objective of this paper is to compare land administration sustainability when the core economy of this cities is no longer the extractive sector.
The paper evaluates impacts of extractive economies that lead change in rural territories where environmental, social and economic issues introduce urbanity at a very fast dynamic. On the one extreme, the land administration can be an opportunity to leverage infrastructure and urban expansion. On the other extreme, land speculation without adequate policies can make fail any attempt to plan and equitable growth.
Firstly, I describe rural and urban settings that illustrate how land policies can deal with urban change. Secondly, I analyze the examples given regarding centralization/decentralization and public/private partnerships. Finally, I compare land policies that can finance infrastructure, urban expansion, and housing.
Using Data in Urban Planning To Decongest The City Of Nairobi: Lessons From Other Cities
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Car Design Research Cambridge
Urbanization is important for development but requires better planning to maximize on its benefits and address challenges. The population of Nairobi, estimated to be 5 million, continues to grow despite the expectation that people would move to the counties in the aftermath of devolution introduced by the 2010 Constitution. The transport, water, sewerage and other infrastructure is chocking as more pressure is brought to bear on it by the exponential growth. Traffic jams in Nairobi have increasingly become a nightmare for city dwellers with many hours spent in snarl-ups at peak times in the city and its environs. This paper looks at how data from different sources can be used for more integrated planning of the city of Nairobi to enhance mobility. It analyses the Nairobi Integrated County Development Plan and the Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure with a view to identifying entry points for data use in urban planning.
|Date: Wednesday, 21/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: New Tools for Applied Land Valuation|
Session Chair: Steven Nystrom, FIG Commission 9, United States of America
Simplified Property Tax Appraisal For Effective Revenue Mobilisation
1Ulster University, United Kingdom; 2International Association of Assessing Officers; 3University of Pretoria
Value based property taxes are widely used throughout the developed world. For many transitional and developing countries the use of property taxes is often difficult due to the level of immaturity in the property market, under-declaration of transaction prices and excessive transfer taxes. This hampers effective revenue mobilisation and acts against efforts to support fiscal decentralisation. This paper plans to investigate the use of simplified approaches by utilising more readily available data such as floor area/size and location. The hedonic modelling literature suggests that both of these variables contribute significantly to explaining the variation in selling prices of real estate. Also considered will be simplified approaches which contribute towards simplifying billing, collection and enforcement, including banded approaches. The objective is to test these approaches against a value based system and to measure the comparative performance against standard metrics, including the IAAO ratio standards of COD, PRD and PRB.
Achieving Fair Property Tax Valuations with Geospatial Modeling & International Valuation Standards: A Case Study of the Moldova Real Estate Market
1International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America; 2World Bank, Washington, D.C.; 3Agency of Real Estate and Cadastre, Republic of Moldova; 4Ulster University, Northern Ireland
Inaccurate real estate valuations used for ad valorem or value-based property tax calculations potentially lead to a variety of costs, both financial and other, for tax payers and governments alike. More accurate, research-backed valuations help governments promote fairness, accuracy and defensibility in their assessments, resulting in higher property tax acceptance and participation and reduce administrative costs associated with appeals. This research will present the latest methodological techniques in use for value-based property taxation in mature markets like the United States, and it will be the first of its kind to test the applicability and usability of these models and techniques outside the United States: in the Republic of Moldova, a former Soviet Republic that gained independence in 1992. This research will aid in guidance and valuation policy prescriptions for transition economies with similar markets and/or similar data availability to Chisinau.
Korea's Mass Assessment System of Land Pricing for Taxation, Using ICT
Korea Appraisal Board, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Land policies of South Korea played a key role in supporting economic development during its industrialization period. Through its land policies, urban land was properly supplied for the construction of public infrastructure, houses and plants, while urban problems such as land price hikes, speculation, and urban sprawls have been mitigated. The establishment of the Public Announcement System of Land Price (PASLP) is one such example. The system was introduced in 1989 to provide a unified land price standard for various administrative tasks, including taxation and compensation. Since its introduction, the PASLP has benefited from constant improvements through the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). Utilization of ICT has brought major innovations in land assessment, by reducing subjective judgments of assessors while enhancing the accuracy of site surveys.
Can The Principle Of Cost-Minimization Take Priority Over Securing The Reliability Of Tax Policy?
Jeju National University, Korea, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Big Data automation techniques is problematic in the property tax system. Due to the impossibility of perfect modeling and the difficulty of reflecting constantly-changing real estate market factors in models, linear assumptions should be carefully considered before modeling regression analyses. In the interests of cost minimization, Korean government decided not to use appraisers and the Three Methods of Appraisal in its residential property tax system. In Korea, data and technology have replaced appraisal experts. Have the results been positive or negative? The study examines the dangers and anticipated outcomes of focusing on administrative cost-minimization in the property tax system. Inaccurate data results in poor policy choices that ultimately distort the fairness of taxation. It also discusses the Jeju Provincial Government’s awareness of this problem and alternative solutions for dealing with it.
The use of standard price points in mass appraisal of housing land. A case study
National Land Survey, Finland
Modern geostatistics offers sophisticated analytical tools. However, in most property taxation systems they are not used at all so far. This paper presents an exercise how to use geostatistics to produce up-to-date estimates of land values.
This presentation is about producing standard land value maps in an automated way. The idea is to proceed from price datasets to standard land value maps stepwise. The critical steps are land price models, estimating land prices based on single and multifamily building prices or values, and finally producing the land value maps manually or automatically.
The exercise is based on revaluation of land in Finland due to be finished by the end of 2019. Higher rates are applied to land than structures. Thus land values have to be calculated everywhere, also in locations without vacant land, and no land sales.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: Land Records, Valuation and Property Taxes: The Link to Ownership|
Session Chair: James Kavanagh, RICS, United Kingdom
Capturing Untapped Land Revenues: Lessons From African Cities
International Growth Centre, United Kingdom
Land and property taxes offer a significant source of untapped municipal revenues for rapidly developing cities that is both fair and efficient. However, across many developing cities, these taxes are unable to meet their potential because of revenue leakages in registration, valuation and collection. Efforts to reform these systems can yield significant benefits for cities – but require addressing political challenges and administrative costs associated with reform. This presentation looks at lessons to be drawn from the experiences of a range of African cities in harnessing the benefits of land and/or property taxation whilst addressing these challenges.
Satellite Image Analysis for Operational Maintenance of a Property Database for Dakar City
1Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom; 2New Africa Consulting, Senegal
The city government of Dakar, Senegal, has a requirement to generate revenues for developing and maintaining city infrastructure and services. The legal framework for property taxation is already in place, but the city lacks resources to collect and maintain the information needed to calculate the tax due. Using very high resolution satellite data the land parcels and building extents (including heights) can be monitored through a combination of 3D image analysis and field data collection. This project is designed to develop an operational system for creating and maintaining a parcel reference map, whose accuracy can be further improved through GPS-based field survey, and, mapping new buildings and changed building heights. This will provide the framework for field teams to collect and maintain an accurate database of property characteristics, thereby enabling tax calculations to be made in order to support sustainable and transparent revenue generation for the City.
National Valuation Management System: Towards Enhancing Interconnectivity In Land Governance Through Digitized Valuation Data From Origination, Organization To Transmission.
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya
The development of a digital platform for management of the valuation process from data generation to submission will greatly enhance service delivery within the Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning and achieve interconnectivity for all stakeholders.
he National Valuation Management System has therefore been identified as a tool that is intended to organise and safeguard land information by ensuring that land values are well documented and are easily accessible as needed The system will minimise the time and cost of accessing valuation data by all stakeholders; ensuring transparency, the accuracy of information and accountability. This information will be in the form of both spatial and non-spatial data on every registered land parcel in the country. The improved access to land information will be a catalyst for economic growth and development by enabling faster investment decision making.
Improving Land Governance In Nigeria Through Efficient Valuation Mechanisms And Practices
1PRESIDENTIAL TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ON LAND REFORM, Nigeria; 2FEDERAL MINISTRY OF POWER, WORKS AND HOUSING, Nigeria
Valuation of landed property is a key component of the system of land administration in a typical market-drive economy. Advancement in land governance in climes with long stretches of dismal results due to the poverty of systems and structures necessitates that valuation processes, mechanics, and practices undergo scrutiny to ensure its continued relevance in the interpretation of values.
Over the years, the government in Nigeria had randomly sought for solutions to its land governance challenges. In 2009, it established a Land Reform Committee to recommend measures that would enhance the system. Expected key deliveries included the development of valuation mechanisms that would identify and cure the major weaknesses in the processes and practices. The Committee opted for an evidence-based approach to achieving this objective and commissioned a study.
This paper will share some of the findings and demonstrate how they shape the system and effectiveness of land governance in Nigeria.
Rebuilding Property Tax Assessment Systems – The Case of Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Greenfield Advisors, Inc., United States of America
The devastating earthquake that rocked Haiti in 2010 did more than physical damage; it also damaged systems, too. One of the systems damaged was the property tax assessment system in the City of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti. Since the earthquake, the city government has struggled to mail tax bills, track those accounts who pay taxes, and maintain a database of property owners. Certainly there are land tenure implications here as well, but the main focus of this project is to provide a comprehensive solution to the City’s needs. Our team is putting in place a solution that has the flexibility to account for different revenue streams (property tax, signage tax, garbage collection tax) put in place by the City of Port-au-Prince. By the end of the project, we expect to provide enough capacity building so that the City can take over the complete administration of its revenue generation systems.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-08: Instruments to Facilitate Land Value Capture|
Session Chair: Robert Lewis-Lettington, UN-HABITAT, Kenya
Supporting Fiscal Aspect of Land Administration through an LADM-based Valuation Information Model
1Yıldız Technical University, Department of Geomatic Engineering, Turkey; 2Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency, The Netherlands; 3Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey; 4Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, The Netherlands; 5Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning, Denmark
This paper describes an ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) based valuation information model for the specification of inventories used in immovable property valuation made for public purposes. The Information model has been designed to facilitate all stages of property valuation applied for recurrently levied immovable property taxation, namely the identification of properties, assessment of properties through single or mass appraisal procedures, generation and representation of sales statistics, and dealing with appeals. It enables the recording of data concerning the parties that are involved in valuation practices, property objects that are subject of valuation, as well as their geometric, legal, physical, economic, and environmental characteristics. It is supposed that LADM Valuation Information Module will provide public bodies a common basis for the development of local or national databases, and can act as a guide for the private sector to develop information technology products.
Capturing Land Value Uplift to Deliver Infrastructure and Affordable Housing in a Market Economy - Recent UK Experience
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, United Kingdom
Following the financial crash governments increasingly have been looking for ways to recoup the costs of infrastructure and other public goods. A key policy measure has been based on the capture of land value uplift arising either from public planning decisions or from the actual provision of infrastructure. This paper examines measures promoted and implemented in the UK through the planning system in the last decade.
Land value capture raises ideological issues and technical land appraisal issues in devising a suitable method for implementation. It affects developed economies and emerging economies. The paper mainly addresses the technical issues associated with three related government measures. It concludes that what has been put in place is overly complex. A simple direct land taxation regime may be more effective at achieving its objectives, be easier to implement and in particular be within the capacity of emerging economies.
Evaluating Value Capture Instruments
Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
Since Henry George’s Poverty and Progress governments have developed a series of value capture instruments to extract increases in land values. These can be seen as alternatives to taxes. Whereas the taxes explicitly extract value from the owner or developer many of the other instruments can be argued to do this by stealth. This stands in the way of evaluating the effectiveness of such instruments and whether their use is the most effective way of achieving the desired objective or whether explicit taxation might be more effective. The paper applies some standard measures of the efficiency of taxes to evaluate the value capture instruments, including equity, certainty of liability, administrative efficiency, transparency, convenience, neutrality, and fairness. It compares their performance against these to those property taxes that can be used as means of value capture.
Land and Transport Policy Coordination: A proposed Recipe for Leveraging Land for Funding Infrastructure
1Universidad de los Andes, Colombia; 2World Bank Group
This paper presents a general methodology for integrating transport and land use planning as the first step to leverage land values to fund infrastructure. It also include planning tools for cities to consider to integrate their land use actions with transport investment. The proposed methodology seeks to promote planning policy documents in where objectives are agreed upon and strategies. Key strategies found in this study that cities in developing countries could use to leverage land to fund infrastructure include transit-oriented development, land value capture, congestion charging, participatory planning and tactical urbanism. This study undertook a case study in the city of Semarang. After applying the proposed planning methodology, key priorities for the city were identified. From results at the city of Semarang, we found from public participation exercises that If participatory planning and a proper cadaster system is not present, changes are not likely to be sustainable in the long-term.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-08: Land Valuation to Improve Tax Collection: Case Studies|
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
The Advantages of a Mixed System of Property Taxation
Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, The
When a property tax system is introduced, a tax basis must be selected. Two commonly used bases for such a tax are the value of a property and the size of a property. Depending on local circumstances, policymakers should take into account the different pros and cons of different tax bases. In the Netherlands different layers of government make use of the data available in the base registers, including data on area and data on value of properties, to levy both ad valorem taxes and area-based taxes. Based on the experiences from the Netherlands we answer the question how a “mixed system” in which the two types of property tax are combined to enhance both equity an efficiency.
Innovative Approaches In Preparation For Mass Valuation In Serbia
1Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia, Serbia; 2Food and Agriculture Organization of UN; 3Oxford Brookes University, UK
In August of 2017 Public debt of Serbia in amounted to EUR 23.8 billion, or 64.6% of GDP. Improving the yield from property taxation could reduce the fiscal deficit. If a value-based property tax is to be established on a sustainable basis, certain preconditions need to be met:
• A comprehensive record of taxable objects.
• An accurate source of transaction price data for modelling property values - sales prices and rents.
• A valuation infrastructure.
Serbia is addressing these problems and the paper will describe how this is being done and the results to date:
• The development of a comprehensive inventory of buildings and real estate objects from satellite images.
• Sales Price Register.
• The Valuation Law and how it will produce a valuation profession.
Serbia will try in cooperation with FAO, the private sector and academic partners to involve crowdsourcing concept and innovative technology in work.
Piloting Innovative Approaches to Valuing Commercial Property for Taxation Purposes: Occupier Assisted Valuations
1Valuation Office, Ireland; 2World Bank, United States of America
An important objective of the Valuation Office of Ireland is to accelerate the delivery of its national property valuation program. This required the adoption of new innovative processes and procedures and which have now been introduced through the enactment of new legislation. The June 2015 Valuation (Amendment) Act introduced an innovative approach that can help speed up the revaluation process: Occupier-Assisted Valuations (OAVs). The new OAV provisions provide for elements of self-assessment by occupiers in the valuation for rating purposes of commercial and industrial property. This paper describes the OAV pilot process and its challenges, while drawing lessons for other countries also looking to conduct revaluations.
Separate Land and Building Valuation Systems for Taxation?
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2Aalto University, Finland
This paper discusses the common historical approach of valuing land and buildings separately for property taxes, and the parallel of taxing land and buildings separately. The paper explains rationale for dual valuation systems and dual taxes with the known benefits and challenges. Comparison is made between the historical case of the State of Indiana in the United States, the on-going property taxation reform in Finland and two other samples where the unification of land and building valuation and taxation have been considered. The paper raises several issues with the equality and accuracy of the property taxes stemming from the dualism in valuation, which are severed by urbanization, and seeks explanation to why the problems are often tolerated despite the challenges. The article’s conclusions will contribute to the global trend of enhancing property taxation for better local services, and recommend ways towards modern, equitable, value based property taxes.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-08: Tenure Security and Low-Cost Housing Delivery|
Session Chair: Robin Rajack, Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Rethinking Property Regularization For Effective Informal Settlements Upgrading In Egypt: A Context - Specific Approach
1GIZ, Egypt; 2Department of Urban Planning, faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
However, the Government of Egypt has made several strong commitments to improve the situation in informal settlements, the focus of the Egyptian government policy has been mainly upgrading these areas via infrastructure and services provision to improve livelihoods. Questions beyond that such as the legalization of informal settlements or preventive planning strategies get much less attention because of their complexity and political sensitivity.
This research is tackling the issue of upgrading informal settlements built on state-owned land, where the security of tenure is considered a trigger for development and for legal recognition. It's also counted as an essential factor to integrate such areas within the city. A context-specific approach is proposed in order to categorize informal settlements built on state-owned land. Thus, appropriate strategies are formulated for different categories, and supported by accustomed tenure regularization approach to be utilized for effective upgrading measures.
Land Title Application Rate and Uptake In Regularized Settlements in Tanzania
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ardhi University
The past two decades have witnessed a sharp increase in programs focusing on regularization of informal settlements in many urban areas. Despite some positive results of regularization, many challenges are reported too. Some challenges are operational while others are institutional. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of regularization of informal settlements with a view to examining the key assumptions and oversights in the design and execution of regularization projects. The study draws evidence from six urban centers in Tanzania. Generally, findings show that property owners have benefited from regularization. However, the findings also shows that the pace of applying for title deeds is slow, mainly due to low level of financial literacy and entrepreneurship skills, high lending rates and strict lenders’ conditions and, fear of foreclosure and exposure to taxes. Besides, some property owners are simply unwilling to use their title deeds as collateral for loans.
Facilitating The Creation Of Enabling Environments For Slum Upgrading And Affordable Housing - From Pilots To Programs in Monrovia, Liberia
Habitat for Humanity International, United States of America
The purpose of this presentation is to advocate for the importance of creating an enabling environment for slum upgrading and affordable housing, to support urban development. Housing is at the heart of the New Urban Agenda and contributing towards resilient and sustainable urban development requires targeted community, market/sector and policy level interventions that contribute to improved living conditions for low-income household and secure tenure; increased access to finance for low-income households; enabling land, housing and planning policy environments; and building community, public and private sector capacity to support the implementation of these interventions.
A systematic methodology has been developed to analyze the housing market conditions, the housing policy environment and the hazards and vulnerabilities that impact on low-income households and communities to determine what community, market and policy interventions are best suited for any particular context. Partnerships - people, public, partnerships - are essential for the successful implementation of these interventions.
Informality in the Brazilian housing market: the case of the Metropolitan region of Campinas - SP (RMC)
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2IDB
This article is a result of a research project, from a cooperation between the IDB and UNICAMP and its object is the housing and the families with less than seven minimum salaries of the metropolitan region of Campinas.
The main question of this article is: does the level of formality or informality in the housing of families have clear relation with: family’s wealth, family’s housing expenses, distance from center, plot size, plot prices and zoning?
The field survey has a sample of 643 families, statistically significant to 93% from nine municipalities, based on their population with less than seven minimal wages.
The article will be subdivided in 4 parts: a small literature review on types of housing illegality; the field work methodology; main data presentation; analyses and policy propositions.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-08: Land Administration as an Enabler for Local Government|
Session Chair: Pekka Ilmari Halme, National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
Land Administration in Ecuador; current situation and opportunities with adoption of fit-for-purpose land administration approach
1Faculty ITC< University of Twente, Netherlands, The; 2University ESPE, Ecuador; 3SIGITERRAS, Ecuador; 4MIDUVI, Ecuador; 5Consultant
The aim if this study is to: explore the current status land administration situation in Ecuador, and identify can fit-for purpose (FFP) land administration approach improve the land administration functions for the country and its citizens. In this paper, initially theoretical framework about land administration, guidelines to improve and assessment frameworks for land administration are presented. The FFP land administration basic concept with three frameworks which are: spatial, legal and institutional frameworks are reviewed. In addition, a study fieldwork for collecting primary and secondary data about the status of land administration in Ecuador is performed. In the discussion part, where results from the study fieldwork are discussed v.s. the theoretical framework of FFP land administration, positive developments and areas for improvement are identified. Finally recommendations based on the outcome of this study are presented.
The Future of the Cadastral in Honduras
Unidad Administradora de Proyectos del Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras
The lack of understanding of the land management issue usually held by Municipal Mayors, we can assert that most of the Cadastral Offices in the municipalities of the country do not have the technical and economic support required to comply with what is established by the Law of Municipalities and Property Law; in the first case, the municipalities are obliged to raise the urban and rural cadaster of their municipal term and to elaborate the Regulatory Plan (planning instrument) of the cities; in the second case, the cadasters that are carried out must comply with the tolerances defined in the Cadastral Measure Regulation that is part of the Property Law.
The legal framework in force in the country in Cadastral provides participation to many key players, such as: municipalities, municipalities, certified professionals for the provision of cadastral services and cadastral delegates.
Are Local Registers the Solution?
1DAI Europe , United Kingdom; 2DAI, United States; 3Kadaster, Netherlands
This paper explores the possibility of using local registers to manage and update land rights. Secure land rights are largely taken for granted in the developed world. Yet for many people in developing nations, clear and enforceable land rights are not a reality and will not be so in the near future. We advocate an approach based on simple local registers, owned, and operated by communities providing legitimate tenure services directly at the local level. We consider the governance and security arrangements required to guarantee integrity and how that might be achieved and also the linkage with existing/planned national systems. Can local registers be a “good enough” solution? in the same way that we now accept image based first registration methods, and in line with the fit-for-purpose philosophy? .
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-08: Using Satellite Imagery for Urban Change Detection|
Session Chair: Ran Goldblatt, New Light Technologies, United States of America
Peering into Megacities from Space
1The World Bank Group, United States of America; 2GISAT
Drawing on detailed geo-spatial analysis of land use maps derived from very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, this paper develops a methodology for mapping the characteristics of physical urban spaces and spatial growth of two megacities in two points in time - Karachi and Dhaka. The findings and analysis are subsequently applied towards actual World Bank operations on the ground by prioritizing and identifying infrastructure and public space investments.
Identifying Urban Areas Combing Data from the Ground and Outer Space: An Application to India
1World Bank, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3World Bank, United States of America
We develop a tractable method to identify urban areas in India which differs from the previous literature. Instead of cells, we use officially defined cities, towns and villages as our unit of analysis. We rely on structured subjective assessments to make judgement for a large stratified sample administrative units. We propose a method that combines multiple sources of information to identify urban areas. We geo-reference population census data, which comes from the ground. We also incorporate data from open source satellite-imagery, which come from outer space, on both built-up areas and nighttime lights. Data are combined through a regression analysis conducted on the sample, that we then use to make prediction for out-sample units. This exercise yields a more accurate picture of urbanization in India than was available before. The analysis confirms the value added from a credible assessment based on what one “sees” and from combining multiple indicators.
Earth Observati On For Urban Sustainable Development: Advancements For Supporting Land Use Planning In Urban Areas
GAF AG, Germany
Many developing countries are lagging behind in the operational utility of Earth Observation (EO) for extraction of spatial data for urban planning. The EO for Sustainable Development Urban project started in 2016 and in collaboration with Multi-Lateral Development Banks, support urban development programmes with a suite of geo-spatial data. Sixteen global Cities were prioritised for the first year of the project and each City obtained Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) data as well as products such as Green Areas, Transport Networks, Informal Settlements, and Population Density. A total of 204 products were produced and provided to the Users. The overall accuracies achieved for the various products ranged from 85-95%. Examples of analytical work included assessment of urban growth over time, LU/LC change over time, and assessment of flood prone/flood risk areas. A capacity building component is included to address some of the important technology transfer to the City Authorities.
Less Greenery For The Poor? _ Social Inequity And Green Space Distribution In Tropical Asian Megacities
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Many studies on disparities in the distribution of green spaces have mainly focused on access to public open spaces that are usually for recreational purpose. However, when other types of urban nature beyond designated parks are accounted for, claims of green space distributive injustice may different in fast growing Asia cities context.
The research employs spatial regression to examine green space distribution in association with property value of districts in two Asia megacities, Mumbai and Jakarta. Green space provision is measured by four aspects: area, planting density, proximity, and type. Results show that positive association between poverty and green space coverage. These spaces provide important ecological and biophysical functions and may harbour significant biodiversity. The paradoxical situation of ‘more greens but less jobs’/ ‘poorer, but richer biodiversity’ requires further discussions on the role of planners and designers towards socio-ecologically sustainable cities.
|Date: Friday, 23/Mar/2018|
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-08: Innovative Technologies for Property Valuation & Land Value Capture: concepts|
Session Chair: Andrew Coote, Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom
Innovative Techniques for Improving Valuation: Technology Concepts
1Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom; 2World Bank; 3Food and Agriculture Organisation
Technological advances are facilitating the creation of improved valuation models.
New aerial systems which combine oblique and vertical imagery to produce high resolution city models are already being used in some developed countries, whilst Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones) are being deployed in some developing nations to great effect. The technology for processing such data sources and integration with existing data is also developing very rapidly.
They offer significant potential benefits to developing countries such as those in Africa.
This class will discuss the technological basis of these techniques, the current state of the art and the future potential through case study presentations, followed by a panel discussion where the speakers will discuss applicability of these techniques to developing countries, with particular emphasis on African cities.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-08: Innovative Technologies for Property Valuation & Land Value Capture: Use Cases|
Session Chair: Andrew Coote, Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom
Innovative Techniques for Improving Valuation Models: Case Studies
1Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Taxation, Denmark; 3International Association of Assessing Officers
This builds on the preceding session by looking at case studies and seeking to learn from their experiences to give guidelines for wider application.
The keynote reports on the national acquisition of oblique and street view data in Denmark and their use to build 3D geospatial city models for assessing a property's view and proximity to amenities such as water, public transport, health and educational facilities.
The panel will consider this and the previous presentations during the conference to help distil best practice and chart of way forward to wider implementation. The audience will be invited to raise issues and challenge the panel to suggest solutions through an interactive debate.
Panellists: Tina Svan Colding, Ministry of Taxation, Denmark
Paul Bidanset, International Association of Assessing Officers
Rumyana Tonchovska, Food and Agriculture Organisation
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-08: Developing a Human Rights Based Approach to Land Governance|
Session Chair: M. Siraj Sait, University of East london, United Kingdom
How To Develop A Human Rights Based Approach To Land Governance And Land Related Project Management
1University of East London, United Kingdom; 2RMIT, Australia; 3UN-Habitat, Kenya
Despite the absence of a dedicated human rights provision on land, new developments, interpretations and strategies at global and domestic level are recasting the nature and scope of land rights into a dynamic form. The Masterclass offers an update on the evolving formulation of human rights to land but more significantly provides practical details on how to develop a Human Rights Based Approach (HRBA) to land interventions as prompted by the SDGs. The implications of HRBA at programme and country level implementation to enhance effectiveness and meet objectives are interrogated. Using comparative studies of HRBA from various agencies and thematic areas, the Masterclass provides definitions, principles, checklists and action planning for HRBA in relation to land rights. HRBA strategies are discussed with reference to land governance, gender and inclusion, finance and investment and conflict and displacement. The Masterclass would interest policy makers, professionals, civil society, urban managers and project leaders.