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10-09: Is There a Need to Promote Land Access by the Youth?
Challenges of Governance Responses to Land Use Change and Poverty Among Indigenous People in Northeast Cambodia
1The University of Auckland, New Zealand; 2Research Consultant
This paper focuses on livelihood transitions emerging from land use change in an indigenous commune of northeast Cambodia. The paper argues that despite overall poverty reduction among households in the commune from 2003 to 2012, the rapid expansion of the market economy resulted in dispossession from land and forest resources, an over reliance on cash crops, land commodification and concentration, social differentiation, and socioeconomic inequality. In January 2018 a follow-up survey conducted in the commune found that rapid household population growth at 56 percent from 2012 to 2018 circumscribed overall economic growth and outpaced the capacity of the commune’s resources to sustain it. Without government protection of indigenous land rights, non-indigenous in-migration will undoubtedly proceed at pace to the point where the indigenous residents of the commune will become the minority poorer population.
Understanding Adivasiness as Caste Expression and Land Rights Claim in Central-Eastern India
1Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; 2University of Bergen, Norway
The adivasi population represents a special case in India’s new land wars. Strong individual and community rights to agricultural and forest lands, while existent, have been enacted based on notions of adivasi identities as primeval, without linking these to economic and political influence. This article interrogates the adivasi land question seen through a caste lens. It does so via case studies in two states to understand the ways in which adivasi identity is mobilised for its instrumental value and used to demand land rights. Available evidence indicates the challenges involved in bringing support for land rights that are premised on the supposedly unchanging identity of adivasis when these go against dominant interests. This circumstance serves to highlight how equable the plight of adivasis is in some regards to that of caste groups, despite their usually distinct treatment in scholarly analyses.
Land Access, Tenure Security and the Fate of Rural Youth in Africa: The Case of Mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique
Unlike the existing literature that focuses on land access, this paper assess whether land access and tenure security have effect on youth employment and migration choices. We consider four indicators: youth land acquisition and youth expected inheritance of land for land access and private risk and public risk for tenure security. This paper hypothesizes that access to land and tenure security are important factor that drive youth in the rural areas to look for non-agricultural livelihood strategies. We employed data gathered in Central and Northern Mozambique with a sample of 3,510 households. Our sample consists of 5,750 youth coming from 2,890 sampled households. Our findings suggest that both land access and tenure secure are positively associated with employment in the agricultural sector. With respect to association between land access and migration, we found mixed results. Furthermore, tenure security is negatively correlated with permanent migration, but positively correlated with temporary migration.