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10-03: Native Title in Latin America
Native Title and Land Registration
1IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain; 2Procuraduria General de Guatemala; 3Corporacion Chilena de Derecho Registral; 4Registro Nacional Agrario Mexico; 5Supeintendencia de los Registros y del Notariado Colombia
Aboriginal land rights in many jurisdictions is a steady problem since 1970 when a broad array of issues have come before Courts all around the world. The reason that aboriginal people are now turning to the courts to reestablish control over the territories they originally inhabited is because hundreds of years of decisions deprived them of such control. The legal doctrine of "terra nullius" presupposed that , prior to the arrival of europeans many places were no man´s land waiting to be settled. This theories influenced the judicial decision until XX th century. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland was a path breaking. After came decisions from Canada (Delgamuukv v British Columbia). This was only the beginning. New claims appeared in South America (Chile , Colombia and Mexico among others). Today the challenge is haw to register this rights without jeopardizing the registration system.
Indigenous Property Titles: The Mapuche Community in Chile and the Protection of Property Records
1Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Chile; 2Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Diego Portales University, Chile
With the return to democracy in Chile, Law 19.253 was enacted on 1993 focusing on the protection, promotion and development of indigenous peoples. That legislation also created the National Foundation for Indigenous Development. Later, on 2009, ILO Convention 169 entered into force.
In this context, two important registration protection measures are worthy of note: the creation of a Public Registry of Indigenous Lands and the Fund for Indigenous Lands and Waters. The former seeks to preserve original properties per se and, toward that end, establishes a land registry that also serves to prove the property’s indigenous status.
Thanks to these initiatives, the process of claiming and preserving property in the hands of the indigenous peoples has begun. This should lead to greater economic development through farming, animal husbandry, fishing, and even tourism, all of which should help stem the tide of rural-urban migration and serve to reactivate downtrodden rural areas.
Private Property and Social Property, Two Different Views: the Case of Mexico
CINDER North America
In Mexico, ejido and communal property constitutes 51% of the national territory, distributed in 29,634 ejidos and 2,381 communities that together occupy 100 million hectares. Approximately 25 % of the agricultural settlements are inhabited by indigenous.
The Agrarian Law in its 9th article stipulates that the ejidos have legal personality and its own property and that they are owners of the land that was granted to them or that they acquired under any other title.
The Registry in order to obtain the regulation and document security regarding the social property is responsible of the registration function and the technical and cadastral assistance.
In 1992 the Federal Government urges the amendment of Article 27 of the Constitution with the objective to provide certainty of the land tenure to farmers as well as giving freedom to decide about its use and destination.
Aboriginal Titles and the Problems to Reflect Them in the Land Registry and Cadaster
superintendencia de notariado y registro, Colombia
La legislación internacional y la Constitución Política de Colombia reconocen la importancia de los pueblos indígenas y se han declarado a lo largo de la historia muchos derechos que los salvaguardan.
El derecho más importante para los indígenas es el del territorio, porque en él se materializa toda su cultura y tradición. Sin embargo, se ha visto vulnerado por la débil presencia del Estado en los territorios, la ausencia de políticas para atender las necesidades de los indígenas y la actividad de actores ilegales del conflicto armado interno.
El Estado debe garantizar el derecho de los pueblos indígenas al reconocimiento legal de las modalidades de propiedad, posesión o dominio, por lo tanto, se requiere una identificación certera de los asentamientos de propiedad colectiva en el país y así gestionar la correspondiente titulación o formalización de estos territorios y su correspondiente Registro en el Registro público de la propiedad
The Recognition of Ancient Rights of Aboriginal People. A Vision From The Land Registry and the Court of Justice of Guatemala
General Attorney Guatemala, Guatemala