The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-01: Improving Resilience and Resilience Impact of National Land and Geospatial Systems|
Session Chair: Mika-Petteri Törhönen, The World Bank, United States of America
Improving Resilience and Resilience Impact of National Land and Geospatial Systems
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of Melbourne, Australia
The world is facing an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disaster events. Events which, when they strike, threaten the social, environmental and financial foundations of communities. And while these events cannot be prevented, their impacts can be limited. One strategy to meet these challenges is to leverage resources at hand, adopting the ‘create once, use many times’ viewpoint. It is in this line of thinking that this research project has emerged. National land administration systems are well-established in many countries, housing land, geospatial information and sophisticated data management systems including SDIs. These resources already facilitate disaster risk management practices, however wider application and incorporation of this information for improved disaster resilience has not yet been explored. Investigating and understanding this issue at a variety of contexts is the first step. This paper details the method and approach undertaken in this study, and presents a case study template.
Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
The Norwegian Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) is well developed, with 600 active partner organizations. It supports sustainable growth in the private sector as well as public services in most sectors and levels of society.Involvement and trust: Broad use depend on trust to data and solutions. We involve sectors, municipalities and the private GI sectors.
Distributed responsibilities: Each organization offer data according to agreed standards.Timeline: Development of a well-working NSDI takes time. Norway has a 25 years history. Standardization: Both ISO, OGC and national standards are essential for easy data flows.
Cost-sharing financial arrangements: Norway has an interesting model where national and municipal stakeholders do joint funding of data capture and management.
Geoportal: The national geoportal https://www.geonorge.no/en/ is an important focal point for access to data and tools.
Legislation: The Geodata act and the open data policy has resulted in substantial increase in easy accessible data.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-02: Gendered land data to equalize asset access: How and why|
Session Chair: Benedicte Leroy De La Briere, World Bank, United States of America
Why direct interviewing matters- results from Malawi
The World Bank, Italy
Using Tax Data to Assess Gender Equality in Land Ownership: Lessons for Ukraine and Beyond
to be filled
Using monitoring data to effectively mainstream gender equality in land ownership in the Western Balkans
Ministry of Justice, Albania
Launched in 2013, the gender and land rights initiative in the Western Balkans set out to address the disparity that exists between male and female land ownership in the region. Gender disaggregated data in the Western Balkans shows that although women and men have equal status in law in relation to property as well as equal access to information, local customs, cultural norms and traditions continue to favour male ownership of land. The results of an ongoing initiative towards achieving gender equality in land ownership and control by the Government of Albania and supported by FAO and GIZ will be presented. The government used the FAO’s Legal Assessment Tool (LAT) for gender-equitable land tenure and supported the piloting of SDG Indicator 5.a.2.
Towards an Integrated Approach to Measuring Gendered Land Access and Project Impact
World Bank, United States of America
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-03: Influencing the next tier of companies – promoting responsible land-based investment through investors or investment frameworks|
Session Chair: Harold Liversage, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
Levers and Limits to Shaping Investment Practices in Land: A DFI Perspective
CDC Group, United Kingdom
Shaping Agropole Investment Frameworks to Incentivise Responsible Investment Practices
In recent years agricultural growth poles, sometimes called agropoles, have spread across Sub-Saharan Africa. While they gain increasing attention among policy makers who see them as a way to attract private investment to promote agricultural transformation, they have more and more prominent role in agricultural development strategies and national policies in the country they are established.
DFI are the main direct funding sources for the development of agricultural growth poles. DFI’s must be viewed as engine of influencing crosscutting issues of economic, social and environmental sustainability that participate to responsible investment in agriculture. This presentation will discuss the role of the DFI in influencing responsible investment practices in the process of design and implementation of agricultural growth poles in Africa.
A Legal Empowerment Approach to Influencing Land Investment
to be filled
Investors’ ability to influence small and large investee land investment practices: reflections on IFC experience
International Finance Corporation, United States of America
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-04: Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for Land Policy Dialogue|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
Innovation of Integrated Resource Governance in Myanmar
Pyoe Pin, Myanmar
The rules of the game for accessing natural resources are confused, contradictory and contested resulting unequal distribution of access to natural resources in Myanmar. Access to Myanmar’s land remains heavily contested. Powerful political and economic vested interests, the lack of democratic institutions, corrupt practices and conflict have all contributed to exploitation of resources, severe labour conditions and environmental degradation.
Since 2010, Pyoe Pin Institute has innovated a politically smart approach applying Political Economy Analysis to facilitate pro-equitable and sustainable customary land governance reform. The Fisheries and natural resources Partnership (RFP) has become a pioneer and model for key stakeholders to work together to improve land and natural resource governance both at national and sub-national level. The key local champions and many key stakeholders has worked together initially to reform fisheries sector as an entry and later replicated as Integrated Resource Governance (IRG) to work across customary land, forestry and fisheries.
Enjeux Et Limites Des Plateformes De Gouvernance Foncière Multiacteurs En Afrique
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
Aujourd’hui comme par le passé, la problématique de la gouvernance foncière mérite d’être abordée en prenant en compte les principes directeurs de la démocratie contemporaine. Il en est ainsi car les ressources nationales constituent des enjeux forts qui touchent à l’ensemble des corps de la Nation. Cette nécessité de gouvernance démocratique des ressources foncières passe, de plus en plus, par la mobilisation et la mise en place de plateformes à différentes échelles, locale, méso et nationale, pour assurer une gouvernance foncière qui repose sur une démarche inclusive, participative et équitable de l’ensemble des parties prenantes. Cette démarche est sensée pacifier le foncier et aider à la définition de règles consensuelles dont l’appropriation par les parties prenantes est largement acquise car ces dernières ont participé au processus qui les a enfanté.
Refitting Gendered Land Governance Strategies With New Global And Regional Development Frameworks: Opportunities And Challenges For Land And Gender Advocates
1University of East London, United Kingdom; 2Huairou Commission, United States of America; 3Habitat for Humanity International Asia Pacific Office; 4United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
The stand-alone Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 5) and targets from other goals on gender equality and empowerment of women and girls have transformed expectations, advocacy and the pursuit of gendering the land agenda. This paper assesses the preparation, choices and strategies adopted by some key land players working toward the implementation of SDGs and other global and regional policy frameworks. The SDG led approach offers significant opportunities to empower local women and communities by letting their facts and perspectives determine the global agenda but there are challenges. The SDGs land discourse creates multiple linkages of land with other dimensions requiring a broadening of mandate by actors. The development of appropriate indicators and collecting data toward monitoring targets demands new skills and capacities. Finally, a review of emerging gendered land governance strategies show that SDG driven processes work best when local, grassroots and multi-stakeholder support are deployed while avoiding unintended consequences.
Multi-stakeholder Engagement To Increase Access To Land For Housing: Case Studies From A Global Advocacy Campaign
1Habitat for Humanity International, United States of America; 2Habitat for Humanity International, Asia-Pacific; 3Habitat for Humanity International, Latin America and the Caribbean; 4Habitat for Humanity International, Europe, Middle Eaat and Africa
Housing, both in the informal and formal sectors, fosters strength, stability and self-reliance and is often at the center of key development challenges. Without land, there can be no housing. Access to land lies at the heart of ending poverty. The Solid Ground campaign is providing an innovative approach to mobilize existing and new supporters to influence policy makers toward promoting policies and systems that improve access to land for shelter. Although the countries participating in the global campaign span many time zones, languages and cultures, they share a common barrier that denies people adequate housing – access to land. This paper outlines both the challenges and opportunities that arise from expanding access to land for shelter through multi-stakeholder partnerships, considering and exploring the different methodologies and modalities of engagement with different actors implementing under the Solid Ground campaign.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-05: Land Governance and VGGT|
Session Chair: Anna Locke, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
Expropriation of Land Rights for Implementation of Mega Infrastructure Projects
Security of tenure is now placed at the top of the 2030 Global Agenda. This also relates to the issue of safeguarding land rights that is often at stake when implementing major infrastructure projects. There is an oppositional relation between security of tenure rights on the one hand and on the other hand a (public) wish to acquire land for infrastructure projects that in the longer term will create economic value for the entire community. This is a paradox because both issues contribute to achieving the SDGs.
The paper describes the experiences implementing a Northern Europe mega infrastructure project using a participatory approach to expropriation of land rights while also paving the way for economic development.
Land Governance for Development in the CEE region: Framing of Land Fragmentation as part of the Sustainable Development Goals
1Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), Netherlands; 2FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia; 3University of Santiago de Compostela
Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) face enormous challenges in developing a viable land structure, requiring a set of measures which is unprecedented in its scale and intensity to speed up this process. Analysis of policy initiatives in CEE countries illustrates that options for solving fragmentation and small scale of farms have concentrated on particular instruments like land consolidation and land banking. From discussions in the peer to peer LANDNET it can be concluded that land governance in CEE countries has scope for better coherence and more balanced and focused use of various instruments. Land governance should be developed as a comprehensive framework of mutually supportive instruments for development.
Framing of land fragmentation as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is believed to be a useful way to come to more specific policies in CEE countries and other regions of the world.
German Citizens Requesting Responsible Land Governance: Opportunities and Limitations of Citizens’ Initiatives in Germany – And Elsewhere
Independent Consultant, Germany
Local councils take decisions on land uses. If the reasons for such a decision are not conclusive to the public, benefits for local community not visible, the land in question of special importance for local citizens or if people fear a negative environmental impact, people sometimes start to protest. One reason why local populations’ protest arises is that they are not willing to tolerate any longer insufficient transparency of local politics, lack of meaningful public participation and local council decisions that do reflect neither the law, nor local citizens’ interests. In Germany, such situations sometimes lead to citizens’ initiatives, which – if successful – can result in referendums. The article looks at such citizens’ initiatives to find out:
a) How efficient this tool is to improve land governance and
b) To which extend or under which conditions it may be applied in other countires, including developing countries.
Private Law and Agricultural Development: Preparing, Negotiating and Implementing an Agricultural Land Investment Contract that is Consistent with the VGGT and CFS-RAI Principles
1UNIDROIT, Italy; 2FAO, Italy; 3IFAD, Italy
The VGGT and the CFS-RAI Principles set out high-level principles and standards to promote secure tenure rights, equitable access and responsible agricultural investment. For prospective investors seeking to lease land for an agricultural investment, as well as for host States and any legitimate tenure right holders that might be affected by that investment, preparing and implementing a lease that is consistent with those principles and standards can be challenging. A Working Group comprised of experts, international organization representatives and stakeholders is developing a future international instrument to provide concise legal guidance on operationalizing those principles and standards. While not endorsing large-scale land acquisitions but acknowledging they continue to occur, such guidance is to raise awareness about alternative investment models (e.g. contract farming) and to support due diligence, impact assessments and use of contractual safeguards in leases to protect legitimate tenure right holders, human rights, livelihoods, food security and the environment.
Human Rights Based Monitoring of Land Governance
1TMG Research. TMG ThinkTank for Sustainability, Germany; 2German Institute for Human Rights
There is a currently a range of initiatives to further strengthen the monitoring of land governance at national level, and the implementation of Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Forests and Fisheries in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) in particular. This paper describes a human rights based approach to land governance monitoring that aims at addressing the core of the VGGT, the focus on vulnerable and marginalized groups. It reports on the outcomes of two multi-actor processes conducted in Côte d’Ivoire and Kenya on the design of human rights based monitoring of land governance in these two countries. The paper concludes by highlighting the contribution of human rights based land governance monitoring to the portfolio of land governance monitoring approaches.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Drivers and Impacts of Large-Scale Agro Investments|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
The Globalization of Farmland: Theory and Empirical Evidence
1World Bank, United States of America; 2International Monetary Fund, United States of America
Following the great recession of 2007-2008, there has been a booming interest in the direct acquisition of farmland in developing countries. To capture stylized facts of the rush for land, we develop a model that accounts for technology, geography and institutions as determinants of transnational investments in land, and that differentiates between investments that resemble platform FDI and those that seek to increase food independence in the origin country. Using updated global data on large-scale land acquisitions and cultivation suitability, and for the first time at the subnational level, we find that investors favored countries with smaller, not larger, agricultural market potential, which is consistent with the food-independence motive for land investments and a trend of agricultural globalization.
Impacts Of Large Agricultural Investments - A Comparative Analysis From Three African Countries
1University of Bern, Switzerland; 2French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and International Land Coalition (ILC), Rome; 3Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CIRAD, France; 5University of Pretoria, South Africa; 6Malagasy Land Observatory, Madagascar; 7CETRAD (Centre for Training and Integrated Research In ASAL Development) Nanyuki, Kenya; 8Study of Governance Innovation, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 9University of Pretoria, Department of Plant Production and Soil Science
Utilizing a cross-country comparative approach – focused on Kenya, Mozambique and Madagascar – we shed light on differences in the national contexts that shape the concrete outcomes and impacts of distant drivers of land use change. The project comprises three main lines of inquiry. First, it seeks to understand what drivers and rules of the game serve to pull, push, or regulate agricultural investments at the global and respective national and infra-national levels. Second, it investigates investors’ strategies, examining how their business models evolve (or not) in relation to global drivers and national/local governance. Third, it aims to understand and assess how these agricultural investments impact natural resources, poverty, and food security at the national, local, and household level. This cross-country, comparative approach sheds light on how differences in national contexts mediate and reshape the influence of international drivers of change, determining the concrete outcomes and impacts of agricultural investment.
Towards normalization? Comparison and evolution of land acquisitions in eight African countries
1Land Matrix Initiative; 2International Land Coalition; 3CIRAD; 4University of Pretoria; 5Centre for Development and Environment (CDE) - University of Bern
Large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) have been the subject of a large body of research, focusing particularly on global or sector specific dynamics. This paper rather takes an inter-country perspective. Using data from the Land Matrix and applying a comparative case study design, the comparison and evolution of land acquisition mechanisms is presented for eight African countries. The presentation of comparative figures is complemented with an analysis of the respective regulatory frameworks. Results show that convergences are observed for several data variables; investor countries, location drivers and nature of the deal, while there is diversity in the scale, intention and temporal data. The policy frameworks implemented may account for some of these findings. International guidelines do not account for the diversity, as they are in their infancy or have not (yet) been launched. The role of external factors and the requirements from investors themselves likely explain most of the trends.
Tainted Lands: Corruption In Large-Scale Land Deals
1University of Louvain (UCL, Belgium) and at SciencesPo (Paris); 2Global Witness
This report details the findings of the Tainted Lands project, which was jointly launched in 2015 by the International Corporate Accountability Roundtable (ICAR) and Global Witness. At the outset of the project, ICAR and Global Witness commissioned Professor Olivier De Schutter to author this report, which is the result of a series of stakeholder consultations and extensive desk-based research. The intention of this report is twofold. First, the report aims to raise awareness of large-scale land deals, corruption, and the combined effects of these two issue areas on human rights around the world. Second, the report intends to provide practical steps that corporations, financial institutions, and governments must take to prevent human rights harms from occurring in the context of corruption and land.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-07: How can Pastoral Systems Keep up with Changing Conditions?|
Session Chair: Fiona Flintan, International Livestock Research Institute, Ethiopia
Land and resource governance in pastoralist systems: It’s not all about boundaries and property rights
1International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya; 2ADIS-University of Nairobi; 3College of Development Studies, Department of Environment and Development, Addis Ababa University
Interventions aimed at strengthening local governance and communal tenure for pastoralist communities, influenced by mainstream thinking on property rights and natural resource commons, often result in a reduction in the flexibility inherent in pastoralist resource management systems. This paper explores this challenge, bringing together four case studies from the drylands of Kenya and Ethiopia. All four involved external actors supporting communities using a participatory approach and strengthening governance over a well-defined territory. In all four, the primary challenges to effective governance related not to internal dynamics but rather to how governance and management are affected by communities, organizations, and institutions from beyond the landscape. Effective governance of rangelands cannot simply be a larger replication of local level common property regimes. Instead, fluidity, negotiation and overlapping rights are likely to be key features of effective landscape governance arrangements for pastoralists.
The Strategic Use of Private Property: Investigating the Tenure-Use Gap in Kenya's Rangelands
1International Organization for Migration (IOM-The UN Migration Agency); 2McGill University, Department of Geography
The situations observed in Kenya’s rangelands support a pluralistic notion of property systems characterized by “adaptation” as opposed to replacement. Insights from East Africa’s rangelands challenge widely held assumptions about the suitability of private property for all ecological and social contexts. Large-scale land subdivision in Kenya’s rangelands has resulted in unanticipated outcomes that challenge received wisdom in the field of property rights. In some cases, the introduction of private property has created disconnects between land tenure and land use. The evidence presented in this paper contests the notion that private property is exclusively the most effective form of land tenure. Rather than securing user rights and clarifying property rights claims, the application of private property can unhinge tenure from land use with the result that private property returns to communal use. In situations where property systems merge with one other, or are amalgamated by claimants, hybrid forms of property emerge.
Formalizing Pastoral Land Rights in Ethiopia: A Breakthrough in Oromia National Regional State
1TetraTech ARD, Ethiopia; 2Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia; 3USAID Ethiopia/Mission
Rangeland ecosystems in Ethiopia, occupied and used by pastoralists, are under threat from several quarters. Ethiopian Pastoralists have been requesting the federal and regional state governments to secure their communal land use rights granted to them under the Federal and regional constitutions, so that they will be able to legally prevent encroachment and appropriation of pastoral land for other uses without their consent. Several obstacles arose that needed resolving before pastoral landholding rights could be formalized. These include lack of appropriate legislation for formalization, reluctance of local administrators to cede use and control of land to pastoralists, averseness of government officers to register large landscape to a group of pastoralists, and unwillingness to empower customary institutions to administer and manage pastoral landholdings. It took almost three years of negotiations with the governments of Oromia NRS before agreement was obtained and field work could start to adjudicate, demarcate, map and register pastoral communal landholdings.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-08: Tenure Security and Low-Cost Housing Delivery|
Session Chair: Robin Rajack, Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Rethinking Property Regularization For Effective Informal Settlements Upgrading In Egypt: A Context - Specific Approach
1GIZ, Egypt; 2Department of Urban Planning, faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
However, the Government of Egypt has made several strong commitments to improve the situation in informal settlements, the focus of the Egyptian government policy has been mainly upgrading these areas via infrastructure and services provision to improve livelihoods. Questions beyond that such as the legalization of informal settlements or preventive planning strategies get much less attention because of their complexity and political sensitivity.
This research is tackling the issue of upgrading informal settlements built on state-owned land, where the security of tenure is considered a trigger for development and for legal recognition. It's also counted as an essential factor to integrate such areas within the city. A context-specific approach is proposed in order to categorize informal settlements built on state-owned land. Thus, appropriate strategies are formulated for different categories, and supported by accustomed tenure regularization approach to be utilized for effective upgrading measures.
Land Title Application Rate and Uptake In Regularized Settlements in Tanzania
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ardhi University
The past two decades have witnessed a sharp increase in programs focusing on regularization of informal settlements in many urban areas. Despite some positive results of regularization, many challenges are reported too. Some challenges are operational while others are institutional. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of regularization of informal settlements with a view to examining the key assumptions and oversights in the design and execution of regularization projects. The study draws evidence from six urban centers in Tanzania. Generally, findings show that property owners have benefited from regularization. However, the findings also shows that the pace of applying for title deeds is slow, mainly due to low level of financial literacy and entrepreneurship skills, high lending rates and strict lenders’ conditions and, fear of foreclosure and exposure to taxes. Besides, some property owners are simply unwilling to use their title deeds as collateral for loans.
Facilitating The Creation Of Enabling Environments For Slum Upgrading And Affordable Housing - From Pilots To Programs in Monrovia, Liberia
Habitat for Humanity International, United States of America
The purpose of this presentation is to advocate for the importance of creating an enabling environment for slum upgrading and affordable housing, to support urban development. Housing is at the heart of the New Urban Agenda and contributing towards resilient and sustainable urban development requires targeted community, market/sector and policy level interventions that contribute to improved living conditions for low-income household and secure tenure; increased access to finance for low-income households; enabling land, housing and planning policy environments; and building community, public and private sector capacity to support the implementation of these interventions.
A systematic methodology has been developed to analyze the housing market conditions, the housing policy environment and the hazards and vulnerabilities that impact on low-income households and communities to determine what community, market and policy interventions are best suited for any particular context. Partnerships - people, public, partnerships - are essential for the successful implementation of these interventions.
Informality in the Brazilian housing market: the case of the Metropolitan region of Campinas - SP (RMC)
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2IDB
This article is a result of a research project, from a cooperation between the IDB and UNICAMP and its object is the housing and the families with less than seven minimum salaries of the metropolitan region of Campinas.
The main question of this article is: does the level of formality or informality in the housing of families have clear relation with: family’s wealth, family’s housing expenses, distance from center, plot size, plot prices and zoning?
The field survey has a sample of 643 families, statistically significant to 93% from nine municipalities, based on their population with less than seven minimal wages.
The article will be subdivided in 4 parts: a small literature review on types of housing illegality; the field work methodology; main data presentation; analyses and policy propositions.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-09: Land Tenure Regularization and Agricultural Intensification|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
Acknowledging Middle-Scale Farmers in Senegal: From Land Use/Acquisition Processes To Their Role in Agricultural Intensification
1ISRA Bame, Senegal; 2CIRAD/ISRA Bame, Senegal; 3CIRAD/FIDA, Italy; 4Michigan State University
To date, the rise of emerging farmers described in other African countries has not been assessed nor documented in Senegal. This study intends to analyze the growth of emergent farmers in different agro-ecological zones in the country and to contribute to the current debate opposing smallholder farmers and agricultural firms. More specifically, this study includes several related research objectives, namely: (1) to understand the rate of land expansion of medium- and large-scale farms in Senegal; (2) to consider the implications of the rise of medium/large scale farms on Senegal’s agricultural development path ; (3) to understand the relationship between farm size and efficiency in Senegal, including the range of factors that might condition this relationship.
The Impact of Land Governance on the Economic Development Potential of Small Scale Farmers in Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
It has been argued that the quality of land governance is related to the manifestation of land tenure related problems (Palmer et al, 2009). Therefore in order to achieve the economic development goals expected from improved tenure arrangements, it is often required that land governance must improve. Using a democratic land governance framework that is biased in favor of the landless poor, we are able to apply the land governance principles as proposed by (Zakout et al, 2006) to assess land governance, not only in terms of service delivery, but also on the desirability of that service. However in the case study of small scale farmers in Namibia it becomes clear that despite tenure improvements and reforms to benefit the poor, the governance processes instead serves to concentrate power in the hands of the state and reduces legal tenure security for the beneficiaries.
The Impact of Informal Land Tenure Security on Credit Taking and Land Rental Markets in Zambia’s Eastern Province
1Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America; 2United States Agency for International Development
Increased tenure security has long been hypothesized to incentivize greater land investment and improve household economic outcomes, including through a greater ability to obtain credit and increased engagement in land rental markets. However, the empirical support for a strong and positive link between stronger tenure security and household obtainment of credit or engagement in land rental markets has been mixed or tenuous, especially in customary contexts. To provide policy relevant programming recommendations, this paper analyzes the relationship between tenure security and household credit taking and engagement in land rental markets in the customary setting of Zambia’s Eastern Province. This analysis draws on cross-sectional and panel data collected as part of USAID-funded impact evaluations of interventions designed to strengthen customary land tenure. This study represents an important contribution to the literature, through the use of panel data and a more robust set of tenure security indicators than have previously been available.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-10: Evaluating Impact of Land Tenure Projects|
Session Chair: Cynthia Goytia, Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Beyond Titling: Impacts of a Multifaceted Land Governance Intervention on Land Conflict in Burkina Faso
Landesa, United States of America
In recent years, international development programs to secure property rights have shifted from an emphasis on issuing formal property documents to a broader approach that includes institution-building, citizen participation, and recognition of customary systems. One such program was the Millennium Challenge Account funded Rural Land Governance (RLG) activity in Burkina Faso. This paper investigates the impacts of a pilot of the RLG on the incidence of land conflict using household survey panel data. We find that the RLG substantially reduced the incidence of certain types of land conflicts in the project area. In particular, the predicted incidence of land conflicts that respondents characterized as “very serious” was 2 per 1,000 households following RLG, as compared to a predicted rate of 56 per 1,000 households in the absence of the program.
Tools for Impact Evaluation of Land Tenure and Governance
Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Tools for Impact Evaluation of Land Tenure and Governance
Impacts of customary land use rights formalization on smallholder tenure security and economic outcomes: Midline results from a RCT impact evaluation of USAID’s Land Tenure Assistance activity in Tanzania
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2MSI, Inc; 3United States Agency for International Development; 4Landesa
We report on baseline and midline findings from a USAID-supported randomized controlled trial impact evaluation of the effects of Certificate of Customary Right of Occupancy provisioning on a set of household outcomes hypothesized to improve with formalization of smallholder customary land use rights: tenure security, land disputes, land investment, empowerment, and smallholder economic outcomes. Results are based on baseline and midline findings from the evaluation of USAID’s Land Tenure Assistance Activity in Tanzania, after two rounds of household survey data collection. In addition, we explore the spatial distribution of plots in surveyed villages and use contextual spatial data to examine variation in outcomes on the basis of village and parcel characteristics. Given donor, implementer and government interest to find low-cost, scalable and sustainable approaches to achieve land formalization goals, our results have varying entry points of interest across donor, government, academic and other land sector audiences.
The Impact of Customary Land Certification on Land Tenure and Resource Governance: Results of the Tenure and Global Climate Change RCT in Zambia
Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America
This paper presents the endline results from a randomized control trial of the Tenure and Global Climate Change (TGCC) program in Zambia. TGCC was developed by USAID to explore the relationship between secure resource tenure and the achievement of climate change adaptation and mitigation goals. The evaluation uses a four-arm randomized design to investigate three key research questions: (1) whether an agroforestry extension program increased farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry, (2) whether village and household land tenure interventions strengthen the security of land tenure and resource rights for smallholders in a customary context, and (3) whether stronger tenure security increases farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry and uptake of other CSA practices. Through the first cross-cutting RCT of a customary certification program, this study aims to advance the literature and inform future programming on the impacts of tenure security on CSA practices.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-11: Lightning talks: Machine Learning and Platforms|
Session Chair: Thomas Esch, DLR, Germany
Will Artificial Intelligence Help Provide Solutions to Land Governance and Poverty?
1The University of Utah School of City and Metropolitan Planning; 2Geomancer, Inc.; 3The Corporation of the Presiding Bishop
The purpose of this presentation is to provide a futurist view of technology available today that can be used to simplify and accelerate the development of land governance policies, to increase tax revenues, maximize GDP, and reduce poverty. This technology can be used to facilitate financing of infrastructure development, monitor and reduce land-related corruption, and facilitate fair and equitable land use policies. The paper explores the integration of geospatial data including topographical, hydrological, agricultural, mineralogical, soils, and energy-related data layered over Google Earth images and local land parcel data and analyzed to show how land and resource values can be calculated using pre- and post-development, residual land valuation techniques. The paper applies these techniques in the State of Utah where they can be tested against existing alternative valuation techniques and scenarios. The authors seek opportunities to collaborate on future studies in developing countries.
Unsupervised Extraction Of Features And High Resolution Data Using AIMEE
IMGeospatial, United Kingdom
Much of poverty comes from the inability to evaluate and realise potential production from land and to understand its vulnerability to influences, e.g. infrastructure and natural disasters. Quick and accurate identification, measurement and evaluation of geographical features over large areas give the capability to overcome poverty like never before.
Understanding what can be produced, where and by how much, is important to all commodities but in particular food. However, this must be looked at in the context of the wider environment and resources like water, timber and utilities as part of the sustainability of production.
Even when production systems are understood, they are vulnerable to changes in the environment, or natural disasters. These changes not only affect primary production but also the infrastructure around it; removing resources, logistics and social support. Gathering large amounts of remote sensing data combined with AI such as AIMEE can increase productivity and its resilience.
Digital Twin as City Management Tool
1Sitowise Ltd, Finland; 2Nokia Bell Labs, Finland; 3VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd; 4World Bank
A digitally enhanced city environment is a tool for bypassing some of the bottlenecks of traditional urban management in developing countries.
New 5G technology offers a disruptively new approach in cities in form of agile, local application tools and solutions, utilizing machine learning algorithms to readjust themselves to local conditions and situations at hand.
Our paper first summarizes the state of the art of technical development in introducing ultra-high speed 5G networks into urban context. We then go on to elaborate the focal challenges of urban governance that may be facilitated and partly even bypassed by agile and resilient local networks. Finally, we give an overview of the recent development and findings of the LuxTurrim5G development project, carried through by a consortium of leading Finnish technology companies led by Nokia, funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation Tekes.
Using Scalable Technology Platforms to Deliver Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration
ESRI, United States of America
What growing and maturing land administration organizations need is a scalable COTS-based platform that can enable them to grow and take on more capabilities as human capacity, functional needs and the volume of work grows over time. COTS technology allows for a quicker and less costly deployment of solutions with minimal custom software development. Further, enabling scalability through a COTS-based enterprise platform has the added benefit of contributing to the fit-for-purpose definition of being affordable, flexible, upgradeable and quick to deploy. Scalability, in this context, is characterized as (i) providing the ability to take on additional functionality quickly and with little to no cost, (ii) being able to scale the platform both within the organization and across other departments; and (iii) being interoperable in terms of enabling simple integration with other business systems that may offer complementary capabilities.
Harnessing Land Information Through Cloud-Based Platforms For A Resilient Society
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
A Spatial Data Infrastructure in which geospatial and non-spatial information about land can be shared between government organizations, emergency responders, critical infrastructure providers and citizens, prepares for these scenarios by identifying, aggregating, harmonizing and making accessible, valuable land information. And by making this data accessible whenever and where ever its users require but without the right permissions could be potentially catastrophic. Its therefore important for the spatial data infrastructure to support role-based access control. detailed workflows, and organizational capability applications to further improve its resilience impact.
This paper will give an example of a closed and tightly managed Spatial Data Infrastructure which was developed to strengthen national resilience impact and put information at the fingertips of decision makers in the United Kingdom.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-12: New ways of creating and using data|
Session Chair: David Rovira, senseFly SA, Switzerland
Ecuador - Sigtierras The First National Interconnected Open Source Land Information System
Territorial management in San Pedro Sula, Honduras
1Municipalidad de San Pedro Sula, Honduras; 2DHV Consultants
Zanzibar Mapping Initiative - An Island of Innovation
WORLD BANK, Tanzania
Land Administration at Scale
GIS Transport, Nigeria
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-13: New Ways of Dealing with Land Conflict|
Session Chair: Laura Cunial, Norwegian Refugee Council, Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of
Alternative Land Conflict Transformation: A Cambodia Innovation
Independent Mediation Organization (IMG), Cambodia
When Cambodian Government granted Economic Land Concessions (ELCs) to investors from 2005 onwards, Indigenous People, rural people, women, and children in the targeted areas have been affected by many land disputes left unsolved despite the Government’s efforts. However, there are successful cases of land dispute resolution through mediation. The dispute between Hoang Anh Gia Lai and 14 IPCs in Ratanakiri which was mediated by the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO) has come to an agreement yet has not been officially approved by the Government. For the case of six communities in Northeastern province and a foreign rubber plantation company, the Independent Mediation organization (IMG) supported by Mekong Region Land Governance has accomplished the pre-mediation/assessment stage and a first round of negotiation stage following the key principles of mediation. However, mediation approaches still face many challenges like power imbalances and capacity building, lack of trust, and miscommunication.
Innovation In Land Disputes Mediation And Land Governance In Conflict Situations: Evidence From Eastern DRC And The State Of Jubbaland, Somalia.
The paper captures the experiences of land dispute mediation in Eastern DRC and the application of a ‘new model’ of governance to deal with land conflicts in the State of Jubbaland in Somalia. The two case studies present clear examples on the use of innovation in dealing with land conflicts and land governance challenges. In the context of DRC, the paper interrogates the major steps followed in implementing land mediation work. It shows that a very significant output of land mediation has been the signing of Peace Agreements by the parties to a conflict, witnessed by other key stakeholders. This has stabilizing the effect, thereby allowing peace to return and concerned parties to work on the land. In connection with Jubbaland, the paper demonstrates how and why a new; clan-based governance model is working in favour of the land rights of minority clans, thereby contributing to peace and stability.
Land Governance And State Building In Conflict Contexts: 10 Country Cases
UN-Habitat / Global Land Tool Network, Kenya
Through the analysis of ten country case studies, this paper illustrates how good land governance contributes to peace and stability in conflict affected contexts by strengthening the capacity, the institutions and the legitimacy of the state (state-building) and addressing land-related root causes of conflict.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-15: Affordable Standards for Land Data Management|
Session Chair: B. James Deaton, University of Guelph, Canada
Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and its contribution to monitoring of land governance in Uganda
1Independent Consultant, Bolivia, Plurinational State of; 2Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD), Uganda; 3Integrated Land Solutions, Africa (ILSA)
Increasing pressure on land resources requires further development and application of policies and laws across the continuum of land rights to ensure security of land tenure, address poverty eradication, gender equality, indigenous recognition, adequate housing, sustainable agriculture, food security, climate change response and good governance in accordance with global, regional principles.
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) of Uganda is currently implementing a digital National Land Information System (NLIS) Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) compliant up to the level two to International Standards Organization (ISO) LADM standard. The LADM provides a standardised global vocabulary for land administration and allows to generate accurate and real-time indicators to strengthen Land Governance Monitoring towards an effective implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) to inform, monitor and evaluate land related policies, legislation and procedures.
Modernizing Land Service Delivery through the Application of a Continuum Approach: Examining the Appropriateness of the International Land Management Standard (ILMS)
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, United Kingdom
This paper proposes a continuum of market appropriate standards through which countries can progress over time rather than strict adherence to a single, prescribed overarching standard. This concept is predicated on the underlying assumption that, particularly in the context of land administration and tenure, a single global standard risks being (1) too complex for truly humble, informal urban or rural markets in the least-wealthy nations, while simultaneously being (2) not sophisticated enough to handle a complex range of special assumptions and market options for highly developed urban environments. Thus, poorly conceived standardization may be inappropriate for either scenario and inherently not fit for its intended purpose. To further illustrate this point, the paper will examine how the newly proposed International Land Measurement Standard could be used as part of a continuum approach by examining its application in three geographically, economically, and culturally diverse countries: Mozambique, Peru, and the UK.
Building Ethiopian Land Administration Domain Model to Support Legal Cadastre in Ethiopia
1World Bank; 2Federal Urban Real Property Registration and Information Agency, Ethiopia; 3IGNFI
Ethiopia is one of the most rapidly growing countries in Africa. This comes both to the population and economy. The rapid increase of population in urban areas requires improvement of land administration services, especially in the urban centers. To cover costs, associated with these improvements the Government of Ethiopia decided to invest in developing a new urban cadastre system. A Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) tailored to Ethiopian context is necessary to support a development of Ethiopian Urban Cadastre and to be a basis of a Cadastre and Real Property Registration System (CRPRS). Ethiopian LADM (ELADM) should not be considered as a definitive data model but as a living one, that will need consolidation first during the time of system implementation and even more, later, when used as a base document for a national standard. The article will present ELADM elaboration process and methodology for its further maintenance and update.
IT-Leap Approach – Lessons Learned in Providing Knowledge Transfer and Capacity Strengthening
1Innola Solutions Inc., USA; 2National Center of State Cadastres, Geodesy and Cartography, Uzbekistan
The authors propose the IT-Leap concept – a new IT-centric modality of the FFP approach, from the perspective of the Land Administration(LA) capacity development. The IT-Leap approach can be applied to all LA areas, thus catalyzing the result-oriented processes and exposing the gaps for capacity strengthening.
The authors examine a full IT life cycle and consider how the COBIT framework for the enterprise IT governance and management can be used for iterative strengthening of the capacity. This approach allows you to achieve the faster “time-to-market” and can be viewed as an instrument for the life cycle capacity growth. IT-Leap adopts agile principles, collaborative development and knowledge transfer.
This paper describes the lessons learned in Uzbekistan and Uganda from adopting the IT-Leap approach based on the Innola Framework and draws conclusions that LA organizations should first focus on governance capacity and the ability to direct, invest, commission, and control the implementation.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-01: How can urban regeneration projects help tackle poverty and address inequity of access?|
Session Chair: Sameh Naguib Wahba, World Bank, United States of America
Making The Improbable Possible: Integrating Design And Infrastructure Across All 51 Miles Of The Los Angeles River
River LA, United States of America
Waterfront Redevelopment in Rio de Janeiro – Thinking about the Most Vulnerable
Urban Management Smart City Business Americas Institute, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-02: India's progress towards harnessing the benefits of inter-operability|
Integrated Land Information – India
Department of Land Resources, India
To be filled
World Bank, United States of America
to be filled
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-03: Native Title in Latin America|
Session Chair: Enrique Pantoja, World Bank, United States of America
Native Title and Land Registration
1IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain; 2Procuraduria General de Guatemala; 3Corporacion Chilena de Derecho Registral; 4Registro Nacional Agrario Mexico; 5Supeintendencia de los Registros y del Notariado Colombia
Aboriginal land rights in many jurisdictions is a steady problem since 1970 when a broad array of issues have come before Courts all around the world. The reason that aboriginal people are now turning to the courts to reestablish control over the territories they originally inhabited is because hundreds of years of decisions deprived them of such control. The legal doctrine of "terra nullius" presupposed that , prior to the arrival of europeans many places were no man´s land waiting to be settled. This theories influenced the judicial decision until XX th century. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland was a path breaking. After came decisions from Canada (Delgamuukv v British Columbia). This was only the beginning. New claims appeared in South America (Chile , Colombia and Mexico among others). Today the challenge is haw to register this rights without jeopardizing the registration system.
Indigenous Property Titles: The Mapuche Community in Chile and the Protection of Property Records
1Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Chile; 2Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Diego Portales University, Chile
With the return to democracy in Chile, Law 19.253 was enacted on 1993 focusing on the protection, promotion and development of indigenous peoples. That legislation also created the National Foundation for Indigenous Development. Later, on 2009, ILO Convention 169 entered into force.
In this context, two important registration protection measures are worthy of note: the creation of a Public Registry of Indigenous Lands and the Fund for Indigenous Lands and Waters. The former seeks to preserve original properties per se and, toward that end, establishes a land registry that also serves to prove the property’s indigenous status.
Thanks to these initiatives, the process of claiming and preserving property in the hands of the indigenous peoples has begun. This should lead to greater economic development through farming, animal husbandry, fishing, and even tourism, all of which should help stem the tide of rural-urban migration and serve to reactivate downtrodden rural areas.
Private Property and Social Property, Two Different Views: the Case of Mexico
CINDER North America
In Mexico, ejido and communal property constitutes 51% of the national territory, distributed in 29,634 ejidos and 2,381 communities that together occupy 100 million hectares. Approximately 25 % of the agricultural settlements are inhabited by indigenous.
The Agrarian Law in its 9th article stipulates that the ejidos have legal personality and its own property and that they are owners of the land that was granted to them or that they acquired under any other title.
The Registry in order to obtain the regulation and document security regarding the social property is responsible of the registration function and the technical and cadastral assistance.
In 1992 the Federal Government urges the amendment of Article 27 of the Constitution with the objective to provide certainty of the land tenure to farmers as well as giving freedom to decide about its use and destination.
Aboriginal Titles and the Problems to Reflect Them in the Land Registry and Cadaster
superintendencia de notariado y registro, Colombia
La legislación internacional y la Constitución Política de Colombia reconocen la importancia de los pueblos indígenas y se han declarado a lo largo de la historia muchos derechos que los salvaguardan.
El derecho más importante para los indígenas es el del territorio, porque en él se materializa toda su cultura y tradición. Sin embargo, se ha visto vulnerado por la débil presencia del Estado en los territorios, la ausencia de políticas para atender las necesidades de los indígenas y la actividad de actores ilegales del conflicto armado interno.
El Estado debe garantizar el derecho de los pueblos indígenas al reconocimiento legal de las modalidades de propiedad, posesión o dominio, por lo tanto, se requiere una identificación certera de los asentamientos de propiedad colectiva en el país y así gestionar la correspondiente titulación o formalización de estos territorios y su correspondiente Registro en el Registro público de la propiedad
The Recognition of Ancient Rights of Aboriginal People. A Vision From The Land Registry and the Court of Justice of Guatemala
General Attorney Guatemala, Guatemala
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-04: Capacity Development for Land Governance|
Session Chair: Charl-Thom Hilgardt Bayer, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Land Govenance In Higher Education: Missing Link between Research, Policy, And Stakeholders' Needs In African Societies
University of Marburg, Germany
How to better integrate land governance issues into African postgraduate training? The paper discusses, with an economic focus, objectives, outcomes, content and admission requirements of Master courses in land governance. It identifies economic theories and methodologies needed to address modern, complex governance issues; it highlights the dynamics in land relations and their impact on (good) land governance. It focuses on links to other policies, takes rural and urban problems into consideration as well as contributions to achieve (global) environmental goals. Not only the role of the state is at issue; a master course has to concentrate as much as on private business, land sale and rental markets and spill-overs to other factor markets and stakeholders’ interests in civil society. In future multi-layer, polycentric governance is asked for, more complex models have to be identified to adequately address different levels. Experiences to measure impact (LGAF) will be discussed as well.
Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration: Capacity Development for Country Implementation
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2KnowEdge, United Kingdom; 3GLTN/UN-Habitat, Kenya
This paper aims to analyze the requirements for capacity development as a precondition for implementing Fit- For-Purpose (FFP) Land Administration Systems at country level. The FFP concept is not a technical fix. It is about applying the spatial, legal and institutional methodologies that are most fit for the purpose of providing secure tenure for all by addressing the current constraints and allowing for incremental improvement over time.
“Don´t start what you can´t sustain”. This phrase is particularly relevant for implementing land administration systems at country level. This paper identifies five key steps for addressing this quest for capacity: (i) Analysis of the country context, (ii) Capacity assessment; (iii) Capacity development strategy, (iv) Implement capacity development strategy, and (v) Monitoring and evaluation.
Technical and Vocational Education and Training initiative on Rural Cadastre and Land Registration: The Case of Ethiopia
1NIRAS/Ethiopia, Ethiopia; 2Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
In accordance to the TVET strategy and requirement, the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MoANR) has initiated production of trained manpower at a technical level recently for Rural Cadastre and Land Registration. With the support from the Government of Finland, through the Responsible and Innovative Land Administration (REILA) project in October 2014, a new Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) program on Rural Cadastre and Land Registration launched in Assosa Agricultural TVET college at Level III. From this initiative, two batches graduated on Rural Cadastre and Land Registration, in 2016 11 graduates and in 2017 63 graduates. Putting together the 2016 and 2017 graduates, the total number of technicians on Rural Cadastre and Land Registration reached 74 in the land sector of the Benishangul Gumuz region. Out of this number 21 of them are female graduates that makes the female graduates more than 28%.
Advancing collaborative research in responsible and smart land management in and for Africa: The ADLAND model
Chair of Land Management, Technical University of Munich, Germany
This paper presents the "Advancing collaborative research in responsible and smart land management in and for Africa" (ADLAND) model of capacity development. ADLAND advances the concept and praxis of responsible and smart land management, in the context of, and for, being able to address the needs of African land policy. The paper discusses the ADLAND model and how its activities are planned and (will be) implemented towards roadmaps that will culminate into the development of a responsible and smart land management capacity in selected universities and research institutions in Africa. It presents its ADLAND methods for capacity development in land management education in Africa focusing on the responsible and smart land management concepts, the ADLAND networks and partnerships approach and its programme of activities.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-05: Leveraging Land Governance and Sustainability in the 2030 Agenda|
Session Chair: Ward Anseeuw, CIRAD / INternational Land Coalition, Italy
Unlocking the potential of land systems to contribute to the 2030 agenda: Identifying trade-offs and co-benefits and synthesizing knowledge for sustainable and just land systems
1Global Land Programme, International Programme Office; 2University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland
The United Nation’s Agenda 2030 contributes to a major shift in understanding of development, away from silo thinking and towards integrated approaches. Development actors across the world, including those in the field of land governance, are now working to implement the 2030 Agenda in a world that is more connected than ever across different sectors, places, scales and time. With respect to land, we posit that land systems, understood as social-ecological systems, are central to sustainability transformations, as they constitute the nexus of competing development claims. We present results by the Global Land Programme (GLP) to identify and better understand the knowledge needs and potential contributions of the land science, land policy and governance communities, and of societal actors promoting social justice and land governance, and to identify key land-related interactions within the SDGs to unlock potentials for sustainability transformations.
Imagining Agriculture in 2030: Sustainable solutions, disruptive technology
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Global agriculture and food systems have a triple burden to bear. Not only must they meet rising global demand for nutritious food and provide sustainable livelihoods but also find ways to adapt to the impacts of climate change on weather patterns and ecosystems, while reducing their own contributions to environmental degradation. A new wave of technological innovation is sweeping the agricultural sector with the potential to help achieve many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper outlines major challenges faced by agriculture, explains various new technologies and how their adoption could either address or contribute to agriculture’s challenges, and considers the potential impact on the roughly 500 million small and family- farms around the world. Technologies may transform, disrupt or reinforce current dynamics in the global food system which makes it critical that their role in achieving the SDGs and Agenda 2030 is guided by foresight rather than assumption.
Energy and land use - contribution to the UNCCD Global Land Outlook
1IINAS, Germany; 2Chalmers University, Sweden; 3University of New England, Australia; 4Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USQ; 5Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; 6Biomass Research, Netherlands; 7KwaZulu-Natal University, South Africa; 8Imperial College, UK; 9International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Kenya
SDG 15 aims to combat global desertification and land degradation, for which the land “footprint” of energy is of particular interest. 90 % of global energy demand is met from non-renewable energy (mainly fossil), which leaves its footprint on land through resource extraction, conversion and respective infrastructure. Similarly, renewable energies have land consequences, although these differ in scope and form.
This paper identifies and compares the land impact of all terrestrial energy forms. It also addresses GHG emissions from energy, and terrestrial carbon sinks to mitigate climate change (SDG 13, 2015 Paris Agreement). This requires rapid scale-up of sustainable energy sources and their efficient distribution, with significant implications for land use, management and planning.
Energy and land use are further linked to other SDGs (e.g. biodiversity, employment, rural development, soil degradation, water). These linkages are briefly discussed.
Women’s Land Rights as Potential Accelerator of Twin Efforts to Reach Land Degradation Neutrality and Achieve Gender Equality
Landesa, United States of America
The UNCCD is among the leading multilateral agreements on land and development that explicitly mentions gender concerns and women’s roles in desertification. As the only Rio Convention - a trio of environmentally-focused treaties adopted during the 1992 Earth Summit - that references women’s roles and participation in its main Convention text, and with the experience gained over the past decades, the UNCCD offers significant opportunities for accelerated gender-responsive implementation. This paper draws on this global framework and related processes to set out modalities for addressing gender roles and gender-based discrimination and securing women’s land rights as strategies to achieve both land degradation neutrality and gender equality and empowerment.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Monitoring Implementation of Large Agro Investments|
Session Chair: Francine Picard, IISD, Switzerland
Forms of land tenure and property in a municipality in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, and strategies for community land rights protection.
1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2ActionAid Guatemala; 3CONGCOOP Guatemala
Pressure to sell land to palm oil companies after the civil war has increased the vulnerability of indigenous-peasant communities in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. This situation stems from the forms of land allocation by the state, which do not guarantee collective rights of communities. When community land tenure is disrupted, the systems of community life are also violated.
The paper explores the material and symbolic relationship of people to land in these indigenous communities. Concepts of possession and ownership of the land have arisen as a result of the different types of political, economic and legal approaches that have emerged over time in response to indigenous concepts, generating new approaches and challenges to understanding individual and collective land rights. The tenure forms discussed include: a) state ownership, b) private ownership, c) communal tenure d) other forms promoted by agrarian programs.The paper concludes with proposals for the protection of the community lands.
Fostering Transparent and Evidence-Based Reporting: the Case of Uganda
1IFAD, Italy; 2Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries of Uganda
The increase in large-scale land acquisitions by foreign investors in recent years has put land rights issues and responsible agricultural investment more visibly back on the global development agenda. While the topic has attracted a lot of attention internationally, access to reliable data on the phenomenon of large-scale land acquisitions has been a major challenge in the debate on their actual impact on rural people. This paper highlights the issues that affect the sourcing and reporting of large-scale land acquisitions. After providing this framework, the study intends to analyse the reporting of a project supported by IFAD - the Vegetable Oil Development Project” (VODP) in Uganda - to analyse the dynamics behind the reporting system of land platforms.
Collaborative planning for land-based investments in agriculture and forestry in Tanzania, Mozambique and Uganda
1Shared Value Foundation; 2CIFOR; 3LANDac; 4Utrecht University
Multi-stakeholder approaches have in recent years received increased policy and media attention. Yet theoretical frameworks focussing on, and explaining processes of collaborative planning remain scant. Existing theories point in the direction of a shift in governance and planning, with more appreciation of multiple and changing goals, nonlinear planning processes, and interdependent clusters of epistemic communities informed by both local and global sources of knowledge. Building on theory of collaborative rationality, this paper aims to expand its geographic scope and explore its applicability in the context of land-based investments in agriculture and forestry in Tanzania, Mozambique and Uganda. We will draw on our own experiences in organising and monitoring three multi-stakeholder dialogues in investments hubs in the sample countries. We argue for the importance of local knowledge to support 'authentic dialogue', and we stress the role of continuous engagement and collaborative monitoring in achieving changes on the ground.
Emerging Developments in Responsible Large-Scale Agricultural Investment in the Mekong
1Land Equity International Pty Ltd, Australia; 2Independent; 3Gret
This paper presents the Mekong Region Land Governance project’s role as a convenor on responsible agricultural investment issues in the Mekong, as well as substantive content and developments agreed during a Regional Workshop in November 2017.
In the Mekong Region, as with other parts of the world, there has been a new wave of large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural investments coming into Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar in particular. In the Mekong region, significant areas of land have been granted to companies for agro-industrial investments with an expectation to generate Foreign Direct Investment in the agricultural sector, boost productivity and spur modernisation, create jobs in rural areas and increase government revenues in countries that were thought to be “land-abundant.” In reality, the trend is proving seriously problematic, due to impacts on smallholder farming systems, limited return to local economies, and overlaps of land claims leading to conflicts and evictions.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-07: Increasing Tenure Security in Pastoral Systems|
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
The Role of Pastoralists' Tenure Security In Sustainable Land Management; Evidence From West Pokot, Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya; 2Lund University, Sweden
This paper assessed whether and how different land tenure regimes and land tenure security affect the sustainable use of land in West Pokot County, Kenya. Tenure security is important as it enhances investment in sustainable land management practices, which contributes to sustainable livelihoods. Data was gathered through community-level discussion meetings, key informant interviews and a survey of 191 individual households. The information collected focused on historical and current perspectives on land ownership in the different areas of the county, the types of sustainable land management practices and the effect of tenure security on the sustainable land management practices. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Results showed a rising trend in individual land ownership especially in the semi-arid locations compared to the arid areas. Tenure security played an important role in uptake of sustainable land management practices such as soil nutrient management, soil and water conservation, agro forestry, land restoration and rehabilitation.
Do Mongolian’s need a contract on rangeland?
Green ecology, Mongolia
Everyone involves in the rangeland through livestock in Mongolia. Rangeland is life of livestock, and livestock is main food source for Mongolians. Rangeland-livestock-herders are interrelated to each other. In this paper author shares do Mongolians need a contact on rangeland based on project experiences in peri-urban rangeland leasing areas in Mongolia.
The contractual use of rangeland by herder groups proved to be feasible in Mongolian conditions. More than 400 herder groups have got their rangeland under land use contract in 50 soums in the territory of Тuv, Selenge, Bulgan, Orkhon, Darkhan-Uul, Uvurkhangai, Arkhangai, Dornod aimags. Herder groups have got the rangeland, to operate more intensive livestock activities, ranging around 500-2500 ha per group on their own will and through negotiations with neighbor herders on land use boundaries and approvals from bag meetings and soum Governors. All this prove that we need to have a contract on rangeland by herder groups.
Regional Innovations For Diverse Tenure Systems Of Pasture Land In Central Asia
1Environment and development Association JASIL, Mongolia; 2National Pasture Users Association "Kyrgyz Jayiti", Kyrgyzstan; 3Institute Ecology for Sustainable Development, Kazakhstan; 4National Association of Dekhan Farmers, Tajikistan; 5Kyrgyzs Association of Forest and Land Users, Kyrgyzstan
Pastoral agriculture is a way of life for many communities in Central Asia and over time it has evolved and supported environmental protection of rangeland landscapes and herders’ livelihoods. Moreover, as common pool resources, pastureland management is based on rich and diverse traditions of local communities, state regulations and latest innovative tenure systems can contribute to the social and economic well-being of local communities and the countries.
Central Asian region currently in social, economic and ecological terms stile in adaptation phase in ongoing socio-economic, ecological and political challenges and flexibility. In the transition to a market economy countries of the region started to adopt innovative and different tenure systems of pastoral land. These innovative tenure systems contributing to the independent economic development, decentralization, devolution of decision making and for the reduction of degradation of pasture land, which is occupies 44.0 - 85.3% of total land in the countries of the region
Assessment Of Different Land Tenure Systems And Their Respective Effects on Rangeland Governance in South Tunisia: an application of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) approach.
1ICARDA, Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of; 2IRA, Institut des Régions Arides de Médenine, Tunisia
The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of "good common rangeland governance" in South Tunisia. The weight of each of these variables will then be determined quantitatively through the application of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) method. The BBN approach allows tracking the causality linkages between primary and secondary variables on one hand and a final outcome event, considered in our case as the chance of having a good rangeland governance. Data was collected from two local areas (Tataouine and kebili) through focus groups and field survey. the resulting networks show that good governance of rangelands is rather contextual. In one of the study areas (Tataouine), institutional constraints were the most important determinants of achieving good rangeland governance, while in Kebili, economic factors were the most influential.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-08: Land Administration as an Enabler for Local Government|
Session Chair: Pekka Ilmari Halme, National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
Land Administration in Ecuador; current situation and opportunities with adoption of fit-for-purpose land administration approach
1Faculty ITC< University of Twente, Netherlands, The; 2University ESPE, Ecuador; 3SIGITERRAS, Ecuador; 4MIDUVI, Ecuador; 5Consultant
The aim if this study is to: explore the current status land administration situation in Ecuador, and identify can fit-for purpose (FFP) land administration approach improve the land administration functions for the country and its citizens. In this paper, initially theoretical framework about land administration, guidelines to improve and assessment frameworks for land administration are presented. The FFP land administration basic concept with three frameworks which are: spatial, legal and institutional frameworks are reviewed. In addition, a study fieldwork for collecting primary and secondary data about the status of land administration in Ecuador is performed. In the discussion part, where results from the study fieldwork are discussed v.s. the theoretical framework of FFP land administration, positive developments and areas for improvement are identified. Finally recommendations based on the outcome of this study are presented.
The Future of the Cadastral in Honduras
Unidad Administradora de Proyectos del Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras
The lack of understanding of the land management issue usually held by Municipal Mayors, we can assert that most of the Cadastral Offices in the municipalities of the country do not have the technical and economic support required to comply with what is established by the Law of Municipalities and Property Law; in the first case, the municipalities are obliged to raise the urban and rural cadaster of their municipal term and to elaborate the Regulatory Plan (planning instrument) of the cities; in the second case, the cadasters that are carried out must comply with the tolerances defined in the Cadastral Measure Regulation that is part of the Property Law.
The legal framework in force in the country in Cadastral provides participation to many key players, such as: municipalities, municipalities, certified professionals for the provision of cadastral services and cadastral delegates.
Are Local Registers the Solution?
1DAI Europe , United Kingdom; 2DAI, United States; 3Kadaster, Netherlands
This paper explores the possibility of using local registers to manage and update land rights. Secure land rights are largely taken for granted in the developed world. Yet for many people in developing nations, clear and enforceable land rights are not a reality and will not be so in the near future. We advocate an approach based on simple local registers, owned, and operated by communities providing legitimate tenure services directly at the local level. We consider the governance and security arrangements required to guarantee integrity and how that might be achieved and also the linkage with existing/planned national systems. Can local registers be a “good enough” solution? in the same way that we now accept image based first registration methods, and in line with the fit-for-purpose philosophy? .
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-09: Is There a Need to Promote Land Access by the Youth?|
Session Chair: Mamadou Baro, University of Arizona, United States of America
Challenges of Governance Responses to Land Use Change and Poverty Among Indigenous People in Northeast Cambodia
1The University of Auckland, New Zealand; 2Research Consultant
This paper focuses on livelihood transitions emerging from land use change in an indigenous commune of northeast Cambodia. The paper argues that despite overall poverty reduction among households in the commune from 2003 to 2012, the rapid expansion of the market economy resulted in dispossession from land and forest resources, an over reliance on cash crops, land commodification and concentration, social differentiation, and socioeconomic inequality. In January 2018 a follow-up survey conducted in the commune found that rapid household population growth at 56 percent from 2012 to 2018 circumscribed overall economic growth and outpaced the capacity of the commune’s resources to sustain it. Without government protection of indigenous land rights, non-indigenous in-migration will undoubtedly proceed at pace to the point where the indigenous residents of the commune will become the minority poorer population.
Understanding Adivasiness as Caste Expression and Land Rights Claim in Central-Eastern India
1Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; 2University of Bergen, Norway
The adivasi population represents a special case in India’s new land wars. Strong individual and community rights to agricultural and forest lands, while existent, have been enacted based on notions of adivasi identities as primeval, without linking these to economic and political influence. This article interrogates the adivasi land question seen through a caste lens. It does so via case studies in two states to understand the ways in which adivasi identity is mobilised for its instrumental value and used to demand land rights. Available evidence indicates the challenges involved in bringing support for land rights that are premised on the supposedly unchanging identity of adivasis when these go against dominant interests. This circumstance serves to highlight how equable the plight of adivasis is in some regards to that of caste groups, despite their usually distinct treatment in scholarly analyses.
Land Access, Tenure Security and the Fate of Rural Youth in Africa: The Case of Mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique
Unlike the existing literature that focuses on land access, this paper assess whether land access and tenure security have effect on youth employment and migration choices. We consider four indicators: youth land acquisition and youth expected inheritance of land for land access and private risk and public risk for tenure security. This paper hypothesizes that access to land and tenure security are important factor that drive youth in the rural areas to look for non-agricultural livelihood strategies. We employed data gathered in Central and Northern Mozambique with a sample of 3,510 households. Our sample consists of 5,750 youth coming from 2,890 sampled households. Our findings suggest that both land access and tenure secure are positively associated with employment in the agricultural sector. With respect to association between land access and migration, we found mixed results. Furthermore, tenure security is negatively correlated with permanent migration, but positively correlated with temporary migration.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-10: Impact of Payment for Environmental Services|
Session Chair: Anne Larson, CIFOR, Peru
Households’ Decisions to Participate in China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program and Reallocate Their Labour Times: Is There Endogeneity Bias?
1Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, United States of America; 2China National Forestry Economics and Development Research Center, No. 18 East Heping Street, Beijing, 100714; 3College of Economics and Management, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin’an, 311300, China
Past impact evaluations of China’s largest ecological restoration program have assumed the absence of self-selection (endogeneity) in the likelihood and extent of participation. Using appropriate testing procedures and a panel dataset of more than 1,000 households over 11 years in two primary provinces, we found evidence of self-selection in household behavior of generating off-farm income. But the hypothesis was rejected that there was a significant self-selection component in households’ decision to participate in the program and generate farming income. Evaluations ignoring the self-section for off-farm labor were found to be biased and overly positive on program impact. Self-selection should be explicitly included, unless there is counter evidence, in any study of this kind.
Triggers and Outcomes to Collective Action in Common-Pool Resources Management: A Devolution Case of Collective Forests in China
1University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2World Bank
This paper examines determinants and consequences of collective action in forest management in China. Since 2003, a devolution reform has given villages the right to decentralize their collectively-owned forests to households. Based on village collective decisions the following tenure types are observed and regarded “collective action”: (i) collective management in villages with the reform versus (ii) where no reform, and (iii) partnership, ie household joint management on a voluntary basis. Analyzing a two-period panel dataset of 3,000 randomly surveyed households in 256 villages, we test two hypotheses: 1) clear and secured tenure rights incentivize cooperation as transaction costs to achieving a collective action are reduced; 2) cooperation improves efficiency in allocating resources and thus has a positive impact on household income growth and poverty alleviation. The estimation considers heterogeneity in plot tenure rights, household management skills, opportunity costs, social capital, village size and pre-existing preferences (pro-cooperative or pro-independent management).
Effect Analysis of Market-based Grassland Management and Reciprocal Grassland Management: A Study on Inner Mongolian Pastoral Area
Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of
After the Grassland Contracting System initiated in 1990s, the traditional community-based grassland management was replaced by single-house grassland management. To achieve more efficient grassland management, two grassland management patterns were developed on the basis of the single-household management : the market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management. In the market-based pattern, households re-allocate grassland resource through participating in grassland market. In the reciprocal grassland management, households jointly use grasslands through personnel negotiation. The market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management have raised increasingly attention from policy and academic aspects. But the management effects of the two patterns, especially the comparative management effects of the two patterns has not been well studied . This study analyses and compares the effects of the market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management from economical, ecological and social aspects using the 417 household data of Inner Mongolia collected during our field work in 2011.
Land Conservation Payments Also Conserve Communal Social Capital
1Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.; 2Economics Department, Environmental Studies Affiliate, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, USA.; 3World Bank Development Impact Evaluation Unit, Washington, D.C., USA.; 4Evaluation Department, National Forestry Commission of Mexico, Guadalajara, Jalisco, MX.
Payments for Ecosystem Services programs incentivize landowners to protect or improve natural resources. Many conservationists fear that introducing compensation for actions previously offered voluntarily will reduce social capital – the institutions, relationships, attitudes, and values that govern human interactions – yet little rigorous research investigates this concern. We examined the social capital impacts of Mexico’s federal conservation payments program, one of the largest in the world. We used regression discontinuity to identify impacts, comparing outcomes for beneficiaries and similar rejected applicants close to scoring cutoffs. We found that payments increased land-cover management activities while maintaining or slightly improving pro-social work effort and social capital. These findings demonstrate that major environmental conditional cash transfer programs can support land management and also conserve the attitudes and institutions underpinning pro-social behavior.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-11: Lightning talks: geospartial|
Session Chair: Barbara Ryan, GEO Secretariat, Switzerland
Satellites for Syria: New methods for assessing agricultural production in conflict areas to support productivity assessments, rehabilitation efforts, and (post conflict) assistance
1eLEAF, The Netherlands; 2GeoVille, Austria; 3World Bank, USA
Despite the need to understand the consequences of armed conflicts on a countries’ economy and population, agricultural statistics in conflict-affected countries are often not available, or of questionable accuracy. However, timely and reliable information on agricultural production is needed to plan preventive interventions by building resilience prior to the conflict, target humanitarian aid during the conflict, and focus rehabilitation actions after the conflict ends.
Satellite Earth Observation (EO) is a powerful and cost-effective technique to assess agricultural production in areas with no or limited access. It provides historical and near-real time operational data to rapidly identify changes in a consistent and repeatable manner.
The example of Syria demonstrates that satellite Earth Observation is an excellent tool to assess agricultural production in areas under conflict, not only to monitor the impact of conflict on the agricultural sector, but also to map its dynamics, resilience and coping and adaptive mechanisms over time.
Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Change Using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of Abobo District, Gambella Region, Ethiopia
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
With the expansion of large scale land acquisition and population growth results significant and rapid changes in land use and land cover change (LUCC) in the area. In recent times, it’s observed that in Gambella region, Ethiopia. There is an increasing demand for agricultural investment and high population growth. This demand results LUCC and as well increase various environmental impacts. The aim of the study is to quantify change and analyze the LUCC from 1987 to 2017 (30 years). The satellite images used in this study collected from Landsat Thematic Mapper at resolution of 30 m of 1987 and sentinel2A image at resolution of 10m of 2017. This satellite images are used for quantification of spatial and temporal dynamics of LUCC. Supervised classification is used to classify Land use/Land cover. Finally post-classification approach is used for detecting and assessing LUCC of Gambella region a case study of Abobo District.
Monitoring Agricultural Investments In Ethiopia: A Remote Sensing Based Approach
1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany; 2MapTailor Geospatial Consulting GbR; 3Joint Research Center (JRC) European Commission
Between 2002 and 2012, the Ethiopian Government leased about 2.4 million hectares of land for commercial agricultural investments to private domestic and foreign investors. In order to steer these large scale agriculture investments towards the envisaged benefits, it is crucial to monitor the investments’ implementation progress frequently. But the investment sites are dispersed across wide geographic areas and due to capacity constraints monitoring is limited to field visits of selected single investment sites only. To overcome this bottleneck, the Ethiopian Horticulture and Agricultural Investment Authority in cooperation with the Support to Responsible Agricultural Investment Project (S2RAI) (financed by the European Union and Germany and implemented by GIZ, technically supported by the Joint Research Center of the European Commission) is currently developing a monitoring tool, based on satellite remote sensing data, which will facilitate the regular assessment of the implementation of agricultural investment projects.
The Role of Geospatial Water Resource Management for Sustainable Land Use in Africa
1DHI GRAS, Denmark; 2GeoVille, Austria; 3Satelligence, Netherlands; 4eLEAF, Netherlands; 5DTU Environment, Denmark; 6ITC, University of Twente, Netherlands; 7European Space Agency, Italy
Water plays an essential role in the sustainable management of land use – particularly in the context of agriculture as 70% of freshwater is used for irrigation, but also for erosion, natural hazards and resilience to climate change. The successful implementation and monitoring of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) initiatives is one major contribution to sustainable land use but requires access to reliable data and information. There is a growing awareness that Earth Observation (EO) data has the potential to serve geospatial data needs especially in the context of International Financing Institutions (IFIs) and Official Developing Assistance (ODA) normally operating in regions where policies and management decisions are often based on sparse and unreliable information. We will provide examples on how Earth Observation is supporting World Bank funded development projects on the African continent in order to promote sustainable land and water management practices and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The Data is Not Enough: Some Hurdles We Must Overcome in the Democratization of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology
Hexagon Geospatial, United States of America
For many years the data collection for the census in South Africa was a manual process. Field workers used to receive paper maps to orientate themselves to their enumeration areas. This has been a tedious and complicated way of collecting data which required extra knowledge of map interpretation.
With the improvement and democratization of technology, Statistics South Africa, the largest and arguably the most advanced national statistical office in Africa, benefits from the HxGN Smart Census solution.
The HxGN Smart Census solution enables the use of imagery base maps in a web-based smart GIS application with predefined workflows that control and limit each user (including fieldworkers) to their allocated geographical areas and tasks. A mobile application, intelligent caching, data storage and backups make it possible for users, after only a limited amount of training, to have all the functionality required to do data capturing in the field without internet access.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-12: Roundtable: Big Data and the Valuation Office – a Two-sided Application for Land Administration?|
Session Chair: Tim Fella, ESRI, United States of America
Improving Property Tax Valuation with Big Data
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
How Governments are Applying Concepts of Big Data, Open Data, and Data Science in Support of Land Administration
Thomson Reuters, United States of America
Arlington County’s Open Data Initiative
Arlington County, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-13: Taxing Real Property in Africa: Status & Prospects|
Session Chair: Willy Govender, Data World, South Africa
IMF, United States of America
Are the Property Tax Challenges Africa Face Different from Elsewhere in the World?
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, United States of America
Are the Property Tax Challenges Africa Face Different from Elsewhere in the World?
Land Tenure Issues
Brigham Young University, United States of America
Land tenure issues
African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, United Kingdom
Current Status and Future Prospects
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Current status and future prospects
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-14: Improving Land Service Delivery in Africa I|
Session Chair: Wordsworth Odame Larbi, FAO, Ethiopia
Managing Large Scale Land Administration Reforms; A case of Ghana’s Land Administration Reform
MINISTRY OF LANDS AND NATURAL RESOURCES, Ghana
In recent years, many countries and governments have embarked on various land and land administration reforms. These reforms are aimed at improving the modernising their land administration systems. Others have also used the opportunity to overhaul their legal and regulatory framework as well as implement key institutional reforms, often based on moving from a purely manual environment into digital working systems.
Various commentaries have been made by persons and groups about the success or otherwise of the interventions that have been carried out by the Ghana Land Administration Project.
It is therefore important for one to review the interventions so far carried out. The paper discusses the approach and focus of key interventions so far carried out. The adequacy or otherwise of some major activities implemented and mode, challenges encountered in such approaches and recommendations for avoiding or minimizing such challenges as lessons for other countries embarking on such ventures.
Use of Enabling Technology in Protecting Customary Land Rights in Sierra Leone - Pilot Formalization of Customary Land Rights
1Ministry of Lands, Country Planning and the Environment, Government of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone; 2Food and Agricultural Organisation
The Government of Sierra Leone formulated and launched a comprehensive National Land Policy (NLP) in March 2017, and developed a plan for its effective implementation. The NLP calls for compulsory registration and establishment of a unified land title registration system that registers collective and individual rights and interests in land currently held under customary land tenure, which constitutes about 99% of land rights in Sierra Leone. This paper presents the approach and methodology in piloting the use of SOLA/OT in mapping and recording of, and thereby protecting customary land rights, which constitute about 99% of all land rights in Sierra Leone. Securing customary land tenure will ensure chiefdoms are well governed, peaceful and viable to improve local service delivery.
Rural Parcel Rights Demarcation in Ghana - An Exposition and Critique
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Accra - Ghana
A challenge that continues to disturb efficient land administration in Ghana hinges on the lack of reliable maps, plans and land data as well as the use of unapproved, old or inaccurate maps. These have given rise to many boundary and ownership conflicts, thwarting national development at both urban and rural levels. To help ease this bottleneck the Ghana Government with the assistance from development partners: the World Bank, DfTD, etc. have been implementing the Ghana Land Administration Project (LAP).
This work expands understanding of the Rural Parcel Right Demarcation program being implemented under component 2 of LAP to highlight implementation successes and challenges. The work aims to demonstrate the outcome of the implementation of Rural Parcel Right Demarcation to assess the effectiveness of program in terms of both: (a) streamlining rural land administration, enhancing livelihoods and (b) reducing land disputes in rural commnuities.
Good Land Governance Is Essential To Effective Land Administration
Land Administration Authority, Lesotho
It widely acknowledged that land is a source of all wealth and for countries to develop they should create a conducive environment for the provision of secure land rights. There is a growing international acknowledgment of the importance of tenure security and good land governance. In most African countries, weak governance has undermined effective protection of land rights. Lesotho has achieved success because of integrating the principles of good land governance in its laws. The enactment of the Legal Capacity of Married Persons Act, Land Act 2010 and Land Administration Authority Act of 2011, has provided the legal security which is imperative to effective administration of land. Statics on land from 2004 will reveal a significant increase in the number of women with registered titles. This paper, therefore, seeks to demonstrate how through incorporating good land governance in land administration, Lesotho has managed to constantly provide effective land administration services.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-15: Plenary: Private Land Rights and Public Land Acquisition: Reconciling the Tensions|
Session Chair: Somik V. Lall, World Bank, United States of America
Private Land Rights and Public Land Acquisition: Reconciling the Tensions
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
World Bank, China, People's Republic of
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-01: Integrated Approaches for the Sustainable Development of Indigenous Peoples’ and Local Communities’ Lands and Territories after Legalization|
Session Chair: Luis Felipe Duchicela, World Bank, United States of America
VC RDC; Translation French and Spanish
Community Forestry Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala
1Rainforest Alliance, Guatemala; 2Carmelita, Guatemala
to be filled
Current Status and Perspectives on Forests, Land Reform and Indigenous Peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Current Status and Perspectives on Forests, Land Reform and Indigenous Peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Current Status and Perspectives on Forests, Land Reform and Indigenous Peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Ligue Nationale des Associations des Autochtones Pygmées du Congo (LINAPYCO), Congo, Democratic Republic of the
to be filled
Re-opening the Path to Recognition of Afro-Colombians Collective Land Rights
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
Re-opening the Path to Recognition of Afro-Colombian Collective Land Rights
Afro-Colombians achieved recognition of their collective tenure rights under the 1991 National Constitution and Law 70 of 1993. In 24 years, the Colombian government recognized 5.53 million hectares of collective territory, with 95.3% of these lands titled in the Pacific region and only 4.6% in other areas of the country. This “pacific-center” interpretation and implementation of Law 70 excluded other Afro-descendant community councils requesting recognition of their collective lands. By combining advocacy, evidence-based analysis, and strategic alliances, The Process of Black Communities, PCN, demonstrated the vulnerable status of collective lands without legal recognition in the agrarian reform process of the peace accord. A partnership among PCN, Pontifical Javeriana University, and RRI contributed to the Afro-descendant movement to reach an agreement with the government’s land agency, re-opening the path to address land rights claims of 271 community councils throughout the country.
Experiences in Asia & Global Perspectives
The International Land Tenure Facility, United States of America
The Presentation will describe the Tenure Facility as a Dedicated Financial Mechanism to directly support indigenous peoples and local communities in their initiatives to secure their land tenure, starting with the key forest countries in the world.
This mechanism is designed to support national efforts for land rights recognition that are directly solicited by key IP and LC actors, networks or their appointed institutions, that are advancing with government as active participants or advisers.
It is also conducted with active participation of support organizations, CSOs, private sector counterparts as well as leveraging key bilateral and multilateral agencies interested, committed and invested in the process of securing land tenure.
Reflections on Rights Actualization versus Rights Recognition: Closing the Gap
Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America
to be filled
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-02: Impact evaluation of land tenure and land use regularization|
Session Chair: Maximo Torero, The World Bank, United States of America
Using Evaluations on Land Rights and Regularization for Policy Design
Treasury, Aregetina, Argentine Republic
Property Rights Reform in Mexico: Its Impact on Structural Transformation
University of California at Berkeley, United States of America
to be filled
Impact of Land Titling in Rwanda
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Bocconi University, Italy
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-03: Round table on progress with the VGGT|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
5th Anniversary of the VGGT: Achievements and Next Steps
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
Impact of VGGT Implementation on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Panama
Autoridad Nacional de Administración de Tierras, Panama
VGGT and Land-based Investments:Some Investment Instruments Such as the EIP and AgriFi
European Commission, Belgium
Monitoring and Evaluation of the VGGT
Stanford Law School, United States of America
VGGT, Governance of Tenure and Responsible Investments in Agriculture
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-04: Data Collection Methodology|
Session Chair: Gbemisola Oseni Siwatu, The World Bank, United States of America
Production Frontiers & Soil Suitability: An Analysis of Maize Farmers in Eastern Uganda
World Bank, United States of America
Rural societies rely heavily on smallholder subsistence farming for food security and consumption. Both theory and evidence point to a strong, positive relationship between agricultural productivity and economic outcomes, yet, large gaps exist between realized and agronomically feasible yields. Productivity is hindered by a multitude of factors including lack of knowledge and extension services, market failures, and inadequate use of improved inputs. This paper focuses on the soil suitability of a given crop, maize, for a given agricultural plot. Farmers cultivating maize on land that is not agronomically suitable for maize will face limited yield potential, as is illustrated here using stochastic frontier analysis. This paper sets out to determine the magnitude of forgone production due to cultivation on less than suitable land and to identify which groups of farmers are bearing the burden of this constrained productivity, ultimately allowing for greater targeting of agriculture-based poverty reduction policies.
Mission Impossible? Exploring the Promise of Multiple Imputation for Predicting Missing GPS-Based Land Area Measures in Household Surveys
1Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS), Survey Unit, Development Data Group, The World Bank; 2The World Bank
Research has provided evidence for the use of GPS as the scalable gold standard for land areas measurement in household surveys. Nonetheless, facing constraints, survey agencies often measure with GPS only plots within a given radius of dwelling locations, potentially introducing biases in land area statistics. This study uses nationally-representative, multi-topic household surveys from Malawi and Ethiopia with near-negligible missingness in GPS-based plot areas to validate a multiple imputation (MI) model for predicting missing GPS-based plot areas. The analysis artificially creates missingness in GPS-based areas of plots beyond relevant distances of dwelling, conducts MI under each scenario, and compares the distributions of the imputed plot-level area and agricultural productivity, with their known distributions. This results in imputed yields distributions statistically undistinguishable from true distributions with up to 82% and 56% missingness, respectively for Malawi and Ethiopia. The study highlights the promise of MI for predicting missing GPS-based plot areas.
Targeting small scale irrigation in Mozambique: Initial evidence and implications for impact evaluations
The World Bank, United States of America
to be filled
Sampling strategies for assessing impacts of irrigation investment in Rwanda
The World Bank, United States of America
to be filled
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-05: Coming Together to Advocate Land Policy Reform|
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Strengthening women’s land rights and security of tenure for all on customary land settings: Implementation of innovative and gendered land tools and approaches
1Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's welfare ( UCOBAC), Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network
Land rights legislation in Uganda is strong but implementation of land governance systems is not sufficiently robust or widespread to promote security of tenure for all. In regard to women’s land rights, Uganda’s property laws do not expressly discriminate between men and women with regard to the right to own land and property. However, there is a great disparity between law and practice. Customary practices in many parts of Uganda continue to override statutory law in recognition and enforcement of women’s land rights.
In recognition of the fact that promotion of security of tenure for all is often frustrated by lack of effective and gendered land governance systems, its critical to implement innovative, pro poor, gender appropriate, participatory and sustainable tools and approaches that deliver tenure security at scale and promote gender equality through the Integration of Social Tenure Domain Model, Gender Evaluation Criteria and the Land mediation tools
Lessons learnt from the 1995 National Land Policy Review and CSOs Engagement
CARE International in Tanzania, Tanzania
Tanzania is reviewing the 1995 National Land Policy accompanied by the implementation strategy to address issues of poor implementation. This is an important shift that needs to be supported as long as it puts the majority 70% depending on land at the heart of the review.
Land in Tanzania is cultural, political, and traditional, therefore more sensitive to discuss and in some cases a taboo. Legal and policy frame works upholds equality for both men and women, however, the use of or acknowledging multiple laws such as customary laws, creates a room for inequality especially in rural areas where under customary law land is allocated to heads of household who are usually men”.
Therefore, this paper seeks to take stock of the work done by CSOs in the review process of the National Land Policy of 1995, and provide lessons on the changing dynamics of advocacy in the land sector.
Investing In Community Organizing To Advance Women Land Rights In Africa
1HUAIROU COMMISSION, United States of America; 2GROOTS KENYA
Despite the attention given to women land rights in Africa at policy level, the system of patriarchy which dominates social organization and most African societies remain pervasive and continue to discriminate against women when it comes to ownership and control of land resources. Policy action intervention and programmes aimed at social cultural behavior change is essential. Whereas there have been a lot of support by development partners for legal reforms and policy intervention, the amount of investment in programmes that directly impact social cultural change and hence catalyze the impact of developing policies and laws is limited. Evidence demonstrates that these programmes can impact social change and inform policies to be more need responsive. This paper lays out some of the successful community organizing models implemented by collaborating partners to protect/assert and advance women land rights in different villages in Kenya and across Africa within the current global agendas.
Addressing Women’s Land Rights using the SDGs Framework: Experience from Tanzania
In 2015, the global community adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (2030 Agenda), a set of 17 global goals with 169 targets, to replace the Millennium Development Goals. In the same year, the African Union adopted Agenda 2063 as the continent’s new long-term vision for the next 50 years. Both these international guides require States to commit to the protection of women’s land rights and tenure security. This paper provides evidence of the progress made by the United Republic of Tanzania to localize both 2030 and 2063 Agendas in its Five Year Development Plan 2016/17-2020/21. It further highlights some parallel efforts of non-state actors that complement the work of the government, with particular focus on the work of Landesa, a global non-profit addressing tenure security in developing countries. The paper calls for a more concerted efforts through a multi-stakeholder approach for effective implementation and monitoring of women’s land rights SDGs indicators.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-06: Principles of Responsible Agro Investment: Next Steps|
Session Chair: Chris Brett, World Bank, United States of America
Land Rights as a Critical Factor in Donor Agricultural Investments: Constraints and Opportunities for YieldWise in Kenya’s Mango Value Chain
Landesa, United States of America
Investment to improve the efficiency of smallholder farmers has the potential to strengthen food security, improve livelihoods, and enhance supply chains. Given the foundational nature of land rights to agriculture, the authors argue it’s important to accompany agricultural interventions with land tenure assessments to understand how those interventions can be impacted by – and potentially impact – smallholder’s land rights. This paper explores how land assessments in agricultural interventions can highlight barriers affecting program uptake, sustainability, and success, thereby shedding light on new solutions for donors and implementers. The authors draw on the land tenure assessment they conducted for the Rockefeller Foundation on its YieldWise Initiative programming in Kenya, presenting findings and recommendations from that assessment. The authors present six land-related issues and accompanying recommendations to help Rockefeller and program implementers design, implement, and monitor the program to attain more sustainable and equitable outcomes, particularly for women and youth.
Responsible Large-Scale Land Investments In Uganda - Current Application And Potential Scope Of International Safeguards
1Justus Liebig University Giessen; 2University of Marburg; 3Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
As a consequence of the sharp increase in large-scale agricultural land investments on a global level, a number of international initiatives and investment principles have emerged to foster responsible investments in land and agriculture in developing countries. This paper focuses on how these voluntary safeguards are operationalized by large-scale agricultural land investments in Uganda and whether the resulting activities successfully mitigate risks of (land) disputes. In this context, data collection through key informant interviews during a field research revealed limited awareness of these safeguards among various stakeholders and limited awareness of investors for the risks of land disputes and potential mitigation measures. Moreover, barriers for the implementation of voluntary safeguards from an investor’s perspective such as lacking monitoring capacities and secondary effects on land markets are identified. In conclusion, potential interventions for governments, international organizations and donors to stipulate responsible agricultural investments in land are outlined by this paper.
Governing Land Investments: Do Governments have Legal Support Gaps?
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
The terms governing land investments can shape whether host countries and local communities benefit from investment projects. Yet host governments in low- and middle- income countries often lack sufficient legal and technical capacity to prepare for, negotiate, implement, and monitor investments, and can confront barriers in accessing necessary expertise. This report focuses on the “legal support gaps” encountered by low- and middle- income countries in the context of land investments for agricultural and forestry projects that are regulated by investor-state contracts. It offers good practices—for host governments, donors, legal support providers, and investors—that can increase government access to, and use of, legal support and improve the capacity of lawyers to help governments achieve responsible land investments.
From Abstract to Actionable: The Status and Prospects of Emerging Tools and Innovations to Achieve Responsible Land Based Investments
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
The Interlaken Group is an informal network of individual leaders from influential companies, investors, CSOs, government and international organizations. The purpose of the Group is to expand and leverage private sector action to secure community land rights. Together they develop, adopt and disseminate new tools and advance new “pre-competitive” mechanisms to accelerate private sector learning on responsible land rights practices.
This presentation will provide an update on the status, progress, and next steps of efforts being undertaken or steered by the Interlaken Group towards narrowing the “implementation gap” between private sector commitments to respect community rights to land and forests, and actual change on the ground.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-07: Valuing Unregistered Land|
Session Chair: Lawrence Walters, Brigham Young University, United States of America
Earth Observation For Land Titling And Land Value Estimations
1Inter-American Development Bank, Bolivia; 2Satelligence, The Netherlands; 3European Space Agency, Italy; 4Geoville, Austria; 5eLEAF, The Netherlands; 6University of Twente, The Netherlands
Precise land valuation is necessary for an efficient allocation of resources and territorial planning. Such information can be obtained from real data transactions in limited areas where they occurred, leaving the rest of the land valuation depending on precise estimation models. In many low and middle-income countries the data needed as input is scarce, limiting model application potential. This study presents an alternative to the use of soil maps to estimate land values, by using satellite-derived deforestation and other parameters. Examples from Bolivia will illustrate significant improvement over previous land price models, allowing us to develop a land price index to inform farmers about current price trends and expected sale price for their own land. Continuous monitoring also helps to address land tenure control issues resulting from unbridled soy and livestock expansion leading to deforestation. Adding biomass production estimations based on new European Sentinel satellite data can further improve the estimations.
RICS Research Valuation of Unregistered Land – The Reality of Functioning Informal Land and Property Markets in Ghana, Peru & Indonesia
1RICS, United Kingdom; 2International Land Policy, Australia; 3University of Technology Sydney, Australia
RICS has recently carried out a wide ranging research project looking at the realities of functioning informal land & property markets in Ghana, Peru and Indonesia. This is the first time that informal land markets have been studied in this way and this research and the findings should help provide a wealth of background information to anyone working or who has an interest in this sector. This research has focused on how and what valuation methodologies are currently used to value informal land in these geographies, the need for alternative valuation methods encompassing such complex issues as social, environmental, reasonableness, and the conclusion that current global valuation methods may be, in some circumstances, inappropriate. The research both builds on previous work in this important sector and helps provide an evidence base for current initiatives such as the UN Habitat GLTN ‘Valuation of unregistered land guide’.
Valuation of Unregistered Lands in Developing Countries: Challenges, Applications and Potential Impacts for Responsible Land Governance
1UN-Habitat/GLTN, Kenya; 2Global Property Advisory; 3Private Consultant; 4South Pacific Property Advisors
Valuation of unregistered land in developing countries is in the critical path of achieving many important global, regional and national development goals such as: addressing climate change, sustainable urban development, food security, promoting responsible investments, addressing the conflict often associated with large-scale land investments, and common human rights abuses associated with land all which if not checked affect the poor and women most. These may be immediate and urgent needs. The affected parties require accurate market valuations for many different reasons; neither they nor valuers can afford to wait until their markets are formalised. Rather, valuers (including those working with government authorities) should be at the coal face of seeking, understanding and developing land markets, rather than sitting back and waiting to be served by other property professionals.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-08: Using Satellite Imagery for Urban Change Detection|
Session Chair: Ran Goldblatt, New Light Technologies, United States of America
Peering into Megacities from Space
1The World Bank Group, United States of America; 2GISAT
Drawing on detailed geo-spatial analysis of land use maps derived from very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, this paper develops a methodology for mapping the characteristics of physical urban spaces and spatial growth of two megacities in two points in time - Karachi and Dhaka. The findings and analysis are subsequently applied towards actual World Bank operations on the ground by prioritizing and identifying infrastructure and public space investments.
Identifying Urban Areas Combing Data from the Ground and Outer Space: An Application to India
1World Bank, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3World Bank, United States of America
We develop a tractable method to identify urban areas in India which differs from the previous literature. Instead of cells, we use officially defined cities, towns and villages as our unit of analysis. We rely on structured subjective assessments to make judgement for a large stratified sample administrative units. We propose a method that combines multiple sources of information to identify urban areas. We geo-reference population census data, which comes from the ground. We also incorporate data from open source satellite-imagery, which come from outer space, on both built-up areas and nighttime lights. Data are combined through a regression analysis conducted on the sample, that we then use to make prediction for out-sample units. This exercise yields a more accurate picture of urbanization in India than was available before. The analysis confirms the value added from a credible assessment based on what one “sees” and from combining multiple indicators.
Earth Observati On For Urban Sustainable Development: Advancements For Supporting Land Use Planning In Urban Areas
GAF AG, Germany
Many developing countries are lagging behind in the operational utility of Earth Observation (EO) for extraction of spatial data for urban planning. The EO for Sustainable Development Urban project started in 2016 and in collaboration with Multi-Lateral Development Banks, support urban development programmes with a suite of geo-spatial data. Sixteen global Cities were prioritised for the first year of the project and each City obtained Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) data as well as products such as Green Areas, Transport Networks, Informal Settlements, and Population Density. A total of 204 products were produced and provided to the Users. The overall accuracies achieved for the various products ranged from 85-95%. Examples of analytical work included assessment of urban growth over time, LU/LC change over time, and assessment of flood prone/flood risk areas. A capacity building component is included to address some of the important technology transfer to the City Authorities.
Less Greenery For The Poor? _ Social Inequity And Green Space Distribution In Tropical Asian Megacities
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Many studies on disparities in the distribution of green spaces have mainly focused on access to public open spaces that are usually for recreational purpose. However, when other types of urban nature beyond designated parks are accounted for, claims of green space distributive injustice may different in fast growing Asia cities context.
The research employs spatial regression to examine green space distribution in association with property value of districts in two Asia megacities, Mumbai and Jakarta. Green space provision is measured by four aspects: area, planting density, proximity, and type. Results show that positive association between poverty and green space coverage. These spaces provide important ecological and biophysical functions and may harbour significant biodiversity. The paradoxical situation of ‘more greens but less jobs’/ ‘poorer, but richer biodiversity’ requires further discussions on the role of planners and designers towards socio-ecologically sustainable cities.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-09: How Legal & Institutional Factors Affect Rural Land Markets|
Session Chair: Daniel Monchuk, The World Bank, United States of America
Regulating Rural Land Markets in West Africa: Issues and Priorities for Land Policies
Institut de recherche pour le développement, France
Regulating Rural Land Markets in West Africa: Issues and Priorities for Land Policies
The emergence and dynamics of rural land markets in West Africa: key issues, key insights and remaining questions.
In many rural areas of West Africa, market transactions are emerging or increasing in large numbers. This paper provides a glimpse of a much larger literature review prepared as part of an expertise commissioned by the West African Economic and Monetary Union. In order to be concise, the focus has been selectively placed on four key issues: (i) the conditions for land commodification, (ii) the institutional arrangements, actors and rationales for land transactions, (iii) the impact of land markets in terms of conflicts, actors’ securing strategies, efficiency and equity considerations, and (iv) avenues for future research regarding land transactions in West Africa.
Land Markets Under the Radar: A Cross-Country Analysis of Market Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2Michigan State University, United States of America
Generalizations abound regarding the extent and nature of land market activity in rural sub-Saharan Africa, and considerably more attention is given to land rental than to sales markets. However, evidence indicates that land sales markets constitute an important avenue through which agricultural households access land. In this paper, we provide quantitative evidence of land market activity in five countries, including Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Noting that rates of market participation range from 3% to almost 40% across these countries, we then discuss potential explanations for the observed cross-country differences in market activity. Our intent is to acknowledge the heterogeneity across countries, theorize the factors explaining differences in rental and sales market activity within and across countries, and highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the process of land commoditization in Africa.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-10: Studies on Youth and Migration|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Pulled or pushed out? Causes and consequences of youth migration from densely populated areas of rural Kenya
1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Tegemeo Institute, Egerton University, Kenya
This study investigates youth access to agricultural land, and how land access influences youth’s permanent and seasonal migration in the densely populated areas of rural Kenya using panel data. Results show that youth’s permanent migration is a function of land access (own or control) rather than the amount of land the family owns. Youth migration increases with the age and reduces with education attainment of the youth. Permanent migration is more prevalent with youths of the male gender. At the household level, youth migration increases with intra household competition for land, and is more prevalent among households headed by women. Seasonal migration among the youth is not influenced by the youth’s land access and family land. It is a function of the individual’s age, gender and education achievement. At the community level, the results show that youth migration reduces with land productivity and village wage rate, and increases with land rental rates.
From Conflict to Conflicts: War-Induced Displacement, Land Conflicts, and Agricultural Productivity in Post-war Northern Uganda
1National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Japan; 2Otaru University of Commerce
For two decades since 1986, Northern Uganda experienced an armed conflict resulting in the internally displacement of people. Following ceasefire agreement in 2006 nearly all the displaced persons have now resettled to their original homes. This paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement on land conflicts in post-war period. We find noteworthy results: households that were displaced far away from their homes are more likely to have new land conflicts, more likely to be concerned about land conflicts, have higher proportion of parcels with new land conflicts, and higher proportion of parcels with concerns about land conflicts. Our results are robust to a number of robustness checks. The number of years the household spent without doing farming in home village, and weakening of informal institutions of land governance seem to be the main transmission mechanisms of the obtained results. We also find that land conflicts are detrimental to agricultural productivity.
Land Tenure Security, Land Holdings and Migration in Rural Ethiopia
Heriot Watt University, United Kingdom
Recent policies in Ethiopia have promoted land tenure security by granting landholders to transfer their land rights to family members and to rent out their plot up to 25 years. This study examines the impact of land tenure security on land concentration and rural-urban migration. We propose that land tenure security through the issuance of land title certificates can result in large scale adjustments to labor and land allocations. Using the Ethiopian large-scale land certification program from 2002-2007, we employ the standard difference-in-difference analysis on a panel of household-level data that describe economic and migration conditions. In the analysis, the non-uniform timing of certification is used to exploit the variation between treatment and control groups. We find that land title certification program led to increased migration of household member out of rural areas. We also show that rental markets are the main channel through which land certification affect migration.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-11: Lightning talks: Mapping and connectivity|
Session Chair: Nicola Heathcote, HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
LandPKS: A New Mobile Tool for Sustainable Land-Use Planning and Management
1New Mexico State University, United States of America (NMSU); 2United States Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Station (USDA-ARS); 3United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
One of the major causes of poverty is poor land use planning and management. To address this issue, new technologies are needed that inform more sustainable land use planning and management. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS; landpotential.org) provides a new approach to collecting spatial data with mobile phones in order to strengthen and enhance sustainable land use planning, and support sustainable land management. In Tanzania, the LandPKS team has been working with the National Land Use Planning Commission and USAID's Land Tenure Assistance (LTA) Project. On the biophysical side of land use planning process, Tanzania uses the Land Capability Classification system, which includes 8 classes. Categorizing the land into these classes helps planners to determine which livelihood activities are sustainable in which areas. LandPKS could play a key role in helping land use planners classify land into these eight classes; thus contributing to effective and sustainable land use planning and management.
OpenStreetMap - The Free, Open, and Collaborative Global Basemap
Mapbox, United States of America
Many working on land issues and global development face a major barrier to using geospatial technologies: the lack of basic data like roads, village names, and local landmarks. Some of us have begun creating our own maps, a daunting endeavor that is then often repeated by other organizations who also need access to similar maps. A potential solution is OpenStreetMap - a free, accessible, collaborative, and open mapping platform to create, share, and access basemap data. This presentation will introduce OpenStreetMap - the map, the data, and the tools for working with it - and showcase examples of how OpenStreetMap is being used by organizations, governments, researchers, and local communities to aid decision-making, program design, program implementation, and service delivery.
External reference resource is the guide 'Open Mapping for the SDGs: A practical guide to launching and growing open mapping initiatives at the national and local levels'
How Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registry organizations in developing countries can cost-effectively assure the quality and reliability of their Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
Spatineo Inc., Finland
National Mapping, Cadastre and Land Registry Agencies and their SDIs are good examples of technical environments, where up-to-date spatial data need to be reliably available all the time. High quality spatial information such as topographic maps, satellite images and road information, is crucial for an effective and precise land registration.
To establish a reliable SDI, measuring, improving and communicating about Quality of Service criteria is a key success factor. Criteria include availability, performance and capacity of the individual SDI components.
By adopting a comprehensive monitoring and analytical solution, specific designed for spatial web services, new information can be shown regarding the users and level of usage of services, which reveal challenges and issues faced by the users of those spatial services.
This presentation will show a real case study about the impact, and benefits of analyzing the quality and usage of spatial web services in a cost-effective way.
All-in-One Mobile Survey Form on OSM for field/land survey
GeoThings Inc., Taiwan
Traditional field survey based on paper map & form. It takes much efforts to collect and digitize it, also difficult to include the meta-data such as photos, audio & video files, geo-tag location, and so on. Current ODK (Open Data Kit) with OMK (Open Map Kit) is good, however, it still needs additional IT efforts before starting the field survey.
We will introduce an innovative all-in-one service: geoBingAn. It allows users to perform the field surveys just as easy as if they were using Google Forms with OSM on mobile. Moreover, the surveys can be planned with polygons drawing on the map, the assignment/response could be utilized via app notifications, and all the collected survey data can be exported in Excel or GeoJSON file with a few clicks.
Hands on session will be included in this master class. Please see http://geothings.tw/en/products/geobingan/ for more information.
The Benefits and Challenges of implementing a Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) GNSS Network in Emerging Countries
Leica Geosystems, France
A CORS GNSS Network is essential to provide a regional positioning service that can provide fit-for-purpose positioning. For many GNSS applications only meter or sub-meter level positioning is required, but more and more often, centimeter accuracy positioning is required and an efficient measurement processes is increasingly demanded. CORS plays a major role in achieving these goals in many applications, for example, urban land parcel mapping, machine control, precision agriculture, and utility mapping. To achieve this at a regional level, a CORS needs to cover the complete region. In developing countries this represents significant challenges, yet offers significant benefits.
In this paper, new technologies that benefit from a CORS Network will be presented, and the various challenges of establishing a CORS in emerging countries will be highlighted, and importantly, recommendations will be given on how best to overcome the many challenges based on experiences gained with the establishment of many Networks.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-12: Gender Analysis of Land Registration Systems|
Session Chair: Rumyana Tonchovska, UNFAO, Italy
An Assessment of Land Tenure Regimes and Women’s Land Rights in Two Regions of Myanmar
Landesa, United States of America
While formal laws and some customary systems in Myanmar recognize the equality of women’s rights within households, evidence suggests a complicated picture in which the bundle of rights enjoyed by the male members of a household may not be equally available to women, a picture complicated by the context of Myanmar, with its variations in regional ethnic geopolitics fueled by landlessness, migration, conflict and displacement. This paper reports on findings of two qualitative gender assessments conducted in Bago and Tanintharyi regions of Myanmar to contribute to evidence on women’s land rights in Myanmar and help bridge the gaps in knowledge on 1) how women experience their bundle of rights to land within customary and formal regimes, 2) what legal, social, economic and cultural constraints they face and 3) what mechanisms can be put in place to take into consideration the barriers and constraints women may face in accessing their rights.
Women's Land Ownership in Morocco: Current State & Challenges
World Bank, United States of America
Land is the most relevant, yet the most undermined, type of property for women in Morocco and the MENA region in general for different reasons. The paper provides an overview about the factors undermining women’s land ownership in Morocco. It focuses on the legal aspect and exposes the body of regulations governing women’s land ownership, the historical process underlying it accounting for the colonial legacy and tribal politics. It highlights the legal changes and their impact, since 2010, granting women more access to communal land as well as the role of the Soulaleyyate, a Moroccan women’s land rights movement, in stirring the reforms. Lastly, it addresses the challenges facing these reforms and future prospects.
Case Study on the Registration of Property Rights of Women in Kosovo
1Company: KLSC; EU funded project, Kosovo; 2Kosovo Cadastral Agency
Through this study we provide an overview on the rights on immovable property ownership for women in Kosovo, and offer relevant recommendations that are necessary to increase the possibility for a better gender issue on immovable property rights and encourage women to participate in these decision making processes. Registration of immovable property rights has implications on economic development of the country and ensures stability for women in the society. The contribution of this paper is that we use real data from cadastral registers to show the changes in the registration of women’s immovable property ownership and joint property ownership in Kosovo throughout a period of three years, by looking at different municipalities to see the variation across rural and urban areas.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-13: Roundtable: New Technology, Women, and Land|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Landesa, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-14: Research on Tenure, Farm Size, Investment and Productivity|
Session Chair: Yuanyuan Yi, World Bank, United States of America
The Effect of Property Rights on Land-related Investments: Heterogenous Responses? Evidence from Niger.
Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne University, France
I examine the effectiveness of individual state-granted land right on in- creasing inorganic fertilizer adoption in a setting with considerable risk of output loss. The risk of output loss considered is presence of mobile livestock. Relying on within household variation and on an interaction term I separate the effect of owning a legal title from the effect of other mediating factors linked to both inorganic fertilizer adoption and for- malization. Results show that, presence of mobile livestock, proxied by the Euclidean distance to the relevant grazing area, is negatively correlated with inorganic fertilizer adoption. Facing the threat induced by mobile livestock, farmers owning plots with and plots without legal title do not favor substantially the former in inorganic fertilizer adop- tion.
Effect of Farm Size on Farm Productivity: Empirical Evidences from India
Our study provides evidence on land tenure related issues in India. We use the Village Dynamics in South Asia (VDSA) panel dataset for the years 2010 to 2015 covering 1129 households in 9 states of India. We specifically test two hypotheses: 1) plot size is positively related to farm productivity; 2) owner operated lands have higher farm productivity. We calculate Hierarchical Mixed Effects Models in order to take the nested structure of the data into account. Transformation parameters are included in order to accommodate non-linear relationships between our variables. Our results confirm a positive relation between the average plot size and the agricultural productivity from cultivation. They provide supporting arguments for key aspects of ongoing land reform processes in India. In particular the land consolidation and ceiling policies should support an increase in agricultural productivity.
Do African Farmers Benefit From Large-Scale Land Acquisitions?
1Development Economics Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; 2Njala University, Sierra Leone
The last decade has seen a huge surge in land acquisitions by foreign companies. What are the impacts of such investments? To date there has been little rigorous quantitative evidence on the issue. We examine the economic impacts of a large-scale biofuel plantation in Sierra Leone. We conduct a difference in difference analysis using three waves of a large n survey in both communities directly affected by the plantation and those outside the catchment area. We find a large average drop in income, mainly driven by lower income from agricultural activities. We argue this is caused by a labour demand shock, reducing agricultural production. Spillover analysis suggests that the impacts are at least partially transmitted by a shock to the local economy. Households that are employed at the plantation benefit: their incomes and assets increase. As a result, village-level inequality increases.
Adoption of Sustainable Land And Forest Management Technologies: Outcome of Forest Tenure Reform in Developing Countries
Centre for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
This study attempts to identify factors that motivate community for adopting sustainable land and forest management. Data collection was conducted in 2015-2016 at Indonesia, Peru and Uganda by interviewing 2550 households.using a structured questionnaire. The study found that majority of tenure reform members adopted sustainable land management technologies in Indonesia and Peru. In Uganda, most nonmembers of tenure reform adopted sustainable land management technologies as compared to members. The perceptions of tenure security tend to motivate individuals to invest in sustainable land management practices as they are likely to reap the benefits if their investments. On such lands, community use and management is conditioned on the adoption and maintenance of sustainable land management practices. In sum, these results suggest that forest tenure reforms implemented in Indonesia, Peru and Uganda have had a positive outcome, regardless of whether rights granted were control and ownership or merely management rights/responsibilities.
|3:30pm - 4:00pm||Coffee Break|
|4:00pm - 5:00pm||Closing Plenary|
Session Chair: Shantayanan Devarajan, World Bank, United States of America
Government of Inida, India
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Ministry of Justice of Ukraine, Ukraine
Treasury, Argentine Republic
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, China, People's Republic of
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
|5:15pm - 7:15pm||Reception|