The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-01: How to encourage producer-level companies to address land tenure risks?|
Session Chair: Chloe Christman, Oxfam America, United States of America
Implementation of Land Rights Commitments Through Suppliers
PepsiCo, United States of America
A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Addressing Land Tenure Risk Through the Supply Chain
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
Opportunities in Private Sector Engagement and Action on Land Rights
Indigenous Peoples Major Group for the SDGs, United States of America
to be filled
Implementing Land Rights Commitments Across Company Operations
Landesa, United States of America
to be filled
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-02: Land policies to improve Ukraine's local governance & economic performance|
Session Chair: Anthony A. Gaeta, The World Bank, United States of America
VC connection Ukr
Harnessing Ukraine's Economic Potential through Open Land Markets: Current Status and Next Steps
Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food, Ukraine, Ukraine, Ukraine
to be filled
Capitalizing on Land Reform's Investment Potential by Ensuring Credit Access for Small Farmers: Challenges and Prospects
World Bank, United States of America
to be filled
Legal and Administrative Measures to Protect Land Rights against Multiple Challenges
Ministry of Justice of Ukraine, Ukraine
to be filled
Using Monitoring Results to Take Ukraine's Land Governance to the Next Level
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
to be filled
Linking Land Cadaster and Registry of Rights: Institutional Challenges and Technical Solutions
State Enterprise "National Information Systems", Ukraine
to be filled
Helping Ukraine complete its journey towards transparency in the land sector
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom
to be filled
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-03: Land governance and poverty alleviation in China|
Session Chair: Pushpam Kumar, UNEP, Kenya
A New Wave of Land Reforms in China: Conceptual Issues, Initial Evidence, and Avenues for Future Research
Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of
to be filled
Targeted Poverty Alleviation in China since 2013: Central Government’s Plan and Typical Local Practices
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, China, People's Republic of
to be filled
Targeted Poverty Alleviation and Land Policy Innovation in China: From Theory to Practices
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, People's Republic of
to be filled
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-04: Raising Awareness and Supporting Land Networks|
Session Chair: Stephanie Burgos, Oxfam America, United States of America
Improving land governance and increasing women’s access and control over land through collective actions – the case of Pernambuco
Espaço Feminista, Brazil
The paper will examine how the organization Espaço Feminista (Brazil) and partners are building a movement that links women organizations and land movements in Brazil to improve land governance and to ensure that land policies are implemented with gender equality in both urban and rural settings.
Considering that there are many organizations operating in the region that are dedicated to women’s issues but that they do not focus on the problem of women’s land rights; and also considering, on the other hand, that there is an immense gender gap in the access, use, control and ownership of land, the paper will analyze such inequality from diverse angles and, using some of the statistics available, will highlight the importance of women’s equal access to land – both rural and urban land.
The Untold Story – How Media Coverage Can Change The Narrative On Land And Property Rights
Thomson Reuters Foundation, United Kingdom
Land rights issues only make headlines when conflicts become violent. Far less attention is paid to what lack of secure tenure means in the daily lives of those affected, for countries trying to attract investment to bolster development and for companies whose bottom line is at stake.
As the world races to achieve the SDGs by 2030, the presentation will address what journalists can do to increase awareness of this important issue and highlights solutions brought about by communities, technology, policy changes and new laws.
Conference participants will see how Place, the first digital platform dedicated to reporting about land and property rights, is bringing these stories to a broad audience and how journalists can contribute to changing the conversation from a niche subject to a global story. This presentation will explore reporting trends and the impact such news coverage can have on changing perception and policy.
Using spatial data tools to support the development and sustainability of social land concessions for the landless or land-poor in Cambodia
Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia
Cambodia has many landless or land-poor people. The government introduced a system of social land concessions (SLCs) where poor families receive land to build a home and grow food.
Not all SLCs are successful. Land may already be occupied, overlap with protected forests, have limited fertility or be remote from public services. One solution is integrating spatial data, digital maps and other resources at an early stage in planning.
Government data is often incomplete, out of date, inaccessible and may not have been digitized. Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a key role in producing accessible data. CSOs such as Open Development Cambodia (ODC), a national NGO, can conduct spatial analysis on proposed SLC locations with datasets and map layers for areas of customary land ownership, protected areas, public services, rainfall, flood risk, soil type and other data. This process can help improve the likelihood of SLC success.
Land Corruption in Africa: Secure Tenure Rights and Engage Local Communities
1Transparency International-Secretariat, Germany; 2Transparency International-Ghana; 3Transparency International-Madagascar
Transparency International National Chapters have made noteworthy progress by experimenting innovative solutions to empower local communities in fighting corruption in the land sector. While a group of widows from the Upper East region of Ghana was very successful in advocating for their land rights and improving their livelihoods, members of a rural community from the West of Madagascar worked together to restore a sustainable peace by securing their parcels. This paper presents lessons learned by National Chapters of Ghana and Madagascar during the implementation of the Land and Corruption in Africa Project. It can serve as a basis or a guide for civil society organisations embarking on similar initiatives, as well as some learnings for policy makers.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-05: Lessons from Public-Private Partnerships in Land Administration|
Session Chair: Virgilio delos Reyes, De La Salle University (Manila), Philippines
An Assessment of PPPs in Land Administration: Development of a Set of Pre-requisites for Effective PPP Implementation
Land Equity International, Australia
Land administration is considered by many to be a critical foundation to urban sustainability, providing the basis for tenure security, efficient urban planning, access to formal credit, provision of public services and physical infrastructure, and reduction of land related disputes.
With an estimated 70% of people-land relationships undocumented there is a renewed push from the World Bank, amongst others, to re-engage with public-private partnerships (PPPs) as a means to moving towards / achieving comprehensive land registration and administration.
Engagement of the private sector, including through PPPs, is seen as an essential component to achieving comprehensive land administration systems and global tenure security.
This paper proposes an analysis of PPPs that presently exist in the land administration domain, presenting a clear matrix of core elements to demonstrate key similarities and differences between operations.
Engaging the Private Sector: A Taxonomy of Real Problems Faced by Industry That Can Be Addressed by Improved Land Management Systems
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2Zilla Global LLC; 3Iotask LLC
Everywhere in the world, the management of land is a core function of government. As a consequence, the process of cadastral updating is, necessarily, administratively-driven. However, the benefits of improved land management systems accrue overwhelming to citizens and private sector companies in the form of greater transparency, improved efficiencies, and, importantly, the opportunity to design and deploy business services build on land data. Based on a data gathered during a year-long customer discovery process in three countries, this paper presents a taxonomy of real problems faced by industry that can be addressed by improved land management systems. The results provide guidance to administrators seeking to engage the private sector in the modernizing and financing land management systems.
Contracting out services for land regularization. The new roles of the private sector in land administration
1Land Alliance, Peru; 2World Bank, USA
In this paper we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct versus outsourced implementation. To that end, we will review international experiences using project reports, interviews with private sector actors and procurement specialists. The paper will systematize lessons learned in the context of the countries where projects where carried out.
Conceptual Design of a Private Investment Scorecard for Land Administration in Developing Countries
1Universidad de los Andes, Colombia; 2Land Equity International
Leveraging resources from the private sector has been a common strategy for infrastructure development in sectors such as water, transportation and energy. It is also an increase trend for land administration systems. Currently, there are limited tools to support decision-making in countries that desire to fund parts of their land administration system using private investment. This paper presents a conceptual design for a scorecard aimed at helping assess the readiness of the land administration system for private investment. We have called this concept the PILA (Private investment in land Administration) scorecard. PILA is based on existing tools developed by the World Bank to assess public private partnerships (PPPs). As a proof of concept, PILA was piloted with Honduras. Preliminary results suggest that a scorecard such as PILA would be a helpful tool for practitioners to prioritize areas for further investigation.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Tools for Responsible Agro Investment|
Session Chair: Kathryn Elizabeth Mathias, Illovo Sugar Africa Ltd, United Kingdom
Benefits Sharing Model on Large Scale Investment in Land: A Case of Large Scale Investment in Tanzania
Ministry of Lands Housing and Human Settlements Development, Land Tenure Support Programme (LTSP), Tanzania
Tanzania is among the African countries in which investors have shown keen interest in acquiring large tracts of land for investment. As part of its policy initiatives, the Government seeks to attract such investment, in large part in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT). The government announced its initiative which includes plans to secure 25 large commercial farming deals for rice and sugarcane production. The government hopes to achieve this by encouraging investors to utilize investment structures that ensure that all parties—local communities, national and sub-national governments and investors—equitably share in the financial and other benefits accruing from new agricultural investment. Despite of all these aspirations the Government of Tanzania has not establish a crystal clear model through which benefit sharing on large scale investment in land can be guaranteed. A study has been undertaken to analyze various benefit sharing models and make recommendations suitable for Tanzania context.
Identifying Community Membership in Collective Land Tenure: Exploring Linkages and Sharing Experiences in the Case of River Cess County in Liberia
The Sustainable Development Institute (SDI)
Over the past ten years, Liberia has implemented progressive land tenure reforms. The Community Rights Law (CRL) of 2009, the Land Rights Policy (LRP) of 2013, and draft Land Rights Act (LRA) to a varying degree, recognize customary rights to land. These rights include rights of the community as a collective and the rights of individuals, groups, or families within the community. However, the membership of communities has been significantly altered over the years, partly due to the protracted civil war in the country. This has made community definition, membership, and benefit sharing mechanisms precarious. This paper assesses how communities identified as customary land holding units define “community membership” and distinguish between the rights of a community “member” and that of an “outsider.” It provides an analysis on how individuals and groups gain access and benefit to shared land and resources.
Innovative Mechanisms For Better Responsible In Large-Scale Land Based Investment In Agriculture And Forestry Development In Vietnam
1Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam; 2OXFAM Vietnam
Land fragmentation is a barrier to the development and that is leading to development of the land accumulation policy in Vietnam. However, the friction between the limited tenure rights offered to citizens and the state’s power of compulsory land requisition is the primary driver of land disputes.
While a number of incentives for investors/enterprises have been developed, there is lack of a legislative requirements to attach responsibility of enterprises in land based investments, lacking an effective mechanism for land use right holders in monitoring land management and ineffective of court system in solving land conflict are being seen as the main causes for land governance limitation.
This paper provides practical evidences and solutions to ensure land use right and to improve livelihood of smallholder in Vietnam through (1) developing a code of conduct on responsible investment on agricultural land and (2) a citizen monitoring land governance in Vietnam.
Towards Responsible Agricultural Investment in Lao PDR: a study of agribusiness experiences
GIZ, Lao People's Democratic Republic
In 2017, a study team supported by GIZ sought to document diverse experiences of agricultural investments in Lao PDR (Laos), and identify success factors for making agricultural investments more sustainable. The study also aimed to examine the extent to which international guidance – such as the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests within the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS Principles) – shapes interactions between the various stakeholders, especially local communities. Key findings of the study include the emerging trend of local community-investor agreements, analysis of recent reforms to the Lao legal and regulatory framework coupled with gaps in implementation and enforcement, and the potential to apply regional guidance to improve practices of Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese investors in Laos.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-07: Boundary Demarcation and Territorial Governance|
Session Chair: Melchiade Bukuru, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United States of America
Mapping and Territory: What Critical Cartography Offers to an Analysis of Land Governance?
Cornell University, USA
The field of critical cartography attends to the ways in which cartographic practices “produce” territory through mapping. Critical cartography problematizes the assumptions of objectivity often presupposed in “technical” activities such as land surveying or identifying customary land tenure. Although this constructivists lens has significant implications for land governance analysis, the insights of critical cartography are usually not transferred into policy discussions. Building on the case of the Miskitu people in the region of Moskitia in eastern Honduras, this paper examines how cartographic practices have contributed to the making of indigenous territories. This paper argues that participatory mapping projects significantly influenced the formation of the indigenous territories, known as territorial councils in Honduras, transforming how stakeholders think about boundaries and the management of natural resources. Integrating the lens of critical cartography can contribute to a better identification of the dynamics that emerge as effects of mapping and finding the most appropriate solutions.
Conflict in Collective Formalization Processes: Opportunities for Transformation?
1CIFOR, Peru; 2CIFOR, Kenya; 3CIFOR, Indonesia
Conflict in relation to forest and land tenure security is multi-dimensional, although the most common problems are usually associated with overlapping claims or boundaries. This article examines conflict in the context of the formalization of collective forest rights in three countries, Peru, Indonesia and Uganda. This research specifically examines the nature of conflicts by combining results from multiple scales and perspectives – from national and subnational government implementers of tenure reforms, to communities and male and female household members. It asks how formalization processes alter the nature and/or trajectories of land and resource-related conflict and examines the association of conflicts with the different types of tenure regimes in which they occur. It explores factors that contribute to exacerbate or transform conflict.
Urgency of Village Boundary Setting / Resource Mapping, Villages and Land Governance in Indonesia
1Millennium Challenge Account - Indonesia (MCA-Indonesia); 2Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
Millennium Challenge Account Indonesia (MCA-I) has adopted methodology and approaches that combines the state guidance – Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) Regulation No 45 of 2016 on Village Boundary Delineation and Demarcation – on how to implement Village Boundary Setting and Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) in Indonesia; participatory approaches where villagers are being the key actors of the implementation activities in village level; as well as newest technology such as GIS (geography information system), GNSS (global navigation and satellite system) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to produce the best result in terms of map’s quality and accuracy. The combined VBS/RM approaches using the state guidance, participatory approaches, and advances technology are important tools that have produced not only an adequate village boundary map with technical accuracy, social legitimacy but also formal recognition from the government who has sole authority in doing VBS/RM activities in Indonesia.
Addressing Encroachment on State Forest Land in Tunisia
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
Tunisia’s state forest lands face a common problem of encroachment due to increasing pressure from developers, farmers, and pastoralists. Moreover, the boundaries of State forest land are unclear; archival maps are outdated and boundary markers are insufficient. The paper describes a pilot activity in Siliana governorate adopted by the government's Direction Générale des Forêts (DGF) to address the tenure issues affecting state forest areas. The open source software Open Tenure was used to collect data on encroachment.
While country contexts differ significantly, the lessons gained through the experience in Tunisia provide insight for other countries interested to address the issue of forest land encroachment. This topic has wider ranging application for global efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Challenges of Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
Transitions to land tenure rights based on the ‘living customary law’: innovations to secure land rights in peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa
1University of Venda, South Africa; 2Stellenbosch University
The ‘living’ customary land tenure system describes the shifting policies and practices that characterize access to land, and secure land rights emerging from peri-urban areas. These policies and practices illustrate legal pluralism: the existence of multiple legal systems within a given community or residential space. We use sub-Saharan case studies on Zimbabwe and South Africa to illustrate these research concerns. Generally, peri-urbanity is on the increase in most sub-Saharan Africa because of migration and urbanization processes resulting in increased mix of legal systems on access to land, and secure land rights in these areas. Participatory Geographic Information Systems is identified as a useful planning tool for peri-urban areas. Implementation of this planning tool in land allocation can enhance equity and security for all residents, including children, women, and the poor in particular.
Institutional Framework and Access to Land in Peri-urban Tanzania: A Perspective from Actors
Ardhi University, Tanzania
Peri-urban land access in Tanzania is adversely embroiled by the existing of two institutional arrangements; the formal and the informal. The operation of these arrangements is undertaken by different actors with divergent interests on peri-urban land. The aim of this study is to explore the existing institutional arrangements and to demonstrate actors’ views. Data were obtained through questionnaires, document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results indicate that although the guiding formal arrangement to access land is available, this process is complicated and characterized by overlapping power among the land authorities. Furthermore, it was revealed that although the informal process of access to land face challenges, it remains to be predominant as it is used to bridges the gap of high demands of serviced land. Therefore, the government with consultation with other actors may consider adoption of a new approach that can integrate all systems in order to establish a single one.
Planning rural areas in an urbanized world: Critical issue for Colombia
1Colombia Rural, Colombia; 2RIMISP, Colombia
Municipality planning in Colombia has largely focused its efforts in studying urban demand for goods and services, especially in space demand for city growth. However, provision of goods and public services in rural areas has not been sufficiently addressed. There is no clarity upon how much rural area has to be protected to ensure food production and provision, to provide public services such as aqueduct and sewage systems or how to appropriately design and provide logistics and distribution services for producers in rural areas.
This paper studies the extent to which local governments engage with rural areas and their inhabitants in planning exercises and some of the barriers they could face with regards to land administration. Given the actual demographics -average age of 40 in rural areas - this paper argues that adequate planning for rural areas and provision of goods and services is crucial for people seeking opportunities and growth.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Towards Effective and Participatory Land Use Planning|
Session Chair: Jes Weigelt, TMG Research. TMG ThinkTank for Sustainability, Germany
Development Control in Practice: Protection of Agricultural Land in Kosovo
1GIZ, Kosovo; 2Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning
Reframing Local Land Use Planning Methods and Tools In South West Cameroon as a Foundation for Secure Tenure, Sustainable and Equitable Rural Development, and REDD+
1Ministry of Economy, Plan and Territorial Management (MINEPAT); 2LTS international; 3Rainbow Environment Consult; 4Ajemalebu Self Help (AJESH); 5Rainforest Foundation UK; 6European Forest Institute (EFI); 7Technical University of Munich (TUM)
The "Where?" in Participatory Local Land Use Planning: A Web Mapping Approach in South-West Cameroon
1LTS international; 2World Resources Institute (WRI); 3German Federal Geosciences Institute (BGR); 4Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK); 5Ajemalebu Self Help (AJESH); 6Rainbow Environment Consult; 7European Forest Institute (EFI); 8International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); 9Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development (MINEPAT), Cameroon
A Tool for Ensuring Policy Impacting Research Results in Land Use Land Cover and Land use Planning
World Bank Group, Rwanda
Village by Village, Map by Map: Lessons for One Map Implementation - Affecting Synergies Between Villages, Regulatory and Administrative Structures, Through an Interconnected, Participatory and Community Centred-Approach to Village Boundary Settings (VBS) in Indonesia.
Abt Associates, Indonesia
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-10: Impact Evaluation of Land Registration|
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Community Land Protection in Liberia: The Impact on Neocustomary Norms and Institutions
1University College London, Political Science; 2The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
Is it possible to change property rights norms, even when changes affect the position of powerful constituencies? In this paper, we explore the effects of external changes to informal property rights institutions using a quasi-experimental evaluation of an intervention designed to protect community land and promote the rights of vulnerable groups, including women, in the West African nation of Liberia. We focus on the effect of the Community Land Protection Program (CLPP), an intervention that seeks to empower communities to successfully protect communal land rights, but that also emphasizes full participation of women and other previously excluded groups. We use two rounds of survey data collected in 2014 and 2017 from 43 communities and find evidence that while some behaviors and norms prove persistent over time, others do shift as a result of an outside intervention.
Does Tenure Reform Influence Household Food Security?
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
This article analyzes the outcome of forest reform on household food security of forest dependent communities. Study involved 2733 respondents, 55 communities and five reforms types, and analysis done using descriptive and inferential analysis. Finding from descriptive analysis suggest the respondents in Peru indicated they were food secure and perceived tenure security had improved. In Indonesia and Uganda, both members and nonmembers were food secure. Finding from the ESR probit model suggest that perceived tenure security, land owned by communities, years of education, ownership of dwelling, age in years, forest products, ancestry and external contact, had influenced membership. Results suggest that tenure security outcomes are sensitive to the range of rights held by communities; food security outcomes are better under situations of full ownership rights regardless of whether dejure or de facto. Food security of forest adjacent communities are placed at risk where rules for harvesting forest products are strict.
Silver Bullets or Shooting Blanks: Estimating the Impact of Formal Land Property Rights on Economic Development in Rural Colombia.
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2George Mason University, United States of America
Economic development literature often portrays secure property rights as essential for growth and prosperity. Four arguments are often put forward to support this claim - First, property rights provide secure tenure from probable seizure. Second, in a situation of insecure tenure, individuals will have to incur in external costs of defending their property, therefore diverting resources that could be used for more productive activities. Third, they provide the possibility to use land to support other transactions, such as gaining access to the credit market. Finally, property rights facilitate gains from trade.
However, solid empirical evidence supporting this claim has been elusive and focused mainly on urban settings. To address this gap, we employ a novel approach to estimate economic output at the municipal level in rural Colombia using satellite nighttime lights data and along with registry-cadastre data, test the validity of the above claim.
Rural property rights and migration: evidence from Ethiopia.
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper provides evidence that security of ownership over land is of crucial importance to households when deciding whether to send a migrant. The results are particularly relevant to many developing country contexts where property rights over rural land are contingent on the occupant demonstrating productive use of the land. Using a unique farm-household panel dataset from the highlands of Ethiopia, this study demonstrates a robust positive relationship between tenure security and migration. The identification strategy relies on the gradual roll-out of a land certification program at the village level, as well as exogenous variation in water availability, a likely trigger of out-migration from agriculture. The results demonstrate that households with tenure certificates are around 15 percent more likely to have a member that has migrated for work. We further document that water scarcity during the growing season encourages out-migration from agriculture, however, droughts during the planting period discourage migration.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Blockchain Technology in Land Administration: Use Cases|
Session Chair: Fredrik Zetterquist, Swedesurvey, Sweden
The Swedish Land Registry Blockchain Project: Update and Implications for Modernizing Land Registration Systems
ChromaWay, United States of America
The Swedish Land Registry and a consortium of government and private sector agencies completed the pilot phase of testing during 2017. ChromaWay provided the blockchain technology which included distributed ledgers, smart contracts, and secured workflow in order to test the contributions that these emerging technologies can make to the efficiency and effectiveness of land registry-related processes.
The purpose of the presentation will be to address the following questions:
1. What were the lessons learned from introducing a blockchain into a land registry ecosystem?
2. What are the implications for the use of blockchain technologies for land registries in both the developed and the developing world?
3. What are the political, cultural, organizational, technical, and process changes that impact the success of a blockchain land registry project?
The presentation will also include updates based on the production phase of the project scheduled to begin Q4 2017
Dubai Real Estate Block Chain
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates- Emirates Real Estate Solutions
The abstract illustrates Blockchain implementations in the real estate sector in Dubai. The vision and strategy was to inroll all government sector services that rely on properties to be conducted in phases, then to start enrolling third party and private sectors to utilize blockchain data. The first phase was to migrate all titledeeds to blockchain environment, integrate all legacy systems to produces new titledeeds on blockchain. Customers can verify their ownership on the blockchain environment. The second phase was to adapt smart lease contracts to rent, renew and get all relatedservices to renting from one electronic procedure(utilities, licensing, banks, payments). This phase have involved multiple entities to ease renting process in Dubai. The short and long plan is explained in the abstract to reach to a strong blockchain implementation goals. The abstract defines the challenges that has been faced during the proof of concept and go-live implementations and success factors.
Blockchain and Land: Proof of Concept
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Food and Agriculture Organization
Land is an area that is particularly ripe for blockchain solutions. Though the technology is relatively new and still in pilot phase, it can support solution development for some of the biggest land challenges. The Global Land and Geospatial Team of the World Bank and the World Bank Blockchain Lab, with support from the Food and Agriculture Organization, conducted a proof of concept for three use cases of blockchain and land administration. This, however, is just the technology side of the story. There are many other important aspects that need to be considered for the possible adoption of this technology for land administration solutions. These include policy, legal, institutional, capacity, and public awareness related questions. The paper will present the proof of concept, raise important unanswered questions on the development of blockchain solutions, and present a literature review of other pilots that have been conducted so far.
Blockchain - Georgian Experience Phase II
National Agency of Public Registry Ministry of Justice of Georgia, Georgia
Blockchain is the high-tech solution of the 21st century, a software platform for digital assets that offers high level of security and provides protection and transparency of a transaction. As always innovational in terms of introduction of new technologies, Georgia is one of the first countries in the world that started using Blockchain in property registration.
The registration of immovable property in Georgia is implemented by the National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR) under the Ministry of Justice with one of the most advanced and experienced IT Department, providing its services not only NAPR but to other government agencies as well.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-12: Strategies to Strengthen Womens' Land Rights|
Session Chair: Janet Walsh, Human Rights Watch, United States of America
Gender Gap In Ownership To Agricultural Land In Rural Tanzania: Implications to Wealth Distribution
ARDHI UNIVERSITY, Tanzania
The land reforms in Tanzania as evidenced by the Land Policy of 1995 and the Land Act and Village Land Act both of 1999 give equal rights to both men and women on land ownership. However, evidence from gender perspective shows that there is still gender gap as customary land tenure norms are highly predominate over statutory laws in decision making and land ownership practices in rural Tanzania, which affects women's involvement in agricultural activities hence financial status. Although insignificantly addresses the existing challenge, co-titling was seen to be one of the options taken by the Government to lessen gender gap to land ownership. Sustainable solution to addressing gender gap requires creation of awareness and provision of basic knowledge on land rights to women. The efforts should be taken along with participatory approach of involving rural communities with the Government, non governmental organizations, local leaders, religious leaders and education institutions.
Gender and Land Tenure Security in Gusii Kenya: Improving Household welfare through land Rights
Bremen University, Germany
Majority of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas and derive their livelihood directly from land which is both an economic and social asset. Although women form more than three quarters of the agricultural labor force, a complex set of customary laws has restricted them to usufruct land rights acquired mainly through marriage. Despite the Kenyan constitution giving women equal rights to land with men, discrimination in access and control of land against women still persists. Hence women owning land are exposed to insecurity. It is widely argued that given land tenure security, people invest more in land hence have higher output. Guided by the Political Ecology (FPE) perspective this paper argues that Women’s role in family upkeep combined with access to land would play a crucial role in realization of some of the Sustainable Development Goals including food security, poverty reduction and improve access to education for the children.
Enhancing Women’s Land Rights Under Customary Tenure Through Issuance Of Certificates Of Customary Ownership And Communal Land Associations
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Uganda’s Constitution 1995 guarantees four tenure systems namely: Mailo, Freehold, Customary and Leasehold tenure. A greater part of the land in Uganda is held under customary tenure, usually subject to restrictions such as transfer outside the family and clan. The 1995 Constitution defines customary tenure as “land which is governed by customs, rules and regulations of any given community”. therefore, Under customary tenure, land is held in trust by the family for past, present and future generations who constitute a form of trusteeship that is associated with the responsibility to protect not only the land itself but also the land rights of all family members. The Land Act 1998 provides for the registration of customary land through issuance of certificates of Customary Ownership and Communal Land Associations where land is held communally/ family/a group of persons.
Gender-disaggregated data: A key prerequisite for realizing women’s land rights in Africa
1GROOTS Kenya; 2LANDac/ Utrecht University, Netherlands, The
There is a growing momentum in Africa to further strengthen women’s access to and control over land and natural resources. One leading example is AU’s Agenda 2063 which aims to ensure that rural women have access to and control over productive assets, including land. One obstacle however is the lack of gender-disaggregated data, crucial toward monitoring and tracking progress at the local to regional levels. GROOTS Kenya and LANDac aimed to address this challenge in Kenya by piloting a community-led land mapping model which was developed through desk and grassroots research. This paper presents the results of these activities to demonstrate how the country should proceed in terms of generating gender-disaggregated data on land. We question whether the state should actually rely on formal registries in desegregating land data as well as provide empirical evidence from the grassroots to feed into the ongoing debate on perceived ownership and the SDGs.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-13: Creating Momentum for Land Policy Change|
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Kenya
Introducing WOLTS: Action-oriented research on women’s land tenure security in Mongolia and Tanzania
1Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom; 2People Centered Conservation (PCC), Mongolia; 3HakiMadini, Tanzania
Pastoralist communities in mineral-rich areas of Mongolia and Tanzania have been the focus of the first two years of the Women’s Land Tenure Security (WOLTS) project, a long-term action-oriented global research project. The first part of this paper outlines the distinct approach and rigorous methodology that WOLTS has developed and applied, using multiple site visits and different research methods to triangulate and validate findings. The second part of the paper presents key findings from the fieldwork in four communities in Mongolia and Tanzania so far, drawing out common themes such as the need for better access to information and more inclusive decision-making in the management of local land and natural resources. As pastoralist communities in many developing countries face increasing pressures from mining, WOLTS’ early conclusions underline the importance of in-depth understanding of gendered social relations and property rights, in order to improve gender equity in governance of tenure.
Nested Interconnection: Transgressing Community-Based Natural Resource Management towards Innovating Collective Landscape Mobilization
1Cornell University (CU), United States of America; 2The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC), Thailand
This is a case about innovative approach of Boonrueng wetland forest conservation against land conversion for Special Economic Zone. Boonrueng wetland forest is the largest seasonal flooded forest in the Ing watershed located in the North of Thailand. It provides the high ecological functions and qualities of the tributary in the downstream Ing River, out-flowing into the Mekong River. The conversion of land for the economic regionalization in Chiang Khong district is geared up in 2015 and Boonrueng wetland forest was identified as an area for Special Economic Zone. In response, the collective mobilization of across different villages within the community is activated. The innovative approach in Boonrueng case which has succeeded to secure its wetland management rights and communal land tenure is the transgression from community-based movement and networking towards a more integrated synergy of mobilization at the landscape level.
Using Data to Support Women’s Rights: Property Markets and Housing Rights through a Gender Equity Lens
IHC Global, United States of America
This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from a pilot project IHC Global and the Association of Real Estate Agents-Uganda implemented to measure women’s participation in property markets in Uganda and strengthen women’s property rights and asset making. Particular emphasis is given to understanding the challenges to customary practices women have in accessing secure tenure because though there is a legal and regulatory framework that provides for property ownership by women directly and through inheritance, customs sometimes go against these rights. Using an adapted property market analysis tool, the International Property Market Scorecard, developed by IHC Global and its partner, we investigated the extent to which the market manifests the assertion by women of these rights and analyzes barriers. The paper also describes how this project helped create awareness of property rights’ and customs’ importance, offered an analysis tool to support gender equity, and enabled local partners to bring change.
Sharing Evaluation Findings with Community Stakeholders
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
Sharing research results with communities facilitates important community access to data they made possible has the potential to strengthen the rigor, relevance, and reach of such research. USAID is currently supporting efforts to disseminate rigorous evaluation findings back to local project stakeholders, such as survey respondents, project beneficiaries, community leaders, and local government officials. These information dissemination efforts provide stakeholders with a summary of development outcomes and trends in their area and raise awareness of project achievements. This paper presents a case study of one such community based participatory research activity that involves sharing data with respondents participating in a rigorous quasi-experimental evaluation of a community land protection program in Liberia, exploring methodological considerations for ongoing research – such minimizing the potential for bias and threats to the validity of evaluation findings – as well as design challenges that arise translating technical findings for an audience with limited formal education.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-01: Land in an interconnected world: Whose land? Whose Agenda?|
Session Chair: Ibrahim Mwathane, Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya
Setting the agenda for Government’s catalytic role in Democratic Republic of Congo: harnessing land resources for development
Ministère des Affaires Foncières, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
The Role of Customary Authorities in Facilitating Governance
to be filled
Developing requisite capacities for land governance in Africa
University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Secured Land Rights and Sustainable Agricultural Investments
Presidency in charge of Agriculture and Livestock, Madagascar
to be filled
Envision Integrated Land Use Policy and Planning to Enahanced Land Governance in Ethiopia: Practice and Challenges
Prime Minister Office, Ethiopia
Ethiopia has committed itself to a green, rapid, inclusive, and sustainable growth trajectory of reaching middle income status by 2025 through implementing its Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE, 2011 to 2030) strategy. Despite demonstrating one of the fastest and broad based growing economy in the past decade, the incidence of poverty and environmental challenges such as land degradation, depletion of natural capital and unprecedented urbanization challenges in the country is still high. However, Ethiopia has prioritized the role of natural capital to drive growth and its prosperity while get its urbanization “right” through optimal land use decisions. With a forward-looking the National Integrated Land Use Policy and Planning initiative expected to guide the sustainable structural transformation of the rural and urban life and its natural capital by providing a very coordinated, participatory, all serving, aligned and harmonized land use plans that promote land governance.
Putting It All together: Whose Land? Whose Agenda?
to be filled
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-02: Using Land Registries to Prevent Money-Laundering|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
The Fight to Eliminate Fraud, Corruption, Tax Avoidance and Evasion in Land Administration
Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom
In any organisation responsible for land administration, taxation or registration, fraud, corruption and financial crime, whether it be bribery, evasion, avoidance, misappropriation, embezzlement or money laundering, operate in environments where opacity, conflict-of-interest, weak audit, lack of oversight and accountability, inadequate procedures, ineffectual and weak organisational cultures are present. This paper seeks to outline an approach to dealing with these matters.
Fraud, corruption and financial crime in land administration may be perpetrated by senior and junior management, political élites, public officials acting as ‘lone wolves’ or in subcultures and, increasingly, organised crime. The foundations of a structure to deal with these issues are created by the setting of a series of standards or principles for those participating in public life together with a range of effective operational arrangements.
Land Registries, Fraud and Money Laundering
1IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain; 2ELRA (European Land Registries Association)Belgium; 3Kadaster Holland; 4Tribunal Registral de Peru; 5Colegio de Registradores Spain; 6Registro Nacional de Costa Rica
The establishment of Land Registration systems has always been linked to the prevention of fraud. As the society becomes more complex new ways of fraud arise. The interconnections, cross border relations and new technologies makes fraud a global issue.
Nowadays a challenge to all administrations, countries and international organizations is money laundering which is connected to terrorism and organised crime. This significant problem affects directly to the real estate market because the immovable property have been a shelter to all the money coming from these fraudulent activities and Land Registries as " ex ante controls" of the transactions that claim for registration and as producers of data are in an advanced position to prevent this fraud and to report or collaborate with other authorities.
But money laundering is carried out in an international context so measures adopted solely at a national or local level would have only a limited effect
Fraud And Money Laundering in the Land Registry of Costa Rica
Registro Nacional, Costa Rica
European Directives and the Role of the Land and Business Registries Against Money Laundering and Terrorism
The fight against money laundering and tax evasion is focusing the interest of the institutions of the European Union, with the poposal to amend Directive (EU) 2015/849, which constitues the main legal instrument in the prevention of the use of the Union's financial system for the purposes of money laundering and terrorist financing.
That Directive is to be transposed. Member States shall identify, understand and mitigate risks related to money laundering and terrorist financing.
It seeks the maximun possible transparency in financial transactions.
Registrars are considerated obliged entities by national regulations with duties of information comunication and it is needed the creation of mechanism to record and provide information on these real owners, as the actual beneficiaries. This is why the Land Registry of Spain has created a special office (CRAB) .
Both Land and Business Registries can collaborate as essentials tools to faigth against money laundring.
Fraud Prevention Through the Key Registries in Netherland
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
After briefly introducing Dutch Kadaster and the Dutch legal system I will sketch the shared characteristics with regard to various fraud cases. The presentation continues by explaining the role of the registrar in preventing and tracing fraud cases.
Subsequently, the introduction and functioning of the Dutch system of key registers will be described.
At the end the question will be raised whether blockchain is a means to fight fraud.
Money Laundering in Peru, Preventive Measures and Fight From the Public Registries
Superintendencia Nacional de los Registros Publicos, Peru
Since the signing in 1988 of the United Nations Convention, "money laundering" derived from the illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances was penalized, and a state agency with broad powers called "Financial Intelligence Unit of Peru" (FIU-Peru), was created through Act 27693 and incorporated as a specialized unit into the SBS, and was charged with receiving, analyzing, treating, evaluating and transmitting information for the detection of money laundering and financing of terrorism.
As to the Public Registry of Peru -whose governing body is the National Superintendence of Public Registries-, this entity does not belong to the “System for the prevention and control of money-laundering and financing of terrorism”; however, being a governmental entity that takes part in the general anti-money laundering system and against the financing of terrorism, it is obliged to provide information when it is needed for the fulfillment of the FIU-Peru’s functions.
How to Fight Fraud by Double Sales and Overlapping Registration of Real Property in A Simple Way - the Belgian Example
ELRA - European Land Registry Association, Belgium
Land registration systems should help providing security of tenure. Lately there is a consensus that these systems should deliver enough legal security in the given circumstances. It may not be necessary to seek perfection.
This opinion may result in a dualism between statutory systems of land registration and "Fit for Pupose" systems.
Statutory land registration systems, providing title, are considered to be superior but meet dificulties in registering and delivering legal security to less conventional rights, for instance from a customary origin.
Statutory systems, only archiving deeds, deliver less security but are more flexible. Due to technological changes they may become an intersting choice once more.
This presentation shows a practical example of how the risk of double sales is avoided in a simple way and how the system may be adaptable as well for safeguarding the bundle of rights covered by customary tenure.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-03: Harnessing New Technology for Land Data Capture & Management|
Session Chair: Rohan Bennett, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Scalable Platform Based On Open Source For Land Administration Systems
Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America
There is a strong tendency in the developments of national land administration projects funded by World Bank, USAID and other organizations to promote the solutions based open source.
Many proven technologies for specific land information components are based on open source. Unfortunately, segmental use of the open source and problems of integration and scaling up into national level system resulted in the overall low-efficiency of the efforts.
A group of seasoned professionals decided the time is ripe to change the game. Everywhere the ICT became a driver of the enterprises aligning with new business goals. Why not in land administration?
This article describes establishment of National Land Information System (NLIS) based on open source stack. The team of Innola Solutions (USA) has built a new land information platform – Innola Framework. In cooperation with IGN FI and GEOFIT (France), the consortium has implemented Uganda NLIS and work on other projects.
Harmonizing Laws and Regulations with New Technologies and Innovations in Land Administration
Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany
Over the last decade innovative technologies and methods have been developed to demarcate land parcels and register land rights in an inexpensive and swift way. These technologies, such as rectified imagery are now used by the fit-for-purpose land administration approach in order to register land rights systematically. Though these innovative technologies have been applied in some developing countries there is a time lag between such developments and existing land legislation. The land legislation in developing countries often appears to be out of date. In addition, the lack of or the existence of difficult to implement UAV regulations is hindering the drone operators to fly UAVs, making the usage of drones problematic. This paper presents a case study of some of the countries and describe their current drone regulations and land laws and recommends a harmonization of laws and regulations with new land registration methods and technologies.
Interconnected Donors: Sustainable Development from Pilot to Delivery at Scale
1Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 2Cadasta Foundation, USA; 3Kartverket, Norway
How do we implement pilot projects so that they deliver sustainable, equitable, and efficient service delivery at scale? We believe the answer involves long-term donor commitment focusing on sustainable results through increased donor cooperation, through communication, flexibility, and gender equality. Sustained donor support provides the need time to achieve deliverables and ensure deep and extensive local commitment at all levels. This paper will show how we can improve the impact of our work and projects to make a sustainable difference in the everyday life of citizens. The authors of this paper have extensive international experience working with donors, the private sector, national cadastral systems, mapping and real property registration organizations, and international non-profit organizations. The parties are jointly working to ensure a more cost-efficient, sustainable, and equitable support to beneficiaries in developing countries.
Sharing Information to make better decisions about our World
Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), United States of America
Geospatial information and associated technologies are key to achieving resilience of local to national land management. The seamless ability to capture, visualize and manage land administration information relies on a level of interoperability that allows public and private sector information to be combined and organized efficiently for enhanced land management. New standardized ways to leverage, process, fuse and apply location data from imagery, drones/UAVs, mobile phones and a plethora of increasing inexpensive location aware devices is changing the norm in ways that strengthen land governance, sustainable land use, and/or support land administration services in urban and/or rural settings.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-04: Leveraging the SDG Momentum and Monitoring Progress|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Landesa, United States of America
Taking Land Governance Performance Monitoring To The Next Level: Towards a Uniform Vision For Data Standards
Land Portal Foundation
There is an increasing drive to collect data that helps illustrate the land governance situation globally. However, a uniform vision towards standardizing the use of geospatial and land governance information systems is lacking. In order to reach the full potential of land governance information systems, gathering data about specific indicators, producing community maps or making databases accessible is not enough. While this is an essential starting point, these efforts must go beyond the mere collection of data to ensure long-term sustainability on investments. The data that is gathered needs to be shared, analyzed and challenged. In this regard, the land sector can benefit from data standards on how to publish information in a way that ensures discoverability and interoperability. There is a need to agree on a uniform vision through which the land sector benefits from these data technologies, and also incorporates the controversial reality that is land governance data.
How People-Centered Land Monitoring can Contribute to the Realization of the SDGs and VGGTs – The case of ILC's Dashboard
1CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 2International Land Coalition, Italy
The adoption of the VGGTs and the SDGs marked a major advancement towards the recognition of the central role that land tenure and land governance play in global efforts to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development. While these new global frameworks define ambitious goals, the key to their success lies in our ability to give them substance and produce results that can be seen in practice. It was in this context, that the Dashboard was conceptualized in 2016 as a people-led monitoring tool aimed to monitor the overall status of land governance at national level.
The aim of this paper is to
- Present and discuss the Dashboard initiative
- Introduce the initial work undertaken, including an overview of ongoing land monitoring initiative and existing indicators
- Offer results from our preliminary consultations and final list of indicators, still under development
- Assess how it converges with other monitoring initiatives
Strengthening Global Coordination for Land Governance Monitoring and Data for Policy Decisions; Experiences from Global Land Indicators Initiative
GLII/GLTN - UN Habitat
Land is central to ending poverty and inequality, promote peaceful society and conservation of natural resources. Regional and global frameworks have been adopted by governments in their efforts to inform responsible land governance including Africa Union Framework and Guidelines and global Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance on Tenure; and Sustainable Development Goals.
Global coordination for monitoring of these frameworks is central to ensure data is available for policy decisions. The Global Land Indicators Initiative (GLII), established in 2012 by World Bank, Millennium Challenge Cooperation and UN-Habitat, and currently with over 50 partners continues to carry out global coordination and convening of land and data communities, facilitate dialogues on best practices in land monitoring, promote comparability and complementary of data efforts. This paper analyses land governance frameworks and underscore the importance of global coordination of monitoring of these frameworks; experiences of GLII and its partners; challenges and opportunities moving forward.
Land Governance and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Consolidating and Harmonizing Monitoring Initiatives
1Land Portal Foundation, France; 2Global Donor Working Group on Land
Numerous indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) relate to tenure rights, food security and nutrition, including 1.4.2 on perceptions of land tenure security, 2.4.1 relating to the proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture and 5.a.1 women ownership of agricultural land. This side event will bring together key actors in the land governance community and beyond who are making significant efforts to ensure land-related SDGs remain part of the 2030 Agenda and are tracked and made widely available to stakeholders in the land governance community and specifically to National Statistical Offices (NSOs). It will provide an opportunity for discussion of the initiatives currently underway to monitor and amplify efforts focused on achieving land-related SDGs in the 2030 Agenda through research, advocacy and communications, and will explore opportunities to consolidate and harmonize these initiatives and improve their effectiveness vis-à-vis targeted stakeholder groups.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-05: Resilient Housing for Resilient Cities|
Session Chair: Anna Wellenstein, World Bank, United States of America
Resilient Housing for Resilient Cities
Catalytic Communities, Brazil
Do Families Want to Invest in Making Their Homes More Resilient?
MicroBuild Fund and Impact Investing Analytics, United States of America
Can We Actually Retrofit Homes? Does It Make Economic and Social Sense?
Build Change, United States of America
How Can We Leverage Technology to Identify Housing Units that Need Retrofitting at a Low-cost?
World Bank, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: How Does Land Governance Affect Investors Risk Perceptions?|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Deforestation Risks: Financial Costs and Tropical Agriculture Supply Chains
Climate Advisers, United States of America
25% of GHG emissions come from agriculture and land‐use. 70% of tropical deforestation is caused by agriculture. In 2016, BlackRock suggested deforestation is a material risk for investors. In 2017, UBS stated that the FSB’s Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures “enables (investors) to address material deforestation risks in agriculture supply chains and for downstream (corporate) buyers.” CDP reported that 200 corporations had $900 billion in revenueat‐risk from deforestation commodities: soy, palm oil, cattle, timber. Corporate zero-deforestation commitments have increased 200% since 2015. Chain Reaction Research analysis has shown material financial risk to corporations.
This presentation will discuss how these material risks impact corporations with deforestation in their supply chains. Eight risk management tools will be presented. Eight real-world case studies will highlight equity valuation, debt ratings, cash flow, financial accounting, and divestment risks. Results will demonstrate how companies’ valuation decrease if they do not address deforestation-related supply chains.
Facing Criticism: Responsibility, Large-Scale Land Acquisition, and its Critics
University of Cologne, Germany
This presentation discusses how corporations, investors and agribusinesses involved in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) respond to actors concerned about LSLA, such as NGOs, local communities, peasant movements, scholars, and journalists. Over the last ten years, these critics have been very vocal in raising concerns about the responsibilities of investors involved in LSLA – and also of institutional actors and policy makers facilitating the investments. Largely absent in most debates, however, are explicit analyses about how corporations respond to the concerns raised by their critics.
The presentation demonstrates that the extent to which an investor responds to the criticism it (directly or indirectly) faces depends on the investor’s profile. Moreover, it argues that the most critical voices in the LSLA debates play a central role in shaping investors’ responses to the concerns raised.
Land and Poverty through the prism of the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries: Sustainable development, Large Scale Land Based investments and its impacts on land rights, poverty alleviation and food security in Tanzania.
University of Oslo, Norway
This paper focuses on the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries and its investments in the agribusiness sector in the United Republic of Tanzania. The paper is based on the preliminary findings of my fieldwork research in Norway. Thus, it briefly presents the Fund, the investment and the concerns raised in relation to it (in terms of land governance, development outcomes, poverty alleviation and food security). This paper seeks to contribute to a better understanding and open a space for dialogue on the role played by Development Finance Institutions in land governance and poverty alleviation.
The paper is particularly relevant to two of the ten themes of the conference (1 and 10):
New academic research on the impact of land tenure security for sustainable development, equity and prosperity, (results and their policy relevance; new research methodologies);
Achieving responsible large-scale land based investments: lessons learned 10 years on.
The First Biennial Investor Survey on Land Rights: Revealing the perceptions and practices of the private sector on land and resource issues and risks
1Indufor North America, United States of America; 2USAID; 3Individual
USAID has initiated a voluntary Investor Survey on Land Rights, conducted by Indufor, with a primary objective of establishing and analyzing a database on private sector perceptions of land tenure risks with quantified direct and indirect costs. The paper will highlight findings from the first biennial survey, including land-based investments and risks, investments rejected due to land tenure uncertainties or risks, challenges faced among private sector actors regarding land disputes, and strategies to resolve land tenure disputes or promote better land governance. The research will serve as a valuable resource on responsible investing.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-07: Interventions for strengthening tenure security|
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
Linking The Continuum Of Land Rights To Production Orientation And Management Styles: Lessons From Research In Namibia
1GIZ, Germany; 2University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
Strengthening Women’s Land Rights: Lessons From Agricultural Development Programmes In Sub-Saharan Africa
Capacity Development Lessons from Tenure Security Learning Initiative in Eastern and Southern Africa (TSLI-ESA)
1Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2GLTN/UN-HABITAT, Kenya; 3IFAD, Italy
Mainstreaming support for good land governance into agricultural and rural development programmes: Lessons from IFAD-supported projects
Analysis And Reflection On Methodologies And Practices For The Formalization Of Land Rights
Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Approaches to Land Delivery for Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Sue Bannister, City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Market-led Initiatives To Land Tenure Security In Ghana: Contribution Of Gated Communities
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Ghana, like many Sub-Saharan African countries, has instituted a system of land title registration to address problems in its land market, namely; multiple sales of customary lands, endless land litigations and indeterminate boundaries of customary lands. Yet, despite this intervention, the problems bedeviling the land market persist. Gated communities have emerged to solve these problems and to further guarantee homeowners land tenure security. This paper examines how developers of gated communities provide tenure security for their homeowners. Using Greater Accra Metropolitan Area as case study and collecting data from six gated communities through self-administered surveys and interviews with key stakeholders and residents living in gated communities, the study found that most residents in gated communities strongly perceive that the presence of fence walls, and security systems in gated communities provided them the assurance that their land tenure security was guaranteed and hence only a few have secured land title certificate.
Impact and Effectiveness of Urban Planning on City Spatial Development – A Case of Tanzania Secondary Cities
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Ardhi University, Tanzania
This is the phase 1 findings from an ongoing study investigating the spatial development characteristics of Tanzania secondary cities with and without urban plans, and attempting to assess the impact and effectiveness of such urban plans. In this 1st phase, we focused on establishing the context, determining the case cities and study area, as well as developing the detailed Background Profile of Cities. The case write-ups feature qualitative and empirical description of these cities, including the history/evolution of urban plans, local urban planning policies, processes and associated broad physical, economic, social and environmental development trends or relevant incidents which had significant influence on the city’s physical development. Findings from this first phase will inform the 2nd phase where we will investigate: (i) the urban form and city development of the selected cities based on the identified spatial and socioeconomic metrics; and (ii) effectiveness in the implementation of urban plans.
Impact of Litigation on the Real Estate Market in Mumbai
1Tata Institute of Social Sciences; 2IDFC Institute; 3George Mason University; 4Brookings India and Member, Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council
The formal housing market in Indian cities has not been responsive to the growth in urban population. A striking feature of land and real estate markets in urban India is weak property rights, unclear titles, encroachment and complex regulatory processes which increase the likelihood of legal disputes and choke supply of land and housing. This paper aims to understand the impact of litigation on the real estate market in Mumbai by making use of a unique dataset on ongoing real estate projects. We find that litigations have a positive and statistically significant effect on completion times of projects and may be contributing to severe delays. Policy reforms focusing on improving land titling and tenure for urban land, simplifying regulations and process of granting approvals could help resolve this problem.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: Linking Land Use to Tenure: Lessons From Brazil's CAR|
Session Chair: Bastiaan Philip Reydon, UNICAMP, Brazil
Environmental Rural Cadaster (CAR) in the Priority Municipalities for Deforestation Monitoring and Control in Amazonia, Brazil
1Brazilian Forest Service / Ministry of the Environment; 2Pro-Nature Foundation, Brazil; 3German Agency for International Cooperation - GIZ
The Environmental Rural Registry (CAR) is an important instrument for the management of landholdings environmental information in Brazil. All this information is compiled in the National Environmental Rural Registry System (SICAR) and represents an important source of data for environmental and economic control, monitoring and planning, as well as to combat deforestation. This publication provides information included in the SICAR database until October 10th 2017. This publication is developed for the geographical context known as the Priority Municipalities for deforestation control and monitoring in Amazon. In this paper, we present the total number and area of landholdings, remaining’s of native vegetation areas, permanent preservation areas and the area of legal reserves declared for each municipality. Furthermore, we present the Brazilian official deforestation data until 2016, and make a comparison between the total deforestation in the municipality and the part of the deforestation that occurred inside registered farms.
Rural environmental registry for traditional peoples and communities: Social participation and the history of enhancement of the module of registration
1Ministry of Environment, Brazil; 2GITEC-IGIP GmbH
Environmental policies that impact the territories of Traditional Peoples and Communities must include social participation methods in order to succeed. The history of the Rural Environmental Registry (cadastro ambiental rural – CAR) in Brazil is not different: only after the implementation of social control mechanisms and greater dialogue between the government and civil society, could the registration methodology of traditional territories be improved and gain more acceptance. This article will expose the important contribution of the National Council of Traditional Peoples and Communities (CNPCT), plus its partner organizations and social movements, to the definition of guidelines and safeguards that must be considered when registering in the CAR the territories of Traditional Peoples and Communities. Changes in the execution of public projects coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service and consistent improvement of the database module have been possible thanks to this open dialogue.
FNDF Semi-arid Rural Environmental Registry Public Call: Experiences, Results and Perspectives
Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil
National Fund for Forest Development (FNDF) Semi-Arid Rural Environmental Registry public call was launched with the aim of making 56 thousand registrations in the Rural Environmental Registry in the Brazilian semi-arid region, aiming to increase the regularization of small rural properties in this region.
The result was the hiring of five private non-profit institutions that developed projects for the realization of rural property inscriptions of family agriculture and traditional peoples and communities. This public call made possible the innovation in methods and technologies for the realization of the registration in the CAR very successful.
In view of the positive results obtained in the field and with the information on the basis of SiCAR, the Brazilian Forest Service decided to develop the second phase with the objective of promoting the recomposition of the vegetation cover in the areas of the first public call.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-10: Efficiency and Growth Effects of Land Interventions|
Session Chair: Michael Toman, World Bank, United States of America
Legitimizing the State or a Grievance?: Land Restitution and Titling in Colombia
Columbia University, United States of America
Can granting formal property rights incentivize political engagement or help rebuild war-torn communities? This paper examines whether the formal recognition of a right----in particular, a formal property right to land---affects an individual's incentives to engage in politics. Theoretically, I argue that formal property rights are powerful symbols that legitimize claim-making and incentivize property owners to engage in politics. However, this impact is conditional on the broader institutional environment and whether the state can adequately guarantee rights. I examine titling programs in Colombia's countryside, including an ambitious land restitution policy targeted specifically at victims of internal displacement and armed conflict. I find evidence that formalization is associated with increases in voter turnout, use of courts, and willingness to engage in politics, but only in areas with weak institutions. I support these findings with qualitative evidence suggesting that property rights have a symbolic importance that goes beyond changes in tenure security.
Land and Growth
World Bank, United States of America
Land and Growth
Firms need capital, labor and land to produce output. More efficient firms can produce more output if they have better access to factors of production. While there may not be such a thing as a perfectly efficient factor allocation, there are huge gains to be made by reducing factor misallocation. However, our knowledge of which factor market is more distorted is still at an early stage. Might it be the case that land markets are much more distorted than capital and labor markets in developing countries? If yes, there is huge need and scope to scale up investments in advisory services focused on land and growth.
Property Rights Reforms and Local Economic Development: Evidence from Mexico
UC Berkeley, United States of America
A recent literature explores the effects of rural land titling programs on labor reallocation. Yet, we have little evidence on the second-order effects titling programs can have on the non-agricultural sector for both local areas and surrounding cities. This paper fills that gap by using the rollout of the Mexican land title program Procede together with restricted-access data on non-agricultural firms. We employ a panel fixed effects research design to control for the non-random rollout of the program. Our preliminary results suggest that outmigration, as opposed to increased local labor supply or income effects, from rural areas is the likely dominating force with total wages and the number of large firms decreasing. The results of the land reform are heterogeneous – areas favorable to agriculture have differentially more firms, driven primarily by small-scale manufacturing, but lower wages. Further iterations of this paper will include analysis on cities and agricultural production.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Can Blockchain Technology support Land Administration?|
Session Chair: Marcela Villarreal, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
Blockchain, Real Estate, and Land Governance
New America, United States of America
The paper gives a sense of the current state of affairs with blockchain and land registries as well as a sense how it is evolving. After observing some larger trends in blockchain in the forward, the paper makes a broad case as to why blockchain make sense for Real Estate in the introduction.
From there the paper has four sections.
First, it covers what we consider to be the seven essential prerequisites before blockchains are introduced into a land registry.
Second, we introduced a conceptual framework of eight levels of integration from the most simple to the most radical.
Third, we consider five specific cases ranging from title insurance to regulation and how they will change in the not too distant future.
Finally, we consider six case studies of companies that are already active in the space.
Blockchain Technology: The Safest Way For Better Land Governance?
Thomson Reuters Bolivia s.r.l.
This paper includes a thorough review of current potential applicability of Blockchain for land administration, but also weighs this against the barriers to applicability, as briefly noted in this abstract. We know that Blockchain is not a panacea for all inefficiencies or governance challenges when implementing a modern, fair and efficient land registry. In my capacity as a Thomson Reuters technologist, this paper draws on the research and deployment occurring within my corporation. Across these professions the notion of Blockchain is gaining incredible hype. While there is optimism, there is also equal skepticism. Above all, there is clouded confusion on the merits and technical applicability of this new emerging potentially disruptive technology. This paper will help clarify what a Blockchain really is, and provide a practical approach to making incremental steps toward adoption. Governments have an opportunity to lead the adoption of this technology before industries.
Evaluating the Use of Blockchain in Land Transactions: An Archival Science Perspective
The University of British Columbia, Canada
Land transaction records are among the most important records a society generates. Blockchain is a new technology that has the potential to radically alter the recording of land titles and ownership transfers. Proponents of blockchain’s use for land transaction recordkeeping point to its many advantages. Any technology that changes the manner in which land transactions are recorded also raises questions about its impact upon long-term availability of authentic records and compliance with information-related laws and regulations. The objective of this paper is to explore recordkeeping issues using an archival science theoretic lens to help those considering the application of blockchain technology in land administration gain a clearer picture of its potential impact on land ownership recordkeeping.
What Should We (Not) Do With Land Administration Data? The Risk Of Privatization And Blockchain`s Code As Law
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
This paper concerns the possible use of Land Administration data and the (legal) requirements that have to be met. Since data seems to be a real asset, (even) Land Registries are of interest of private companies. Privatization is one of the more recent developments. In a few countries the first steps have been taken to privatize their Land Administration systems.
Next to that, new technology e.g. blockchain has an impact on (the independence of) Land Registries. The (legal) demands for a blockchain-based Land Administration system are described in this paper.
The paper does not only cover questions related to preventing fraud (independence institutions), it also describes some trends and technological issues and developments (e.g. Blockchain, Big Data and Linked Data) and the legal questions deriving from these developments. It all comes down to data, the true meaning of the data, its quality and the question who owns the data.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-12: Securing Women's Land Rights in Customary Systems|
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
Women’s Land Rights as a Pathway to Poverty Reduction A Framework and Review of Available Evidence
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Oxford University
This paper reviews the qualitative and quantitative literature on women’s land rights (WLR) and poverty reduction. It uses a systematic review search methodology, and synthetic approach to assess the level of evidence and agreement within this literature. The evidence is strong for relationships between WLR and bargaining power and decision making on consumption, human capital investment, and intergenerational transfers, with weaker evidence on the relationship between WLR and natural resource management, government services and institutions, empowerment and domestic violence, resilience and HIV risk, and consumption and food security. Gaps in the evidence arise from a failure to account for the complexity of land rights regimes, the measurement of land rights at the household level, the lack of attention paid to gender roles, and the lack of studies from countries outside Africa, but these gaps should not deter careful design and implementation of programs and policies to strengthen women’s land rights.
Exploring Gender-Biased Customary Land Tenure Systems in Ghana: Results from Focus Groups with Men and Women Farmers in the Northern Region
Social Science Research Center at Mississippi State University, United States of America
This qualitative study used a focus group research design to investigate gender and land tenure dynamics in rural communities in the Northern Region of Ghana, where approximately 73.7 percent of adults are engaged in agricultural production, primarily as smallholder farmers (Ghana Statistical Service, 2013). The research team is interested in investigating the effects of gender equity within customary land tenure systems as they pertain to agricultural productivity among smallholder men and women soybean farmers. Specifically, our research instrument focuses on generational transfer of land and women farmers’ rights to land (access to and stability of tenure) as a preliminary step in exploring gender-biased customary land tenure and agricultural output among soybean farmers. We conducted six focus group discussions (N = 72)—three women-only focus groups and three men-only focus groups—in three districts in the Northern Region where soybean is grown as both a cash crop and a subsistence crop.
Ensuring Gender Mainstreaming in the Design and Implementation of REDD + Related Activities
World Bank, United States of America
to be filled
Innovations in Securing Land and Resource Rights for the Poor and Women in Customary Settings: the Case of Chamuka Chiefdom, Zambia
1UN-HABITAT/GLTN, Kenya; 2His Royal High Chief Chamuka IV, Chisamba, Zambia; 3People’s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia
Most countries have progressively passed laws that protect tenure of security for customary land on which the most of the rural people depend for their livelihoods, however, implementation is low, in part, due to lack of affordable land tools. This study presents experiences of issuance of certificates of customary land rights occupancy (CCROs) in the Chiefdom of Chamuka in Central Zambia. Following the pilot implementation of CCROs in Chamuka area, using the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) by the Global Land Tool Network and the People’s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia (PPHPZ), there is improved voices of poor people and women in local and national dialogues on land with their chiefs and local government authorities; the Katuba Women’s Association is emerging as a powerful voice for women on land in Zambia.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-13: Implementing Land Administration Projects|
Session Chair: Rexford Ahene, LAFAYETTE COLLEGE/ FAO-NRC, United States of America
Improved land registration in Plateau State and its impact on land market and government revenue
1Plateau Ministry of Lands, Survey and Town Planning, Nigeria; 2Thomson Reuters, Canada; 3Teqbridge Ltd., Nigeria
This paper describes the encouraging business benefits on the land market and government revenue after delivering the upgrade of the Plateau Geographical Information System (PLAGIS) in 2015. The Plateau government invested in the whole process to enhance institutional framework and provide a streamlined solution to the Ministry of Lands, Survey and Town Planning.
To conclude, a final section of this paper focuses on the positive impact in a business indicator related to property registry by transforming the Land Registry Office in an example of land governance and revenue generator from increasing land transactions and for the recovery of the public confidence in the institution. The changes in reducing the duration of time to issue land property C of Os created a better business environment in Plateau and an assurance from the general public related to transparency, which mitigates corruption at the government level and also support breakdown bureaucratic bottlenecks.
Meeting the Governance Challenges of Agriculture Land Registration in Nigeria
Hohenheim University, Germany
This paper addresses the need for meeting the governance challenges of agricultural land registration in Nigeria. This variable was investigated in the premises that land for agricultural purposes has not attained its full potentials in Nigeria. Whereas, Nigeria has a total land mass of 923,738 Square Kilometers of which only 3 percent is registered, thereby leaving the sum of 97% unregistered. The effect is shown in the fact that farmer will become vulnerable in the case of land expropriations and government acquisition of land resulting in low agricultural investment from both subsistence and commercial farmers. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to ascertain the challenges involved in titling and registering agricultural land and the extent to which agricultural land registration could benefit small farmer holders that are considered land rich and cash poor in the use of land for agricultural purposes.
Digital Cadastre with Manual Land Tenure Systems Scale-Up in Ethiopia
1NIRAS Responsible And Innovative Land Administration(REILA_2) Projec In Ethiopia; 2Ministry Of Agriculture and Natural Resource Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate; 3Hanas Luftbild
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a large, ecologically diverse country with nine regions. Though the land administration is legislated at the federal level, the regional states have significant powers to adopt the legislation according to their social needs. In an effort to accelerate the land administration services and promote standardization across all regions, the National Rural Land Administration Information System (NRLAIS) was developed for the Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate of the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Responsible and Innovative Land Administration (REILA) I and II projects are supporting the Directorate, funded by MFA Finland and implemented by NIRAS as a lead company (DAI as a partner in REILA II). NRLAIS developed in line with the current semi-digital land tenure procedures, parcel identifications as a pipeline. The system will now be scaled-up across the regions along existing manual land tenure archiving practices.
Best Practice in Land Administration Project Implementation: Challenging Existing Orthodoxies in Customary Land Governance in Ghana
This paper assesses the extent to which the Ghana Land Administration Project (LAP) established Customary Land Secretariats (CLSs) as a ‘best practice’ mechanism in challenging the existing orthodoxies of oral land grants, marginalization of women’s land rights and the general lack of transparency and accountability in customary land governance has achieved these objectives. Mixed methods were used in 12 selected CLSs and the results showed appreciable progress in the documentation of land transactions with over 39,000 documentations in the CLSs covered, improved women’s land rights and involvement in land related decision-making processes. However, the customary authorities were the dominant actors in the land decision making processes with negative implications for transparency and accountability. The study concludes that the CLS is a vital structure for improved customary land governance and recommends a third phase of LAP for sustained efforts at improving land governance in Ghana.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-12: Plenary: Using the SDGs to institutionalize reporting & analysis of land data|
Session Chair: Yongyi Min, United Nations, United States of America
VC with FAO - Rome
Enabling Gender-Disaggregated Reporting on Land Ownership and Use: How FAO Collaborates with Partners to Make It Possible
to be filled
Helping to Establish the Methodology for Country-level Data Collection on Key (Urban) Land Data Globally: The Role of UN Habitat
to be filled
Moving SDG indicators 1.4.2. & 5.a.1 to tier I: Why and how
World Bank, United States of America
Although land rights are of paramount importance for a host of development outcomes and millions of dollars are spent on programs to improve land rights, weak and non-comparable data make it difficult to coherently identify gaps, orient policy dialogue, assess interventions’ effectiveness and sustainability, thus providing the basis for a concerted public and private sector effort to make land rights more secure for all. Inclusion of land related indicators under the SDGs provides a unique opportunity to address this gap. The presentation will highlight custodians’ efforts to move towards tier I in three areas, namely (i) methodology development to provide relevant data; (ii) efforts to expand ramp up household survey and administrative data collection and the opportunities these create; and (iii) initiatives to build analytical capacity and global reporting to ensure data are used and feed into ongoing land policy dialogues.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-01: Urban Development: Rebuild and Plan Ahead|
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
Making Room for Urban Expansion in Colombia
New York University, United States of America
This paper reports on the experience gained so far at the NYU Urban Expansion Program in working with two intermediate-size, rapidly growing cities in Colombia, Valledupar and Monteria, in making preparations for their coming expansion. The municipalities of these two cities, with the support of NYU, have embarked on a simple four-point action program to make room for accommodating their growing populations. The action program focuses on making realistic 30-year projections of land needs, ensuring the administrative jurisdiction of projected areas of expansion, preparing an arterial road grid in these areas and securing the rights-of-way of the entire grid now, and creating an institutional framework for protecting public open spaces in the expansion area. Both cities have made significant progress in implementing their respective action programs. We report on the process they followed, the lessons learned, and the prospects for similar initiatives in other countries, both in Latin America and elsewhere.
Making Room for Urban Expansion in Ethiopia
Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, Ethiopia
to be filled
Using Land Value Capture in Transport Oriented Development in Cape Town
City of Cape Town, South Africa
The presentation provides an assessment of tools that the City of Cape Town has developed with a range of professional teams to understand land use values and options within a TOD strategy which can assist decision-makers in pursuing their policy goals. It provides context for the work which has been done to produce management data in a Medium Term Infrastructure Investment Framework (MTIIF), the constraints and potential of this data, and further areas for public policy option development and decision-analysis in building a more resilient city. This is critical work for the City of Cape Town as it moves to address the shocks and stresses of historic spatial, social, and economic inequality and become a government which is driven by data and firm public policy research in ways that enable the optimal pursuit of strategy, financial and budget alignment, and meaningful engagements with all stakeholders, from the market to communities.
Urban Growth Scenarios: Perspectives from Jordan, Indonesia, Côte d'Ivoire and Mexico
Urban Growth Scenarios (UGS) gather the main urban concerns that a city is facing and model the effects of possible solutions to such problems in a range of indicators. With UGS local stakeholders can simulate land use and population density changes, and visualize the potential effects of different urban policies. The outcomes from UGS can be used by local governments to create consensus, request funding and disseminate potential benefits of their projects.
In this presentation we share reflections about the implementation of Urban Growth Scenarios in 45 cities in four different countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Indonesia, Jordan and Mexico.
Evaluating the Impacts of the Dar es Salaam BRT System
1World Bank; 2Stanford University; 3London School of Economics
Rapidly growing cities across the developing world are making large investments in transport infrastructure to increase urban mobility, boost employment and productivity, and improve the social and economic lives of residents. We evaluate the impacts of one such investment: a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The first BRT line opened in May 2016, and up to five additional lines are planned over the coming decade. We identify causal impacts through a spatial triple-differences approach, combined with a general equilibrium model of economic activity. We also experimentally test two complementary interventions to increase access to transport for the urban poor: (i) a fare subsidy to make BRT travel more affordable, and (ii) a location subsidy to offset rising costs of living in BRT-proximate neighborhoods. These experiments will inform fare pricing, affordable housing, and transit-oriented development policies, as well as produce key elasticities for the model.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-02: Towards more evidence-based land sector engagement in Africa|
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Charting new ground: Towards an evidence-based approach to capitalize on Africa's land resources
World Bank, United States of America
Reaping the Dividends of an Improved Land Administration System in Rwanda: A Post-land Tenure Regularisation Reflection
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
to be filled
Improving land taxation in Africa: Practical ways for moving ahead
African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria
Improving Africa's Analytical Capacity on Land
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-03: Increasing own-source revenue generation via improving land records|
Session Chair: Roland White, The World Bank, United States of America
Property Tax Reform
World Bank, United States of America
Property tax reform
Land Taxes: An Opportunity to Make Urbanization Self-financing
International Growth Centre, United Kingdom
As cities develop, they experience massive land value appreciation. Rising land values are not generated by the actions of the owner, but by an overall increase in demand for land, as well as infrastructure paid for with public funds. The government therefore has a clear ethical right to urban land value appreciation. Furthermore, if the government can capture rising urban land values, it can spark a virtuous cycle where rising land values fund the infrastructure investments that make the city more productive.
Yet many African cities have been unable to leverage rising land values for the common good, and instead appreciation is being captured by landowners. This presentation discusses potential ways to overcome political and administrative hurdles to increased land taxation in African cities.
The Potential for Taxing Urban Vacant Land in Kampala, Uganda
International Growth Centre, Uganda
In addition to the lost value, vacant urban land also presents a major urban planning challenge to cities. For example, in Kampala, there is a substantial amount of vacant land in the city centre as this is also where its value is high. This is inefficient for city growth, from a connectivity and a density perspective. Taxing land, however, can be an unpopular and therefore politically difficult undertaking. To be able to tax vacant land, national legislation will have to change and for KCCA to advocate for this, they will have to assess its necessity and feasibility in the context of Kampala. Therefore, this paper at the direct request and in close conjunction with the KCCA, will then use the urban cadastre from the central division to evaluate potential options that KCCA may have for introducing such a tax.
Harnessing Zambia’s Land Potential
Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, Zambia
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-04: Harnessing the Benefits from a NSDI: Country Cases|
Session Chair: Maurice Barbieri, CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland
Measuring Geospatial Maturity; a First Step Towards Sensible, Sustainable and Resilient Investment
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
Accessible, accurate and high quality geospatial data is a fundamental enabler to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Information about location and place enables a visual understanding of both the present and the future, providing officials with an accurate and reliable view of their world.
Increasingly seen as part of a nation’s digital infrastructure, geospatial data is being viewed as ‘infrastructure for infrastructure’ - fundamental data underpinning government decision making, economic growth and the creation of citizen-centric services within more resilient communities.
Governments are therefore investing in geospatial data not simply to develop infrastructure and services but as a direct driver of economic growth and innovation. Growing this geospatial capability at both an agency and federal level has never been more important.
This paper introduces Ordnance Survey’s geospatial maturity tool and the benefits it brings to governments seeking to deliver sustainable economic and societal outcomes for their nations.
Spatial Data Infrastructure Diagnostic Tool - Partnerships for Implementation
1Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN, Italy; 2World Bank, USA; 3Senior Geospatial Consultant
The World Bank in cooperation with the FAO launched the development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Diagnostic Tool and Economic-Business Case Analyses in December 2016. Initial testing of the tool has been completed in nine countries. Recognizing the need to develop strategic partnerships for support to countries, especially in the developing world, the World Bank signed an agreement with the United National Global Geospatial Information Management Group in August 2017. The main objectives of the collaboration are to: (i) Develop an overarching Geospatial Framework and (ii) Assist countries to prepare and implement country level Action Plans. Under the World Bank-FAO Cooperation Program, several countries have been supported to develop and test the diagnostic tool, prepare country level action plans and look for possible sources of financing. This paper will present the SDI action plans of several countries from different regions as well as the cross-regional knowledge sharing.
Open Data and Spatial Data Infrastrcuture Develpment in Moldova
Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova, Moldova
Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Moldova has made great progress in land property management, thanks to the World Bank and other international organizations.
In April 2012, the Government of Moldova joined the Open Government Partnership initiative where it committed to increase public access to information, promote transparency of governance and ensure citizens’ participation to governance, by using advanced information technologies. The open data principles are facilitates citizens’ access to the data of the ministries and central public administration.
The main objective of the given report is an analysis of Open Data and NSDI development in Moldova. Special attention is paid to key actors as data users of geospatial information in Moldova, interested central and local public authorities, private sector, research organizations and NGO which benefit from the geospatial information, especially aerial photography, orthophotos, elevation/digital terrain model and base maps.
SERBIAN NSDI DIGITAL PLATFORM: „Collect. Connect. Create.“ — Our words for the future
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
This paper presents the new digital platform of Serbian SDI in order to improve land governance and achieve the Global Agenda, to support government and municipal authorities form Serbia and the region. Presents the new way to make better use of the infrastructure data and services with good practice use cases from Serbia for the use of geospatial data and services through one, public web application for all citizens. New platform connects data from the government, regional and local municipalities, academia, researches and private sector creating added value service for government, market and society. With crowdsourcing functionality, platform ensures participation of the society and citizens creating governments that are more transparent and better service delivery at all levels as well as enabling citizens to actively participate in the democratic process.
The legal component, one of the key segments for NSDI development in Republic of Macedonia
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
According with the legal regulation of Republic of Macedonia, the national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) is establishing technological, legal and administrative framework for inter-institutional cooperation, which supports the initiatives for e-government and enables the integration of the spatial data from different sources into one network. NSDI law of Republic of Macedonia was adopted by parliament in 2014 (http://nipp.katastar.gov.mk/geoportalCms/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/law-on-NSDI-eng.pdf).
After the adoption of the Law on NSDI, we started its implementation. First of all, according to the Law was to establish the NSDI governance structure, and then move towards realization of the technical component-development and implementation of the National geo-portal.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-05: Francophone Regional Panel: Bottom Up Land Administration|
Session Chair: Sarah Hayes, Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, France
The Challenges of Multi-Level and Multi-Stakeholder Land Tenure Projects - The case of Burundi - Abstract
ZOA INTERNATIONAL-BURUNDI, Burundi
Since 2007, attempts have been made to set up land security projects in Burundi. The main concern was to secure land tenure in the context of widespread tenure insecurity. In the context of an alarming increase in insecurity of land tenure, exacerbated by refugee return, the government adopted a new land policy in 2011. Neverthless, many Multidimensional challenges are observed in land tenure management. On the one hand, there are the challenges (1) relating to the strategies, techniques, practices and approaches to be adopted for sound land registration and certification; (2) on the other hand, there are the challenges concerning the different levels of decision-making and intervention in this sector. Furthermore, there are the choices made by donors and the financial means available. The Struggle of NGOs and Government's institutions is now based on how to mount a harmonized and efficient model of project that can be capitalizable for all the Country.
Contribution Of Pngt2-3 To the Generalization Of The Application Of Law 034-2009 / An On The Burkina Faso Rural Land Regime: Success - Insufficiency And Lessons Learned
1Observatoire National du Foncier au Burkina Fas; 2Deuxième Programme National de Gestion des Terroirs
The implementation of the PNGT2 since 2002 is a kind of the operationalization of the National Program in relationship to Decentralized Rural Development. Its goal is to achieve sustainable improvement in the productive capacity of rural resources (natural, physical, financial, human) and the emergence of a more vibrant local economy through empowered rural communities and leading their own local development process. The Program runs in three (3) 5-year phases. It is executed through strategic priority components. For this paper, we will focus on the application of the Rural Land Regime and Strengthening of Conflict Resolution Mechanisms at the Local Level. Through this component, it will be necessary to document the achievements of the program in terms of contribution to the generalization of Law 034-2009 / AN of 16 June 2009 on rural land tenure.
Côte d’Ivoire The Implementation Of The Rural Land Ownership Law
1GEOFIT, France; 2Agence foncière rurale (AFOR).; 3CETIF
Facing increasing rural land disputes and aware of the need to formulate durable solutions to rural land management, Côte d’Ivoire has passed a legislation (number 98-750), on December 23, 1998, relative to rural land ownership.
The main objective of the rural land law is to legalize the traditional ownership rights on rural land through the issuance of land certificates following official surveys. For many reasons, especially linked to the country’s political instability over the period 2000 to 2010, the implementation of this law started on a low pace, but it has gained momentum in the last few years, regarding quantity and quality; and it is now a priority in government rural development policy, leading to create of the Rural Land Ownership Agency (AFOR),
This paper reviews the various ongoing 98 rural law implementation projects , providing both qualitative and quantitative inputs to better asses its application and social acceptance.
Scaling-up Effective Land Administration in Urban DRC: A Case Study of a Pilot Project in Beni, North Kivu.
1UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network; 2Université Chrétienne Bilingue du Congo (UCBC)
While DR Congo’s ongoing volatility has many layers and factors, insecure land tenure persists as important source of antagonisms, violence and insecurity, as well as an impediment for development and economic growth. This paper argues that land interventions aimed at scaling an improved Land Information System in DRC requires fostering commitment, cooperation and coordination between the land administration, various levels of governmental authorities as well as a broader of community actors. In making this argument, this paper analyzes the lessons learned by a multi-actor collaboration in Beni, DR Congo, where state and non-state actors are partnering to implement a contextualized version of GLTN's Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM), which is complemented by the creation of a Land Stewardship Committee designed to serve as an avenue for communication and action between all land agents.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-06: Can Supply Chain Management Help Improve Land Governance?|
Session Chair: Mario Cerutti, Luigi Lavazza SPA, Italy
Leveraging Big Data to Promote Sustainable Supply Chains: The Case of Paraguay’s Beef Sector
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Tetra Tech; 2World Resources Institute
Cattle ranching is expanding in the Paraguayan Chaco and has contributed to the degradation and loss of forests and associated ecosystem services. Today, most land in the Paraguayan Chaco is private land, with a significant amount also in large public protected areas. Deforestation rates on private lands are considerably higher than on indigenous lands and lands in the public protected estate. As cattle production expands, the risk of more deforestation on private lands is high. Protecting the land rights of indigenous peoples could help secure their livelihoods and protect the remaining forests in the Paraguayan Chaco. This paper describes an assessment of the deforestation and land rights risks to meatpackers sourcing cattle from the Paraguayan Chaco, as well as the development of a bottom up platform for documenting indigenous claims to land in this region.
Can Consumer-Led Initiatives Reinforce Government Action To Arrest Tropical Deforestation Driven By Industrial Agriculture?
Natural Capital Advisors, United States of America
Theme: New rigorous impact evaluations on scalable approaches toward strengthening land governance.
Industrial agriculture—mainly for export commodities like oil palm, beef, and soy—drives most deforestation in the tropics, and the forest clearing is often illegal. This masterclass evaluates whether actions taken by consumers in conjunction with governments can help reverse the patterns of forest loss in the tropics. Experience suggests that in order to reverse commodity-driven deforestation in the tropics, two mutually reinforcing approaches are necessary, and neither sufficient alone: government action is needed to rationalize and enforce land use laws, and consumer initiatives are needed that push agribusiness to be both responsible (e.g., zero-deforestation) and legal.
Multi-level public-private governance arrangements for sustainable palm oil in Indonesia
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia
This work examines the potential and limits of private and public sector arrangements to advance sustainable palm oil supply. Using a multi-level focus which drills down from national level to specific ‘case study” provinces, we analyze connections between subnational actors influencing decisions at higher governance levels and vice versa. We look at Central and West Kalimantan, important frontiers of oil palm expansion, where provincial governments have made commitments to advance sustainability in their jurisdictions through jurisdictional approaches. Based on interviews to key informants, literature review, and discussions with key stakeholders we characterize the main institutional arrangements, and analyze their potential and limitations, and the tensions, contradictions and complementarities to implement the public and/or private sustainability agenda, and the prevailing structural and operational constraints limiting progress.
Are Sustainable Pathways Possible for Oil Palm Development in Latin America?
1ENSAIA, Nancy, France.; 2Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.; 3CIRAD - Forests and Societies research unit, Montpellier, France.; 4CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.; 5ICRAF, Lima, Peru.
The palm oil sector in Latin America emerged in the 1930s with investments of private industries. After a long period of poor development, the sector has known a new youth in the 1970s with the involvement of the States. Public incentives then favored an agro-industrial business model. Since the 1980s it has been experiencing a promotion of more growers’ inclusion in the value chain, local development and sustainability of production. ‘Strategic alliances’ and ‘social sector’ models emerged as answers to this demand. They now represent almost 30% of the regional production. The agro-industrial sector is also moving towards a more sustainable production by adopting the RSPO criteria and certification, and by developing ‘strategic alliances’, with the support of national public policies. Latin America appears on the way to lead sustainability in the palm oil sector. But challenges are numerous and the way is still long and perilous.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-07: Community-Led Land Governance|
Session Chair: Esther Mwangi, Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
Examining the Real Costs of Community-led Rights Documentation from USAID’s Experience in Burma and Zambia
USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Tetra Tech
As mobile technologies, crowd sourcing and batch processing of data offer the potential to scale-up national efforts to document land rights, there has been pressure to reduce the per-unit cost of documentation, in order to make large-scale systematic registration viable. However, many global programs cite the cost purely of data collection in the field, and not the full range of other activities that lead to a successful registration (and ultimately administration) program. Over the past five years, USAID’s TGCC program has undertaken household land documentation in Zambia and community land documentation in Burma offering lessons on the real costs of rights documentation approaches. We find that data collection costs represent only a fraction of the total cost and effort and broader considerations should be accounted for. This paper explores costs associated with piloting and estimated costs for a scalable approach.
Mapping Community Land in Mozambique: Opportunities and Challenges for Combining Technology with Good Land Governance
1Community Land initiative (iTC); 2Cadasta Foundation
This paper discusses opportunities and challenges for the integration and combination of a participatory mapping and high-resolution satellite within the community land delimitation process. Based on the principle that information is crucial for decision making at the local and provincial level, the paper discusses the benefits of associating the CADASTA platform approach with community delimitation processes, where information gathered through a participatory process at the community level, can improve land use planning and inform decisions for land-based investments. The discussion will be based in a context of existing land information management systems (SiGIT), and the opportunities and challenges for accessing, archiving, and print information. Making these maps available for the public (including the community) is considered to be a key point for participatory planning and inclusive land-based investments.
What do communities want from land reform? A socio-technical exploration of community-led land rights documentation projects
1Land Equity International, Australia; 2Cadasta Foundation; 3KU Leuven
Mobile penetration and technology advances, together with guidelines such as ‘fit-for-purpose’ have arguably largely solved the problem of ‘insufficient technical capacity’. What remain are the social, institutional and political questions that will fundamentally impact success or failure as well as the sustainable implementation of land administration activities once the project is completed. In the land administration literature, these socio-technical elements have been under-researched, and are typically under-reported, or simply not considered, in project monitoring and evaluation.
This paper explores the application of an assemblage methodology to represent and interrogate the complex connections between the actors, structures and technologies that form the implementation of land administration at the local level. It focuses on community-led land rights documentation, as these projects present a significant opportunity to understand local values relating to land and land rights. The paper contributes to a better understanding of the socio-institutional aspects that drive land reform success.
"Rethinking Customary Land Governance, Fiduciary Duties and Development Opportunities form a Real Estate Management Perspective"
LAFAYETTE COLLEGE/ FAO-NRC, United States of America
The generally accepted definition of land governance demands fiduciary standards related to governance and management; studying and identifying basic problems occurring within the land administration system. Accordingly, effective customary land management should result in the most rational use of a community’s land resources qualified by the land tenure and ownership structure. This include sustainable management of growth and population dynamics, environment management and protection of valuable areas, development and monitoring land market opportunities, and the best use of land assets of the community, taking into consideration the rules of sustainable development. This paper uses a real estate management lens to examine whether examples of customary land governance and fiduciary practices in Ghana and Sierra Leone deviates from the asset management expectations required to achieve the highest and best use of land as a valuable sustaining community asset.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-08: The Link Between Planning and Urban Expansion|
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
Enabling Market to Deliver Affordable Urban Land and Housing at Scale: What Can We Learn and Adapt from China to Ethiopia?
1World Bank; 2The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing
Ethiopia is urbanizing rapidly and faces tremendous challenge in delivering affordable land and housing at scale. With a public land ownership regime, the country has taken steps to enable market forces to shape the allocation of urban land through the land lease system. Despite progress made, supply of land, housing, and financing needed for urbanization has been lagging. Access to urban land continues to be one of the key constraints for business. An estimated 70–80 percent of the urban population lives in informal dwellings. China’s successful urbanization has been underpinned by land reforms, which enabled the trading of land use rights and a market-driven land allocation, Moreover, urban china has successfully delivered affordable housing at scale, with an average of 5.56 million units constructed every year. This paper reviews China’s experience with rapid urbanization supported by land-based infrastructure financing, with a focus on the lessons learned, adaption needed, and pitfalls to be voided.
Land Use Problems and Land Management: A Land Inventory Study in Istanbul
1Avrasya Land Management and Urban Regeneration Strategy Development Center, Istanbul - Turkey; 2Emlak Konut Real Estate Investment Trust, Turkey; 3Okan University, Geomatics Engineering Department, Turkey
In Turkey; integrated land management policies to ensure the protection of our country’s natural, ecological, and cultural assets as well as sustainable development of its resources are required. Creation of an “land resource inventory” is a top priority for sustainable land management.
This paper seeks an answer to question how it can be achieved land management that meets national needs and expectations by adopting the principles of “Sustainability” and “Integrated Approach.” At this point, the study adopts a holistic perspective as it examines the entire land asset of Istanbul, which is the heart of finance and Turkey’s most populated metropolitan area with its natural structure, historical and cultural accumulation, and industrial structure. The study involves compiling a “land inventory” and “land use plans with the 1/25000 scale” to managing Istanbul’s all land assets centrally as well as creating policies and strategies for such management.
Spatial Planning Beyond Boundaries
Spatial Planning in India is still mostly limited to the urban agglomerations. With a strong urban growth a new type of urbanism arises, that seems to be neither rural nor urban. This so called “Peri-Urban” growth encompasses a large amount of valuable land, and if not regulated, causes high costs for the construction of public (technical) infrastructure and leads to conflicts with other land uses such as agriculture or with environmentally protected areas . Consistent and systematic spatial planning at the level of the region can be an important contribution to plan the rural-urban linkage and to prevent negative consequences of the aforementioned current spatial developments. In this regard, the Land Use Planning and Management Project, jointly implemented by the Indian Mistry of Rural Development and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, want to revive Spatial District Planning as provided for in the Indian Constitution.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-09: Implementing Land Consolidation in Practice|
Session Chair: Morten Hartvigsen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
Improving Land Management By Introducing The Achievements Gained Through Pilot Projects
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Directorate for Agricultural Land, Serbia
Within the framework of the activities on improving the management of agricultural land at the level of local self-governments in the Republic of Serbia, the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection - Directorate for Agricultural Land and the German Organization for International Cooperation GIZ are implementing the project Strengthening Municipal Land Management in Serbia. In the ongoing project phase the focus is on further improvement of human and institutional capacities in the field of rural development.
The project objective is to build up rural development in Serbia through an effective management of agricultural land including implementation of land consolidation schemes, measures to reduce abandoned agricultural land, development and implementation of the land policy programmes and appropriate legal regulations concerning agricultural land. Also, a major part of the project is related to the establishment and further upgrade of an information system for management of agricultural state-owned land.
Making Land Consolidation Feasible in the Western Balkans - Establishing a Focal Sub-Regional Expert Hub
GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo
Agricultural land fragmentation constrains agricultural development in countries of the Western Balkans on the way to become a member of EU. Investments into effective land consolidation programs contribute towards updated land cadasters, better infrastructure, better rural living and working conditions, increased investments, employment and increased direct and indirect tax revenues. Rural infrastructure can be improved, as state investments in agricultural infrastructure is often followed by much higher private sector investments. After land consolidation, land parcels become attractive for lease, sale and investments. Due to their history, countries in the Western Balkans are now seeking to modernize their mechanisms for land consolidation. The project “Strengthening Spatial Planning and Land Management” funded by the German Government, implemented by GIZ is supporting the Kosovo government in modernizing its legal framework on land consolidation. One approach sustaining the project’s efforts is to strengthen the ties between neighboring countries and establish mechanisms for peer-to-peer learning.
An Evaluation Of Land Consolidation Practices And Impact Assessment Of Projects: A Case Study Of Beyazaltin Village Land Consolidation Project In Eskisehir Province, Turkey
1General Directorate; 2Ankara University
An Evaluation Of Land Consolidation Practices And Impact Assessment Of Projects: A Case Study Of Beyazaltin Village Land Consolidation Project In Eskisehir Province, Turkey
Land Consolidation in Kosovo, Constrains and Difficulties
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Gmbh, Kosovo
The Republic of Kosovo is a small country in the Southeastern Europe, with an entire territory of 10. 908 km2. As such, it faces a complex situation pertaining to the land administration and ownership matters in general. Aside from a solid legal framework, land fragmentation proves to be the mayor obstacle when it comes to the land use versus spatial planning policies in place. Subsequently, there is a polarized agricultural sector with few large holdings and a large sector of small holdings. One major obstacle impeding land regulation in the field, remains the so called ‘old land consolidation’. This is has started back in 1983-1986 (under the ex YU legislation in force that time), and due to the social and political developments in place, it remains unfinished as of to date. The existing “Law on Land Regulation” follows the principle of voluntary land consolidation, as such not yet implementable.
InteGra Powered PRIDE(TM)s - Resolving the problem of land fragmentation and enhancing crop productivity
Tata Consultancy Services, India
The present paper addresses the problems related to land fragmentation and provide solutions to increase crop productivity through scientific farming practices, with the help of data science and digital technologies. The InteGra suite of technologies, developed at the Innovation Labs of Tata Consultancy Services enable farmers to record their information digitally, including the farm boundaries. The farm boundaries are documented at geo-spatial database with other relevant characteristics of the lands and crops. The analytical algorithm calculates the area based on the recorded farm boundary, which is further verified with documents available with farmer. The concept of PRIDETM enables the farmers to group themselves and access precision agriculture tools provided through InteGra services to become more competitive in the market. The digital farming services is one of the stepping stone for evergreen revolution and sustainable agriculture. These services are accessed by ~1 million farmers in 12 states of India.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-10: Impact Urban Land Reform on Affordable Housing|
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Land Tenure Systems and Urban Land Use: theory, and evidence from Kampala City
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
The local land tenure systems within Kampala strongly correlate with the density of different types of households and firms. However this simple analysis doesn’t control for the economic geography of the city. Using a Computable Spatial General Equilibrium Model, we develop a benchmark version of a city with firms and households optimally making their location decisions across the urban space, when faced with transport costs for shipping goods, commuting, and a fixed supply of urban land. The model is calibrated using detailed disaggregate data on Kampala, revealing local productivity and amenity parameters. These are explained using city-wide variation in land tenure systems. The evidence reveals that Mailo and Customary land, areas with relatively weak land rights, are particularly dense in informal housing, and difficult for firms to locate on. Simulating changes in local land tenure reveals potential economic benefits of land reform, and the unequal distribution of these welfare gains.
Understanding Housing Consumption Behavior Across The Formal And Informal Land Market Divide: Econometric Estimations And Household Views From Metropolitan Buenos Aires
1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic; 2Inter American Development Bank
In Latin American metropolitan areas, the mismatch between formal supply and demand for housing and serviced land is generally attributed to the dynamics of land markets including land market regulation. These regulations define an implicit, spatially differentiated upper bound on how many households can be accommodated within the formal housing sector. If the actual population exceeds the absorptive capacity of the formal sector, informal settlements are an inevitable outcome. The challenge addressed in this study is to build on a theoretical model of formal and informal housing sectors, enhancing its potential for application to specific LAC real world context, to understand the housing consumption behavior across the formal and informal land market divide, conditional on the effects of the land use regulations. The empirical estimations are based on innovative data, including households’ income & expenditure data, land use regulation and land prices, covering formal (regulated) and informal land markets.
The Brazilian Housing Program - Minha Casa Minha Vida – Effect on Urban Sprawl
Fundacao Getulio Vargas - Sao Paulo, Brazil
The Federal Brazilian Housing Subsidy Program “Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida”-PMCMV (My House My Life) was created in 2009 and has been the largest housing Program ever implemented in Latin America. We analyse the effects of the PMCMV on urban sprawl and its trend comparing the urban footprint in 2005 and 2015 and then the change in trend from 1995 to 2005 vis a vis 2005 to 2015, using satellite images. The conclusion is that the Program itself has no significant impact on urban sprawl: municipalities that received investments from the Program did not sprawl more than municipalities that did receive those investments. However, the number of house units do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the urban footprint. This is not a clear indication that the Program is causing sprawl, but it is an evidence that the Program does have an impact on the urban footprint.
Housing at the Centre of Urban Policies: The Case of Peru
129x55, Peru; 2World Bank
The “Housing at the Center” requires a paradigm shift from basic construction of houses to a more holistic approach which integrates regulatory frameworks, urban planning and finance, human rights and the need to place people at the center of sustainable urban development. The existing government’s strategy, programs and budget in Peru have been inadequate to the achievement of such goals. In this paper we produce multiple binary indicators for housing deficit that could close these information gaps that prevent housing policies in Peru to be more effective. We do so by using the National Household Surveys from 2001-2016 (near 100,000 questionnaires), where detailed information from the housing characteristics (including land tenure) and its occupants. With this information base, we have been able (i) to characterize the process of housing improvement and (ii) to identify the impact from labor income
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-11: Framing Standards to Anticipate Tomorrow's Technologies|
Session Chair: Trevor Taylor, OGC, United States of America
The Need For Technology And Approaches Of Tomorrow
Kadaster, Netherlands, The
The question is if the present technology and approaches will bring us land rights for all and the sustainable development we envisage. In this paper an optimistic view on the path we are on is presented , which does not mean that with the present approaches and level of technology land rights for all will be a fact by 2030. Innovation and the embracement of unforeseen developments are a prerequisite for success.
Megatrends Shaping the Future Cadastral Systems
1Aalto University, Finland; 2National Land Survey of Finland
Many wide-reaching global level changes such as digitalization and urbanization are taking place in a modern society. In order to maintain a fully functioning cadastral system, these changes and especially their impacts on cadastral systems need to be noticed. This paper discusses the cadastral systems with the assumptions that megatrends are shaping the future of our society, as well as the way people relate to the spatial objects. We examine the relevant megatrends and their anticipated impacts identified by an expert panel in the context of the Finnish cadastral system. The most significant megatrends to be further analyzed are digital culture, ubiquitous intelligence, increasing trend in transparency, accessibility and open data, urbanization, business ecosystems, new patterns of mobility, global risk society and knowledge-based economy. After that, we reflect the megatrends to answers given by international experts and discuss the anticipated impacts on the cadastral systems at a global scale.
Innovations in Land Data Governance: Unstructured Data, NoSQL, Blockchain, and Big Data Analytics Unpacked
Swinburne Business School, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Unstructured data, NoSQL, distributed databases (including blockchain technology), and big data analytics potentially change the landscape for land data creation, management, and dissemination. This paper provides a state-of-the-art examination of cases, prototypes, and demonstrators where these database tools are being explored and applied in the land sector – drawing on a range of international cases. The paper finds that whilst uptake of non-relational and distributed databases is occurring, it still remains largely at the level of demonstrator or pilot. Scaled uptake is occurring slower than anticipated: assessments of the broader impacts on the land sector and broader society remains premature. Meanwhile, emerging distributed analytical databases appear to be under explored. Overall, the examined technologies not only offer new operational approaches for the conventional land sector, but also the creation of entirely new land related services, products, and actors.
Future National Geospatial Agencies: Shaping Their Contribution To Society And The Sustainable Development Goals
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
The increasing reliance on location in the delivery of SDGs is an opportunity for National Mapping and Geospatial Agencies (NMGA). Managing fundamental geospatial data, fit for purpose, maintained and trusted, underpins the integration of all SDG spatial data. Future NMGAs may become data brokers as well as collectors/managers, SDI authorities, service providers and service consumers. NMGAs have to become the ‘go to’ authority for trusted fundamental geospatial data.
The future NMGA will connect with government, business, and academia customers. It will be an incubator of change as well as trusted ‘foot on the ground’.
The paper illustrates how geospatial information supports the delivery of SDGs, and demonstrates some of the key national changes that will enable this to occur. It draws upon the findings of the 2017 Cambridge Conference, where national mapping, cadaster and geospatial leaders debated these very points.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-12: Making Land Institutions more Gender Sensitive|
Session Chair: Katia Araujo, Landesa, United States of America
Women's Land Rights and Food Security in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya
Kenya has made important strides towards enhancing women’s land rights through the 2010 Constitution and the enactment of laws that seek to achieve gender equality. Despite this, there have been mixed results; according to an assessment of the progress of women’s land rights in Kenya’s legal framework in 2017 commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the country appears to have done well in a few aspects while it has performed dismally in others. Proceeding from this assessment, this paper explores the role that law has played in enabling women to contribute to food security. In doing this, we will identify pathways for enhancing women’s access to land and the shortcomings of the legal framework broadly conceived to include a wide array of actors, structures, and interests in laws, policies, and institutions. We will suggest ways in which women’s land rights can be better secured to promote food security.
Women’s Land Rights in Liberia: How can they be Protected and Strengthened in the Land Reform Process?
1LANDESA, United States; 2Land Governance Support Activity , Liberia; 3Women’s NGO Secretariat of Liberia, Liberia; 4Association of Female Lawyers of Liberia, Liberia
Liberia has a pluralistic land tenure system based on statutory and customary laws. In the customary tenure, the land is held in long-term use rights rather than ownership, as it is technically owned by the state, and is also considered to ultimately belong within the customary system to a greater tribal or clan group. Women access customary lands through their male relatives, usually via fathers (before marriage) or husbands, and their land use rights are limited to short-term crops as opposed to their male relatives right to plant long-term crops such as rubber trees.
Landesa conducted a women’s land rights study with particular focus on customary land tenure. The study’s findings will help to inform the government and its stakeholders in implementing Liberia's Land Rights Policy (2013) in a gender responsive way and to develop advocacy initiatives related to the promotion and protection of women’s land rights in Liberia.
The Effectiveness of a Social Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) Strategy in Changing Social Attitudes on Equal Rights to Property for Women – The Case of Kosovo
USAID Property Rights Program, Tetra Tech
The society in Kosovo is considered patriarchal and patrilineal, where property inheritance is traditionally transferred to men.
Even though the laws provide equal rights to property for men and women, the social norms continue to encourage patriarchal values that exclude women from property inheritance.
This paper will address the social context and norms related to property inheritance, discuss how these have negatively affected women’s ability to inherit and own property, and will describe interventions implemented under the USAID-funded Property Rights Program (PRP), namely a multi-channel Social and Behavior Change Communications (SBCC) campaign, with the aim of countering these negative effects.
PRP’s SBCC campaign was designed with the aim to encourage change in beliefs, attitudes and behaviors so that women are seen as capable stewards of property, valued economic actors, and benefiting from tenure security.
Customary land tenurein matrilineal societies of Tanzania: Does inheritance matter?Experience from Morogoro rural district
Ardhi University, Tanzania
This paper reflects on customary land tenure in matrilineal societies in Tanzania. In large parts of the country, customary land tenure operates under the lineages of patrilineal or matrilineal. The study was conducted in Morogoro Rural District. The area is dominated by Waluguru who traditionally follow the matrilineal system. The available relevant documents were reviewed to provide secondary information. Interviews and life stories were employed to provide primary information about customary land tenure system and trends overtime. The study discovered that inheritance has been a major system of obtaining/transferring land from one generation to another. Moreover, education, monetary economy, land reforms and urbanization have challenged inheritance practices. Apart from that, purchasing and renting are becoming the common mechanisms of obtaining land. The Luguru are constrained by low levels of income and education. The study recommends that, efforts should be directed in education as a tool for improving the income status.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-13: Models for Land Administration Cases|
Session Chair: Ibrahim Mwathane, Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya
After the Title? Building a Multi-Stakeholder Platform in Support of Territorial Governance in Honduras
1Property Institute; 2The World Bank; 3Cornell University
Land titles are often the object of efforts geared toward securing the land rights of indigenous peoples and promote sustainable development. Although land legalization is a critical step, follow-up action is required to consolidate these rights and unleash their development potential. The proposed paper will examine the process of building a multi-stakeholder platform to promote land governance in the Muskitia region in eastern Honduras. The establishment of this platform follows the government’s formal recognition of the ancestral land rights of the indigenous peoples in Muskitia. Since 2016, the platform has focused on coordinating a development strategy for Muskitia which integrates the indigenous organizations and newly recognized territorial councils. The paper will assess the performance of the platform and compare it to similar processes elsewhere in the world. The paper will identify lessons that can help guide a post-titling agenda and coordinate development strategies with the participation of indigenous organizations.
Sustainability Of Land Use And Land Tenure Systems: A Case Study Of Polatli District In Ankara Province, Turkey
Sustainability Of Land Use And Land Tenure Systems: A Case Study Of Polatli District In Ankara Province, Turkey
Formalising Land Rental Transactions in Ethiopia – Is Land Certification enough?
1Nathan Associates, United Kingdom; 2DAI, United Kingdom
The Land Investment for Transformation Programme (LIFT) funded by UK aid works with the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) to deliver Second Level Land Certificates (SLLC) to smallholder farmers and to create a Rural Land Administration System (RLAS) that will ensure that the register is maintained and land-related transactions are recorded. The introduction of SLLC and RLAS is expected to improve both the administration and management of land in Ethiopia, and contribute to improved productivity and increased growth and incomes. In order to maximise the impact of and leverage the opportunities created by a better functioning land system, LIFT applies a market systems approach to three intervention areas: access to finance, rural land rental and agriculture. The focus of this paper will be the rural land rental market in Ethiopia and how a combination of SLLC, RLAS and market systems thinking allows current constraints in the market to be addressed.
Securing Customary Land Rights For Development In Namibia: Learning From New Approaches, Opportunities And Social Settings.
1Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia; 2Ministry of Land Reform - Project for Communal Land Development.
Communal land in Namibia extend over 33.4 million hectares supporting 70% of the population but due to historical legacy and unresolved land issues continue to face lack of investment in farming infrastructure. Tenure insecurity persists in communal areas as very few communities have title to land outside informal traditional tenure arrangements. Although Namibia has made strides towards socio-economic and political development a majority of the population still depend on the land for livelihoods making it increasingly urgent to provide for a mechanisms that safeguards land rights within the community social settings. The paper is informed by the Project for Communal Land Development in efforts to secure group rights in Kavango East and Kavango West. Strategies and lessons learnt from other Regions and projects are explored. Formalising group rights over commonages is expected to spread infrastructure investment across a larger group of people and facilitate economic diversification for improved livelihoods.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-14: Roundtable: Land sector impact evaluations|
Session Chair: Harold Liversage, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
Guidelines for Impact Evaluation of Land Tenure and Governance Interventions
Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
USAID, United States of America
Landesa, United States of America
|3:30pm - 3:45pm||Coffee Break|
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-01: Land Value Capture to Finance Cities|
Session Chair: Valerie-Joy Santos, World Bank, United States of America
Creating Value to Capture It – Property Rights in Nairobi
1Ministry of Land,Housing and Urban Development, Kenya; 2Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya
to be filled
Land Value Capture in South Africa: Applicability and Constraints
University of Cape Town, South Africa
to be filled
Porto Maravilho: Creating Social and Economic Value through Revitalization of Rio de Janeiro’s Industrial Waterfront
to be filled
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-02: Land Adminstration and Governance Performance Monitoring|
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Improving Coverage In A Challenging Environment: Evidence And Lessons From Kano
Kano State Bureau for Land Management
Building a Unified Land Information System for All Tenure Types
Challenges And Benefits From Integrating Textual And Spatial Data
Registro Nacional, Costa Rica
From Diagnosis to Action: Using Monitoring Data to Improve Governance
1University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 2Stategeocadastre
Real estate registration system in Dubai: leveraging innovation and the impact of data centralization
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-03: Building on the SDGs to Assist Countries Meeting Land Degradation Neutrality Goals|
Session Chair: Barbara Ryan, GEO Secretariat, Switzerland
The SDG Indicator on Land Degradation Neutrality
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United States of America
to be filled
Forests, Trees and Agroforestry: contribution to Land Degradation Neutrality
In this presentation we will highlight how Forests, trees and agroforestry, when adequately used, managed and governed, can play a central role in ensuring land degradation neutrality by restoring degraded lands, improving production systems, ensuring food security and nutrition, enhancing people’s livelihoods and addressing climate change. We will also present actions undertaken within the framework of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) contributing to the Land Degradation Neutrality initiative and its three indicators: Land cover, Land productivity, Carbon stocks.
FTA, led by CIFOR, is the world's largest research for development program to enhance the role of forests, trees and agroforestry in sustainable development, food security and to address climate change.
Landscapes and Land Degradation Neutrality
World Resources Institute, United States of America
to be filled
The Economics of Land Degradation Neutrality in Asia
to be filled
United Nations Statistics Division, United States of America
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-04: How Do Global Policies Support Local Change|
Session Chair: Christian Graefen, Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany
The VGGT and F&G: Versatile Tools for Tenure Governance
Responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries, forests and other natural resources is a major input to the achievement of food security and nutrition in many countries, especially in communities of small-scale faming systems which provide the dominant sources of livelihoods. Yet achieving responsible tenure governance is beset with numerous challenges from community up to national and policy levels. The paper analysis the application of the Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT) and the Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa (F&G) to dealing with these challenges in 17 countries through an EU Land Governance Program. It analysis the theory of change underlying the application of VGGT and F&G, lessons learnt in implementation, capitalization of experiences and the key challenges likely to affect the sustainability of the gains made in implementation.
Open Data as a Mechanism of Social Change for Vulnerable Urban Communities
1Habitat for Humanity; 2Cadasta
This paper discusses Habitat for Humanity’s Solid Ground campaign which was launched in 2015 and offers free legal and technical advice for land and resource rights in the Latin and Caribbean region through its program ALO Suelo Urbano. The paper details how the program connects individuals and communities in need of counsel to a lawyer or trained paralegal, free of charge. These legal professionals work with residents in need to gather the necessary information to understand the problems and barriers being faced in order to advise them of possible approaches to secure their land rights. Tracking the various exchanges and trends of the program participants is performed by the Cadasta platform to ensure that their land dispute cases are documented and prevented in the future.
Towards Transparency in Land Ownership: a Methodology to Research Beneficial Land Ownership
1Transparency International Secretariat, Germany; 2Traverse Research; 3IALTA; 4Global Witness; 5Research Consultant
In many countries, unidentified private individuals and legal entities retain significant economic benefits from land. The issue of anonymous “beneficial ownership” affects land tenure security globally. The lack of transparency in land registries (including beneficial ownership information) and land transfers pose a major land governance challenge. This lack of transparency can make it harder for affected communities and or governments to hold legal entities accountable for any sort of violation (environmental, human rights, etc) they commit.
Although in some sectors (for example finance), beneficial ownership transparency has been introduced as a means to address money laundering and corruption, this research methodology focuses primarily on transparency for the purposes of improving accountability in land use, land-related decision making and land transactions.
The presented methodology is meant to provide a basic framework for researching beneficial land ownership at one primary unit of geographic analysis, examining Scotland and Sierra Leone as pilots.
A Global Review of Land Tenure, Climate Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity
1RMIT University, Australia; 2Land and GLTN Unit, UN-Habitat, Kenya
This global research project seeks to investigate the interrelationships between land tenure, climate vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Drawing on a comprehensive literature review on how land tenure relates to natural disasters, climate change, food security and displacement the objective is to then focus on the aspects of climate vulnerability and adaptive capacity.
Other methods include the development of 4 country case studies by local experts (Solomon Islands, the Philippines, Uganda, and Trinidad and Tobago), the establishment of a reference group of experts, peer review and validation at workshops.
This papers presents the preliminary findings of this review. The final outcome will be a global report on the relationships between land tenure, climate vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the land tools that can be best applied to address the issues raised.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-05: Transforming Land Registration in Greece|
Session Chair: Chrysi Potsiou, FIG, Greece
Drawing on Best Practice to Assess the Geomaturity of a Country’s NSDI Using a Recent Example of the Work Undertaken in Greece
1The World Bank; 2Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Greece; 3New Frontiers Ltd; 4Location International
This paper will give a strategic understanding of the changing landscape of geospatial and its increasing use. It will give details of how the Greek government geospatial community have undertaken work in 2016 and 2017 to learn how to improve their own geospatial landscape. The paper will illustrate how the Government of Greece has measured their own geospatial maturity and how they learnt from ‘good practice’ from four nations that they chose, due to their known maturity in geospatial information. This paper will have transferable learnings for other countries wishing to modernise their own geospatial infrastructure.
A Model for Modernizing the Organization of Land Registration Systems
1The World Bank; 2Location International; 3New Frontiers Ltd; 4Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Greece
A commitment to continually improve the ‘customer experience’ for Citizens when they use the Country’s Land Registration System is important. This commitment should also extend to fundamentally improving the working experience for all employees, the application of appropriate new technologies, a focus on improving processes and a commitment to effective cost management.
The paper will describe a Model for transforming organizations that manage Land Registration and offer an example of its use within Greece. The Model proposes a logical framework to develop a new Strategy for an organisation within the overall context of the requirements for Land Registration and the various Stakeholders affected by, and involved in, Land Registration within a Country.
An understanding will be gained of a strategic approach that Governments can apply to improve outcomes and it is considered that the Corporate Strategy Model is applicable in both developing and developed world land registration systems.
Understanding Business Planning for the Modernisation of a Land Registration System
1World Bank; 2Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Greece; 3Location International; 4New Frontiers Ltd
This paper focuses on the business planning and financial planning involved with the Transformation Programme that is being undertaken by the Government of Greece to organizationally modernize the Land Registration Process.
Historically, Greece has used a ‘Person Based ’ deeds system to register rights, through 392 individual Mortgage Offices, located throughout the country..
The Greek Government has decided this transformation will be achieved by establishing a single Public Sector body and within nine months of establishment, the 392 organisations, the majority of whom are currently in the private sector, will have migrated to 92 Branch offices in the Public Sector.
This paper describes the process for building a three year business plan to support the transformation but ensuring continuous operation of the land registration system.
From this paper there will be transferable learning that could be used in other land registration systems globally.
Creating a Strategy for the Organisational Modernisation of a Land Registration System
1The World Bank; 2Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Greece; 3Location International; 4New Frontiers Ltd
This paper focuses on the Transformation Programme that is being undertaken by the Government of Greece to organizationally modernize the Land Registration Process.
Historically, Greece has used a ‘Person Based’ deeds system to register rights, through 392 individual Mortgage Offices, located throughout the country..
The Greek Government has decided this transformation will be achieved by establishing a single Public Sector body and within twenty four months of establishment, the 392 organisations, the majority of whom are currently in the private sector, will have migrated to 92 Branch offices in the Public Sector.
This paper will describe the development of the Organisational Reform Strategy that underpins this organisational Transformation Programme. It will demonstrate how by using a stepped process of a preparation phase, a migration phase and an optimization phase, the land registration system is protected from service disruption during such a significant transformation to modernise the land registration system.
Understanding The ‘People Issues’ Of Organisationally Modernising a Land Registration System
1Location International; 2Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Greece; 3World Bank; 4New Frontiers Ltd
This paper will focus on the land registration staff issues and citizen issues involved with the Transformation Programme that is being undertaken by the Government of Greece to organizationally modernize the Land Registration Process. It will describe the development of the Human Resource (HR) Strategy to underpin this organisational Transformation Programme and also how a greater understanding of the Stakeholders involved was derived.
It was agreed that the new organisation should not merely continue the work carried out by the 392 organisations, many of which are in the Private Sector as they transform over a twenty four month period into 92 Branch Offices working within one Public Sector entity - but that they should fundamentally improve the working experience.
From this paper there will be transferable learnings that could be used in other land registration systems that wish to modernise to meet the needs of citizens in an ever increasingly technological world.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-06: Adressing Impact of Large Scale Land Investments|
Session Chair: Jean-Philippe Colin, IRD, France
From Abundance to Scarcity: Consequences of Large Scale Land Acquisitions in central Mali.
Lancaster University/IIED, United Kingdom
This longitudinal study of land and livelihoods in Kala, central Mali explores how the bush has filled up with migrant farmers, and consequences for agricultural sustainability, and farmer-herder relations. In 1980, when I first visited the region, the villagers of Kala said – “the bush is so big, it can never finish”. Now the villages say sadly “the bush is finished”. How has land abundance turned to scarcity? From the 1970s, farmers have been fleeing from villages close to the irrigated Office du Niger because of bird damage to crops. In 2009, 20,000 ha was given by the Malian government to a Chinese sugar company, to the south-east of Kala. Hundreds of farmers lost their farms, and they too are all now flooding into the Kala area begging for land to cultivate. Satellite images for the last 20 years illustrate clearly how space around this and neighbouring villages is filling up.
Bottlenecks and Opportunities to Generate Economic and Environmental Benefits out of Sustainable Forest Plantations in Mozambique
World Bank, Mozambique
Forest plantations can provide rural livelihood opportunities and enhance natural resource management in Mozambique. In order for these benefits to be achieved, different sized multi-purpose plantation mosaics led by local landholders and potential external investors in partnership with them need to be fostered. Mozambique can be a competitive location for forest planting given the potential land availability and reasonable growth potential. Currently this potential is under-realized due to competition with illegal logging, infrastructure shortcomings, and particulalry challenges related to land access and barriers in access to finance. This brief suggest ways to address these barriers through a variety of measures tailored for different size and purpose of forest plantations, including investment financing, emission reductions payments, matching grants and xxx. These will facilitate planting decisions, but for the sector to become long-term self-sustaining, the currently quite low financial profitability of the practice and low skills levels needs to be addressed.
Labor Impacts of Large Agricultural Investments: focus on Mozambique, Kenya and Madagascar
1French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and Malagasy Land Observatory, Madagascar; 2CIRAD and International Land Coalition (ILC), Rome; 3CIRAD and University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CIRAD, France; 5Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 6CETRAD (Centre for Training and Integrated Research In ASAL Development), Kenya; 7University of Kyoto, Japan
What are the concrete impacts of large-scale agricultural investment development with regards labor creation? This paper compares the employment impacts of private farming enterprises in Kenya, Mozambique and Madagascar. Using a methodology common, a total of 1,800 household were randomly selected and interviewed in impacted areas (buffer zone around farming enterprises) and in counterfactual zones. Impacts of the enterprises in terms of jobs created and household living conditions depend on: the business models of the enterprises, the crops produced and, in particular, the intensity of labor requirements. The jobs often benefit the most vulnerable segments of the population: poor households, migrants, youth and / or women. This can be seen as an advantage in terms of poverty reduction or critically considered as the direct result of the absence of alternatives for the most vulnerable. All these results help to inform decision-makers on the models of agriculture to be promoted.
Legal Claim Making in Large-Scale Land Based Investments – Does it Help Affected Communities?
University of Tuebingen, Germany
The paper focuses on one way in which global regulatory frameworks in regards to large-scale land based investments are supposed to work: Through providing local actors with arguments and instruments through which they can defend their rights vis-à-vis investing companies (legal mobilization). So far, systematic research into this issue is missing. The paper will address this gap through providing a theoretical framework based on the concept of legal opportunity structure that includes both a top-down, institutional as well as a bottom-up, actor centered view. Applying the framework to Sierra Leone shows that both legal reform as well as practical opportunities have to be considered for improving the bargaining situation of local actors. Apart from supporting existing research, my findings create new insights: The role of legal assistance for local actors as well as the differences between companies in dealing with legal mobilization should be subject of further research.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-07: Operational & Legal Aspects of Community-based Data Capture|
Session Chair: Emidio Noormahomed, Fundação Iniciativa para Terras Comunitárias (iTC-F), Mozambique
Mobile Applications for Secure Tenure (MAST) and the Technical Register for Social Tenure (TRUST) – development and applications in Iringa and Mbeya Districts in Tanzania
1DAI US; 2DAI US; 3DAI US; 4DAI Europe; 5DAI US
Following completion of pilot work using the 'Mobile application for Secure Tenure' (MAST) in three villages in Iringa District Tanzania in May 2016, USAID commissioned the Land Tenure Assistance Project, under the Feed the Future programme, to scale up to a further 41 villages in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) in Iringa and Mbeya Districts. For the long term maintenance of the registers at village and district levels the LTA is developing new approaches to maintaining the registers under the 'Technical Register Under Social Tenure (TRUST)' and is supporting low cost methods for village land use planning.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview ongoing progress and of the innovative approaches and developments, both in field and office procedures being deployed, the role of MAST within the procedural framework, and the development and deployment of TRUST at village and district level.
Strengthening GIS standards to improve monitoring of land indicators for SDGs: Using India as a use case
1Natural Resources Management Consultants (NRMC), India; 2Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands; 3University of Reading, United Kingdom
This paper presents India as a pilot case for strengthening the use of spatial standards in the socio-economic domain with a specific focus on SDGs. Based on the experience of mapping Women Land Rights in India, this research expands the focus to other land-related indicators in the SDG agenda. The paper is structured as follows: it maps the existing spatial datasets relevant to land-related SDGs indicators in India; It identifies existing standards for interoperability of spatial data, assessing the suitability of these standards in the SDGs context; It then proceeds with the individuation of gaps and best practices for the interoperability of different spatially disaggregated data; It concludes with a case study of mapping WLR against other selected socio-economic indicators included in the global SDGs agenda, eventually providing policy recommendations based on the spatial overlay of different sources for SDGs indicators in India.
An Overview Of Innovative Tools For Land Tenure Documentation
ITC, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
Innovative approaches to land tenure documentation are increasingly being developed and implemented mainly through pilot projects in various countries and application contexts. These approaches combine mobile digital technologies and flexible database structures with community based approaches for capturing and managing tenure rights. We discuss 12 such initiatives. A basic commonality of the initiatives is the general approach to tenure documentation through community based digital data capture via mobile applications – where land administration’s work does not suffice or has failed and to acknowledge the diversity of land tenure regimes. Looking at the initiatives and tools in more detail a number of differences become apparent in terms of financing mechanisms and organizational characteristics, as well as technological design and application domains. Our discussion provides a basis to point out theoretical directions for future research as well as points of consideration for evaluation.
Apps and Drones for Better Land Governance
1Foundation for Economic Freedom, Philippines; 2Foundation for Economic Freedom, Philippines; 3The Asia Foundation, Philippines
A time and cost study on public land titling revealed that land adjudication and land surveying are time-consuming and expensive. This paper describes two reforms that addresses these constraints. First is the use of mobile applications in accepting and managing title applications under the adjudication process. Second is the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) or drones to support land surveys. The implementation of the reforms is done under the Development Entrepreneurship model where technically sound and politically feasible reforms are pursued. The mobile applications make adjudication efficient and transparent while the drones generate high resolution photos and survey-grade maps that meet government standards. The paper concludes that both technological interventions have the potential to improve the titling process and eventually, the state of land governance in the Philippines.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-08: Policy Options for Shaping City Form|
Session Chair: Michael Sutcliffe, City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Achieving Urban Spatial justice in South Africa: Context, Reality and the Integrated Urban Development Framework
City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
By 2050 eight in ten South Africans will live in urban areas. Colonialism and the apartheid state have created a highly fragmented and unequal urban system. South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP), argues that sustainable development depends on the particular local context in which the settlement development is taking place, including the need for spatial justice, spatial sustainability, spatial resilience, spatial quality and spatial efficiency. This paper describes the methodology used to both define the South African urban system as a whole and also the fragmentation within the urban areas themselves, as part of the process of defining the Integrated Urban Development Framework in South Africa. It calls for a measured and differentiated approach to the New Urban Agenda, taking into account looking at this new deal for South African cities and towns, by steering urban growth towards a sustainable growth model of compact, connected and coordinated cities and towns.
The Concentration Dilemma: Urban-Rural Transition in Metropolitan Area of Chengdu Since Early 2000s
Future Cities Laboratory, ETH Zurich
During the last one and half decade in China, a policy of spatial concentration of rural settlements is widely favored to manage the urbanization of the countryside. And yet, many of the projects developed under this policy have triggered radical and disruptive changes in the social and morphological structure of the countryside, without necessarily delivering the continuous social harmony or economic growth originally envisioned. This paper focuses on this misalignment of policy goals and effects, what we call the “concentration dilemma”, and also some emerging alternative development strategies. Drawing on case studies supported by first-hand interviews, innovative mapping techniques and archival documents, the paper assesses both state-led policy and bottom-up alternatives in terms of short- and long-term socio-economic, community and environmental criteria. In the end, it concludes towards a discussion on the potential of developing more site-specific policies for a more resilient and sustainable scenario for urban-rural transition.
Changing rural to urban in extractive territories. Land administration comparing Argentina, Chile, and Peru
MIT, United States of America
Latinamerica extractive sector is growing and changing rural territories. Extractive cities are developing but they depend on non-renewal resources. Their temporality is, as well, limited. The objective of this paper is to compare land administration sustainability when the core economy of this cities is no longer the extractive sector.
The paper evaluates impacts of extractive economies that lead change in rural territories where environmental, social and economic issues introduce urbanity at a very fast dynamic. On the one extreme, the land administration can be an opportunity to leverage infrastructure and urban expansion. On the other extreme, land speculation without adequate policies can make fail any attempt to plan and equitable growth.
Firstly, I describe rural and urban settings that illustrate how land policies can deal with urban change. Secondly, I analyze the examples given regarding centralization/decentralization and public/private partnerships. Finally, I compare land policies that can finance infrastructure, urban expansion, and housing.
Using Data in Urban Planning To Decongest The City Of Nairobi: Lessons From Other Cities
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Car Design Research Cambridge
Urbanization is important for development but requires better planning to maximize on its benefits and address challenges. The population of Nairobi, estimated to be 5 million, continues to grow despite the expectation that people would move to the counties in the aftermath of devolution introduced by the 2010 Constitution. The transport, water, sewerage and other infrastructure is chocking as more pressure is brought to bear on it by the exponential growth. Traffic jams in Nairobi have increasingly become a nightmare for city dwellers with many hours spent in snarl-ups at peak times in the city and its environs. This paper looks at how data from different sources can be used for more integrated planning of the city of Nairobi to enhance mobility. It analyses the Nairobi Integrated County Development Plan and the Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure with a view to identifying entry points for data use in urban planning.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-09: Land Readjustment: Case Studies|
Session Chair: Mansha Chen, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Housing Policies to Increase Resilience to Disaster and Climate Related Events in Colombia
World Bank, Colombia
The need for safer, affordable housing is now global, and interest among cash-starved governments in retrofitting existing housing is increasing. For good reason: retrofit solutions would not only reduce the budget-busting costs of recovering from catastrophic natural disasters, they would save thousands of lives. Standardized and cost-effective retrofit techniques could raise existing substandard structures to adequate safety standards comparable to those for new construction. Upgraded housing policies could also induce voluntary resettlement for households living in areas where risk cannot be mitigated. In this paper we analyze the case of Colombia where according to UNGRD, 30,376 emergencies have affected 1.6 million housing units generating economic losses above US$5.6 billion between 1998 and 2016. We conclude that by rethinking the budget allocation and administrative of its housing programs Colombia could save lives, protect assets and significantly reduce the economic and life losses of different disaster and climate related events.
Land governance: Public and Private Planning practice for Land readjustment in Peri Urban areas in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Ardhi University, Tanzania
Rapid urbanization in Africa contributes to challenges in spatial distribution of people and utilization of land resources. Cities’ sprawl is gradually becoming harder to deal with owing to this ever-increasing urban population, which demand for land and consequentially influence changes in land planning in peri-urban areas, where conversion of agricultural land to urban land uses is rampant. While development of peri-urban areas in the global south is shaped by new plans both formal and informal, remarkably, little attention has been paid to the LR as one of the promising tool to address the informality of land in these areas. The study adopted qualitative research methodology to bring the discussion on LR projects to facilitate production of spaces in peri urban areas. Encouraging Private Public Partnership (PPP) in land delivering projects in peri-urban areas is important to ensure effective use of resources and reduce delays to achieving the new urban agenda.
Amaravati Capital City Land Pooling Scheme
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India
After state bifurcation in 2014, the Government of Andhra Pradesh selected the Amaravati region as the new capital of Andhra Pradesh. A Land Pooling Scheme (LPS) has been adopted as the main instrument for land assembly for development of the Amaravati Capital City area of 217 sqkm, wherein the land parcels owned by individuals or group of owners are legally consolidated. Under the LPS, landowners voluntarily sign ownership rights over to Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA) and will receive back proportionate developed plots after urban infrastructure such as roads, sewage lines, electricity connections, etc. are put in place. To date, the LPS covers about 85-90% of the 38,500 acres of required private land that belong to about 24,900 land owners who have come forward and consented to participate in the scheme. The LPS has been designed to minimize physical resettlement.
Land Readjustment: Solving Urban Problems Through Innovative Approach
1The Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan; 2The University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering, Japan
Land readjustment is an important instrument for the development and the redevelopment of urban areas widely used around the world, especially in Japan, but still relatively unknown in several other countries. In this sense, the Japan International Cooperation Agency gathered international specialists and published “Land Readjustment: Solving Urban Problems Through Innovative Approach” to provide high quality knowledge for the international audience. The past decade saw an unprecedented interest on land readjustment and, in an interconnected world, the instrument needs to be learned, critically examined and adapted to the most diverse urban contexts. The major value of this publication is to bring together theory, an overview of the Japanese experience and 19 case studies from different countries, ranging from the basic functions to the most complex land readjustment processes, in order to reach a better understanding of the fundamental contributions of the method to different systems of governance and urban planning.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-10: Games & Experimental Economics|
Session Chair: Tobias Vorlaufer, University of Marburg, Germany
Political Trust, Risk Preferences, and Land-Taking Compensation: Evidence from Survey Experiments in China
1University of Connecticut, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University, P.R. China
Land acquisition becomes a touchstone for protests and conflict during China's urbanization, driving local governments to diversify land-taking compensation from solely one-time cash payments to multiple payments, notably, in the form of pension insurance and yearly dividends. To what extent do farmers support the new compensation schemes? This study establishes the importance of political trust and risk preferences on individual decision-making. Political distrust induces farmers to choose traditional one-time cash payments over multiple cash payments. Both risk-averse and risk-seeking individuals prefer one-time cash payments to yearly dividends. The findings are developed using two choice experiments: We elicit individual compensation decision-making by asking farmers to state their preferences over hypothetical alternative compensation instruments; We elicit risk preferences using a lottery-choice experiment with varying probability of winning real monetary rewards. The findings are important to understanding to what extent the government efforts in innovative compensation designs are effective at quelling rural anger.
Introducing and Terminating External Incentives: A Field Experimental Study of Forest Conservation as a Common-Pool Resource Dilemma
University of Marburg, Germany
The aim of this study is to analyze whether external institutional incentives have a lasting effect on conservation that persists even after incentives are terminated. We set up a forestry-framed common-pool resource game in Namibia and introduced positive(reward) and negative(fee) incentives that aimed to increase cooperation. The participants in the game were small-scale farmers and they had to make decisions about either clearing new fields in the forest or staying on their old ones, which resembles decisions they make in real life. The game was played over several periods and the incentives were ceased after some time to test for persisting effects in a post-incentive period. Results show that increases in cooperation persist after termination of negative incentives. After termination of positive incentives, cooperation decreased, albeit not significantly. We also find that cooperation increased over time in a control group that had never received additional incentives.
System Dynamics model for preventing land expropriation conflict
1huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of; 2huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of; 3huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of
Land expropriation conflict (LEC) shall be such a gradual procedure from land expropriation risk, to the contradiction in land expropriation and then the LEC. The prevention on LEC shall also be such a complex system problem, in this study it depends on entropy principle to interpret the cutting process of the energy in LEC, and construct the system dynamics model for preventive measures of LEC. Then it analyzes the evolution and prevention process of LEC by taking Wuhan as example. The studies shown that, the prevention on LEC shall be the process with the interaction between positive entropy and negative entropy, such preventive system meets the dissipation structure characteristics. When the negative entropy input was quite low and it cannot inhibit the increase of positive entropy, the probability of land expropriation shall increase accordingly.
Political Instability and Perceptions of Land Tenure and Governance in Zambia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
On August 11th, 2016 the incumbent president of Zambia, Edgar Lungu, was re-elected amid allegations of electoral fraud from his primary opponent Hakainde Hichilema. Rising tensions in Zambia and a series of events (including a motorcade confrontation and market fire) led to Hichilema’s arrest and later President Lungu’s invocation of emergency powers on July 3rd, 2017. This paper explores the effects of the political instability on perceptions of land tenure security and governance in Zambia. Specifically, this paper asks if individuals holding geographically contrarian political views exhibit lower tenure security than their peers. This is accomplished by analyzing a large-N household survey collected for the impact evaluation of U.S. Agency for International Development’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Zambia program in combination with by polling-station level election results published by the Electoral Commission of Zambia.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-11: Measuring Tenure Security Perceptions|
Session Chair: Alexandra Hartman, UCL, United Kingdom
Measuring Citizen Perceptions of Tenure Security: Test Surveys of the Global Property Rights Index (PRIndex) in Tanzania, Colombia and India
1Land Alliance, United States of America; 2ICED, United States of America
This paper describes national-level test surveys carried out by PRIndex in Tanzania, Colombia and India in 2017 to contribute to the development of a globally comparable methodology for measuring individual perceptions of security of property rights in national samples.
Scrutinizing the Status Quo: Gender-disaggregated Implications of Social and Economic Transformations on Perceived Tenure Security in Mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute
This study examined the drivers of tenure insecurity in Mozambique using a National Agricultural Survey (TIA) 2014 and 2015 supplemental survey on land tenure. Perceived risk of land expropriation by the government or concession by private investors is used to measure land tenure insecurity. The empirical findings reveal that public tenure risk is higher among female spouses as compared to female heads. Moreover, larger proportion of migrants, land market vibrancy, economic vibrancy and land abundance varies between male and females within the same household and across households. Generally, tenure insecurity is higher in communities with more active land market and vibrant economy. Results reinforce the need that, beside the efforts made to secure land rights at household and community level in the country, land tenure reforms should take into account intra-household dimension in addressing issues of land tenure security.
Measuring Community Perceptions of Tenure Security: Evidence from Four African Countries
1World Bank, United States of America; 2The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
Despite decades of investment in rural land registration in sub-Saharan Africa, the empirical results of such programs, for example on agricultural productivity, remain startlingly mixed outside a few noteworthy exceptions. We hypothesize this may be at least partly due to limited analysis of the impact of land registration on tenure security, which we define here as the assurance that existing rights-holders will continue to possess their land. This paper therefore aims to provide pre-registration evidence on (i) rural landholders’ perceived tenure security and (ii) potential drivers of tenure security in four African countries with extant customary tenure systems to understand whether there is room to further strengthen tenure in such settings. The findings indicate that existing tenure is perceived to be quite secure by the vast majority of respondents, suggesting that, to be successful, land registration efforts will need to be carefully tailored to address local threats to tenure security.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-12: Legal & Practical Barriers to Gender Neutral Land Ownership|
Session Chair: Patricia K. Mbote, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Women, Business and the Law 2018: data that matters for women's property rights
The World Bank, United States of America
Women Business and the Law provides open access data identifying critical legal gender differences impacting women’s economic empowerment . Covering 189 economies, it is a simple and timesaving resource for World Bank Group practitioners, policy makers and civil society networks interested in finding out where the bottlenecks relating to property rights impacting women’s inclusion and empowerment may lie. Property rights are a focus of the project analyzing linkages with underlying legislation such as family, inheritance laws and land laws and impacts on areas such as women’s ability to access credit. A new land module has been added in the 2017-2018 research cycle, to look at what state incentives exist to increase women’s access to property by individually or jointly titling their land and housing. We also examine the legal requirement of including women as co-owners in documents and issues around spousal consent when selling or buying immovable property.
A Comparative Analysis of Women's Legal Rights to Land Worldwide
Public Prosecutor's Office of Berlin, Germany
The aim of this paper is to put each country’s regulations of women’s marital property into a global context and to understand the historical, religious and political foundations of the current property legislations worldwide with regards to married women’s ownership. The equal distribution of land ownership can be considerably stimulated or hindered by laws that promote or deny women’s equal rights to property. The marital property regime is one of the main bases of property ownership for women. By comparing the different legal marital regimes, this paper provides relevant information to foster the discourse on how to secure women’s land rights. In this way, it contributes to a nuanced understanding of the interconnectivity of national land governance systems worldwide from a gender perspective. Among other sources, it draws on the published data of the World Bank Group’s project Women, Business and the Law.
Achieving SDG Indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans: Partnerships for Gender Equality in Land Ownership and Control
Legal framework assessments in the Western Balkans have revealed that while some gaps could be addressed through regulatory reform and the adoption of by-laws, notaries and registration offices have an important role to play in ensuring that the law is implemented and that women’s interests in land are registered and secure. The current phase of an ongoing collaboration between FAO, GIZ and IUNL is focused on developing guidelines for notaries and registration offices, pinpointing steps in their service provision where the integration of gender considerations is of critical importance to ensure that all rights holders – men and women – are correctly identified, and their rights recorded and protected.
The paper provides an overview of the current collaboration in the context of implementing the Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests, as well as the achievement of SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the sub-region.
Transformative reparations: A mean identify, eliminate and correct preexisting structural inequality on women's access to land
Independant, United States of America
Colombia’s legal order prescribes equality between men and women. In rural areas, however, the persistence of social and cultural practices that discriminate on the basis of gender prevail. This has affected women’s access to land ownership, and now that Colombia is on the verge of breaking from decades of conflict it has adopted a series of measures reflective of transitional justice norms. One of these: the “Victims Law”, establishes a special process for land restitution. This law establishes several measures that guarantee women’s right to rural property. However, women in rural areas have not sufficiently benefitted. This paper argues that these barriers could be overcome if Colombia adopted specific, transformative reparation measures aimed at identifying, eliminating, and correcting preexisting structural inequality on women’s access to land and suggests a set of defined transformative reparation measures to be adopted by judges in cases when the land restitution claimant is a woman.
Redesigning Procedures to Encourage Legal Recognition of Informal Relations to Property: The Case of “Informal Inheritance” in Kosovo’s Intergenerational Context
USAID Property Rights Program, Tetra Tech
This paper examines “informal inheritance” cases when de facto owners did not initiate formal inheritance proceedings. When initiation of inheritance proceedings is delayed, the large number of claimants spanning several generations of heirs, many of whom live outside of Kosovo, creates further difficulties to formalize possession of property. The resulting discrepancy between cadastral records and informal ownership contributes to tenure insecurity. The USAID Property Rights Program assisted the Government in amending the laws on inheritance, notaries, and uncontested procedure to provide an efficient mechanism to initiate inheritance claims, and expedite inheritance proceedings initiated many years after the death of the right holder. The legislation also introduces due process safeguards to protect the rights of women and children. This paper analyzes factors that exacerbated the discrepancy between cadastral records and informal ownership and, subsequently, examines recent legislation introduced to expedite recognition of rights that may then be registered in the cadastre.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-13: Modernizing Land Policy & Administration in Asia|
Session Chair: Javier Molina Cruz, FAO, Italy
Systematic Land Registration in Rural Areas of Laos – from concept to scale
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Lao People's Democratic Republic
Low land tenure security and increasing pressure through large scale land acquisition excerpt pressure on farmers and land owners in Laos. Since the 1990s, the country has undergone certain land reform initiatives, focusing initially on the registration and title issuance of individual land in urban areas. The first Land Titling projects between 1997 and 2009 resulted in the registration of some 650,000 plots, of an estimated 2,6 Million.
Since 2009, the GIZ has supported the establishment of land registration and titling in rural areas. Several successive projects have resulted in the registration of more than 40,000 plots and the establishment of a comprehensive Concept for Systematic Land Registration, which describes the requirements and principles, legal framework, technical approach and workflow and capacity development.
The Concept, alongside strong political will and a foreseeable improved legal framework in Laos provide a sound foundation for a full-scale implementation.
Tenancy Reform: Restructuring Land Access of Sharecropping System Toward Sustainable Farming Practice in Indonesia.
National Land Institute The Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning, Indonesia
This research aims to emphasize the importance of tenancy reform in Indonesia as part of the struggle to bring equality on access of land, achieve sustainable farming system and reduce poverty through equilibrium levels of resources allocation between landlord and tenant and their relationship with the land. Two aspects were observed and analyzed, which were (i) how sharecropping system in Indonesia was implemented through time and how they contribute to support the life of tenants and small scale farmers, (ii) how tenancy reform can improve access of land for tenants and small scale farmers in relation with poverty reduction. The study were implemented for sharecropping system in Java Island for the practice of sharecropping of paddy fields as a sample study. The results were expected to contribute to the arrangement of tenancy reform in Indonesia to improve equality of access of land and improve quality of life through poverty reduction.
Digitization to Strengthen Land Administration: A Case of Nepal
Liberty College, Nepal
Land administration is one of the crucial aspects. Nepal being a land locked country most of the people’s livelihood depends directly or indirectly upon land. Thus, the land administration is most important concern. It’s been a huge challenge for government to make improvements on land administration. In Nepal, land administration services are very poor. The major problems we are facing in land administration are complicated procedure, inefficient paper based system, lack of integrated land policy, huge political interference and increasing corruption. To overcome these deficiencies Nepal government decides to implement digital administration. Some of the land revenue offices have started online administration service. This paper aims to explore the status of digitized land administration system in Nepal. Paper will try to bring all the aspect for conversion from traditional to current digital system. Five land revenue offices implementing digitized land administration system are selected as cases for the study.
Land Governance for Reserved Customary Land
I Taukei Land Trust Board, Fiji Islands
The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate a particular type of land category that exists within customary land rights in Fiji called Reserve Land or Qele Kovu; it is this Reserve land that purports to safeguarding landowners now and in the future redressing conflict prevention and which supports peace agreements
Reserve land is a subset of land types within the customary land of Fiji which is set aside for use only by the I Taukei or customary landowners of a particular district and province within Fiji; it is to be noted that there is over 8000 customary landowning units in Fiji, that is not counting their populations, who all have this Reserve land tagged to their land ownership of customary land.
Reserve land in Fiji exists for the sole purpose of safeguarding land for the customary owners for now and those to come in the future.
|5:45pm - 8:00pm||Inter-American Network on Cadastre and Property Registry, a regional approach to improve land governance in Latin America|
By invitation (Registered participants in the land and Poverty Conference from the Latin America region)
Deadline to RSVP: Friday March 16, 2018. Please contact Mike Mora MMora@oas.org.
|OAS - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|
|5:45pm - 8:00pm||Red Interamericana de Catastro y Registro de la Propiedad, un enfoque regional para mejorar la gobernanza de la tierra en América Latina|
Por invitación (participantes de la region de América Latina registrados en la conferencia de tierras y pobreza del Banco Mundial)
Fecha límite para reservar participación: viernes 16 de marzo del 2018. Por favor contactar a Mike Mora MMora@oas.org.
|OAS - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-01|
The experience of registration of agrarian reform settlements in the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) in Brazil - Results and Outlook
1Serviço Florestal Brasileiro -SFB, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Brazil; 3Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária - INCRA, Brazil
The Rural Environmental Registry System and the Brazilian Rural Governance
Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil
Fueling Land Grabbing or Promoting Land Governance? - The Case of the Terra Legal Program in Brazilian Amazon
1SERFAL / SEAD / Terra Legal; 2GIZ; 3GIZ/GITEC/NEXUCS
Environmental Regularization Programs for Rural Properties and Holdings: a Forest Code strategy for strengthening land governance, expanding native vegetation cover, and sustainability of the rural landscape in Brazil.
1SFB, Brazil; 2GIZ, Brazil
Environmental Compliance of Rural Landholdings in Regions of Economic Vulnerability in Brazil - The Case of CAR in The State of Maranhão, Northeast of Brazil
1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2FUNATURA; 3The World Bank
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-02|
Indigenous people, conflicts and land governance in Brazil after the Constitution of 1988: an overview with focus on recent events
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2University of South Australia, Australia
Complex Governance for a Complex Forest Code: the Solutions of the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) in Brazil
1GIZ, Brazil; 2Brazilian Forest Service - SFB
Afro-Brazilian communities and traditional territories: achievements and barriers to guarantee land rights
1National Institute of Agrarian Reform, Brazil; 2Food and Agriculture Organization
Land, State and Communities Remnant Quilombolas: As inheritances of the senzala in the 21st century
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2Campinas City Hall
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-03|
Conflict Prevention in the Great Lakes Region: A Case Study of the Agrarian Reform in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Univerisity of Kinshasa, United States of America
Risk and Reconstruction: Assessing the Conditions of Poverty and Landlessness for Internally Displaced People
Columbia University, United States of America
Risks for the peace process in Colombia: the Land Fund and prospects for community and smallholder access to land
OXFAM Colombia, Colombia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-04|
The (un)broken Promise of Agroforestry: Case Study of Governance for Improved Fallows in Zambia
Penn State, United States of America
Space Based Monitoring of Wetlands in Support of Sustainable Water Resource and Land Management
1GeoVille Information Systems and Data Processing GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria; 2DHI GRAS, Hørsholm, Denmark
Sustainable Land Management- shielding the agriculture land with flood management and wetlands
York University - York Centre for Public Policy and Law, Canada
An approach to linking Land governance to Water governance: Botswana case Study
1Department of water Affairs, Botswana; 2Department of water Affairs, Botswana
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-05|
Mexican Land Reforms: Examining Exclusionary Resource Conservation Initiatives
Hollins University, United States of America
Conservation Mechanisms and Sustainable Communal Land Development: Lessons from Green Investment Initiatives in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico
1Natural Resources Defense Council, United States of America; 2Internation Community Foundation, United States of America; 3Wildcoast - Costasalvaje; 4Pronatura Noroeste
Land Tenure And Renewable Energy Systems Linkages: Implications In The Global South
1University College London, United Kingdom; 2Technical University of Munich, Germany
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-06|
Land Ownership: Use of Informal Justice Mechanisms in Resettling of Widows in Kenya
Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA)-Kenya, Kenya
Rigorous Impact Evaluation on Scalable Approaches towards Strengthening Land Governance: Empirical Evidence from Piloting the Gender Evaluation Criteria in Three Districts in Uganda
1UN-Habitat/GLTN, Kenya; 2Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Understanding Gender Dynamics and Institutional Drivers of Land Access in Smallholder Maize Farms of Western Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Nairobi, Kenya
Using Traditional Conservation Methods For The Sustainable Use Of Riparian Land To Eradicate Feminized Poverty In Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
Women’s Land Rights and Tenure Security in the Context of the SDGs; results of localizing SDGs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania
UN Women, Ethiopia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-07|
Securing Women’s Land Rights Within The National Land Programme In Madagascar
1HUAIROU COMMISSION, United States of America; 2Ministry in charge of Presidential Projects, Planning and Equipment, Madagascar; 3Ministry in charge of Presidential Projects, Planning and Equipment, Madagascar; 4Ministry in charge of Presidential Projects, Planning and Equipment, Madagascar
Women’s Property Rights through the Household Life Cycle: Evidence from Nepal
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Nepa School, Nepal
Women and Land rights in Brazil and India: A historical and comparative analysis concerning legal framework and social challenges
1Oxfam India, India; 2National Institute of Land Reform, Brazil
A gender-disaggregated Impact of the Pilot Systematic Land Tenure Regularization Program in Nigeria
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-08|
'Fundamental Functionings' Of Landowners: Understanding The Relationship Between Land Ownership And Wellbeing Through The Lens Of ‘Capability’
University Of Melbourne, Australia
Traditional Leaders as Moral Authorities: Experimental Evidence from Rural Zambia
1University of Marburg, Germany; 2International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
The Strength of the Village: a Community Based Model for Explaining Variation in Farmland Abandonment
Central European University, Hungary
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-09|
Customary Land Governance in Zambia: Inertia, Confusion and Corruption
Copperbelt University, Zambia
We Don’t Want Land Certificates!—Land Titling and Rural Land Governance in Contemporary China
Florida International University, United States of America
Northern Africa Land tenure systems' analysis based approach toward a core conceptual model in capacity building
1Department of Geodesy, SGIT,Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medecine, Morocco; 2Geographical and environmental sciences, university of Khartoum, Sudan; 3University of Nouakchout, Mauritania
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-10|
Land Reforms in Kenya: Improved Land Tenure Security Motivates Increased Investments and Equity in Kilifi County
1Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya; 2County Government of Kilifi, Kenya
Mukono District Land Stakeholder’s Forum: A Multi-Stakeholder Approach To Unlocking Land And Property Related Challenges in Uganda
Uganda Chrisitian University, Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-11|
Building Land Markets in Developing Economies
1DAI Europe, United Kingdom; 2Independent
Improving The Effectiveness Of Land Tenure Programmes Using A Market Systems Approach
1DAI, United Kingdom; 2Nathan Associates, United Kingdom
Land Management And Land Market In Turkey: Basic Characteristics, An Analysis Of Legal And Institutional Regulations And Evaluation Of Possible Effects On Valuation Studies
“Land as a Driver of Inequality: The Effect of Land Use and Security Trends on the Poor and Vulnerable in Uganda”
1Oxfam Uganda; 2Oxfam Uganda; 3Oxfam Uganda; 4Oxfam Uganda; 5Oxfam America; 6Makerere University, Kampala; 7Oxfam Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-12|
Does Food Insecurity In Ontario Vary By Remoteness? Implications For Canadian Policy
University of Guelph, Canada
Assessment of Agricultural Land Reform in Thailand Using The Land Governance Assessment Framework
1Agricultural Land Reform Office, Thailand; 2University of Twente, the Netherlands
The Resolution of Land Conflicts by the Strategy of the Solidarity Economy and the Social Mediation
Cabinet de Consultance Internationale en Economie Sociale et Solidaire, Côte d'Ivoire
Reorienting Political Economy of Inclusive Agrarian Transformation in Nepal
1Fulbright Fellow, Heller School for Social Policy & Management, Brandeis University, USA; 2President, IfE (Initiative for Equality) & Affiliated Researcher, Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, Stanford University, USA; 3Assistant Prof. Heller School for Social Policy & Management, Brandeis University, USA
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-13|
A Concern For The Right of The Youth To Agricultural Land
Centre for Land Rights and Environmental Development (CLARED), Nigeria
Land Reforms In Nigeria: Issues, Problems And Solutions
Ogun State Buareau of Lands and Survey, Nigeria
The Broad Powers of State Governors under the Land Use Act, 1978 and Land Governance in Nigeria.
University of Bolton, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
Nigerian Land Use Act 1978 and the Place of Urban Poor in Cities’ Development Plan
University Collede London, United Kingdom
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-14|
Baseline Evaluation Findings from USAID’s Responsible Land-based Investment Pilot in Mozambique
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International; 3United States Agency for International Development
Evidence to Inform Liberia’s Land Policy: Evaluation Findings from Namati’s Community Land Protection Program
1The Cloudburst Group, United States of America; 2University College London, Political Science
Scrutinizing the status quo: Rural Transformation and Land Tenure Security in Nigeria
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia; 2International Food Policy Research Institute
Game Theoretic Framework For Compulsory Acquisition
University Of Melbourne, Australia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-15|
How farmland registration and certification affect farmers’ productive investments: evidence from China’s apple growers
College of Economy and Management,Northwest Agriculture and Forest University, China, People's Republic of
Addressing the "How much?" in Land Use Planning: A Population And Consumption-based Model Approach to Estimating Future Demand for Land.
1IIASA; 2Independent Consultant; 3Ajemalebu Self Help (AJESH), Cameroon; 4EU REDD Facility; 5KU Leuven, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
A Pessimist is an Optimist that Knows Geography
129x55; 2World Bank
Looking at economic trade-offs from edible insects and bee keeping to carbon balances in African woodlands
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Kenya
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-16|
Analysis of Fragmented Agricultural Land Size and Its Effects on The Productivity and Farm Income of Small Holder Farmers in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia
1Amhara National Regional State of Rural Land Adminstration and Use Bureau, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The Natural Resource Curse and Women
Barnard College, Columbia University, United States of America
Gender, Resource Rights, and the Role of Customary Authorities: A Multi-Site Study of Women’s Empowerment in Customary Settings
Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America
The Role of Property Rights in Technology Adoption: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial
University of California, Santa Cruz, United States of America