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Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Pulled or pushed out? Causes and consequences of youth migration from densely populated areas of rural Kenya
Milu Muyanga1, Dennis Otieno2, Thomas Jayne1
1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Tegemeo Institute, Egerton University, Kenya
This study investigates youth access to agricultural land, and how land access influences youth’s permanent and seasonal migration in the densely populated areas of rural Kenya using panel data. Results show that youth’s permanent migration is a function of land access (own or control) rather than the amount of land the family owns. Youth migration increases with the age and reduces with education attainment of the youth. Permanent migration is more prevalent with youths of the male gender. At the household level, youth migration increases with intra household competition for land, and is more prevalent among households headed by women. Seasonal migration among the youth is not influenced by the youth’s land access and family land. It is a function of the individual’s age, gender and education achievement. At the community level, the results show that youth migration reduces with land productivity and village wage rate, and increases with land rental rates.
From Conflict to Conflicts: War-Induced Displacement, Land Conflicts, and Agricultural Productivity in Post-war Northern Uganda
Francisco Mugyabuso Paul Mugizi1, Tomoya Matsumoto2
1National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Japan; 2Otaru University of Commerce
For two decades since 1986, Northern Uganda experienced an armed conflict resulting in the internally displacement of people. Following ceasefire agreement in 2006 nearly all the displaced persons have now resettled to their original homes. This paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement on land conflicts in post-war period. We find noteworthy results: households that were displaced far away from their homes are more likely to have new land conflicts, more likely to be concerned about land conflicts, have higher proportion of parcels with new land conflicts, and higher proportion of parcels with concerns about land conflicts. Our results are robust to a number of robustness checks. The number of years the household spent without doing farming in home village, and weakening of informal institutions of land governance seem to be the main transmission mechanisms of the obtained results. We also find that land conflicts are detrimental to agricultural productivity.
Land Tenure Security, Land Holdings and Migration in Rural Ethiopia
Heriot Watt University, United Kingdom
Recent policies in Ethiopia have promoted land tenure security by granting landholders to transfer their land rights to family members and to rent out their plot up to 25 years. This study examines the impact of land tenure security on land concentration and rural-urban migration. We propose that land tenure security through the issuance of land title certificates can result in large scale adjustments to labor and land allocations. Using the Ethiopian large-scale land certification program from 2002-2007, we employ the standard difference-in-difference analysis on a panel of household-level data that describe economic and migration conditions. In the analysis, the non-uniform timing of certification is used to exploit the variation between treatment and control groups. We find that land title certification program led to increased migration of household member out of rural areas. We also show that rental markets are the main channel through which land certification affect migration.