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01-01: Guarding against Land-Related Corruption
Transparency International - Land Corruption in Africa - Finding Evidence, Triggering Change
Transparency International Secretariat, Germany
According to Transparency International’s research (Transparency International TI, 2013), around the world, one in five people report that they have paid a bribe for land services during the last years; in Africa, every second client of land administration services was affected. At the same time, land developers and speculators specifically target countries with weak governance, and together with local elites they can contribute to illicit and corrupt land transactions and increasing state capture. This marginalizes local populations further and as a consequence results in poverty, hunger, and conflict. However, only little evidence exists on land-corruption and its manifestations. TI’s Land and Corruption in Africa programme aims to fill this gap, and with this paper presents findings from TI’s empirical and desk-based baseline survey (2015) on land corruption in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Moreover, the paper will discuss challenges in unearthing evidence, and demonstrate where TI’s interventions triggered change.
Women, Land and Corruption in Ghana- Findings from a Baseline Survey
1Transparency International - Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana; 2Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technoogy
Women land rights vulnerabilities in patriarchal contexts such as Ghana are well-documented. However, how corruption joins forces with entrenched and institutionalized discriminatory practices to undermine the land ownership and security of tenure of women is largely under-researched. This paper seeks to contribute towards helping to bridge this gap based on a recent Baseline Survey which was conducted as part of Transparency International and Ghana Integrity Initiative’s Women, Land and Corruption Project. Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, the study establishes that corruption is deep-seated in land administration in Ghana with bribery being the most endemic. Indeed 1 in every 3 persons who has been involved in procuring land or land services was either asked to, or paid bribe. Granting land to meet the demands of rapid urbanization, large scale land based investments and the boom in rubber production reduces available land stock and the processes are largely laced with corrupt practices. Women are worse hit and are increasingly being rendered landless, food insecure and being left to face endangered livelihoods. The paper concludes by offering recommendations which can strengthen the land rights of women under the current state of affairs.
"The Impact Of Poor Land Governance In the Reduction Of Rural Poverty In Cameroon"
Transparency International Cameroon, Cameroon
The strong demand for arable land, especially in Africa, has provoked a rush of investors and speculators in the land sector, targeting especially countries witnessing governance deficits. This situation has not only increased the value of land but it has also paved the way to corruption and its devastating effects particularly on vulnerable and marginalized populations (poorest). Land is a very important factor in the development of Cameroonian economy as it is crucial for agriculture. According to a survey conducted by TI-Cameroon on land governance in regions of Cameroon, up to 99% of respondents admitted to have paid a bribe to institutions involved in land registration procedure in Cameroon to acquire land titles. Therefore, Failure to secure land in rural areas in party due to corruption has been commonly reported as the main catalyst of rural poverty. The purpose of this paper, gathering evidence from activities and reports emanating from the “Land and corruption in Africa” project, is to demonstrate how land tenure corruption in Cameroon can foster poverty especially in rural areas. This paper also presents the importance of land tenure security for people in rural areas and the necessity to address it as a means to alleviate poverty.
Developing Land Information Management System (LIMS) for County Governments in Kenya.
The Technical univesity of Kenya, Kenya
This paper describes the development of a Land Information Management Systems (LIMS) for County Governments in Kenya. Since the promulgation of the new Constitution in 2010, the devolution of the national government and formation of county governments was provided. These invoked the formation of new Land laws and Laws to guide the devolution processes and procedures. In addition, according to the County Government Act, 2012 in Kenya, all County Governments are supposed to develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based Spatial Plans these call for development of LIMS for and efficient breakthrough. The LIMS devepment involves accesing Land records that have variety stadarnds and inopparable from different sources , digitization of all the available data, flying UAV where adjudication process has not taken place and there no cadastral maps and then developing a database of the same. In this regard, there is a need to study the development of LIMS for county governments so as to give other developers of various county governments , as a means of giving a know how in future LIMS initiatives. This paper uses case study methodology to document the development of a LIMS for Kerugoya County in Kenya.