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07-10: Assessing Impact of Land Reform Interventions
Baseline Findings And Evaluation Challenges For An Irrigation and Land Tenure Security Initiative in the Senegal River Valley
Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America
Improving irrigation infrastructure in the Senegal River Valley has the potential to boost agricultural productivity and the welfare of households in the region. However, unless land rights are clearly assigned and secure, investments in land may be dampened, preventing the benefits of improved irrigation from being fully realized. In addition, the potential for land conflicts could rise as land increases in value, particularly if land tenure is insecure.
With these issues in mind, between 2010 and 2015, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) invested in an initiative in the Senegal River Valley that combined irrigation infrastructure improvements with activities to improve land tenure security and governance in affected areas. Mathematica Policy Research is conducting a rigorous evaluation of the initiative.
Here, we present findings from our analysis of a baseline survey conducted by a previous evaluator between 2012 and 2013 among households targeted by the intervention and a group of comparison households. Our analysis illustrates several challenges for evaluations of land interventions, including measurement issues, identifying a credible comparison group, and isolating impacts from the effects of other contemporaneous interventions. We will present our plan for mitigating these risks, and considerations for designing our upcoming follow-up surveys.
Outcomes of land and forest tenure reform implementation in Indonesia
Center for International Forestry Researcy, Indonesia
Most of the developing countries have undergone through forest tenure reform in past two decades offering some rights to local communities over land and forest resources. About one third of world’s forest is under community ownership or use. However, the actual contribution on tenure security, livelihoods and forest condition is not fully understood. This paper tries to fill that gap by analyzing outcomes of various forest tenure regimes in Indonesia based on the research from 16 forest communities under social forestry schemes, informal customary systems, and various partnership schemes.
The results show that all the communities whose rights were legally recognized under the reforms had strong perceptions of tenure security; and improved forest condition was observed in the communities with advanced reform implementation. However, these communities had low increase in income after the reform as well as have failed to take into account women’s representation and voice in forest governance. Variation in outcomes within and across the formal reform types could be attributed to the disproportionate possession of extent, protection and assurance of rights, access to capital, capacity, biophysical conditions and post formation support.
Methods for Determining Land Formalization Cost-effectiveness: The Per-parcel Cost and Quality of USAID’s MAST Pilot in Tanzania
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International
Technical and financial requirements for land formalization programs are substantial, prompting donor and government interest to find low-cost approaches to customary land documentation and registration. Such programs must be feasible to implement at scale, with manageable time, personnel and technical requirements, but also provide sufficiently high-quality service delivery to meet development objectives and ensure sustainability of the process beyond initial donor support. Currently there is no standard approach in the land sector for determining per-parcel costs or cost-effectiveness of such programs. Such analyses could, however, help clarify resource needs and potential efficiencies, identify how differences across approaches may contribute to overall quality and sustainability, and facilitate selection from a range of options. We draw on cost-effectiveness analyses and qualitative data collection with district land staff and program beneficiaries to estimate the cost-per-parcel and associated quality dimensions of USAID’s Mobile Application to Secure Tenure (MAST) pilot approach to map land and facilitate formal documentation of customary use rights in Tanzania. While cost data present several uncertainties, results suggest evidence of a trade-off between per-unit cost and quality, and identify advantages of the MAST system that appear to benefit overall quality, CCRO delivery time, and beneficiary trust in the process.
Land Markets, Property Rights, and Deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia (1992-2015)
1Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Basque Center for Climate Change, Spain
We examine the emergence of land markets and their effects on deforestation in Sumatra (Indonesia), using farm-household data for the period 1992-2015. The paper is based on a theoretical model of land acquisition for cultivation by a heterogeneous farming population, as well as micro-econometric analysis of primary data. We observe that land market development, under an institutional context of weak land tenure security, has not triggered deforestation in the study area. While the de facto property right protection provides sufficient internal tenure security for most farm-households, the sense of external tenure security is low for the land that cannot be formally titled. This results in the undervaluation of directly appropriated forest land. Clearing forest land for trading in the land market is, therefore, financially less lucrative for farmers than engaging in cultivation of plantation crops in already converted land. The study also indicates that land market development alone has been unable to deter forest appropriation by local (non-migrant) households.