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06-11: Implications of Evolving Land Markets for Equity
Competitiveness of land rental market and productivity growth in Ukrainian agriculture
Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Land market in Ukraine is yet emerging. Despite the establishment of private property for land and 25 years of reforms, it is not fully functional. Its ‘rental’ arm has been the main farmland transaction channel for farmers and landowners. Its ‘sales and purchases’ arm is virtually dysfunctional due to the farmland sales ban or moratorium. The moratorium was introduced in 2001 as a temporary measure, but since then it has been extended 8 times. Yet expectations of lifting the moratorium for farmland sales in Ukraine (expected from the January 1st 2018) escalate a debate on conditions and restrictions of rental and sales market for agricultural land. Some restrictions such as possible caps on the size of land holdings are yet debated, other restrictions such as imposing 7 years floor on duration of rental contracts, payments in cash only and regulations on size of rental payment are already in place. While the scope of debated land market regulations is wide, almost no evidence exists on their economic implications in agricultural sector. In this paper we look at the competitiveness of the local farmland market and the state of the land governance, and how it affects local productivity growth.
Leasehold Rights As A Vehicle For Economic Development: The Case of Small Scale Farmers In The Oshikoto Region
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Secure tenure is believed to be a necessary condition for economic development, increasing the use of credit to invest on the land, increasing land transactions, reducing disputes and raising productivity. Namibia therefore introduced several land reform instruments to address the pre-independence imbalances in land ownership patterns through the use of long-term lease agreements. It was expected that leasehold rights would enable smallholder farmers to be economically productive and bring them into the mainstream economy by using the lease agreements to access capital and investments to support agricultural production. The researchers investigated the impact of long-term leases on the ability of beneficiaries to access financing for improved livelihoods and agricultural production.They analysed the institutional framework for resettlement allocations and the transaction costs in order to analyse the impact of leaseholds on the beneficiaries’ ability to access credit and mobilise investments.It was found that no lessee had used their leasehold rights to access credit or mobilise investments, even though they considered their rights to be generally secure and the transaction costs are within international norms.The researchers concluded that the inability to access credit is due to an information deficit and the economic infeasibility of the parcel/beneficiary relation.
Freedom to Farm: Agricultural Land Use, Crop Selection, Fallowing, and Proposed Changes to the Myanmar Farmland Law Necessary to Strengthen Land Tenure Security
Landesa, United States of America
The freedom to farm one’s land as one chooses, as manifested in overall agricultural land use, crop choice, and fallowing, is an assumed right held by many agriculturalists. In the Myanmar context, government restrictions create a different environment for smallholders. The Farmland Law of 2012 prohibits the growing of alternative crops and the fallowing of land without permission of the government, and the same law, requires applications for permission to grow alternative crops. To better understand what is at stake with these prohibitions in place, this paper produced for USAID explores: first, the basis for general right for agriculturalists to use their farmland as they wish, based in the productivity and food security related to this freedom to farm, and the international norms which support it; second, the right to crop selection, examining the economic issues involved, including the land tenure security benefits of crop choice and the agricultural benefits of crop diversity, as well as legal and ecological issues; third, the basis for the right to fallow, again looking at the economic effects of fallowing, as well as the cultural, legal, and ecological issues involved; and fourth, proposed amendments to the Farmland Law to strengthen the freedom to farm.
Land Fragmentation and Land Services Delivery Ratios on Mailo Tenure in Uganda: Evidence from LIS Data
Associates Research Uganda
Land fragmentation is a phenomenon which constitutes one of the biggest obstacles to profitable agricultural production. It is further exacerbated by skewed ownership of land, with women and youth having limited access to productive land. This paper shows the extent of land fragmentation on mailo tenure, the oldest forms of registered tenure in most of central and western Uganda. Fragmentation is measured by analyzing administrative data from Uganda’s modern Land Information System (LIS) set up in 2013 to 2016. Taking into account the complexes of plots aggregation, results on occurrence and intensity are presented, with additional qualitative analysis on land sector services ratios and the impact of fragmentation on women registered as owners or co-owners, to represent the real situation on the ground in selected follow-up parcels. Whereas publically accessible land information underpins tenure security especially where development pressures create an ever increasing demand for land, it is important to enhance capacity and quality of data captured in LIS to reflect the process that a particular transaction or land parcel goes through and treat transactions as stages at which data must be captured so as to yield completeness.