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07-11: Policies for Land Consolidation
Options for Legislative and Institutional Reform of Land Consolidation in Serbia: Choosing the Right Approach and Building Regional Expert Networks
GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Serbia
Agricultural land fragmentation constrains agricultural development in Southeast Serbia, where average land parcel sizes amount to 0.1 to 0.3 hectares, parcels are often left abandoned and are not accessible by roads or field tracks. Investments into land consolidation (LC) in Serbia can have high mid and long term returns, in particular as Serbia is on its way to become a competitive agricultural producer on the way to EU membership. Land consolidation programs contribute towards updated land cadasters, better infrastructure, better rural living and working environment, increased property market values resulting in increased investments, employment and increased direct and indirect tax revenues. This paper analyses the findings from piloting land consolidation within the past 4 years of pilot implementation in seven pilot municipalities in southeastern Serbia and discusses the advantages and limitations of different land consolidation approaches or models, their requirements and key principles. It further outlines options for practical legal and institutional reform for effective implementation of land consolidation projects in Serbia as well as the establishment and strengthening of regional land consolidation expert networks.
Property Rights and Private Investment: Evidence from a Planned Settlement in Rural Tanzania
Oklahoma State University, United States of America
We investigate the mass resettlement of rural population in Tanzania that occurred in early 1970s. The policy was implemented to strengthen the role of the state in establishing villages for communal production and development. The villagisation process that followed was implemented with unclear goals, haste and at some point coercion that it was unlikely to bring any short-term improvement in the rural economy. We exploit a recent survey data to examine the impact of the ujamaa operation on farming activities. Our findings show that areas affected by the villagisation in which proprietary rights in land were given to households had significantly better transferability rights and had made significant investments in land. We detect improvement in access to rural credit market and a closing gender gap in land ownership.
New trends in development of Land Consolidation in Russia
State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation
Land Consolidation is a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural production via rational use of scare resources: land, labor and capital based on reduction of transaction costs. The specific objectives of Land Consolidation are the following: increasing the efficiency of agricultural production; providing of sustainable development of agrarian sector; rational use of land, labor and capital in agriculture; optimization of agricultural production structures both in territorial and production aspects; increasing the competitiveness of agricultural producers in domestic as well as foreign markets; environmental protection; development of production as well as social infrastructure in agriculture. Land Consolidation should be carried out based on the following principles: voluntariness; openness and transparency; financial and economic feasibility; taking into account the interests of the population groups involved including women and youth as well as indigenous people; step by step implementation; consideration of local conditions; state and NGO support. In Russia now there is a trend of development of Land Consolidation at both the federal and regional level, for example, in Orel Region where land is consolidated by private farms and parastatals
The Turkish Experience in Consolidation of Irrigated Land: Productivity and Efficiency Implications
1Independent Consultant, Turkey; 2State Hydraulic Works, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkey
Land consolidation is more than a simple reallocation of parcels to remove effects of fragmentation. It enables and facilitates broader social and economic reforms. Within the context of irrigated agriculture in Turkey, efforts for consolidation of parcels have sought to enlarge individual land holdings to assist with the building and operation of more efficient irrigation and drainage infrastructure. Land consolidation leads to significant cost savings during the investment phase of the infrastructure (both irrigation systems and roads), and in later stages, results in reduced O&M and cost of production, enhanced crop productivity and improved water management.
Value of agricultural land in Turkey largely depends upon its productivity, location and proximity to various sites of interest, where productivity is the dominant parameter. Land consolidation is a process whereby farmers voluntarily agree to swap fragmented pieces of land with larger pieces of land of equivalent productivity, and not necessarily of equivalent size. Land consolidation creates additional value and generates economic benefits. It is a synergic process whereby the outcome can be characterized as a case where “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”.