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05-04: Policies for Improving Urban Governance
Comparative Analysis of National-Level Residential Planning Parameter Guidelines For Five Sub-Saharan African Countries
World Bank, United States of America
A comparative analysis of the urban planning parameters and guidelines is conducted for five Sub-Saharan African countries – Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda. The analysis focuses on the planning parameters for residential uses, and in particular, examines the density, plot size and site/plot coverage standards. The comparison is done between the national-level standards/guidelines. These usually exist as a compendium to the national-level Urban Planning Act (eg. as a subsidiary legislation, or in a manual, handbook or code form). The main objective of the study is to better understand the approach adopted in these SSA countries to guide residential urban development. This is particularly important in the context of SSA cities where informal settlement occupy high proportion of urban land, and where there are hige challenges in the ability to support affordable housing for a large urban poor population. It further attempts to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the guidelines examined, as a first step to potentially improve them. Potential areas for future research are also identified. The study is also one of the first attempts in this direction to fill a gap in current literature.
Addressing New Land Governance Challenges: Governance Schemes For Urban Regeneration Project In Latin America
World Bank, Colombia
Urban regeneration projects need an institutional capacity and solid arrangements between local governments and private sector. Implementation of these projects faces difficulties in urban infrastructure finance, land owner’s participation, public and private agreements for its development, and the continuation of projects beyond the city mayor’s period. In Colombia, cities have been leading urban regeneration projects for deteriorated areas using land use master plans for specific areas of cities “partial plans” (PP). Urban regulations stablish that public development agencies and public and private institutional agreements could be in charge of formulation and implementation of PP. Definition of procedures, roles, and interaction mechanisms between public and private entities are some of the components of these PP governance schemes (GS).
Main role of governance schemes will be presented through the study of 2 urban regeneration projects in Colombia, the PP of Fenicia in Bogota and the PP of Sevilla in the “Innovation District of Medellin. The study of governance schemes of these PP could be an example for other urban regeneration projects including: i) scope of the project, ii) urban regulations, iii) stake holder participation mechanisms, and iv) institutional agreement
Automated Landuse Clearance For Effective Development Control Mechanism: The Case Of Megacity Dhaka
RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh), Bangladesh, People's Republic of
Sanction of a landuse clearance following the master plan is the major activity of development control practiced for a few decades in Bangladesh. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) is the statutory and legitimate authority constituted by the Town Improvement Act, 1953 for planning, development and development control activity of greater Dhaka, Narayanganj and surrounding areas (TIA Act, 1953). RAJUK is an autonomous institute headed by its Chairman and five members who are the full time officials deputed by the Government who are responsible for regulating five departments as Land and Administration, Planning, Development, Estate and finance. Plan approval ensures some sort of legitimate ownership of land and estate. RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh) has initiated a pilot project technically assisted by IFC to automate landuse clearance system of one of its eight zones designated for institutional service delivery of 1428 sq km of its functional jurisdictional area. This piloting should be a role model and be replicated in near future in other zones for effective service delivery of sanctioning landuse clearance. This study reveals the problems, prospects, future policy issues for automated landuse clearance for effective development control mechanism in the megacity Dhaka area.
Transparency and effectiveness in Municipal Land Use
NIRAS Finland OY
The paper introduces the current status and challenges in West-Balkan countries related to land-use planning, loss of agricultural land and growing number of illegal constructions. The situation in the last two decades has been characterized by inappropriate rural spatial planning and unsatisfactory transparency and accountability with respect to land use.
Lately region-wide significant efforts made by national and local governments for a change, by initiating the introduction of central spatial planning systems, to control land management in urban and agricultural territories and to ensure, that land use is in compliance with the local laws and subject to public scrutiny.
The success of such approach presented through Kosovo case, where experiences show, that nationwide, modular, central e-planning, based on sound legal grounds can bring about dramatic changes in so far as dealing with sounds land use policies and the everlasting struggle to combat informal settlements. The implementation of such system can ensure effective planning and controlling of national and local land management practices; it can secure zones for agriculture - all of these in transparent and cost effectiveness fashion; thereby ultimately stimulating economic growth.