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12-08: Urban Services and Property Tax Collection
The Valuation of Unregistered Land: Case Studies from Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru
1University of Technology, Sydney; 2Global Property Advisory, Australia
There is a colossal literature on land registration and its promises. What is relatively little studied is (a) how to value unregistered land and (b) in what ways are unregistered lands currently being valued and (c) based on a and b, what next to do with the valuation of unregistered land.
The years of research on the informal economy has tended to be limited to concerns about how informality arises and in what ways it can be transformed or overcome, centering on debates about dualism, structuralism, and legalism. Based on (1) fieldwork in Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru involving conversations with valuers, analyses of valuation reports, and studying of judicial decisions, this paper shows that the primary concept of value adopted in practice is limited to the neoclassical version. Secondly, accepted market behaviour in this context may substantially undervalue unregistered land, and thirdly the idea of value in practice can facilitate systemic dispossession and inequality. We show that the dominant approach remains regardless because of methodological and ideological reasons not easily disturbed by empirical reality. An alternative valuation approach is feasible, but its wide acceptance is contingent on the articulation and acceptance of a new theory of value grounded in institutions and social structures.
Issues Facing Standardisation of Property Valuation Practices: A case study of Suva, Fiji
1Rolle Associates, Fiji Islands; 2University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Home Finance Company, Suva, Fiji Islands
Property Valuations are a source of information for financial reporting as well as decision making in land governance. Globalization and increasing foreign property investments are compelling nations to adopt international practices for greater transparency and better land governance.
However, a number of smaller countries struggle to implement such international frameworks and practices. Likewise, Fiji has long struggled with finding common ground concerning the standardization of valuation practices. Some challenges facing the valuation industry to date include lack of information sources, guiding principles or standards, the need for automation, as well as legislative support to bring about improvements in land governance measures.
Using a case study of property valuations in Fiji, this paper categorizes key challenges as institutional, informational and technical issues in implementation of the International Valuation Standards (IVS). It is essentially constructed using the pragmatic approach to research known as the mixed methods approach (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). It uses quantitative data collection techniques and qualitative techniques to further understand valuer behavior. A host of behavioral studies were also utilized to understand valuers’ behavior and subjective practices (Diaz, 1990).
Findings from this paper helped build recommendations towards improving land governance procedures targeting institutional, informational and technical issues highlighted within.
Property Tax in Kigali: Using Satellite Imagery to Assess Collection Potential
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed