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10-06: Protecting Pastoral Production Systems
Evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin in Cameroon
1University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon, Cameroon; 2Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, and Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, USA; 3African Studies Program, College of Liberal Arts, The Pensylvania State University, USA; 4Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Over time immemorial, wetlands have remained the main haven for cattle during unfavorable dry season in the intertropical regions of the World. Transhumance is widely practice in sub Saharan Africa, especially in Cameroon and in the Upper Noun Drainage basin as a traditional practice. Our study objective was aimed at evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin of Cameroon. In the Upper Noun Drainage basin, cattle move in from the immediate surrounding upland areas and other areas of the western high plateau. This usually results in various stages of interaction leading to diverse socio-ecological and tenure systems challenges on wetland management. The floodplain receives about 21,000 cattle during transhumance. Common species of fodder include Pennisetum purpureum, Leersia hexandia, Scirpus jacobi etc. Some of these observed challenges are habitat destruction and retardation of vegetal growth, water pollution, river bank destruction, wetland siltation and acute farmer/grazier conflicts that are the order of the day. Crops are destroyed and there is also animal cruelty which at time leds to blood sheds with a far reaching negative influence on the management and socio-cultural relationship such as jailing of some victims.
Implementation of Responsible Land Governance: Informing the development of policy through a participatory land delimitation experience in Tana River County, Kenya
Overcoming the challenge of policy implementation or policy domestication at decentralized levels is subject to the policy formulation process which must, in turn, be informed by the systematic collection of data. The FAO experience of securing community land tenure by applying its Participatory Land Delimitation (PLD) methodology and the County Government interest to alleviate land conflicts in the county were combined to formulate sound county level policy that addressed land management by establishing the criteria to identify and locally manage the grazing areas in the county through different community groups.
Bottom-up policy formulation woven and aligned to national policy is critical for a smooth transition onto policy implementation.
Evolving a Policy on Pastoralism in the Semi-Arid State of Rajasthan, and India
Foundation for Ecological Security, India
Pastoralism in India, as in many other parts of the world, is a highly under-valued lifestyle and production system, often misconceived as being an archaic and inefficient, environment unfriendly practice. Policies to support such climate adjusted, resource attuned lifestyles are either absent or not pursued. This paper looks at nomadic pastoralism, sifting through available literature on the subject and through the story of a pastoralist group in the semi-arid state of Rajasthan, in northern India. Highlighting the significance of pastoralism to the livelihoods and State economy, food security, and the social and bio-physical infrastructures, the paper attempts to outline the need for notifying State policies on pastoralism considering five main inter-linked components. These include – (a)strengthening and augmenting the contribution of pastoralism to the economy and food security; (b)securing and protecting the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists and ensuring their rights to dignified and honorable living; (c)securing their rights to forests, land and water resources that are central to their existence; (d)recognizing, collaborating and promoting the role of pastoralists in conservation and management of State’s biodiversity and natural resources; and (e)developing collaborative systems for periodic enumeration of pastoralist populations, measuring their economic contributions and supporting mobility.
The Role of Rural Land Registration in Enhancing Communal Holding Tenure Security
1Niras Finland, Ethiopia; 2MANNA Development Management Consulting
Benishangul-Gumuz is a region of Ethiopia. The methods of implementing pro-poor, and innovative land administration including aiming at securing land tenure rights for equity, sustainability and resilience and how it may impact the governance of CPRs like grazing and forest lands, has been at its early stage in Ethiopia in general and in BG in particular. Under customary law communal lands are subject to multiple bundles of tenure rights and have fluid boundaries which makes them liable to be encroached.
In BG competition between cropping and grazing is increasing due to the fact that all sources of livestock feed are increasingly dependent on natural grazing during both dry and wet seasons. Communal holdings are not only threatened by individual farmland encroachers but also by infrastructural developments, and commercial agricultural investment expansions.
The paper argues that though land certification is clearly beneficial to tenure security, it does not necessarily lead to more gains for communal holders, where especially communal grazing lands are under the threat of encroachment form individuals and commercial agricultural investors in some cases.