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07-07: Planning Urban Development Using Satellite Imagery
From Megacities to Historic Towns: Leveraging Satellite Imagery and Spatial Analysis to Inform Urban Planning
The World Bank Group
This paper showcases the use of rapid geospatial analysis such as high resolution satellite imagery, night time lights and spatial data to characterize urban growth patterns and to tease out the issues and gaps related to the effectiveness of institutional coordination and master plans, disaster risks, growth and prosperity, urban livability, land use planning and enforcement, and urban design policy conflicts using: (i) Karachi megacity (largest city in Pakistan); and (ii) Kandy (UNESCO World Heritage secondary city in Sri Lanka) as examples. The paper will also detail how the World Bank has leveraged on these findings and translated them into policy action and investments in ongoing projects and technical assistance.
A New Plan for African Cities: The Ethiopia Urban Expansion Initiative
New York University Marron Institute of Urban Management, New York, USA
Recent research indicates that a simplified approach to urban planning in Sub-Saharan African cities can address the challenges of rapid urban growth. Current plans focus too heavily on the existing area of the city and offer unrealistic agendas for future urban growth, such as densification, containment, and high-rise development; plans are also often unreasonably complicated, lack sufficient integration across levels of government, and are too costly. In response, NYU Stern Urbanization Project and the Government of Ethiopia have tested a simple methodology known as Making Room for Urban Expansion to assist eighteen Ethiopian cities that are experiencing rapid growth. This program is called the Ethiopia Urban Expansion Initiative. The Initiative set aside a number of standard planning objectives and instead focused only on expanding city boundaries to include adequate land for expansion, designing and protecting a network of arterial roads spaced approximately 1km apart, and identifying and protecting environmentally sensitive open spaces. These efforts focused on areas that were not yet been occupied by development. Results from 18 participating cities show that simple plans can lead to the construction and protection of large amounts of arterial roads, beginning to bring the urban land supply in line with projected growth.
Calibrating Housing Programs with Geo-Spatial Census Data
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Peru
A conventional problem for public policies is to focus in the social groups with the most acute needs; in most circumstances this imply a sort of field operation, usually under the form of a survey. This paper shows how to recycle an old product (housing and population census) with the cartography elaborated for it; in order to find population size and surface occupied with acute needs classified by type. In particular, which plots have housing without drainage systems, or housing with soil as floor material, or household crowdedness.
Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Quezon City Informal Settlements:Towards An Informal Settlements Growth Model
1Geodata Systems Technologies, Inc., Philippines; 2School of Urban and Regional Planning, Philippines
Informal settlements are not transitional but rather grow in area as time goes on as
revealed by spatio-temporal analysis of informal settlements in Quezon City, Philippines. Spatio-temporal analysis of mapped indicators confirmed existing literature that IS grow in areas near roads, rivers, on flat lowlands, near dumpsites and disaster-prone areas, near sources of income, near worship areas, and near educational and health institutions. Their growth is encouraged by the presence of government projects. The proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in IS areas is an indicator of the high political awareness of IS.
Through spatial analysis using GIS, factor maps with their corresponding weights
derived in the Informal Settlements survey were created, and were used as inputs to the development of the Quezon City Informal Settlements Growth Model (QC-ISGM) model. The model was developed and calibrated using available 1986 and 2003 actual orthophoto maps. It was used to simulate and predict future spatial expansion areas of known existing IS. The calibrated model was used to predict 2009 IS growth. The QC-ISGM prediction was tested against actual locations as of 2009 (extracted from interpreted 2009 imageries) using Fragstats. The calibrated model was used to predict location of IS by 2029 and 2059.