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11-09: Piloting Global Land and Property Indices
Developing a Land Administration Index
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Since 1996, there has been significant progress in developing performance evaluation frameworks and benchmarks for individual Land Administration System aspects. Ontological and epistemological differences inherent in each Land Administration System (LAS), however, have stymied attempts to cross-compare performance of Land Administration Systems in their entirety. This research has developed a working Land Administration Performance Index concept developed from existing accepted quantitative benchmarks for evaluating land administration systems. This index is effective at determining the overall performance as well as identifying individual weaknesses of a land administration system. In order for this index to work as intended, sufficient quantitative data relevant to the benchmarks must be collected. Additionally, this quantitative data must be accurate, and without intentional or unintentional bias: manipulation, malproduction, and underproduction risks must be identified and rectified. This index is incapable of or judging the quality of data and thus will only ever be as good as the data that is provided.
Developing a Global Land Tenure Security Index for Spatial Analyses
1Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 2The Nature Conservancy; 3University of Maryland, Baltimore County; 4McGill University
Land tenure security is widely regarded as a critical factor for effective and sustainable conservation (Larson et al., 2013) and for improving human well-being (food security, economic development etc.) (Payne, Durand-Lasserve, & Rakodi, 2009). Policymakers often allocate resources first at the national-level, indicating the need for a global understanding of land tenure security. In this paper, we create a global index of the Governance Context for Land Tenure Security (GC-LTS) using existing global datasets. The GC-LTS is important for research on coupled-human-natural systems because land tenure security is directly and indirectly related to human behavior and natural resource management. We find that the index is significantly correlated with human well-being indicators, supporting the long held finding in the literature that securing tenure can improve human well-being. In examining the spatial distribution of the GC-LTS within remaining intact forest areas, we find that large areas of intact forest are located in areas with weaker governance context for land tenure security. We also identify countries with a high number of endemic species and lower GC-LTS scores. This analysis highlights areas that are priorities for further study of the potential for land tenure security interventions to improve both human well-being and conservation outcomes.
What is the relationship between tenure security, good governance and poverty alleviation: What do we know and what can we learn from this evidence
University of Florida, United States of America
The relationship between tenure security, governance and poverty are complex and influenced by numerous external factors. Our initial analysis shows a reasonably strong correlation between governance and poverty. We can theorize that tenure security impacts governance, but in this paper we will test this empirically with existing datasets.
Tenure security has always been difficult to measure, partly because it is shaped by intangible perceptions and actions that may lag behind the interventions designed to promote this security. This paper aims to do a cross-countries comparative analysis on the linkages between governance, land tenure security and poverty alleviation. We will use the World Bank’s data base on worldwide governance indicators (WGI) at the national level as the major source of governance data for the analysis in this paper. We will draw on other available empirical evidence, such as the ‘doing business’ indicators compiled by the World Bank and the international property rights index as a measure of tenure security.
We point out certain problems with this national level evidence and suggest approaches at a more local scale.
Towards a More Open Future: Increasing Accountability and Transparency through Open Land Data
1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Land Portal Foundation, The Netherlands
Transparency in land information data and land laws and policy is a critical element in ensuring equitable, accountable land use and tenure security. The consequences of a lack of transparency are myriad, but most notably include an increased difficulty in unlocking the value of the land as an asset, eroded trust in governance land administration systems, and a general lack of awareness of land policies and legal frameworks - all undermining land tenure security and potentially leading to a misallocation of land rights. The opaque nature of land administration systems and decision-making mechanisms exacerbates corruption by land officials, from petty corruption as citizens undertake transactions, to major political corruption in land management, such as the illegal sale or lease of state land by public officials. Finally, without information on the status and transfer of state-owned lands, intermediaries and communities have no way to advocate for protection of their own rights. Despite this clear need for transparency in land governance, the data needed to connect these links remains closed. This paper will explore the implications of open data for land governance based on extensive consultations with key actors in the land governance community.
Expanding Land Tenure in Women Business and the Law
The World Bank, United States of America
Women, Business and the Law collects data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and employment. Equality of opportunity allows women to make the choices that are best for them, their families and their communities. However, opportunities for women are not equal where legal gender differences are prevalent. Such restrictions constrain women’s ability to make economic decisions in a variety of ways, and can have far-reaching consequences. Moreover, they are associated with real economic outcomes.By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare legal gender differences across economies and over time, WBL offers objective and measurable benchmarks for assessing where reforms have occurred that can also be helpful in measuring global progress toward legal gender equality. WBL informs policy discussions and promotes research on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities.