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10-04: Key Achievements in the ECA Region and the Road Forward
Unification of Cadastre and Registry
Rosreestr, Russian Federation
This presentation is devoted to unification of cadastre and registry in the Russian Federation. It reviews three main steps towards improvement and unification cadastre and land registry systems such as reformation of administration system, improvement of legislation and creation of a single software product. The unified database nowadays is Unified State Register of Real Property (EGRN). Creating the unified registration system of real property objects consisted of several phases. The implementation of each phase allowed Rosreestr to expand the range of services provided in electronic form. Unification of the Law on cadastre and the Law on registration of real property rights into the Federal Law No. 218-FZ ”On State Registration of Real Property“ of 13.07.2015 was instrumental in unification of cadastre and registry. This Federal Law established a unified procedure combining cadastral and real property rights registration. The presentation also considers development of the infrastructure for registration of rights and cadastre in the Russian Federation, services for citizens and business, public cadastral map and cooperation of Rosreestr with the World Bank in the field of property and land.
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Republic Geodetic Authority (RGA) is a state institution, which was entrusted with the official records of real estate and real estate rights holders, as well as with the obligation to provide reliable and up to date geospatial data on national level. It is a national Spatial Data Infrastructure coordinator and INSPIRE National Contact Point. Republic of Serbia is one of the first countries around the world, where the Global SDI Diagnostic Tool, developed by the World Bank and FAO was tested helping in estimation of weaknesses reflected in making the best use of NSDI. At the beginning of 2017 Government of Serbia adopted RGA Strategy till 2020 that foresees development of Regional Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Management, which would improve the use of the available data and services. Such Center would also accelerate the European integrations of the entire region, improve the cooperation between the institutions and the countries in the region and enable the region to keep up with technological innovations and experiences world-wide. The basic function of the Center would be to develop, find and share the most optimal solutions for the geospatial data management within the spatial data infrastructure through innovation, developing methodologies and training.
Establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure
Kosovo Cadastre Agency, Kosovo
New country with new a approach, Republic of Kosovo is undergoing enormous political, cultural and social transformation, including dealing with geo-spatial data. The Government of Kosovo has recognized the importance of developing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), and acknowledges the geo-information as of high importance on spatial planning, on political decision making or on identifying preventive activity to avoid disasters by taking prudent steps, etc.
NSDI in Kosovo aims to establish a technological, institutional, legal and administrative framework for inter-organizational collaboration that will be in line with INSPIRE Directive. Also it will support e-governance and institutionalization, it will integrate geo-information from different sources into one infrastructure, and it will avoid duplication of spatial data acquisition, storage, and maintenance, it will establish effective business processes which meet the needs of the stakeholders and promote the accessing, sharing and distributing the spatial data.
Pursuant the Law on Cadastre No. 04 L/013, article 23, the Kosovo Cadastral Agency was given responsibility for NSDI coordination, prioritizing data harmonization with the European Directives, including the INSPIRE Directive. Also, the draft Law on NSDI that is proposed to the parliament of Kosovo is strongly aligned in accordance with the European Union Directive 2007/02.
3D Land and Urban Systems
Sito Oy, Finland
The paper discusses today’s land administration and management investments and questions whether the investments mirror correctly urban land systems of 2026 and the era they mean to serve. As a sample, the World Bank’s technical land administration support often consists of investments to land and cadastral records, and in their most advanced scope focuses on automation and digital solutions; sharing and exchanging geospatial data; provision of electronic services; and integrating land and geospatial records to the eGovernment infrastructure of the nation. New applied services (such as One Map, Mass Valuation Systems, and State Land Management) are being introduced, and in parallel endless number of private sector applications and Start Ups make use of Open Data policies. However, conceptually, the manual era and 2D logics still dominate, which scope this paper suggests to be outdated. Private sector professionals including Architects, Geospatial providers and Construction companies operate already 3D environments, cities globally invest in 3D models, and 3D processes are starting to emerge. The paper concludes that today’s land and urban system investments should support 3D infrastructure and services as the rule, and that the 3D land and urban systems will become the norm in cities by 2026.
Blockchain and Land Rights
Lantmäteriet, the Swedish Mapping, Cadaster and Land Registration Authority, Sweden
The blockchain technology is regarded as a “new technology”. It is predicted that the blockchain technology will be the “next Internet” or at least to be one of the top disruptive inventions for businesses and administrations all over the world.
Many organizations and companies in both private business and public sector are looking into the possibilities and advantages with the blockchain. The financial sector with the banks at the front is keen on finding ways to use the technology to develop financial transactions.
An area that is very close to the financial sector is the Land and property sector. National economies normally rely a lot on a working real property market. The information about real properties, boundaries, ownership land and land rights is crucial to the processes of building society, working economy and democracy. National Land Administrations need to be systems of trust.
For this reason it is quite natural; that a technology that promise trust, security, transparency and good use of smart contracts; is of great interest to the development of systems for Land Rights. For nations in transition the blockchain technology offers a fast track to a future state that normally takes decades to reach.
Blockchain: Feasible or Not?
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Blockchain is the technology that underpins the bitcoin cryptocurrency and may be of interest as an application for Land Administration.
Land administration is the process of determining, recording, and disseminating of information about ownership, value and use of land when implementing land management policies.
It consists of two components: Land registration (deeds or titles) and Land recording + cadastral mapping. Land Registration consists of a triple: object, subject and right (in rem).
Being a transparent, decentralised, immutable and distributed technology that is publicly available, blockchain may meet the Land administration requirements, e.g. a continuum of land rights, claimants and spatial units, a geographic reference and, amongst others, history and transparency.
There are several private initiatives and next to that some governmental parties are exploring blockchain technology. Up until now it is uncertain what are the possibilities to create a blockchain-based Land Administration.
Key questions with regard to the concept of trust, the possible use of smart contracts as well as the various services a well functioning land registration can provide (archiving, registration and information) are adressed in this paper. Blockchain can be of use, although it does not seem to be feasible to replace a complete system of Land Administration.
Use of GIS in Mass Valuation
National Cadastral Agency, Belarus
To be completed