Conference Agenda

The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.

Session Overview
Location: MC 7-100
Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am01-10: Socio-Economic Aspects of Land Admin. Service Delivery
Session Chair: Christian Graefen, Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany
MC 7-100 
ID: 174 / 01-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: youth, youth groups, rehabilitated communal lands, Ostrom's Design Principles, performance

The Importance of Ostrom’s Design Principles: Youth Group Performance in Northern Ethiopia

Stein T. Holden, Mesfin Tilahun

Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway

Youth unemployment and migration is a growing challenge that needs more political attention in many countries in the world, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting with its new youth employment strategy allocating rehabilitated communal lands to youth groups. The youth groups organize as primary cooperatives, establish their own bylaw, develop a business plan and are audited. This study investigates the extent of compliance with Ostrom’s Design Principles by the youth groups and their relationship with the early performance of youth groups in terms of their level of internal cooperation, trust and overall performance in their land management and development of a joint business and livelihood. The study builds on a census of 741 youth groups in five districts in Tigray region with an average group size of 20 members and close to 15000 youth. The groups established in the period 2011-2015. The study shows that most groups adhere to the Design Principles and that adherence with some of the Design Principles is correlated with the various performance indicators.


ID: 497 / 01-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Agriculture, employment, land access, migration, transformation, youth

Land policy and the youth ‘bulge’ in Ethiopia: How social and economic transformations are scrutinizing the status qou

Hosaena Ghebru, Alemayehu Seyoum Tafesse

International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America

This study explores how youth land access affect their occupational (employment) and spatial mobility (migration) in the context of dynamic social and economic setups using panel data from 2011 and 2013 from the four major regions in the country (total of 7500 households). We estimate household fixed effects model to also evaluate differential impact access to land markets have on the youth. We find that land scarcity significantly dictates youth’s likelihood of long-distance permanent migration and overall welfare status. We also find that smooth functioning of land markets serve as a crucial mediating factor in weakening the push-effect of land scarcity in influencing youth’s occupational and spatial mobility decisions. As a result, land scarcity plays a much more pronounced role in dictating rural-to-urban permanent migration and non-agricultural sector employment in areas with less-vibrant land markets. Therefore, recent restrictive land policy reforms (both size and durational restrictions) in Ethiopia may undermine the potential role land rental markets play in avoiding unrewarding employment and migration decisions. For the youth, this is mainly so both on the demand side (using land markets for access to more land) and supply side (using the market as exit strategy to pursue livelihood in the non-farm sector).


ID: 268 / 01-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: land registry data; farm size distribution; gender-disaggregated land ownership; cumulative distribution functions; land fragmentation

Land Distribution in Northern Ethiopia From 1998 to 2016:Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation

Mesfin Tilahun Gelaye1,2, Stein T. Holden1

1School of Economics and Business/Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life; 2Mekelle University, Department of Economics

Tigray Region in Ethiopia was the first region to implement low-cost land registration and certification in 1998 (FSLR) when land was registered in the name of household heads. From 2015 the region started scaling up Second Stage land registration (SSLR) and this results in issuing parcel-level land certificates and availability of data on all holders of parcels by name and gender. We utilized the SSLR data for detailed gender-disaggregated analysis. The Data from 11 communities in four districts covers more than 78000 parcels (30000ha) in the SSLR to 31500 households. Various statistical measures are used to assess the gender-disaggregated, spatial and intertemporal variation in land distribution. The comparison of FSLR data with SSLR data facilitates critical assessment of the quality of FSLR data and changes in farm size distribution. We find that females’ land ownership share is as high as 48.8% and indicates a considerably lower skewness than we expected. The Gini-coefficient for land distribution among women is lower than that among men (0.45 versus 0.57). The share of male-headed households with no female landowners varied from 25 to 60% across communities. There is a clear trend towards smaller farm sizes from the FSLR in 1998 to SSLR in 2016.


ID: 299 / 01-10: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience

Land As Matrimonial Property In Kenya: Demystifying The Concept Of Contribution To Acquisition Of Land As Matrimonial Property

Mitchelle Oyuga, Nancy Ikinu

Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya(FIDA-Kenya), Kenya

In Kenya,equality in marriage is underscored in law by the Constitution which stipulates that parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of marriage, during marriage and at the dissolution of marriage. This paper undertakes a critique of the various laws and policies governing land access and ownership in Kenya. It further undertakes an audit of the recently enacted Matrimonial Property Act(MPA) that governs division of matrimonial property especially section 7 of the Matrimonial Property Act which requires any spouse to prove contribution to the acquisition of the said matrimonial property. It undertakes this audit to determine the impact Section 7 of the MPA has on women land and property rights. It also undertakes a further audit of the repealed section in the Land Act that required any spouse to obtain spousal consent before disposing of matrimonial land. It espouses that these highlighted sections are unconstitutional and should be amended to accommodate equality in marriage as stipulated in article 45 of the Constitution. It further provides that the concept of spousal consent to the disposal of land should be anchored in law to safeguard women land and property rights.

10:30am - 12:00pm02-10: Contribution of Knowledge-Action Networks
Session Chair: Peter Messerli, University of Bern, Switzerland
MC 7-100 
ID: 556 / 02-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: land system science; sustainable land systems co-design; science-policy interface; SDGs; transformations

Establishing a Science-policy Interface for Sustainable Land Systems – an Initiative of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP)

Ariane de Bremond1,2, Isabelle Providoli1,2, Albrecht Ehrensperger1,2, Peter Messerli1,2

1University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE); 2Global Land Programme

Land use plays an essential role in mediating the tension between planetary boundaries and growing development aspirations worldwide. Land use change is both consequence and cause of global change, and a solution towards sustainability transformations. The Global Land Programme (GLP) produces knowledge to better understand and guide such transformations under the Future Earth Initiative global research programme of the International Science Union. Because land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development, implementation of the SDGs may translate into competing claims on scarce land resources. Research also points to emerging opportunities for land-based innovations, and the possibility that co-design of sustainable land systems may play a strong role in alleviating these competing claims and aid achievement of the SDGs. GLP undertakes to strengthen its transformative potentials by intensifying its competencies in co-production of knowledge and establishing science-policy interfaces with non-academic partners at national and international levels. We present insights from recent research and ‘mapping’ exercises exploring what goals and targets of Agenda 2030 are most dependent on sustainable land systems; discuss our analysis of key interactions, trade-offs, and synergies; identify knowledge gaps and explore opportunities for co-design and support to societal actors.

02-10-de Bremond-556_ppt.pptx

ID: 687 / 02-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Science-Policy Nexus, Sustainability Science

Future Earth and the Science-Policy Nexus: Co-designing a solutions-oriented science for global sustainable development

Sandrine Paillard, Jon Padgham

Future Earth

Future Earth is an international research program whose main goal is to foster the generation of knowledge needed to accelerate transformations to a sustainable world. In the realm of sustainability science, Future Earth serves as a key emerging platform for international engagement to ensure that knowledge is generated in partnership with societal decision makers who rely on science to further sustainability goals. Future Earth has worked at structuring its links to policy and action through Knowledge-Action Networks that align with key sustainability challenges related to decarbonization; the difficulties of delivering water, energy and food to growing populations; the management of the complex connections between human and environmental health; the future of cities and rural landscapes; the wise use and stewardship of natural assets; the reduction in the environmental costs of consumption and production; and the establishment of robust governance that effectively manages risk and security. Engaging the science-policy interface is a core function of these Knowledge-Action Networks. We will present the way that one of these Knowledge-Action Networks, on the food-water-energy nexus, is designing its science-policy interface through agenda setting and capacity building. The presentation will focus on upcoming work in Africa.


ID: 756 / 02-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: land governance monitoring, data, people centered land monitoring

Rethinking the science-policy nexus in the land sector – Promoting People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring

Ward Anseeuw1,2, Michael Taylor2

1CIRAD, France; 2Iternational Land Coalition, Italy

The presentation will contribute to rethinking the science-policy nexus in the land sector, by presenting ILC's People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring strategy. It will detail a diverse set of possible activities in this framework as well as critically assess them by reflecting on the potentials (data ownership, inclusive decision-making) and challenges (data quality, power biases)of People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring tools and instruments.

2:15pm - 3:45pm03-10: Reducing the Risks of Agribusiness Investment
Session Chair: Marc Levy, Earth Institute, Columbia University, United States of America
MC 7-100 
ID: 592 / 03-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction

Advocating for Safeguards in Governing Land for Investment: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda, and Malawi

Juliana Nnoko Mewanu, Maria Burnett, Felix Horne, Katharina Rall, Nisha Varia, Janet Walsh

Human Rights Watch

With the new wave of land related laws and policies enacted in Africa recently, special focus should be on key governance gaps related to how land is allocated for investment purposes vis-à-vis local communities. We argue that governments and donors such as the World Bank need to undertake preventative measures when embarking on policies that encourages large-scale land based investments for extractives, agriculture and infrastructure.

To highlight governance gaps related to governing land for investment we use data from Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda and Malawi based on field research conducted in 2011, 2012, 2013-2014 and 2015-16 respectively. We interviewed approximately 330 respondents for the four case studies, including local community members, government officials, investors and other stakeholders. We find that when there are weak government policies, lack of transparency in land transactions and monitoring of negative consequences for communities, vulnerable groups are disproportionately impacted.

We conclude by proposing measures to close these governance gaps. These measures should be tailored to address the distinctive impacts on women and men. This will ensure that projects planned and carried out do not violate rights of local communities, and would minimize displacements and disruptions of livelihoods.

03-10-Nnoko Mewanu-592_paper.pdf
03-10-Nnoko Mewanu-592_ppt.pptx

ID: 228 / 03-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: Large-scale land acquisitions; investments, VGGT, safeguards, Uganda

Responsible Large-Scale Land Investments in Uganda: Current Application and Potential Scope of International Safeguards

Tobias Vorlaufer1, Felix Schilling2, Michael Kirk1, Christian Graefen2

1University of Marburg, Germany; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

A number of international initiatives have endorsed voluntary safeguards such as the VGGT to stipulate responsible large-scale investments in land and agriculture in developing countries. The underlying assumption of these safeguards is that investors face numerous risks related to land disputes and hence have intrinsic motivations to responsibly acquire agricultural land in order to mitigate these risks. Despite the central role of investors for the implementation of voluntary safeguards, few systematic attempts have been made to share the experiences and perspectives of investors regarding the implementation and operationalization of such guidelines and principles. This study focuses on how voluntary safeguards are operationalized by large-scale agricultural land investments in Uganda and whether the resulting activities successfully mitigate risks of (land) disputes. Primary data was collected during a field research in Uganda in August 2016 through key informant interviews with investors, community associations, the local government, CSOs, donors and national government agencies. Our findings highlight that land acquisitions in line with safeguards can successfully mitigate risks for investors. But low awareness for the risks of land disputes, insufficient knowledge of guidelines and principles, monitoring of investments and secondary effects on land markets remain a challenge for responsible large-scale land investments in Uganda.


ID: 431 / 03-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: Communities, consent, consultation, contracts, negotiations

Mechanisms for Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Negotiation of Land Contracts

Sam Szoke-Burke, Kaitlin Cordes

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America

Investor-state contracts are regularly used in low- and middle-income countries to grant concessions for land-based investments, such as agricultural or forestry projects. These contracts are rarely negotiated in the presence of, or with meaningful input from, the people who risk being adversely affected by the project. This has serious implications for requirements for meaningful consultation, and, where applicable, free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), and is particularly important in situations in which investor-state contracts grant the investor rights to lands or resources over which the community has legitimate claims.

The paper explores how consultation and FPIC processes can be integrated into investor-state contract negotiations, taking into account the practicalities of contract negotiations, to better safeguard the land rights and human rights of members of project-affected communities. Based on a review of relevant international law standards and guidance documents, as well as a close analysis of typical investor-state negotiations and of consultation and consent processes in other contexts, the paper provides various options that may be appropriate, depending on the local context and the community’s resources and decision-making structures.


ID: 164 / 03-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: conflict, disputes, risk, investment, agribusiness

Pre-existing Community Land Disputes In Private Sector Investments and Development Interventions

Karol Boudreaux1, Darryl Vhugen1,2, Nicole Walter1

1The Cloudburst Group, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant

Pre-existing community land disputes can profoundly affect private-sector investments and development programs or interventions. If these disputes, which can sometimes be difficult for outside actors to identify, address and mitigate, are not recognized they can re-ignite or trigger conflicts that delay, stop, or add significant financial and other costs to projects. Finding practical methods to address these conflicts is essential to promoting sustainable development and inclusive enabling and investment climates. Unfortunately, the issue of pre-existing community land conflicts is often which increases risks for communities, investors, development agencies and other stakeholders (such as host governments). This paper explores this under-addressed issue and provides clear and practical guidance on strategies to identify and address pre-existing community land disputes with a focus on the agricultural sector. It provides a brief and simple typology of land disputes with examples of how pre-existing disputes have affected projects. It identifies lessons learned from efforts to identify and address such disputes and, finally, it offers actionable recommendations for private sector and public sector actors to reduce harm and increase positive outcomes.

4:00pm - 5:30pm04-10: Land Policy Developments in Africa
Session Chair: Moses Kibirige, World Bank, Uganda
MC 7-100 
ID: 539 / 04-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Land Bill, Land Use Use Bill, legislation, law, reform

Towards an efficient and effective Land Administration System: The case of Ghana’s legislative Reform; Lessons and Challenges

Kofi Abakah Blankson


Ghana started a legislative reform of its Land Administration System in 2003. The reforms emanate from its National Land Policy which came into effect in 1999 identified about 166 pieces of legislation (including subsidiary legislation) that formed the legal framework for land administration. These were variously described as inadequate, conflicting, overlapping or outdated. In other words, the substantive land law remained in a highly unsatisfactory state, being derived from varied sources which can be excessively complex, difficult to ascertain and sometimes based on uncertain principles. Other land tenure arrangements including the management of family lands, the menace of landguards and existence of customary land secretariats as structures at the local level were without any legal framework.

The paper discusses the approach, methodology and innovation adopted to enact the Land and Land Use and Spatial Planning Bills and the New key provisions introduced. It draws lessons for other countries, especially those in Africa.


ID: 599 / 04-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: Land Data, Decision-making, Inclusive, Land ownership, Land use

The South African Land Observatory – The Establishment of a Multi-stakeholder Platform for Multi-level Evidence-based Decision-making on Land in South Africa

Thinah Moyo1, Ward Anseeuw2

1University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Land Coalition

This paper proposes an in-depth technical outline and a critical assessment of the implementation of the South African Land Observatory (SALO). The goal of the SALO is to facilitate evidence-based and inclusive decision-making over land resources in South Africa by generating, analyzing and making available land-based information and by widening participation to all stakeholders. Given the experiences within the different programs of land tenure, redistribution and restitution in South Africa, it is important to gather information that will address identified challenges/concerns in each locality, as well as identify what is necessary for effective land reform to occur. To address these and other questions, the establishment and development of well-coordinated information and data gathering, useful to all stakeholders and aiming at supporting evidence-based decision-making is essential.


ID: 1210 / 04-10: 5
Invited Paper

Using LGAF as a basis for land policy dialogue and monitoring progress

Zerfu Hailu Gebrewold

NIRAS/LGAF Ethiopia Country Coordinator, Ethiopia

Implementation of LGAF in Ethiopia has been initiated in September 2014. Information related to nine themes are collected from existing record, administrative reports, existing policies and legal frameworks and from review of institutional setups at federal and regional levels by nine professional experts assigned for each thematic area/panel. Background reports had been reviewed by many, which includes the country coordinator, World Bank expert responsibly for the process, Technical Advisory Group (TAG) established for the purpose under LGAF Africa secretariat, three national senior experts appointed to review three themes each of them, and national senior experts participated in panel sessions and validation workshop. The validation workshop had been conducted in December 2015 that marked the end of the assessment process. Although recommendations are given in each thematic/panel areas, they are not presented in a prioritized order. It may be difficult to implement all recommendations at once due to various limiting factors. Hence, it is absolutely essential to make prioritization of recommendations. The country report does not include roadmap to frame implementation of recommendations in a step by step manner. Therefore, prioritization workshop had been organized 14 - 16 February 2017 and recommendations are prioritized. Formulation of roadmap will follow.To be completed


ID: 386 / 04-10: 6
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Land reforms, scale up, computerization, land information system, estate performance survey

Delivering Land Administration Service At Scale Through Major Land Reforms- Malawi`s Experience

Devie Chilonga, Ivy Julie Luhanga, Kwame Ngwira, Charles Msosa

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development

Malawi Government is implementing national wide land reforms to improve service delivery. The need to migrate from paper based to electronic based land records has become a priority. So far, land records for estates leases have all been digitized and has revealed alot of things. Meanwhile, a performance survey of these estates is also underway to investigate more in terms of how they have been performing with respect to productivity . Government is also planning field verification to ensure that the degitized data is indeed reflecting the true picture on the ground before enforcement of breach of covenants can commence. These activities have been implemented with support from Agriculture Sector Wide Approach - Support Project financed by the World Bank. These records are now in a database and can easily be accessed as opposed to the paper based records. Moreover, the captured data has revealed that most of the leases on estates have expired and many owners of these estates are not paying ground rent accordingly. This project has really assisted Government to plan effectively in terms of making underutilized land available to investors in agriculture sector. This is part of the major national wide land related reforms underway in Malawi


Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am05-10: Development Partners Support to Tenure Security
Session Chair: Suzuka Sugawara-Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
MC 7-100 
ID: 629 / 05-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience

Improvement Of Community Tenure Security Through Access To Land Data: Evidences From GLTN Tools Application In Uganda And Kenya

Oumar Sylla1, Danilo Antonio1, Qhobela Cyprian Selebalo1, Hellen-Nyamweru Ndungu1, David J Stanfield2, John Gitua1

1UN-Habitat, Kenya; 2University of Wisconsin-Madison

Access to land information is key in ensuring community protection against eviction promoting efficient mechanisms that guarantee tenure security. Administrative data through the formal cadaster may exist, but it may not be enough in terms of coverage and access for the community. In such cases, innovative approaches are required to bridge the gap between formal and informal land rights and to empower communities living in the second rank, protect their rights and establish a manageable land information system.

The Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) was launched in 2006 to find balance among practical tools and land policies and to help resolve the problems of land access for the poor and disadvantaged. This initial orientation has informed the subsequent evolution of the GLTN as it tries to reconcile these two challenges while ensuring it remains pro-poor and gender sensitive.

This paper explores how the GLTN vision has worked out in practice, as illustrated in eight case studies done in Kenya and Uganda. The cases show how GLTN and partners have adapted three land tools: 1) participatory enumeration; 2) STDM) and 3) GEC-in urban and rural contexts and how land policy evolution has proven more productive at the local level.


ID: 620 / 05-10: 2
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Uganda, Burundi, Land Rights, Food Security, Conflict

Establishing An Intra-Oganizational Fit For Purpose Land Rights Policy. Comparison Of Successes, Lessons Learned And Best Practices Across Projects.

David Betge, Roland Zuidema, Jean Pierrre Irutingabo, Hendrik Westerbeek, Christin Weigt

ZOA, Netherlands, The

The paper compares the successes and lessons from land rights related projects, which are implemented by ZOA, a Dutch Humanitarian organization in Uganda and Burundi. The projects are evaluated with regard to how best practices might be applied in other contexts as well as how they might be integrated into an internal and fit for purpose land rights policy. The formulation of specific intra-organizational frameworks for coherent approaches to land rights related projects is valuable for organizations working in complex and fragile contexts. While the broadly appliedFit For Purpose Land Administration framework (FFP) developed by the World Bank and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) provides valuable guidelines for organizations working on land tenure related issues in developing countries it is necessary for an organization like ZOA with a very particular profile and target group to develop its own internal guidelines, which provide a more specific framework. Furthermore, the ongoing discourse concerned with practical ways of integrating land tenure administration into broader development frameworks and linking the issue with other aspects of sustainable development can strongly profit from linking on-the-ground experiences of specific projects with the broader existing frameworks and guidelines. The paper gives initial, practical recommendations in this regard.


ID: 384 / 05-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: land records, land rights, community, updation, land disputes

Updating Land Records, Resolving Land Problems and Securing Clear Land Titles through the Community-driven Process Involving Local Youth

Sunil Kumar Meka, Lokesh Shravandanahalli Bijavarappa

Landesa, India

Up-to-date land records and clear land titles are the pre-requisite for economic development and optimum utilization of the land by its owners. Government of India is making efforts to modernize management of land records in the country through Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP). Lack of requisite community involvement was identified as a major challenge during the recent review of the NLRMP. Landesa made efforts to address this gap through a four-step process to verify and update the land records – 1) Household Survey; 2) Collecting Information from Land Records; 3) Field Verification; and 4) Data Analysis. This four-step process was done manually and later a technological application was designed and tested. About four thousand land problems were identified in the pilot villages and 60% - 90% entries in land records do not reflect the filed reality. This pilot offers a low cost community-driven model which can be scaled through the Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme. This paper discusses the learning from the six village pilot and the ways to make the large scale land records updation initiatives in India more effective and with the increased community participation.


ID: 652 / 05-10: 4
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Multi-stakeholders forum, land tenure security, land governance, Tanzania

District Multi-stakeholder Forums: Unexhausted Opportunity For Securing Land Rights, Tanzania Experience

Masalu Luhula

Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania

Administration of land in Tanzania is more decentralized from the president to the village level. The law gives power to village councils and village assemblies to administer village land. The District authorities are given advisory and supervisory mandates over villages and represent the commissioner who takes overall administrative powers. Despite decentralization, institutions responsible for land administration, land have continued to be cause of many conflicts for years. Conflicts have been escalating and lead loss of lives and property. Lack of coordination among land administrative institutions has been the main route cause of land conflicts and ineffective systems of handling land conflicts administratively.

Civil society organisations, government institutions and development partners have been working to address and enhance coordination and communication among responsible institutions responsible for tenure security. The presents platforms which aim at multi-stakeholder policy dialogue on sustainable land-based businesses and investment solutions in ways that build upon active citizen participation. Therefore this paper presents multi-stakeholders forums as best model to address institutional coordination for land tenure security.

10:30am - 12:00pm06-10: Agribusiness Investment, Land Tenure, and Land Use
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource equity, United States of America
MC 7-100 
ID: 578 / 06-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: land use change, rubber farming, carbon stock, Xishuangbanna

Rubber Boom and Land Use Dynamics in Southwest China: Driving Force and Its Impact on Carbon Balances

Shi Min1, Georg Cadisch2, Jikun Huang3, Hermann Waibel1

1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany; 2University of Hohenheim, Germany; 3Peking University, China

The objective of this study is to explore the trajectory of land use change of smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN and empirically examine its driving factors as well as evaluate its implications for local environment regarding carbon balances. The analyses use the household survey data of some 600 smallholder rubber farmers conducted in 2013 in XSBN, and the collected second-hand time series data such as GDP and the prices of rubber and other crops in the past three decades. Follow the Seemingly Unrelated Time Series Equations framework (SUTSE), we develop a structural model to estimate the changes in land use pattern in XSBN. A simple land use allocation model is established to analyze the impacts of farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics and geographical conditions on their decisions of land use for rubber farming. Finally, follow the Rapid Carbon Stock Appraisal (RaCSA) method, we estimate the carbon stocks of land use systems of all sample households in XSBN over the past three decades. The results provide critical information on the trajectory of rubber expansion and land use change in XSBN, and is intended to support discussions on the future of rubber based land use system and its sustainability.


ID: 656 / 06-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Gender, oil palm expansion, Indonesia

Gender Norms and Gendered Impacts of the Oil Palm 'Land Rush' in Indonesia

Bimbika Sijapati Basnett1, Rebecca Elmhirst2, Mia Siscawati3, Dian Ekowati1

1Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia; 2University of Brighton, UK; 3University of Indonesia, UK

Gender issues are relegated to the periphery in current debates and approaches concerning the sustainable governance of oil palm. However, ongoing research by the Center for International Forestry Research in collaboration with University of Brighton, University of Indonesia and the Rights and Resources Initiative in Indonesia points to the critical roles that women play as workers, smallholders and members of affected communities. Oil palm expansion is displacing local women from land on which they cultivate food crops. Women workers’ contributions to production are either less visible, rendering them as shadow workers, or women are over-represented in the ‘casual worker’ category, with limited entitlement. Male community leaders and household heads have a greater voice in decision-making process. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) could be a platform to raise gender awareness, hold producers accountable and offer lessons for other standards in the sector. However, the RSPO principles and criteria, guidance and auditing mechanisms conflate gender with other forms of discrimination and view gender issues as beyond RSPO boundaries. Greater specificity and clarity in the P&C are needed and so is guidance on selection, training and evaluation of social auditors. RSPO must also learn from good practices in other certification schemes.

06-10-Sijapati Basnett-656_paper.pdf

ID: 1132 / 06-10: 4
Invited Paper

The Impact Of Large-Scale Land Development Deals That Remain Unimplemented

Rikke Brandt Broegaard1, Thoumthone Vongvisouk1,2, Ole Mertz1

1Dept of Geoscience, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Faculty of Forestry, National University of Laos, Laos

Many land deals are never implemented or only partially so and more knowledge is needed regarding the ways in which unimplemented or abandoned projects affect local communities. We use empirical interview-based case-study evidence of the first three years of a large-scale biofuel project in northern Laos, examining the negotiation processes of a partially abandoned project and its effect on local people’s land access and their perceived tenure security. The project negatively affected local land use and community members’ land rights. Political pressure on administrative actors to increase economic development in poor provinces and districts, limited consideration of proposals and priorities from villages, combined with officials’ lack of experience of negotiating large contracts and limited attention paid to exit conditions created a strong bargaining-position for investors. However, the investment project helped the government policy to move away from the traditional, subsistence-oriented land use, towards commercially oriented agricultural production. In this way, we argue that the land grab continues after the original investor is gone.


ID: 375 / 06-10: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Large-scale land allocation, good governance and accountability, local resistance, rural livelihoods, Cameroon

Where Effective Governance is Absent, Ineffective Governance Becomes the Obvious: Interrogating Large Land Acquisition Processes and its Impacts on Investment Projects in South West Cameroon. The Case of Herakles Farms.

Frankline Anum Ndi

University of Melbourne, Australia

This paper will examine how the conventional top-down approach used in large-scale land allocation to foreign investors undermines the effective implementation of land investment projects in Cameroon. Long-held customary land used by communities in the South West Region to sustain rural livelihoods is under ‘grab’ by foreign investors for the development of commercial oil palm plantations without the consent of those on the land. This paper will argue that the approach used to acquire land is elite- dominated, corrupt, and shapes prospects for local resistance, which in turn negatively affects the effective implementation of investment projects despite government’s approval. The study will advocate the need for effective land governance policies – suggesting a re-visitation of the existing politico-administrative and legal instruments governing land use and management in the country, with emphasis on the need to practically engage local communities in land deal negotiation and implementation processes. Without these, I argue that local communities will continue to contest the establishment of commercial agricultural projects on ancestral land despite its promises in enhancing local economic development.

2:15pm - 3:45pm07-10: Assessing Impact of Land Reform Interventions
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 7-100 
ID: 720 / 07-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: impact evaluation, land rights, land governance, agriculture, Senegal

Baseline Findings And Evaluation Challenges For An Irrigation and Land Tenure Security Initiative in the Senegal River Valley

Aravind Moorthy, Thomas Coen, Katie Naeve, Jeremy Brecher-Haimson, Sarah Hughes

Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America

Improving irrigation infrastructure in the Senegal River Valley has the potential to boost agricultural productivity and the welfare of households in the region. However, unless land rights are clearly assigned and secure, investments in land may be dampened, preventing the benefits of improved irrigation from being fully realized. In addition, the potential for land conflicts could rise as land increases in value, particularly if land tenure is insecure.

With these issues in mind, between 2010 and 2015, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) invested in an initiative in the Senegal River Valley that combined irrigation infrastructure improvements with activities to improve land tenure security and governance in affected areas. Mathematica Policy Research is conducting a rigorous evaluation of the initiative.

Here, we present findings from our analysis of a baseline survey conducted by a previous evaluator between 2012 and 2013 among households targeted by the intervention and a group of comparison households. Our analysis illustrates several challenges for evaluations of land interventions, including measurement issues, identifying a credible comparison group, and isolating impacts from the effects of other contemporaneous interventions. We will present our plan for mitigating these risks, and considerations for designing our upcoming follow-up surveys.


ID: 591 / 07-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Forest Tenure Reform, Indonesia, social forestry, tenure security, reform outcomes

Outcomes of land and forest tenure reform implementation in Indonesia

Mani Banjade, Tuti Herawati, Nining Liswanti, Esther Mwangi

Center for International Forestry Researcy, Indonesia

Most of the developing countries have undergone through forest tenure reform in past two decades offering some rights to local communities over land and forest resources. About one third of world’s forest is under community ownership or use. However, the actual contribution on tenure security, livelihoods and forest condition is not fully understood. This paper tries to fill that gap by analyzing outcomes of various forest tenure regimes in Indonesia based on the research from 16 forest communities under social forestry schemes, informal customary systems, and various partnership schemes.

The results show that all the communities whose rights were legally recognized under the reforms had strong perceptions of tenure security; and improved forest condition was observed in the communities with advanced reform implementation. However, these communities had low increase in income after the reform as well as have failed to take into account women’s representation and voice in forest governance. Variation in outcomes within and across the formal reform types could be attributed to the disproportionate possession of extent, protection and assurance of rights, access to capital, capacity, biophysical conditions and post formation support.


ID: 241 / 07-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale

Methods for Determining Land Formalization Cost-effectiveness: The Per-parcel Cost and Quality of USAID’s MAST Pilot in Tanzania

Lauren Persha1, Benjamin Linkow1, Sebastian Monroy-Taborda1, Gwynne Zodrow2

1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International

Technical and financial requirements for land formalization programs are substantial, prompting donor and government interest to find low-cost approaches to customary land documentation and registration. Such programs must be feasible to implement at scale, with manageable time, personnel and technical requirements, but also provide sufficiently high-quality service delivery to meet development objectives and ensure sustainability of the process beyond initial donor support. Currently there is no standard approach in the land sector for determining per-parcel costs or cost-effectiveness of such programs. Such analyses could, however, help clarify resource needs and potential efficiencies, identify how differences across approaches may contribute to overall quality and sustainability, and facilitate selection from a range of options. We draw on cost-effectiveness analyses and qualitative data collection with district land staff and program beneficiaries to estimate the cost-per-parcel and associated quality dimensions of USAID’s Mobile Application to Secure Tenure (MAST) pilot approach to map land and facilitate formal documentation of customary use rights in Tanzania. While cost data present several uncertainties, results suggest evidence of a trade-off between per-unit cost and quality, and identify advantages of the MAST system that appear to benefit overall quality, CCRO delivery time, and beneficiary trust in the process.


ID: 269 / 07-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Farm-household heterogeneity, tropical deforestation, land tenure, smallholders, Indonesia.

Land Markets, Property Rights, and Deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia (1992-2015)

Vijesh Krishna1, Christoph Kubitza1, Unai Pascual2, Matin Qaim1

1Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Basque Center for Climate Change, Spain

We examine the emergence of land markets and their effects on deforestation in Sumatra (Indonesia), using farm-household data for the period 1992-2015. The paper is based on a theoretical model of land acquisition for cultivation by a heterogeneous farming population, as well as micro-econometric analysis of primary data. We observe that land market development, under an institutional context of weak land tenure security, has not triggered deforestation in the study area. While the de facto property right protection provides sufficient internal tenure security for most farm-households, the sense of external tenure security is low for the land that cannot be formally titled. This results in the undervaluation of directly appropriated forest land. Clearing forest land for trading in the land market is, therefore, financially less lucrative for farmers than engaging in cultivation of plantation crops in already converted land. The study also indicates that land market development alone has been unable to deter forest appropriation by local (non-migrant) households.

4:00pm - 5:30pm08-10: Property Rights and Operation of Factor Markets
Session Chair: Fernando Pedro Mendez Gonzalez, COLEGIO DE REGISTRADORES DE ESPAÑA, Spain
MC 7-100 
ID: 944 / 08-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Land registries, secure, property rights, blockchain

Land administration & property titles

Eduardo Martínez


What do the Land Registries serve for? In a complex society there are institutions that made possible impersonal and abstract trust. Secure and well defined property rights is one of the foundations of the economic development. The exchange of "rights in rem" takes place through contracts, which have been previously checked (ex ante control). This leads to a reduction of transaction costs and information asymmetries. Blockchain and smart contracts theorists believe that this new technology can perform (substitute), in a decentralized environment, the functions that until the present have been done by the Land Registries. But these new technology is challenged because the (truth) exactness of the contracts cannot be proved and thus the chain of contracts becomes uncertain.


ID: 324 / 08-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization

Romania’s Housing Privatization as an Anticommons Problem

Robert Buckley, Ashna Mathema

World Bank group, United States of America

Romania has the world’s highest share of privately owned housing. It has also experienced a rapid shift in housing property rights ever, which changed from the most strictly publicly-controlled of any economy to one where individual decision-making became the highest in the world. And while it would appear that the widespread private ownership would lead to a well-functioning housing market, this is unfortunately not the case. As many have pointed out, the so-called “tragedies” in literature on common pool resources are often really fables that overlook details about how these resources ultimately get managed. Unfortunately, for Romania’s housing sector, the word tragedy appears to be an all too accurate description of how property rights have been allocated.

Romania’s common pool tragedies are an outcome of the strictly controlled housing rights under the old regime, and also the fact that the new property rights definition ignores the effects of the old system on the spatial, management, and architectural dimensions of the housing stock. Unless more attention is given to property rights governing the use of buildings rather than those of individual housing units, Romania will continue to have limited labor mobility, and a housing market that is unresponsive to demand.


ID: 363 / 08-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: land tenure, urbanization, expropriation, inequality, dualism

Public/Public Tenure Dualism in China: How the Dichotomy between State and Collective Ownership Has Shaped Urbanization and Driven the Emergence of Wealth Inequality

John Bruce

former Visiting Professor, Renmin University, Beijing; former Senior Land Law and Land Tenure Expert, World Bank; former Director, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

In China, the two basic forms of land ownership are both public: state ownership, which applies to all urban land, and collective ownership, which applies to almost all rural land. This paper examines how China’s dual land tenure system originated; how it has shaped China’s urbanization and contributed to both modernization and the rise of dramatic wealth inequality; what its intended and unintended results have been; how far the tenure reform program now taking shape will alter the nature and extent of that dualism, and how adequately those changes will address dualism's problematic impacts. The paper also examines from a comparative perspective how tenure dualism is employed elsewhere to disadvantage one portion of the nation and advantage another. This is often seen in post-colonial polities. The similarities and contrasts between dualism and its role in the Chinese and post-colonial cases are revealing. They also have implications for the applicability of the Chinese model of modernization through urbanization in other developing country contexts.


Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am09-10: Addressing Land Tenure in Irrigation Schemes in West Africa
Session Chair: Caroline Plançon, world bank, United States of America
MC 7-100 
ID: 797 / 09-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: resilience, social inclusion, climate change, equity, women

Building Resilience By Strengthening Women's Land Rights In The Senegal River Valley

Mamadou Baro, Abdoulaye Diagana

University of Arizona, United States of America

Empirical data shows that gender-related inequalities are pervasive in the Sahel. Although women account for most of the agricultural sector in the Sahel, they represent less than 10 percent of registered landholders and continue to face barriers in access to land, especially in rural areas where social exclusion and patriarchal traditions are very strong. Although the current land law recognizes the right of women to own land, in practice, women have not acquired the same rights and duties as men in Senegal River Valley land tenure system. Positive discrimination is required to counter the longstanding negative discrimination against women in accessing and owning land. This paper based on data collected in the field highlights the urgent need to significantly improve women’s control and ownership of land as a prerequisite for building resilience in the Senegal River Valley communities. It concludes by providing concrete and prioritized recommendations on how to promote and strengthen women’s land rights in the context of climate change, land grabbing and new policies on land governance.


ID: 789 / 09-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Land, tenure systems, food security, securing land right, governance, irrigated scheme.

Securing land rights in irrigated scheme in Mali. Cas study of Sélingué.

Adamczewski Amandine

CIRAD, France / University of Gaston Berger, Sénégal

Land tenure security is key to improving productivity and to promote rural development. In the Sahelian irrigation, a recurrent problem is the farmers ‘lack of tenure security. A new land tenure law is currently under discussion in Mali, which is an opportunity to address some of the current gaps in how land is allocated and registered – both for the State and for local communities. Approximately 2,200,000 hectares are deemed to be suitable for the development of irrigated agriculture in Mali, only 20% of this land is currently developed. Sélingué is the second most important national irrigated scheme. This paper , based on empirical investigations, is explores land tenure systems in Selingue and Maninkoura irrigation scheme, the nature of these systems (formal and informal), and analyses the roles of different actors. He is explores the gap between the official land tenure system, and the practice developed by irrigated farmers. Studying current arrangements between stakeholders, being spontaneous or institutionalized, allows picturing issues in terms of decision-making, management schemes and territories to consider.


ID: 705 / 09-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience

Inclusive land and water governance: Experiences from Mauritania and Senegal

Steven Raoul Filip Jonckheere, Harold Liversage

IFAD, Italy

This paper will look at two experiences where inclusive land and water governance has been promoted in West Africa: one in Mauritania and another in Senegal. IFAD-supported projects in Mauritania have been facilitating the use of «Ententes foncières» or land distribution agreements between landowners and the landless, as pre-condition for water infrastructure. The approach is based on three principles: (i) justice; (ii) solidarity; (iii) efficiency and includes three steps: (i) land tenure assessment; (ii) negotiations; (iii) written agreement (endorsed by local authorities, prefect, land owners and village chief). In Senegal, the AFD-funded Rural Communities Support Programme has introduced land use plans These participatory plans have been used to decide where water infrastructure will be built and to decide access rights of farmers and pastoralists.


ID: 356 / 09-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Growth Pole, Irrigation, Resettlement Land allocation, Burkina Faso

Ideologies, Development Models and Irrigated Land Tenure: The Bagré Irrigation Project in Burkina Faso

Jean-Philippe Venot1, William's Daré2, Etienne Kaboré3, Francoise Gérard2, Abdoulaye Tapsoba2, Donatien Idani4, Simone Carboni5

1IRD, URA, Wageningen University; 2CIRAD; 3Bagrépôle; 4Agence de l'Eau du Nakambé; 5INSUCO

This paper discusses the history of irrigation development and related land allocation in the Bagré area in the South of Burkina Faso. It specifically analyses current processes at play as part of the recent Bagré Growth Pole Project implemented by the government of Burkina Faso with support of the World Bank. The paper stresses the efforts made to put in place a fair and equitable compensation mechanism for the people being affected by the extension of the irrigated area downstream of the Bagré dam. The practicalities and thresholds considered in the compensation scheme are partly driven by the need to free some rainfed land to allow agro-entrepreneurs to settle in the area, financially contribute to the infrastructural costs of developing irrigation, and develop intensive and profitable irrigated production systems. This leads to socially constructing land scarcity, and threatens the future viability of smallholder farming. This happens even though the expressions of interests received to date by Bagrepole from agro-entrepreneurs appear little likely to trigger the virtuous development circle hoped for.

10:30am - 12:00pm10-10: Expanding and Sustaining Land Registration
Session Chair: Elena Busch, Statens kartverk - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
MC 7-100 
ID: 546 / 10-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Madagascar, Land Reform, Certification, Massive, Inclusive

After 10 Years of Land Reform in Madagascar: Is the Process of Land Certification Massive and Inclusive?

Heriniaina Rakotomalala1, Perrine Burnod2, Camille Saint-Macary3, Flore Gubert3

1Madagascar Land Observatory, Madagascar; 2CIRAD, UMR Tetis; 3IRD, UMR Dial

The Malagasy reform on going since 2005 belongs to a new generation of land reforms in Africa. Two major innovations have emerged: decentralized land management through the creation of local land offices at commune level and land certification. The land reform objective is to overcome the pitfalls of the former land titling system and to provide tenure security to a majority of households thanks to a low cost, easy and participatory registration process. However, contrary to similar land reform in other African countries such as Ethiopia or Rwanda, land certification is “on demand” and not based on a systematic demarcation process.

Is the Malagasy certification really massive and inclusive? To explore this issue, the paper analyzes the evolution and the determinants of land certificates demand. It puts a special emphasis on the forms of offer (promotional campaigns) and its impacts on the level and distribution of demand for land certificates. Policy implications to foster inclusivity and local and offices sustainability are debated.

The paper uses first-hand data that were collected through two specially designed survey conducted on a large sample of rural households in 2011 and 2015 (1 834 with 1 551 households in panel) in nine communes of Madagascar


ID: 748 / 10-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Secure enough tenure; Rwanda

Is Land Tenure "Secure Enough" in Rural Rwanda?

Michael Brown, Ailey Hughes

Chemonics International, United States of America

Application of the secure enough tenure framework allows for recognition of formal and informal tenure rights to promote economic development and livelihoods. Tenure may be secure enough when rights to land and natural resources are not arbitrarily contested by the state, private entities, or others. In Rwanda, the government promotes improving agricultural production through land use consolidation and private investment. These programs are founded on the assumption that through the legal framework, Land Tenure Regularization, and ongoing participation in the land administration system, land rights are secure for women and men. However, policies designed to facilitate land use consolidation and agricultural investment have inadvertently led to informal land subdivisions, transfers, and lack of registration, as well as new challenges for women’s access to land. This has catalyzed a reintroduction of informal land tenure arrangements. The attendant risk of this trend is that tenure will eventually regress to not secure enough, and farmers will be unable to participate in government investment programs or reap the benefits of their land. Using original research in Rwanda and literature review, this paper explores the potential for reconsidering what secure enough tenure could look like in Rwanda considering both state and customary objectives.


ID: 657 / 10-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience

Land Registration Reform in Georgia

Elene Grigolia, Papuna Ugrekhelidze

National Agency of Public Registry, Georgia

Land is Georgia’s greatest resource and the registration is a vital precondition for the social and economic development of the country. Despite the land registration reform conducted in 1992-1998, the majority of agricultural land parcels outside the urban areas of Georgia aren’t yet registered and recorded accurately in the national cadaster.

The efforts of the Government of Georgia to introduce a comprehensive solution in order to increase the number of registered land parcels, register land without barriers, ensure cadastral coverage of privately held land parcels and develop the land market.

For this purposes, the law of Georgia "On Special Procedures for Systematic and Sporadic Registration of Land Titles and Improvement of Cadastral Data under the State Project" has been adopted.

The State Project ensures centralization of registration process – “one-stop-shop” principle, time and effort saving, alternative dispute resolution mechanism, free-of-charge services of NAPR and other organizations, secured ownership rights, regulated property market.

The Pilot Project is a component of the State Project, which envisages the systematic registration of land titles and is implemented in 12 settlements selected across Georgia. It aims at identifying additional gaps in regulations, development of policy and procedures to start National Rollout of systematic registration.


ID: 610 / 10-10: 4
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Burundi, Land Rights, Peacebuilding, Fit for Purpose, Food Security

The Missing Link: Successes And Lessons Learned From An Integrated Approach To Land Tenure Registration In Burundi.

David Betge, Roland Zuidema, Jean Pierrre Irutingabo, Hendrik Westerbeek

ZOA, Netherlands, The

The authors review a locally based land tenure registration project in Burundi, which combines tenure registration with conflict resolution. They lay out the program in detail and evaluate the successes and lessons learned. This evaluation also points towards broader issues related to land rights projects, pertaining to the national and international frameworks for such ground-based projects.

While there are established networks and policy frameworks on the international and national level, effectively informing locally based projects, an effective feedback link from the local level back to these higher levels of policymaking needs to be established.

The paper gives recommendations for improving the overall impact of land rights projects and suggests some necessary steps for establishing better and more supportive structures to increase the overall efficiency of land rights programming and policy making. Three aspects are particularly important:

1. Long-term funding by international donors involving strong financial resources for monitoring and evaluation.

2. Targeted research programs with the objective of identifying the necessary conditions of successful land tenure registration programs in various settings.

3. Institutionalized communication structures allowing actors involved in land tenure programs to communicate effectively and efficiently on their experiences – within program countries as well as across different contexts.

1:00pm - 2:30pm11-10: Scaling Good Practice on Land Administration Delivery
Session Chair: Michele Oriol, Comité Inter Ministériel d'Aménagement du Territoire, Haiti
MC 7-100 
ID: 280 / 11-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: land reform, survey methodology, Tajikistan, impacts, sustainability

Tracking Impacts of Tajikistan Land Reform Across Multiple Projects, Donors and Districts from 2006-2016 Using a Common Core of Survey Questions and Field Methods

Eric Abbott1, Nandita Jain2

1Iowa State University, United States of America; 2The World Bank, Washington D.C.

This paper utilizes a series of four major project survey evaluations undertaken across a 10-year period to track key impacts of country-wide land restructuring in Tajikistan. Each survey of more than 1200 scientifically selected farm households by different donors including the World Bank, USAID and DFID included the same set of core questions and enough of the same regions and districts so that longer-term impacts could be followed over time. Cross-project collaborative leadership, careful planning and cooperation, and care in preserving and maintaining datasets made it possible to examine impacts of land reform in key geographic areas, as well as across the country in general. Key impacts identified over time include: (1) Most of the agricultural farmland has been restructured into plots of less than 5 hectares; (2) Farmers increasingly make their own independent farming decisions (freedom to farm); (3) farmers are investing more money and labor in their farms, and agricultural production and income are increasing; (4) The average number of crops grown has more than doubled over time, with significant increases in fruits and vegetables; (5) Farmers report eating more fruits and vegetables when they are produced on the farm.


ID: 495 / 11-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Land, Administration, governance, service, delivery

Delivering Land Administration Services at Scale

Tsepang Tlali, Matsireletso Lepheana, Mahashe Chaka

Land Administration Authority, Lesotho

Land is a finite and one of the most valuable resources. Its administration deserves an optimized hence the need for proper land administration. Effective land governance ensures transparent and efficient land administration, equity and access to land by all, food security, land use planning, and natural resources management to name but a few. Land administration services should be business oriented as such adoption of appropriate customer centric models is significant. Balancing demand and delivery of the services should always be part of the game. Although there are always lessons that could be learned from one country to another, there is usually no “one size fits all” hence concepts like “fit for purpose” come to play. One of the core reasons for embarking on land administration reform initiatives is that it is known to promote economic development hence poverty alleviation. Land administration services are part of day to day for public services. These are usually services provided by government offices and it is a common concern in developing countries that public service delivery is sluggish and sometimes contaminated by acts of corruption. Organisations providing land administration services still need to monitor performance and quality of service provided to the public.


ID: 579 / 11-10: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Tenure security, land cadaster, community participation, fit-for-purpose, crowdsourcing

The Case for Participatory Fit For Purpose Massive Land Registration as a means for a Sustainable Cadaster in Mozambique

Marisa Balas1, Joao Carrilho2, Simao Pedro Joaquim2, Jose Murta1, Christiaan Lemmen3, Lazaro Matlava2, Mario Ruy Marques4

1EXI LDA, Mozambique; 2DINAT - National Directorate of Lands; 3Dutch Kadaster; 4Verde Azul/DINAT

It is now twenty years since a new land law was enacted in Mozambique, after 16 years of civil war. By force of the Constitution, the new law establishes that the state recognizes community and individual rights acquired through customary and good-faith occupation, although no provision was made for the registration of such occupation.

The development in the last two decades has prompted the need to systematically register and map land occupation, to secure the occupants rights, to avoid conflicts and to promote efficient land use, and development.

In the last five years, a more mature LAS/LIS (called SIGiT) is being used. There is, however, no way to circumvent the need to directly involve the citizens and a broad institutional collaboration.

We claim that the best approximation is achieved through a standards-based participatory and all-inclusive bottom-up cadastre and land management.

This paper discusses the main features of several components in view of the experience of the last five years in constructing the national land cadastre and how they can be implemented through participatory and decentralised land administration.


ID: 132 / 11-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations

La problématique foncière en Haïti : Comment le Recensement Général Agricole de 2010 questionne les politiques publiques

Klaas Geert van Vliet1, Sandrine Freguin-Gresh1, Thierry Giordano2, Jacques Marzin1, Gaël Pressoir3

1CIRAD, France; 2FAO; 3Chibas Foundation / Quiskeya University, Port-au-Prince

Nous posons les hypothèses suivantes : i) les réponses de politique apportées durant les dix dernières années à la problématique foncière sont insuffisamment ancrées sur des données empiriques récentes; ii) en conséquence, l'offre de régulation foncière récente ignore des aspects essentiels; iii) la question foncière aujourd'hui demande une réponse intégrale de politiques. En termes de méthode, i) nous rappelons d'abord l'empreinte de l'histoire; avec précaution, nous exploitons les données du Recensement Général Agricole 2010; iii) nous analysons les caractéristiques de l'offre de politiques foncières des dix dernières années; nous confrontons offre et demande de régulation foncière. Notre constat est que l'écart entre demande et offre de politique foncière reste notable : i) l'offre contient un éventail trop réduit d'outils d'intervention; ii) les formes précaires d'accès au foncier (métayage), ne sont pas régulées; iii) les conflits fréquents, ne sont pas répondus; iv) la pulvérisation des exploitations et le grignotage urbain placent le zonage et l'élaboration de plans locaux d'utilisation des sols comme priorités. La fragmentation extrême pose la question de politiques d'accompagnement de sortie.

11-10-van Vliet-132_paper.pdf
11-10-van Vliet-132_ppt.pptx
2:45pm - 4:15pm12-10: Experiences of Large Scale Land Acquisition
Session Chair: Issa Faye, African Development Bank, Tunisia
MC 7-100 
ID: 311 / 12-10: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Tanzania, large-scale land acquisitions, LSMS-ISA, small holder farmers, rural development, coarsened exact matching

The Impact of Large Scale Foreign Land Acquisitions on Rural Households: Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence From Tanzania

Emma Aisbett1, Giulia Barbanente1,2

1University of Hamburg; 2Erasmus University Rotterdam

The impact of large-scale foreign land acquisitions on rural households has proven highly contentious question in both public discourse and academic literature. The current paper takes a multi-method approach to analyzing the impacts of large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania. I begin with an overview of leading economic theories which predict alternatively positive or negative effects from the entrance of foreign actors in the agricultural sector of developing countries. I also survey the existing qualitative evidence on these impacts for Tanzania, and find that this literature is highly critical of the repercussions of the so-called ‘land grab’ for the livelihood of rural populations. My original contribution begins with a law-and-economics approach, analyzing three specific foreign acquisition contracts from Tanzania for their likely impacts on rural households. Finally, I provide some rare quantitative evidence on the impacts of large-scale land acquisitions. To do this I combine data on large-scale foreign land acquisitions with newly available, specially designed, World Bank household surveys for rural Tanzania. The quantitative analysis shows mixed effects of land acquisitions on a range of development indicators for rural households.


ID: 489 / 12-10: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: investment, Ghana, resettlement, livelihoods, gender

The Implications of Infrastructure Investments on Land and Livelihoods

Felicity Buckle, Bernice Sam

DAI, United Kingdom

After more than two decades of exploration activity, commercial quantities of oil and gas were discovered off the coast of Ghana in 2007. The prospects for the sector still remain positive with additional fields coming on stream in the second half of 2016 and 2017. Discovery has led to a high increase in infrastructure projects and investments in the Western Region particularly the six coastal districts. Large tracts of land have been taken over for oil and gas infrastructure, businesses, pipelines, roads and areas for machinery repair. These huge investments obviously have big implications for the communities who live in these areas and for their livelihoods, particularly for those who rely on natural resources. This paper will provide some real life examples of how investments in land (from government and private sector alike) affect the lives of ordinary people; the consequences of resettlement, beyond initial compensation packages; and experiences of bringing to the fore investors, communities, government and CSOs to discuss priority issues and concerns together, and ultimately develop solutions for all parties concerned.


ID: 594 / 12-10: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: rural development, urbanization, agglomeration economies, amenities, spatial equilibrium

Are Rural Areas Taking Advantage of Proximity to Cities?

Julio Antonio Berdegué Sacristán, Juan Manuel Soto Diaz, Milena Vargas


We identify the effects of proximity to cities on the economic development of rural areas in Chile. Following Partridge and Rickman (2003), and Rappaport (2004), this work characterizes the changes in population and employment in rural areas as the partial adjustments on the location of households and firms due to the spatial variations in agglomeration economies, amenities, and public provision of services of nearby cities. In order to observe how rural areas are influenced by the scope and intensity of the linkages with urban areas, we estimate the effect of travel time to cities and market potential variables, over the change of population and employment for 22,241 rural areas in Chile, using the last two Chilean national censuses of 1992 and 2002, rural travel time estimates, and stable satellite light night. We found that rural people are drained by urban areas, especially when the proximate city its large. But if the cities are medium or small in population size, they attract population to work there, but do not cause delocalization. Therefore, small and medium cities in Chile are generating more virtuous dynamics with the rural world, which is where a large share of poor people continue to live.

12-10-Berdegué Sacristán-594_paper.pdf
12-10-Berdegué Sacristán-594_ppt.pdf

ID: 145 / 12-10: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Governance, Enabling Environment

Review of Land Tenure Systems to Support the Creation of an Enabling Environment for Agricultural Transformation in Africa.

Rose Mwebaza

African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire

Subject to an enabling environment Africa can and should feed the region’s population. The African Development Bank’s Feed Africa- Strategy for Agricultural Transformation recognizes that security of land tenure and good governance remain major challenges across the continent


Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017
9:00am - 10:30am13-05: Screening Prospective Investors

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 7-100 
ID: 236 / 13-05: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations

Screening Prospective Investors

William Speller1, Hafiz Mirza1, Asuka Okumura2, Paul Gardner Yvelin De Beville2, Duncan Pringle2, Chris Brett2

1UNCTAD, Switzerland; 2World Bank, USA

Financial and operational success is an essential pre-condition for agricultural investments to make a positive contribution to development. Yet a significant proportion of investors fail, many for reasons that should have been foreseen at the outset of the project. And there is great variation in the extent to which investments deliver development benefits. This underscores the importance of sound pre-screening procedures by host country governments when approached by investors.

The pre-screening capacity and procedures of host governments may not be sufficiently functional to successfully screen out investors with unrealistic business models. There appears to be a dearth of guidance available to governments on how to effectively screen out investors that have deficiencies in their plans, and screen in investors that make a positive contribution to the country's development goals. A frequent weakness pre-investment procedures is a failure to properly assess the land tenure implications. This can occur due to lax due diligence on the part of investors, or due to weaknesses in host country land legislation or application thereof. This Master Class will focus on how governments may improve their screening system, with an emphasis on addressing risks related to access to land for land-based investments.

11:00am - 12:30pm14-05: Responsible Governance of Tenure: Technical Guide

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 7-100 
1:30pm - 3:00pm15-05: Gender and Responsible Agricultural Investment in Africa

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 7-100 
ID: 544 / 15-05: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: Large Scale Land Based Investments, Gender, Women

Gender and Responsible Large Scale Land Based Investment in Agriculture in Africa: A Gendered Guide on Meaningful Community Engagement

Eileen Wakesho Mwagae1, Francine Picard2

1Oxfam Pan Africa Programme; 2International Institute for Sustainable Development

Oxfam and its partner, International Institute for Sustainable Development have developed a gendered guide intended to provide an overview of the key steps in the Large Scale Land Based Investment (LSLBI) process while defining what women and community engagement looks like through the evolution of the process. It seeks to provide a resource for women, communities and those seeking to empower them by addressing associated issues in a simplified manner

The guide is specifically intended for use by women, communities, their organizers and their facilitators once they discover an LSLBI is proposed or underway in their area. The guide highlights five key entry points which communities can use to influence the LSLBI process through organized and targeted engagement. The guide is intended to help maximize women and community’s ability to engage meaningfully in LSLBI processes.

The guide development process was informed by community consultations in sampled countries among Communities affected by LSLBI. The countries include Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal and Zambia. While by no means providing all the evidence required, the information gathered from these countries was critical in development of the tools.