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12-06: The Role of Tenure in Reducing Land Degradation
Achieving Land Degradation Neutrality For Improved Equity, Sustainability And Resilience
For many developing countries, long-term food security and economic growth is highly dependent on the management of their land resources, including soil, water and biodiversity. To ensure the sustainable use of these essential components into the future, there is no choice but to support a new vision of stewardship based on rights, rewards and responsibilities. This would provide the incentives needed for young people to remain in the rural areas and help foster an enabling environment for more equitable access to markets, investment and infrastructure. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), as part of its mandate to help achieve the SDGs, is advocating and supporting over 100 countries to integrate appropriate land governance systems in their voluntary land degradation neutrality targets. The UNCCD’s new flagship publication, the Global Land Outlook, strongly advocates for national and local governments to play a critical role in developing the necessary governance and incentive frameworks that encourage more sustainable land management decisions at all scales. Otherwise, future scenarios are rife with shortages, conflicts and instability.
Land Management And Policy On Sustainable Use Of Land Resources: The Case Of Burkina Faso
1Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 2Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 3Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey
Agricultural lands cover 44.22% of the surface area of Burkina Faso; the agricultural population constitutes 77% of the total population, the annual population increase rate is 2.91% and the urbanization rate is fairly high with 5.84%. The slow pace of urban infrastructure investments and construction works leads to serious real estate problems; 4/5 of the real estate supply consists of deedless immovables while the land production and real estate construction performance of local governments are deemed insufficient. In 1960-2014, the rate of agricultural lands in total surface area increased significantly. The change in arable land assets is affected by social factors such as population, economic factors such as agricultural exports and environmental and spatial factors such as the rate of forestry lands and lands allocated to other sectors. It is reported that the amount of productive lands per capita has decreased due to reasons such as increased population, constant migration between settlement areas, and limited land rehabilitation and development works. Thus, land disputes have sharpened lately in rural areas. With the Agricultural and Land Reform, which started in 1984, land development policies have continuously been on the agenda; yet, public administrations have had limited success in developing.
The Emerging Tenure Right Fortunes and Its Policy Implications: The Case of The World Bank Financed Sustainable Land Management Project II In Ethiopia
The World Bank Group
In Ethiopia, high unemployment rates combined with a lack of access to arable land among rural youth contributes to greater food insecurity while limiting the youth ability to generate income from agriculture. The current legislation limits the extent to which land rights can be transferred through land rentals. While the number of landless youth is trending upward, an innovative practice under the World Bank-financed SLMP-2, provides youth groups an opportunity to gain access to degraded land in exchange for restoration. Under this approach, youth groups are given secure, legally binding rights to use and manage the restored land. Addressing both the scarcity of land and limitations of the legislation, provides opportunities for income generation and incentivize good land stewardship among the next generation of community leaders, while boosting the climate resilience and carbon storage potential of production landscapes.
Early results suggest that this model is affordable and provides land tenure options that can be scaled-up to unlock new fortunes. Accordingly, it is recommended that the specific restrictive provisions on land rental market be lifted and a natural resource-based youth strategy be developed. We strongly recommend this model for roll-out elsewhere in the country in combination with extension support through SLM and livelihood enhancement related initiatives.
Programmatic Approach to Land Degradation in Burundi
The World Bank, United States of America
Burundi is a country of nearly nine million people, living on approximately 28,000 square kilometers making it the second most densely populated country in sub-Saharan Africa. With a population growth rate of about 3.2% per annum, the density is likely to continue increasing in the future. Burundi is predominantly rural, and scarcity of land and competition for land resources is a continued underlying driver of conflict and fragility. Poor land use planning, bad land management system, and lack of certainty of property rights have exacerbated people’s exposure and vulnerability to erosion and natural hazards, and more specifically drought, flooding and landslides. The country has been facing rapid degradation of the environment resulting in a decline in agricultural productivity, which provides livelihood to about 90% of the population who depend on agriculture. The World Bank is engaged in reversing this trend through a programmatic approach consisting of CEA as analytical foundation and Coffee Landscape Project (IDA & GF), and new Landscape Restoration Project under preparation that looks at opportunities for increasing resilience, productivity and introduction of ecosystem services in Burundi. The paper will present the results of CEA and the World Bank action plan associated with it.