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04-02: Approaches to Securing Common Land in Different Regions
Exploring Participatory Prospective Analysis: A collaborative, Scenario-based Approach for Analyzing and Anticipating the Consequences of Tenure Reform Implementation
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
The Government of Indonesia has made a commitment to putting 12.7 million hectares of state-owned forestry land under community management. Implementation of this ambitious reform in forest rights was intended to engender active collaboration between state and non-state institutions. However, limited coordination in planning and implementation has observed among stakeholders. Participation of local communities is limited. The Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA), a foresight based co-elaborative approach, is used as an entry point for engaging stakeholders, in the process of forest reform implementation, to ensure that local voices are accommodated.
This synthesis paper show the most relevant results from Indonesia case, where actors with diverse interests have explored and anticipated trajectories of tenure security, identify actions to mitigate negative implications, and promote positive changes. The PPA processes can be instrumental in strengthening the stakeholders’ capacity to anticipate future consequences of a policy option with regards to the future scenario through the implementation of forest reform including the drivers of tenure security and actions plan to be implemented across multiple settings and governance levels. It is also shows the usefulness and viability of the approach for enhancing collaborative governance of tenure and building robust institutions in support of equitable tenure reform implementation.
Collective Titling in Peru: Challenges and Opportunities
1CIFOR, Peru; 2UNALM, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Peru
Peru has been at the forefront of Latin American countries with a large number of indigenous peoples lands titled in the Amazon. Since 1974, more than 2,000 communities have been titled over 11 million hectares. While this is an important progress, pending demands over recognition of indigenous lands has been estimated around 20 million hectares, about 1,000 communities are yet to be titled. Based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms by the Center for International Forestry Research, this paper will present results from a global comparative study on how reform around recognition of indigenous collective titling emerged and has been implemented in Peru. It will assess the progress and current constrains to implementation. It will also discuss challenges and opportunities to sustain outcomes on livelihoods at the local level. This paper is organized in three sections. The first section provides a brief discussion on tenure reform processes, reviewing important provisions in key reforms recognizing collective rights to land and forests. The second section weighs these formal legal regulations against actual implementation practices. Finally, the third section analyzes these changes to discuss lessons on how implementation processes can improve or hinder tenure security of indigenous communal lands in Peru.
Securing Forest Tenure Rights for Rural Development in Latin America
The World Bank Group, United States of America
This contribution presents the results of a six-country study designed to assess the current status of forest tenure reforms in Latin America and identify the actions needed by governments to leverage sustained political, institutional, financial, and technical support to strengthen and operationalize them. It aims to contribute to the discussion and analysis currently under way in many countries in Latin America, and in other parts of the world, regarding the key policy, legal, institutional and technical elements that are needed to strengthen, secure and expand indigenous and community forest tenure. The study presents key overarching findings from the six country studies, and concludes with recommendations for future work, including recommendations on ways government and donor programs can support further recognition and support of indigenous and community forest rights. A particular contribution of this study is that it goes beyond previous assessments of legal frameworks or the geographical extent of recognition to examine the challenges and limitations of implementation of forest tenure reforms. This is a critical area of focus as countries move beyond the enactment of reforms to focus increasingly on the institutional and regulatory conditions needed for the effective realization of forest tenure rights.
Making Legality Work to Recognize Land Rights, Improve Land Governance, and Combat Forest Conversion
European Forest Institute FLEGT/REDD+ Unit, Spain
The new wave of tropical deforestation driven by global commodity trade is driven in part by widespread disregard of land rights and governance challenges in land allocation. Forest land is being cleared for agriculture and other uses at a staggering rate and much of this forest conversion is illegal. Thus, trade in timber emanating from such conversion is also illegal. The European Union’s Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade initiative (FLEGT) has been a key contributor to reduction in illegality in tropical timber trade, by combining market pressure with a stakeholder-driven approach to identifying and establishing a system to ensure timber exports are legal. The system is developed and applied through trade agreements called Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs). FLEGT stands out among governance reform efforts in the commitment and composition of stakeholders, the technical focus, and its continuing and accountable nature. Lessons from FLEGT show the potential of deliberative transformation of legal frameworks, systems for continued assurance of accountability, and platforms for meaningful dialogue on equal footing for improving land governance.