The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Monday, 20/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 9:30am||00-01: Using Spatial Data for Land Administration|
Session Chair: Mandi Rukuni, LGAF Technical Advisory Group, Zimbabwe
Using spatial data to assess the impact of land registration in Benin
1Bureau Etudes ATLAS GIS, Benin; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3UC San Diego, United States of America
To be completed
Using High-resolution Imagery to Improve Land Records in Indian States: Opportunities and Challenges
Federal Ministry of Rural Development / Department of Land Records are the Nodal Department to promote this Program in India. State Government, Revenue Department: Survey and Settlement Commissioner is the Executing body. Update and convert all the age old paper records and land holding details (ROR) with Digital transaction records, using Visual Information Technology/GIS embedded Geo coded pictures of each and every land parcel.
3.3Million Sqkm land area with multibillion parcels of Record of Rights(ROR) are to be updated .Multi Trillion $ land value ranging from $1000/Sqft to few $ /Sqft based on location and market demand.29 States and 7 Union Territories governed by different political party governments and heterogonous cultural citizens are the real stake holders
A Revolutionary program with a great value to Citizens and the Governments is in Progress for Public Good and wealth management.
Haryana state has completed the updating the records for full state using very high resolution satellite imagery, Madhya Pradesh covering about 308000 SqKM area has made significant progress more than 200,000 SqKM area has been covered with satellite imagery and project is in advance state. Rajasthan has also made lot of progress.
Does inclusion of large farms lead to a revision of the farm size-productivity relationship: Evidence from Ethiopia
1University of Minnesota, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Quantifying Extent and Impact of Large Scale Land Transfers: Evidence from Malawi’s Estate Sector
1University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of; 2The World Bank, USA
We combine data from complete computerization of all large leases in Malawi with satellite imagery and a geo-coded farm survey to document opportunities and challenges of land-based investment in novel ways. We find that, with 1.5 mn. ha (of which some 140,000 ha are registered twice) area under estates is larger than previously estimated. Some 70% of agricultural leases expired, reducing tenure security and public revenue from lease fees. Remotely sensed imagery suggests that only 42% of estate land is under crops and less than 20% of estates crop more than two thirds of their land. Comparing production and yields between estates and smallholders using survey data also suggests that estates are less productive than smallholders. Small farmers cultivating on an estate (encroachers) are less likely to grow a second crop and use less irrigation or inputs, reducing yields but proximity to estates is associated with higher input use, suggesting positive spillovers. To prevent that the option to demarcate customary estates under the new Land Act will further exacerbate tenure insecurity, initiatives to this end will need to be preceded by efforts to clarify boundaries and the status of leases for existing estates.
Assessing Urban Land Use in Ho Chi Minh City
1UC San Diego, United States of America; 2The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|9:30am - 10:45am||00-02: Acquiring and using Land Data in Innovative Ways|
Session Chair: Trevor Monroe, The World Bank, United States of America
Using Drones for Mapping Zanzibar
World Bank group, Tanzania
The Zanzibar Mapping Initiative is a 2016 - 2017 pilot exercise to deploy survey mapping drones to map both islands of Zanzibar at 7cm resolution, and urban areas at 2.5cm resolution. The project is a collaboration of the Zanzibar Commission for Lands, the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology, World Bank and State University of Zanzibar.
This presentation will shows capability of land digitization using survey drones, lessons learned and results to date as well as observations on fitness for use in Land Administration.
Using Drones for Tenure Regularization and Urban Upgrading
1University of Arizona, United States of America; 2Ministry of Housing, Urban Development, and Land-Use Management, Mauritania
The Sensors are Here! A High-Resolution Application on Understanding Individual Travel Patterns in African Cities
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Combining Taxi GPS Data and Open-Source Software for Evidence-Based Traffic Management and Planning
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Using Remotely Sensed Land Use Data to Improve Public Sector Governance: The Example of Road Investments
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|10:45am - 11:15am||Coffee Break|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|11:15am - 12:30pm||00-03: Land Governance Monitoring and Impact Assessment|
Session Chair: Issa Faye, African Development Bank, Tunisia
Process and Content of Ukraine's Land Governance Monitoring and Its Relevance for Land Policy Reform
1Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food, Ukraine; 2University of Kent, United Kingdom; 3Stategeocadastre, Ukraine
To be completed
Moving towards real-time land governance monitoring in a decentralized setting: Rwanda's experience
1Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda; 2LGAF, United Kingdom; 3Consultant, Uganda
To be completed
Using Satellite imagery to improve revenue collection in Kigali
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|12:30pm - 1:30pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|1:30pm - 2:45pm||00-04: How Can Climate Investments Support Sustainable Land Use?|
Session Chair: Ian Munro Gray, The World Bank, United States of America
The Economic Importance of Forests
IADB, United States of America
Working Towards Secure Land Rights and Shared Value
Village Focus International, Lao People's Democratic Republic
Enabling Indigenous People’s Engagment
The World Bank, United States of America
Forest-dependent Businesses Contribution to Forest Conservation
WRI, United States of America
|1:30pm - 4:00pm||Review White Paper Operational Domain Standards for Land Administration|
By invitation only - please contact Chrit.Lemmen@kadaster.nl
Overview White Paper Review Process
Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Introduction White Paper on standardization and LADM
Kadaster, Netherlands, The
|2:45pm - 4:00pm||00-05: Strengthening Rights for Indigenous Peoples|
Session Chair: Maninder Gill, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Strengthening Indigenous PeoplesParticipation in Peru using the DGM Approach
World Bank Group, United States of America
To be completed
Presentation of Inspection Panel Case
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|3:00pm - 4:00pm||Consultation with Universities on opportunities to support the Network of Excellence on Land Governance in Africa (NELGA)|
Session Chair: Marc Nolting, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ, Ethiopia
By invitation only - For more information please contact Luisa Prior (email@example.com).
|3:30pm - 4:30pm||Coffee Break|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|4:30pm - 6:00pm||00-11: Opening Session: Monitoring Land Use Change: From Pretty Pictures to Policy Action|
Session Chair: Karin Erika Kemper, The World Bank, United States of America
The Power of Information: How Data on Changes in Forest Cover can Help Policy Makers, Civil Society, and the Private Sector
University of Maryland, United States of America
To be completed
Linking Land Use and Land Rights: How Brazil’s Environmental Registry Helps Advance Sustainable Land Management
Ministry of the Environment, Brazil
To be completed
Harnessing Open Data to Drive Change: From Local Advocacy to Global Agreements
World Resources Institute, United States of America
To be completed
|4:35pm - 6:30pm||Overflow Room|
|Overflow rooms: Preston Lounge; MC13-121; MC2-800; MC C2-131|
|Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-01: Guarding against Land-Related Corruption|
Session Chair: Meredith Ogilvie-Thompson, ISLP, United States of America
Transparency International - Land Corruption in Africa - Finding Evidence, Triggering Change
Transparency International Secretariat, Germany
According to Transparency International’s research (Transparency International TI, 2013), around the world, one in five people report that they have paid a bribe for land services during the last years; in Africa, every second client of land administration services was affected. At the same time, land developers and speculators specifically target countries with weak governance, and together with local elites they can contribute to illicit and corrupt land transactions and increasing state capture. This marginalizes local populations further and as a consequence results in poverty, hunger, and conflict. However, only little evidence exists on land-corruption and its manifestations. TI’s Land and Corruption in Africa programme aims to fill this gap, and with this paper presents findings from TI’s empirical and desk-based baseline survey (2015) on land corruption in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Moreover, the paper will discuss challenges in unearthing evidence, and demonstrate where TI’s interventions triggered change.
Women, Land and Corruption in Ghana- Findings from a Baseline Survey
1Transparency International - Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana; 2Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technoogy
Women land rights vulnerabilities in patriarchal contexts such as Ghana are well-documented. However, how corruption joins forces with entrenched and institutionalized discriminatory practices to undermine the land ownership and security of tenure of women is largely under-researched. This paper seeks to contribute towards helping to bridge this gap based on a recent Baseline Survey which was conducted as part of Transparency International and Ghana Integrity Initiative’s Women, Land and Corruption Project. Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, the study establishes that corruption is deep-seated in land administration in Ghana with bribery being the most endemic. Indeed 1 in every 3 persons who has been involved in procuring land or land services was either asked to, or paid bribe. Granting land to meet the demands of rapid urbanization, large scale land based investments and the boom in rubber production reduces available land stock and the processes are largely laced with corrupt practices. Women are worse hit and are increasingly being rendered landless, food insecure and being left to face endangered livelihoods. The paper concludes by offering recommendations which can strengthen the land rights of women under the current state of affairs.
"The Impact Of Poor Land Governance In the Reduction Of Rural Poverty In Cameroon"
Transparency International Cameroon, Cameroon
The strong demand for arable land, especially in Africa, has provoked a rush of investors and speculators in the land sector, targeting especially countries witnessing governance deficits. This situation has not only increased the value of land but it has also paved the way to corruption and its devastating effects particularly on vulnerable and marginalized populations (poorest). Land is a very important factor in the development of Cameroonian economy as it is crucial for agriculture. According to a survey conducted by TI-Cameroon on land governance in regions of Cameroon, up to 99% of respondents admitted to have paid a bribe to institutions involved in land registration procedure in Cameroon to acquire land titles. Therefore, Failure to secure land in rural areas in party due to corruption has been commonly reported as the main catalyst of rural poverty. The purpose of this paper, gathering evidence from activities and reports emanating from the “Land and corruption in Africa” project, is to demonstrate how land tenure corruption in Cameroon can foster poverty especially in rural areas. This paper also presents the importance of land tenure security for people in rural areas and the necessity to address it as a means to alleviate poverty.
Developing Land Information Management System (LIMS) for County Governments in Kenya.
The Technical univesity of Kenya, Kenya
This paper describes the development of a Land Information Management Systems (LIMS) for County Governments in Kenya. Since the promulgation of the new Constitution in 2010, the devolution of the national government and formation of county governments was provided. These invoked the formation of new Land laws and Laws to guide the devolution processes and procedures. In addition, according to the County Government Act, 2012 in Kenya, all County Governments are supposed to develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based Spatial Plans these call for development of LIMS for and efficient breakthrough. The LIMS devepment involves accesing Land records that have variety stadarnds and inopparable from different sources , digitization of all the available data, flying UAV where adjudication process has not taken place and there no cadastral maps and then developing a database of the same. In this regard, there is a need to study the development of LIMS for county governments so as to give other developers of various county governments , as a means of giving a know how in future LIMS initiatives. This paper uses case study methodology to document the development of a LIMS for Kerugoya County in Kenya.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-02: Political and Economic Challenges of Land Policy Reform|
Session Chair: Denis Boskovski, World Bank, United States of America
Translation Ukranian, VC; Streaming.
Challenges Faced in Implementing Land Market Reform in Ukraine and Ways to Overcome Them
1Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food, Ukraine; 2Stategeocadastre, Ukraine
To be completed
Land Governance Monitoring as a Key Element of Land Market Reform: Deign, Key Insights, and Implications for Moving Forward
1University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 2The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Where Will Demand for Land Come From? Evidence from Farm Models
1Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine; 2IFC, United States of America
Farmland market in Ukraine is not fully functional due to the farmland sales ban or moratorium that effectively prohibits sales transactions for over 15 years already. Yet under the pressure of economic hardship and badly needed investments in the country and to some extend under the pressure from international donors, the moratorium is expected to be lifted from 2018. One of the important parameters of the future farmland sales market is a potential demand. Its estimate will help to analyse a potential price development over the initial period after lifting moratorium, an extend of needed market restrictions and potential demand for financial resources from the banking sector. In this paper we try to estimate a potential farmland demand from agricultural producers using two approaches: 1) by using recent farm surveys, and 2) farm level performance data for a population of agricultural producers in Ukraine for 2013-2015. Both approaches demonstrate rather close results.
Long Term Land Financing Requirements in Ukraine
IFC, World Bank Group
The government is considering removing the moratorium on the sale of land. The buying and selling of agriculture land requires access to significant amounts of financing. Therefore, the sale of agriculture land could be a game changer in the development of the agriculture and banking sectors of Ukraine. The presentation describes opportunities and challenges which arise for the land market in case the moratorium is lifted.
Demystifying Land Reform in Ukraine by Improving Public Awareness
Chemonics International, Ukraine
To be completed
Creation of National Spatial Data Infrastructure in Ukraine: Implementation of Projects, Financed by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
In 2013 the State Land Cadastre System was launched in Ukraine with support of the World Bank. Following best international approaches and in order to ensure effective use of geographical information, avoid duplication of expenses for its creation and maintenance and for preventing or reaction to natural disasters StateGeoCadastre initiated the creation of National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) in Ukraine – the system, which will combine layers with different geospatial information and give access to all geospatial data, which are available in the country, via Geoportal. In 2015 StateGeoCadstre with support of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) launched the project “Creation of NSDI in Ukraine”, which is aimed on creation of Prototype of National Spatial Data Infrastructure on the pilot area. The pilot territory is 1000 sq. km. (Vinnytsia region, Ukraine), the territory of NSDI prototype is 11 sq. km. The interim results of the project, further plans for NSDI development will be covered during the presentation.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-03: Inclusive Business Agreement: Are Benefits Shared?|
Session Chair: Frits Van Der Wal, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands, The
Doing (Inclusive) Business in Guinea Bissau: Re-activating the 1998 Land Law
1Consultant in land policy and rural development; 2Senior Land Administration Specialist, the World Bank
This paper discusses the 1998 Land Law of Guinea Bissau and its relevance to address today’s land administration issues. The law was developed to reconcile customary land rights with a surging demand for land by private investors. It recognizes customary land rights and introduces mechanisms to allow investors to acquire Rights of Private Use. However, implementation of the 1998 Land Law was stopped by years of civil war and political instability. Following the election of 2014, the Government of Guinea Bissau intends to implement the 1998 Land Law as part of its rural and agricultural investment strategy. Circumstances have changed however, with massive expansion of cashew production after years of weak regulatory control. Some query the continuing relevance of the Land Law, but the authors argue that the underlying structural conditions are not significantly different than in the mid-1990s and that the need for the negotiated land access model of the 1998 Land Law is perhaps even greater than when it was developed.
Food security narrative and its effects on land governance: Case study of agricultural policies for oil palm in Colombia
Mississippi State University, United States of America
This work builds upon a theory about the consolidation of state legitimacy given transformations in food security. Food security has shifted from prioritizing national food maximization effort to the provision of food to households and individuals, regardless of the production source. This phenomenon altered the formula for balance and control of a country’s territory; as agricultural output moved into a global context, urban centers became less reliant on its periphery for sustenance and central governments have fewer incentives to directly govern rural areas. Hence, the expansion of industrialized production led to increasing volume of international food exchanges and reliance on transnational networks for food provision. This decoupling of rural and urban areas leveraged a different form of governance in the periphery, which relies on negative legitimacy and the expansion of large-scale agriculture under public-private partnerships. Utilizing findings from Colombian agricultural policies for oil palm, before and after the 1990´s, this paper aims to illustrate the impacts of a change in the concept of food security and its effects on the administrative capacity in rural areas. Findings indicate that large scale agricultural policies and violence concentrated rural land ownership into export productive commodities and altered the structure of rural governance.
Land, Mining And Prior Consultation Of Indigenous Peoples In Peru
1Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru; 2The World Bank
In the last two decades, Peru has achieved sustained economic growth and a significant reduction of poverty. However, the country’s indigenous population, the second largest in Latin America, has historically been marginalized: In 2015, indigenous poverty was 70 percent higher than non-indigenous. Natural resources, the bedrock of Peru's economy, are also the main source of social conflict, usually linked to the interplay between mining rights granted by the State and precarious and unclear communal land rights. With inadequate contact with the communities, little knowledge of cultural and social norms and without much positive local impact to show, the value proposition from large companies from extractive industries has frequently been weak. The Prior Consultation Law, initially opposed by many in the mining sector and perceived as an ideologically driven initiative, has recently started to be implemented in mining projects. And there are early signs that it is delivering opposite results from what critics feared: projects that include this mechanism are moving forward without opposition from the surrounding communities. In this paper, we argue that further improvements to the prior consultation process could help prevent social conflict, promote indigenous rights, and accelerate the initiation of mining projects worth billions in private investment.
Is This Really Benefit Sharing? Understanding Current Practices Around Community-Investor Agreements Tied to Land Investments
1Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America; 2International Senior Lawyers Project
Communities located near land investments increasingly interact with investors who seek to sign a range of agreements with them. In theory, this is a positive development: guidelines for responsible land investments urge greater benefit-sharing with project-affected communities, including through the use of direct agreements between the investor and affected communities or their members. Yet little analysis has been undertaken to date on actual community-investor agreements linked to land investments, and most recommendations are instead drawn from the extractive industries, where community development agreements have a longer history but serve a potentially different role. This gap in analysis leaves stakeholders without a clear understanding of existing practices, and without evidence-based guidance for improving future agreements.
This paper highlights the “state of play” around community-investor agreements tied to land investments. It also provides substantive and process-oriented recommendations that can be used by communities, investors, and other relevant actors to avoid common pitfalls and improve future agreements. The paper is based on an examination of over 50 community-investor agreements tied to land investments in eight countries; a review of investor-state contracts for corresponding investments; desktop research; and expert and stakeholder interviews.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-04: Ensuring Gender Equity|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Land and Gender – Macedonian Experience
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Gender equality is one of the fundamental values of the constitutional order of RM, based on full recognition and promotion of equal opportunities for women and men, an indispensable precondition for sustainable development, human rights enjoyment and exercise of democratic values. Equality between women and men are considered the question of human rights and a prerequisite and indicator of sustainable human development in general.
In the past years Macedonia has made a significant progress in the area of promoting gender equality and respecting the human rights, which at the same time are one of the guiding principles and goals of the Macedonian government (contribute to the economic empowerment of women, to encourage parents to equally divide their property)
Despite of the progress made in the past years, the gender gap continues to exist. Another factor, that leads the woman to refrain from exercising her right of ownership besides the mentioned tradition, is of course the economic issue.
How to effectuate legal rights to land? Requires a continuum of action: 1) Legal Reform, 2) Legal awareness, 3) Legal information and 4)Legal capacity. The expected results should be: More women shall be owners of property and more women shall own more property.
Inclusive Land Administration – the Case of Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Institutional and legal frameworks are established to provide equal possibilities to access and use state administration services for all citizens. However, situation in reality is not so simply and very often we are facing persons or groups that are not able to approach necessary service due to lack of information or even due to physical and other kind of barriers. Republic Geodetic Authority, as socially responsible institution oriented to the citizens has recognized this burning topic and decided to start initiative to increase the level of services provision to the vulnerable groups of citizens. This paper is aimed to show the initiatives, plans and specific measures of Republic Geodetic Authority aimed to promote and advance inclusive land administration what will be done through ongoing Real Estate Management Project supported by World Bank. The inclusive land administration component of the Project was developed to deliver mobile registration services, renovation of local registration offices (building of physical access) and raising awareness of rural women regarding their rights to own the properties.
Securing Land Inheritance and Land Rights for Women in Kenya
Transparency International Kenya, Kenya
Women face many problems with regard to land inheritance and land rights in Kenya. Individual and community land ownership do not favor women. The reason for this is that ownership of land is patrilineal, which means that fathers share land amongst sons, while excluding daughters. This practice is traditionally wide spread and partly accepted although it goes against the interest of many women and is prohibited by the constitution. Unjust land tenure regimes do not only endanger women’s livelihood, but also constitute an emotional as well as identity burden, as land is an emotional component of heritage in Kenya. From the colonial period onwards, women’s rights over land were limited and the woman’s role was to fend and produce food for the family. Thus, women would use land for only this purposes and were therefore not allowed to have absolute ownership over land. As a result, women became more unduly disadvantaged in respect to use, access to and/or control of land and other valuable property, both as members of a household or as heads of households. Cultural traditions and practices concerning women’s use, access and control of land have worsened this situation.
Ensuring Gender-equity in Compensation and Resettlement Schemes Related to Commercial Land Investments in Tanzania and Mozambique
World Resources Institute, United States of America
The disruptions to livelihood caused by commercial land investments are particularly acute for women, whose rights and access to land are already limited in many countries. It is accordingly imperative that throughout such transactions, women’s concerns are fairly considered both in negotiations over land acquisition and in compensation and resettlement programs. This research examines the extent to which women’s concerns, both in law and practice, are incorporated into compensation and resettlement schemes in Tanzania and Mozambique. The two countries provide strong case studies for examining the gender impacts of compensation and resettlement. There is a high level of foreign interest in land, along with recurrent disputes over compensation and resettlement. Both countries are considered as having progressive land laws: customary land rights are recognized and communities are consulted in any proposed land acquisition by investors. At the same time, both countries have policies and laws on gender equity. However, a lingering question is to what extent the call for gender equity permeates land legislation and accompanying regulations. This paper finds a gender-blindness in regulations concerning compensation and resettlement. Even where there are procedural protections for the rights of women in land acquisition processes, these are not explicitly extended into the compensation and resettlement process.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-05: Land Policies in Francophone West Africa |
Session Chair: Rivo Andrianirina - Ratsialonana, Land Observatory Madagascar, Madagascar
What Prospects for a New Land Policy in DRC?
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Ministry of Land Affairs, DRC
Land in the DRC is a key constraint on investment and development initiatives. Throughout the country, there are many public or private development projects facing more or less complex tenure issues. Worse still, conflicts over control of land have played a large part in the instability of the last few years, particularly in the East of the country. Well aware of the major challenges involved in bringing about a significant improvement in land management, the government of the DRC knows that it cannot avoid making major changes in the land sector and it launched in 2013 the creation of CONAREF, an institution dedicated to reforming the land sector and programming the reform process. A Land Sector Review sponsored by the World Bank intended to establish the analytical basis for the design of new land policy orientations. Based on a snapshot of the various aspects of the Congolese land sector in urban and rural areas, the review focused on current constraints related to the existence of various social land rights management practices alongside the formal administrative system and on an inventory of innovative experiences that helped to put together recommendations concerning land policy orientations.
Large Scale Land Leases : A Rural Communities' Business
A l’instar de plusieurs pays africains, le Sénégal n’est pas en reste des tensions liées au foncier. Ce problème est plus crucial dans la Vallée du fleuve Sénégal qui regorge de fortes potentialités hydroagricoles et de développement de l’agribusiness.
Forte de cela, cette zone a été identifiée comme Pôle de Développement par le Gouvernement du Sénégal à travers le PSE. Dans cette optique, le PDIDAS est mis en œuvre comme pilote pour tester dans la zone nord du Sénégal, un modèle inclusif d’agriculture commerciale basé sur un processus de sécurisation foncière.
Le modèle retenu dans le cadre du PDIDAS a pour objectif d’inverser le radian foncier. Les communautés de base détentrices des terres sont au cœur du processus de prise de décision. La communication continue a constitué un élément essentiel dans ce processus en ce sens qu’elle a permis d’obtenir le Consentement Libre et Informé des Populations (CLIP).
La démarche a abouti à une offre volontaire globale nette de 19 364 ha, contre un objectif initial de 10 000 ha. Ce résultat très significatif fait du PDIDAS l’une des toutes premières expériences en Afrique de cession volontaire de terres à grande échelle par des communautés à des investisseurs privés.
The Apology Of The Right To Exploit Rural Land By The “Land And Federal Code” In Benin
By adopting a new law on land management, Benin has decided to establish new rules favorable to the exploitation of agricultural land by facilitating access to the vulnerable people including women, youth and migrants. In the light of certain provisions of the law, one realizes that the parliament has also made efforts to secure even small farmers without title. Reading this law, it is easy to realize that the important thing is not to own rural land but rather to cultivate, to develop to ensure food security for all. This consideration of the possibility of formalizing the rights of use to each local authority raises the Beninese land code as a real tool to fight against poverty. By devoting a "right to work", it aims provide tenure security and equitable access to land, in order to eliminate hunger and poverty, support sustainable development and improving environmental management . Its implementation in Benin's rural areas with the support of German Cooperation shows positive signs that deserve to be shared.
Using LGAF to Develop Land Policy in Mali
Bamako University of Legal and Political Sciences, Mali
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Recognition of Local Rights for Achieving Conservation Goals|
Session Chair: Raelene Webb, National Native Title Tribunal, Australia
The Tenure Gap And Its Influence On Socio-ecological Conditions
1University of Maryland, Baltimore County, United States of America; 2University of Washington, United States of America; 3The Nature Conservancy, United States of America; 4McGill University, Canada
In this study, we characterize the ways in which tenure gaps influence socio-ecological conditions. We define the tenure gap as the difference between tenure as defined per law and policy, or those bundle of rights that are statutorily recognized (de jure), and tenure which is socially-defined and realized on-the-ground (de facto). We recognize the importance of assessing both components of this potential gap (where de jure rights are not upheld on-the-ground, or where de facto rights are not formally recognized). We do so using in-depth mapping interviews and structured surveys with land tenure experts from a set of twelve countries across the global Tropics. Our main objective has been to gather qualitative, quantitative, and spatial data to characterize, identify, and assess the characteristics and impacts of tenure gaps in the places where they occur. Here we present preliminary insights from this systematic survey across all countries, and offer case study illustrations of both components of the tenure gap for communities in Colombia, Guatemala, India, and Indonesia. We see the results from this research as offering critical information to conservation and development organizations about one of the major obstacles to strengthening and clarifying land tenure for local stakeholders.
Land Titles and Agricultural Intensification at Forest Margins in Indonesia
Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany
This study combines data from a panel survey of farm households and satellite imageries to examine the effects of land titles on agricultural production intensity and the consequential implications for deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia. Panel regression models show that land titles contribute to significant increases in the use of farm inputs and labor and thus also to higher crop yields. No evidence was found for land titles increasing deforestation. However, using satellite imageries dating back to 1990 we show that farmers who settled at the forest margins are less likely to hold land titles due to government restrictions. Without land titles, these farmers lack incentives to intensify production; to increase agricultural output they can expand their land area by encroaching surrounding forestland. Tolerating deforestation activities by farmers while denying formal title deeds for land at the forest margins can, therefore, contribute to economic marginalization and further deforestation. Besides increasing farmer’s access to land titles over non-forest land, policy responses could include a better recognition of farmers’ customary land rights and simultaneously protecting forestland without recognized claims.
The emergence of Conservation Units in the Western Amazon: the case of Extractive Reserves of Acre
Universidade federal do Acre, Brazil
This article discusses the origin of Conservation Units, especially the extractive reserves in Acre, one of the important forms of recognition of property rights in the region. This, mainly, allows unravel the complex relationship between two opposing processes that express the dynamics of occupation of the Acre state land from the decade of the 70s of the last century (CAVALCANTI, 1983 SOUZA, 2016). During this period began a peculiar economic and social process of occupation of the Amazon lands that are now considered as ideal place for application of capitalist investment, supported by these economic and fiscal policy of the Central Government of Brazil.
The fragility of property rights is considered by a vast literature a crucial obstacle to economic development. There are unanimous in saying that the existence of security of property rights has a crucial role in increased economic efficiency of land use, and ensure political and social stability, reducing conflicts over land (SOTO, 2000; DEININGER, 2003). The process clearly demonstrates the speculative character and this concentrator process of appropriation of large plots of land in Acre. The acceleration and expansion of deforestation on the other hand, shows the degrading aspect of this process.
Participatory Mapping As a Tool and Approach to Define Traditional User Rights of Forest Land
We have been witnessing the rapid development of participatory mapping initiatives for many years, especially in developing but also in developed countries. Participatory approaches to forestry have been evolving in many parts of the world, but very few of them in Europe.
The forestry sector in Albania holds great potential to support national economic growth. Challenges remain with the registration of public forests transferred from the state to newly established municipalities in 2016. Traditional users are managing these transferred lands – mainly to satisfy their basic needs. These are customary rights, generally well-respected, but they are not yet formalized.
The Environmental Services Project supports the registration of forest and pasture lands transferred to municipalities, and the FLED project aims to improve decentralized and sustainable communal forestry. The process of establishing user rights is ongoing, using the participatory mapping approach. The following main actions are taken: participation of the community in the whole process; demarcation of forest users parcels; creating digital maps and field forms; using up-to-date technology (GNSS, GIS); and ensuring council authorization of the mayor to sign an agreement with traditional users. The opportunities for wider use of the approach require greater support and various activities to be taken.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-07: Mobile Technologies for Collecting Land Data|
Session Chair: Michael Barry, University of Calgary, Canada
Crowd-sourcing For A Sustainable Land Cadaster – Can SiGIT Be A Lever ?
1EXI Lda, Mozambique; 2DINAT - National Land Directorate of Mozambique; 3MB Consulting
The document makes a description of the experience of implementing a land information management system to support the development of the national cadastre in Mozambique as part of the programs to reform Mozambique’s land administration system, making along the description several considerations based on current thinking on how to better approach business transformation supported by modern IS/IT technology.
In essence it argues in favor of a more rigorous business and IS planning, using appropriate instruments for that, and confirming the crucial importance of establishing appropriate business capabilities in the various land administration functions required to execute its business processes.
In response to the interest in exploring crowd-sourcing based business models for field data collection, using new mobile apps, different aspects are listed that should be considered for building the business case to implement crowd-sourcing as a means to accelerate data registration, lower its costs, create flexibility for data life-cycle management, and empower the communities for their land rights for sustainable economic development.
The paper ends making considerations and recommendations about sustainability, scalability and security of designed and implemented technological solutions, and about the need to accept that these transformations will take longer term to implement, and need a long term thinking approach.
Combining Administrative and Open Source Data for Monitoring Land Governance : Mapping Women Land Rights in the Context of UN’s SDG in India
1Center for Land Governance, NRMC, India; 2Delhi University, India; 3Council for Social Development, India
Production and accessibility of reliable data are important for evidence-based decisions land governance. With progressive reforms around land laws and institutions, India has attempted to make land governance more gender-equitable and land information easily accessible. Monitoring for women land rights (WLR) indicators related to SDG require availability of periodic and reliable gender disaggregated data on ‘agricultural land’ and ‘agricultural population’. Available administrative and open source data at appropriate levels as prescribed by UNSTAT and as used in Gender and Land Rights Database (GLRD) provide India seamless opportunities to monitor and improve engendered land governance. With SDG indicator works just begun globally, India has a strategic advantage to advance SDG reporting, while also contributing to informed land governance nationally. In this direction, this paper builds SDG indicators by comparing and using available datasets, individually and in combinations. Using agriculture census database, it illustrates the spatial distribution and temporal trends around WLR. It attempts their validation by comparing them with indicators reported in micro-studies, based on primary data. It examines the link between the spatial and temporal variability of WLR and relevant land governance frameworks in the concerned states to see if the correlations can inform policy and improve gender-equitable land governance.
Using Mobile Phones, GPS, and the Cloud to Deliver Faster, Cheaper, and More Transparent Land Titles: the Case of Burkina Faso
1National Land Observatory of Burkina Faso; 2Independent Consultant; 3The Cloudburst Group
In Burkina Faso, an ambitious rural land-tenure reform was put into law that, among other things, allows holders of customary land rights to register them and receive documentation that makes the rights more durable and transparent. The pace of applying this law in the field has been slow, however. In response, a pilot project adapted a mobile technology solution – “MAST” – to map and prepare documentation for 2,000 agricultural land parcels quickly and in a transparent manner. The MAST technology is designed for use by villagers with high-school educations, allows for real-time data entry, and is configured to comply with the legal requirements for land-rights formalization. This paper presents the results of the pilot project, lessons learned, and conclusions about the efficacy of the MAST technology in the challenging rural environment of Burkina Faso.
Need For Uniform Technological Approaches For Implementation of Operations Secure Land in Rural West Africa: Comparative Study Case of Benin, Burkina Faso and Senegal.
Bureau Etudes ATLAS GIS, Benin
Uniform, technological Approaches, implementation, operations secure land, rural west africa, comparative case study, Benin, Burkina Faso Senegal, political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental management, country, world, multiple actions carried out, structures, organizations, better management, land tenure insecurity, growing, instability, confirmation, land rights, urban, suburban, rural. Geographical Information, powerful tool management systems, integration, potential, various databases, geospatial data, set, square, level, land administration, efficient, transparent, registered land rights, technology, GIS, Benin, Burkina -Faso, Senegal, need, bind, governments, Technical Partners, Financiers, quick access, land information, tool, management, support, decision. Security, Lands, methodological approach, technology, traditional methods, collection, socio-land information records properties, field, science, technology. Benin, political will, secure access, Lands Rural Plan, manual, procedure, technique, planchette 1990, use, GPS postprocessing, 2007, real-time RTK mobile GIS application, statement, plots, 5cm, precision, survey forms, manually re-entered, scanned digital files accessible fulfilled, mobile GIS application, map, full coverage, ortho photo, Burkina Faso, rural areas, SIF, MCA-BF National Land Observatory, PACOF, forty-seven, municipalities, Certificate, Possession Rural land (RWAs), PostgreSQL / PostGIS, QGIS, security, French Agency Development, transparent area of land Information System, occupation, national field identification, parcel, centroid, harmonization , capitalization, experience, standardization, topographical mapping techniques, approaches, developed, tested, UEMOA, ECOWAS economy, transport, monetary systems.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Challenges to be Addressed in Protecting Communal Rights|
Session Chair: Mamadou Baro, University of Arizona, United States of America
Land Use Rights, Land Governance Institutions, and Tenure Security Indicators in a Pastoral Community: Evidence from a Baseline Study in the Afar Region, Ethiopia
1The Cloudburst Group, United States of America; 2USAID, United States of America
Historically, the Afar region of Ethiopia has been populated by pastoralist communities, but their migratory and herding patterns may be threatened by commercial interests or conflicts with other ethnic groups. This paper presents exploratory baseline findings from an impact evaluation of USAID’s ongoing Land Administration to Nurture Development (LAND, 2013–2018) project in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Drawing on survey and qualitative data, the first objective of the paper is to present the customary governance context in the study area, and evaluate perceived strengths and weakness of local customary land governance systems to navigate tenure security pressures. The second objective is to explore perceptions of specific outside actors that potentially threaten tenure security: the government, private sector investors, and other ethnic groups. The paper also explores the content of tenure security in practice, such as specific examples or descriptions of land access, documentation, reallocation, and conflict. The primary data used in this study represents an important opportunity to understand the health of the pastoral land use systems in this region and the prevalence and severity of land access challenges, which may be less pervasive than suggested in other reports that are based on a smaller sample size.
Towards Securing Community Land Tenure in Kenya A Holistic Approach To Community-Based Natural Resource Governance:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya
In Kenya a constitutional milestone that was achieved within the new constitutional dispensation was the recognition of ‘Community Land’ as one of the three legal land categories in Kenya; the others being private and public land. Indeed, directly vests ownership of all community land in communities that are identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community interests. It further emphasized the need for legal Recognition, Protection and Registration of communal land rights. The enactment of the Community Land Act 2016 actualizes the constitution.
The Participatory Land Delimitation (PLD) process that FAO had already been tested in countries various countries. For the case of Kenya, there was an additional challenge to consider: these were not sedentary farmers whose land have a fixed set of recognizable boundaries in terms of land use, these were pastoralist and mobile communities who use and perceive land differently. This dynamic demanded a much higher level of engagement not with the community in question but with the other neighboring and moving pastoralists whose land use was also determined by the rain and available pastures. This is seen in the case of Wayu community of Tana River County and Lokichar area of Turkana County of Kenya.
Strengthening Security of Tenure for Indigenous Bedouins in the West Bank
Norwegian Refugee Council, Palestine
The Bedouin in the West Bank – a Palestinian territory occupied by Israel – are a semi-nomadic people who have lived in southern historical Palestine at least since the seventh century and survived mostly by grazing their flocks. They originate from the Negev/Naqab desert, from which they were compelled to flee during and following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Following the 1967 war and the occupation of the West Bank by Israel, the Bedouin residing in the area are under the effective control of Israel as the occupying power. The Bedouin communities in the area have undergone several displacement waves and are constantly struggling to prevent further displacement brought about by numerous factors, including: border changes; the establishment of Israeli settlements; the construction of roads and infrastructure around the settlements; the construction of the separation wall; closure of areas for military training purposes; lack of formal land title; and lack of adequate planning schemes which make any and every building illegal under the existing planning laws and therefore in threat of demolition. Combined, these have produced a reality of tenure insecurity for the Bedouin communities of the West Bank, with devastating humanitarian implications that warrant timely and effective response by the international community.
Resilient Pastoral Institution for a Changing Environment: the case of the Stock Routes Co-Management Approach in Western Sudan
1International Fund for Agricultural Development; 2Western Sudan Resource Management Program
The paper aims at investigating the Stock-Route Co-management model developed and spearheaded by the Western Sudan Resource Management Program (WSRMP) through an incremental process of institutional innovation over a 10 years period. The approach's model pilot application on two model Stock Routes is presented. Preliminary results supporting WSRP's efforts to bridge the divide between formal and customary institutions are discussed, especially in relation to its scaling up and replication potential across the greater Kordofan region and wider linkages with other developmental effort. It concludes with good practices and lessons learnt for other countries, especially in the Horn of African & Sahel region.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Land Use Plans and Pastoral Land Rights|
Session Chair: Patricia K. Mbote, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Pastoral Women's Land Rights and Land Use Planning in Tanzania: Experiences of the Sustainable Rangeland Management Project
1Tanzania Women's Lawyers Association; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 3Mokoro; 4International Land Coalition
In pastoral societies women face many challenges. Some describe these as a ‘double burden’ – that is, as pastoralists and as women. However, pastoral women may obtain a significant degree of protection from customary law even if customary institutions are male-dominated. In periods of change (economic, social, political), this protection may be lost, and without protection from statutory laws, women are in danger of “falling between two stools” (Adoko and Levine 2009). A study carried out in four villages in Tanzania, supported by the International Land Coalition, sought to understand the challenges and opportunities facing pastoral women with respect to accessing land and resources, in the context of village land use planning. This research presents empirical data on pastoral women’s land rights, shedding light on some of the detail of these rand their manifestation taking into account the differing contexts, land use patterns, and nature of rights to land. There are some common themes – particularly around the challenges facing women in pastoral communities including lack of space to make their views heard, lack of awareness of their rights, coupled with broader governance challenges. New processes underway such as a government-led review of Tanzania’s land policy provide opportunities to overcome these challenges.
Securing Communal Land Tenure through Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy in Tanzania
UCRT (Ujamaa Community Resource Team), Tanzania
This paper provides a detailed account of how the Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) has worked with local communities and several levels of government in the United Republic of Tanzania in East Africa to secure land-tenure rights for community groups by helping them acquire Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy (CCROs). It shows how vulnerable groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherer that depend on natural resources for their livelihoods could be assisted in using mechanisms and opportunities offered by the legal framework in the country. UCRT accompanied several such groups through the process of securing communal land-tenure rights by means of ‘group CCROs’, building on participatory land-use planning grounded in the national policy and legislation governing land tenure and Local Government Authorities. This process is anchored on the Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) of local government legislation (mainly the Local Government Act of 1982), which enables village governments to pass local by-laws that recognize, protect and respect the developed village land-use plan to its subordinates. The paper describes the procedures to acquire CCROs and points to the effectiveness of this approach to ensuring land-tenure security as an important step toward reducing poverty among rural people in Tanzania.
Rangeland Leasing Practices and Need to Secure the Land Tenure Rights to Herders
Mongolian Association of Land Management NGO, Mongolia
The key challenge in establishing and building climate-resilient, eco-friendly, and green livestock industry in Mongolia depends on the preservation of Mongolia’s pastureland, its quality, and conditions. The securing and protecting of the herder’s rights to pastureland as the foundation of their employment and income sources are often neglected or left as a matter too complicated or sensitive to deal with. This is the main reason I want to discuss the root cause of pastureland degradation, herder community vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and violation of human rights.
Securing of pastureland provides security of employment, income and livelihoods to the herders and motivates the herders to invest in the livestock and pastureland and practice better rangeland management. Mongolia is the 19th largest and the 2nd biggest landlocked country. Multi-disciplinary studies have shown that the degradation and deterioration of pasturelands has significantly worsened with the growth in herd numbers, as well as from human activities and negative changes in climate and the environment.
The reasons outlined above all point to the dire need to establish strong legal system to secure the land rights to herders.
Building Pastoralists’ Resilience: Strengthening Participation in Markets and Local Governance Institutions in West Pokot, Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3University of Nairobi, Kenya
Pastoralist societies derive a considerable share of their food and income from livestock and the livestock is mainly reared on natural forage rather than cultivated fodders or pastures. In Kenya, pastoralism supports nearly a quarter of the national population that resides in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which cover about two-thirds of the land area. It is widely recognized that besides being a cultural aspect among indigenous inhabitants, pastoralism is an adaptive mechanism to harsh ecological systems which can hardly support crop-based agriculture. Indeed, previous studies have shown evidence that pastoralists are astute land managers whose mobility enables them to make productive use of drought-prone rangelands; up to 10 times more than commercial ranching alternatives. However, a major challenge to pastoralism is frequent droughts which reduce the supply of forage resulting in death of livestock and deteriorating quality of existing herds. This makes pastoralists poor and vulnerable. Measures that improve the resilience of pastoralism especially through enhanced participation in markets and local governance institutions are critical towards equitable livelihoods and sustainable development. Targeted diversification into off-farm investments and more hardy livestock such as sheep and goats would also enhance pastoralists’ resilience.
Pastoralism and land tenure security: Lessons from IFAD-supported projects
The use of land by pastoralists and by the other actors is complex: this complexity should be reflected in laws, norms and policies which regulate such use. However, if existing, these laws, norms and policies rarely capture such an intricate situation, leading to conflicts for the access and use of the land. Specific interventions, using conflict resolution mechanisms, need to be put in place to prevent and solve these conflicts. This paper will look into the experiences of selected IFAD-supported projects in dealing with pastoralism and land tenure issues.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-10: Socio-Economic Aspects of Land Admin. Service Delivery|
Session Chair: Christian Graefen, Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany
The Importance of Ostrom’s Design Principles: Youth Group Performance in Northern Ethiopia
Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway
Youth unemployment and migration is a growing challenge that needs more political attention in many countries in the world, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting with its new youth employment strategy allocating rehabilitated communal lands to youth groups. The youth groups organize as primary cooperatives, establish their own bylaw, develop a business plan and are audited. This study investigates the extent of compliance with Ostrom’s Design Principles by the youth groups and their relationship with the early performance of youth groups in terms of their level of internal cooperation, trust and overall performance in their land management and development of a joint business and livelihood. The study builds on a census of 741 youth groups in five districts in Tigray region with an average group size of 20 members and close to 15000 youth. The groups established in the period 2011-2015. The study shows that most groups adhere to the Design Principles and that adherence with some of the Design Principles is correlated with the various performance indicators.
Land policy and the youth ‘bulge’ in Ethiopia: How social and economic transformations are scrutinizing the status qou
International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
This study explores how youth land access affect their occupational (employment) and spatial mobility (migration) in the context of dynamic social and economic setups using panel data from 2011 and 2013 from the four major regions in the country (total of 7500 households). We estimate household fixed effects model to also evaluate differential impact access to land markets have on the youth. We find that land scarcity significantly dictates youth’s likelihood of long-distance permanent migration and overall welfare status. We also find that smooth functioning of land markets serve as a crucial mediating factor in weakening the push-effect of land scarcity in influencing youth’s occupational and spatial mobility decisions. As a result, land scarcity plays a much more pronounced role in dictating rural-to-urban permanent migration and non-agricultural sector employment in areas with less-vibrant land markets. Therefore, recent restrictive land policy reforms (both size and durational restrictions) in Ethiopia may undermine the potential role land rental markets play in avoiding unrewarding employment and migration decisions. For the youth, this is mainly so both on the demand side (using land markets for access to more land) and supply side (using the market as exit strategy to pursue livelihood in the non-farm sector).
Land Distribution in Northern Ethiopia From 1998 to 2016:Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation
1School of Economics and Business/Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life; 2Mekelle University, Department of Economics
Tigray Region in Ethiopia was the first region to implement low-cost land registration and certification in 1998 (FSLR) when land was registered in the name of household heads. From 2015 the region started scaling up Second Stage land registration (SSLR) and this results in issuing parcel-level land certificates and availability of data on all holders of parcels by name and gender. We utilized the SSLR data for detailed gender-disaggregated analysis. The Data from 11 communities in four districts covers more than 78000 parcels (30000ha) in the SSLR to 31500 households. Various statistical measures are used to assess the gender-disaggregated, spatial and intertemporal variation in land distribution. The comparison of FSLR data with SSLR data facilitates critical assessment of the quality of FSLR data and changes in farm size distribution. We find that females’ land ownership share is as high as 48.8% and indicates a considerably lower skewness than we expected. The Gini-coefficient for land distribution among women is lower than that among men (0.45 versus 0.57). The share of male-headed households with no female landowners varied from 25 to 60% across communities. There is a clear trend towards smaller farm sizes from the FSLR in 1998 to SSLR in 2016.
Land As Matrimonial Property In Kenya: Demystifying The Concept Of Contribution To Acquisition Of Land As Matrimonial Property
Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya(FIDA-Kenya), Kenya
In Kenya,equality in marriage is underscored in law by the Constitution which stipulates that parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of marriage, during marriage and at the dissolution of marriage. This paper undertakes a critique of the various laws and policies governing land access and ownership in Kenya. It further undertakes an audit of the recently enacted Matrimonial Property Act(MPA) that governs division of matrimonial property especially section 7 of the Matrimonial Property Act which requires any spouse to prove contribution to the acquisition of the said matrimonial property. It undertakes this audit to determine the impact Section 7 of the MPA has on women land and property rights. It also undertakes a further audit of the repealed section in the Land Act that required any spouse to obtain spousal consent before disposing of matrimonial land. It espouses that these highlighted sections are unconstitutional and should be amended to accommodate equality in marriage as stipulated in article 45 of the Constitution. It further provides that the concept of spousal consent to the disposal of land should be anchored in law to safeguard women land and property rights.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Multiple Uses and Benefits from Spatial Data|
Session Chair: Gregory Scott, United Nations Statistics Division, United States of America
A Study of Utilization of NSDI for the Sustainable Development
NTT DATA VIETNAM, Vietnam
In the field of NSDI, various situations exist where the implementation of the system has been completed but the utilization of the system is not going well. The problem seems to lie in the fact that NSDI is not only the deployment of technology but also the establishment of cooperation among the participating institutes. It depends on the situations of the country. However, the situations are always changing in organizations, technologies, finance, and so on. It is important that how NSDI can be utilized through changing situations of the country is discussed. In this paper, the utilization of NSDI for the sustainable development is discussed. The author proposed NSDI Master Framework which consists of three components based on the experience of developing the NSDI networking system in Indonesia. Reviewing NSDI cases and Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations according to the NSDI Master Framework, two solutions are suggested for the utilization of NSDI for the sustainable development. One is making use of global solutions and the other is adopting best practices of applications with business models. NSDI is expected to be implemented and utilized to achieve SDGs in the less developed countries by global partnership. Case studies are provided.
Republic of Moldova: Geospatial Data for Land Governance
Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of MOldova, Moldova
The Republic of Moldova is engaged in a far-reaching economic reform program, more particularly with EU. In line with the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the Republic of Moldova and the EU, the mapping system appears to be an indispensable tool for implementing the Agreement.
Moldova has initiated the establishment of its NSDI with the support of the Norwegian Government and Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority. The project aims to support the development of e-Governance by providing access to reliable and up-to-date geographical information for governmental institutions at all levels, the private sector, and the public.
Moldova is currently undertaking a two years project with the objective of implementing INSPIRE based NSDI through EU funded twinning project in cooperation with Sweden and Croatia. The beneficiary is mainly the Agency of Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova (ALRC).
The purpose of the project is an improved mapping system in line with EU standards and best international practices of management of geographical data. Managing doing so presupposes a good knowledge and implementation of the INSPIRE vision.
Upstream to downstream: Jurisdictional Sub-Landscape approach towards sustainable land use planning
USAID LESTARI, Indonesia
Landscape approach is increasingly implemented aimed to improved land-use governance. It is seen as a promising approach addressing the ideal goal in conservation, and environment protection while supporting development. Nonetheless, the implementation is challenging. There are cases of programs were dis-continued when a project was withdrawn, due to large coverage area, trans-boundary, high cost or poor co-ordination with formal agencies. Aimed to have a long-term impact on land-use improvement, we develop a framework implemented at the sub-landscape as part of a bigger landscape. The framework then adopted into three tiers of processes, conducted in parallel. The tiers include a community participation on a spatial planning process through zoning to recognize and redefined conflicted land use zones. Correlate the pro-gram with existing government planning instruments is also key. The goals are to improve stakeholders coordination between the communities, private, government, and establish a social cohesion on the same environmental services. We study the implementation at two sub landscapes in Indonesia with two specific focus, a watershed in Aceh Province and mitigation for fire-prone peatland in Central Kalimantan. Regard-less the context specificity, these landscapes are representing Indonesia and other similar countries with common land-use issues.
Exploring Hidden Dimensions: Environmental and Natural Resource Aspects of Poverty
World Bank Group, United States of America
Environment-related dimensions of poverty are “hidden” for many reasons, including externalities, remoteness, and lack of awareness. Twenty years ago, two-thirds of the world’s extreme poor lived in rural areas. Today, rural areas are home to over 80% of this population, highlighting the increasingly critical role of natural resources on the well-being of the world’s poorest people. This study illustrates and quantifies the links between the environment and the world’s extreme poor using the Hidden Dimensions Database, a unique geospatial dataset linking environment and natural resource measures to poverty and other human development indicators at the subnational level. This database is used to overlay more than 50 geo-referenced environmental datasets related to natural resources and pollution with approximately 50 monetary poverty and poverty proxy indicators at the district and provincial levels for over 80 countries. These overlays, consisting of both maps and scorecards, illustrate areas of high concurrence between environmental degradation and extreme poverty, and reveal hotspots where poverty alleviation interventions must necessarily address environmental concerns. The study concludes that the WBG goal of eliminating extreme poverty worldwide by 2030 can be better achieved by incorporating spatially explicit findings related to environmental and natural resource trends where the poor currently live.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-12: Connecting Land Data Systems for Tenure Security|
Session Chair: Stefano Ghielmetti, Trimble, United States of America
The Ghana Enterprise Land Information System (GELIS) as a Component of National Geospatial Policy
1Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources - Land Administration Project
The Government of Ghana, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, is implementing the Land Administration Project 2 (LAP-2) which builds upon the foundations laid under LAP-1. Central to LAP-2 has been the development of a national geospatial policy and the implementation of GELIS, the Ghana Enterprise Land Information System. This paper attempts to summarise these activities and demonstrate how they will help Ghana to achieve its objective of developing a comprehensive land administration system leading ultimately to a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI).
In developing the National Geospatial Policy (NGP), which is currently in the adoption process through Cabinet, there was a thorough review of the current progress and problems. The NGP provides the basis for building the strategy to develop an NSDI implementation plan.
In parallel has been the initial implementation of GELIS which, eventually, will enable all users from the relevant Ministries and Agencies to carry out their day-to-day business processes efficiently in a digital environment, using common databases. Once complete, GELIS will present a One-Stop-Shop for all stakeholders, including the general public, irrespective of where they are. GELIS, therefore, forms a vital component of implementing the geospatial policy and the achievement of an NSDI.
The Cabo Verde Land Management Information and Transaction System (LMITS). Integrating Spatial and Alphanumeric Information on Land and Property, to Improve Access and Reliability and to Strengthen Transparency
Millennium Challenge Account - Cabo Verde II, Cape Verde
Cabo Verde is a small island country, with a small domestic market, lacking in natural resources and whose development is unavoidably dependent on the ability to compete in the global marketplace. Considered unfeasible in 1975, when it became independent, the country has achieved important gains, to reach to the middle-income countries group.
The overall strategy for electronic governance is based on the integration of systems and the adoption of a common technological platform, managed by the State, which minimizes the challenges of interoperability. Avoiding this barrier to the sharing and exchanging of data, which has constituted a major problem for many countries, is critical for an island nation like Cape Verde.
The paper will look at the various challenges of the current land management system in Cabo Verde in regards to how land information is organized and managed and how the interventions of the MCC funded Land Management for Investment Project, based on a common, integrated platform for land information and transactions will contribute to better access to information as well as reliability and transparency of that information, as critical factors to providing legal security of land transactions.
A Viable Approach to Establish Conclusive Land Title in India
1Govt of Haryana, India, India; 2Haryana Space Applications Centre (HARSAC)
The Indian land management system bears strong influence of Mogul-era legacy. It operates on two distinct systems of deeds registration and the land record management as a result of which it is a challenge to completely, comprehensively and definitively establish record of rights. While these systems ensure correct identification of the parties to a deed, it does little to facilitate exact identification of land parcels thereby compromising the simplicity of land based transactions as compared to the well accepted ‘Torrens System’. This has been a major deterrent in the face of development and urbanization, particularly for the city of Gurugram (Gurgaon) located in the Indian National Capital Region of New Delhi.
In an attempt to establish conclusive titles, high-resolution geo-spatial data of Manesar Tehsil (part of the district) has been successfully merged with the legacy data using newly established ground reference points. The principle of geodetic triangulation was used along with a simplified methodology that was developed and implemented using commercially available GIS software. In-built tolerance limit in traditional measurement systems has been a revelation of this project.The results have been very encouraging providing the confidence for scaling it up as a national reference model for land administration and governance.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-13: Can Modern Tools Help Protect Tribal Lands?|
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
Indigenous Peoples and Fragmented Landscapes: Empirical Evidence from 22 Tribal Groups in India
Visiting Scholar, Wageningen University
This evidence-based research, as part of the Landing Together* initiative, is about forest and land governance of India’s 22 Indigenous Communities in 10 states. It analyses how recognition through various legislations is fostering and/ or fragmenting traditional land and forest tenure.
Between 2015 and 2016, for 20 months, the author conducted an extensive ethnography study, including audio-visual recording of interviews with 22 marginal tribal groups, pastoralists, government officials, former militants, political leaders and civil societies in 16 tribal districts all over India. Each of the case studies highlights specific issues such as conflicts due to Eco-Sensitive Zone in Assam and Elephant corridors in Tamil Nadu, collective forest resources of pastoralists in Gujarat, opencast mines in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, oil palm plantation replacing shifting cultivation in Mizoram, timber plantations in Odisha under the new CAMPA Bill, the weak functioning of Gram Panchayats, and inappropriate land acquisitions in Rajasthan.
The analytical framework of this paper underlines two aspects of ‘recognition’: (1) traditional forest and land rights, and (2) indigenous self-identity for Forest Citizenship. It shows that national demand for timber and mineral resources influence the policy decision to recognize indigenous peoples’ land rights and forest citizenship.
Impact of land rights and titles on agriculture in tribal villages in India
1Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India; 2National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj (NIRD & PR), India; 3Griffith University, Australia
The paper examined the status of land rights (land title) and its impact on the agricultural productivity and food security in tribal (indigenous people without land rights) villages in India. The study is an outcome of an intensive field survey of 36 tribal villages without land rights and another 24 non-tribal villages adjacent to the tribal villages by interviewing 714 tribal and 479 non-tribal farmers.
Overall, in tribal villages (without land rights and titles by households), farmers mostly follow low-input and low-output cultivation for subsistence purpose. The share of uncultivated land was higher, out migration from the villages was also higher. Agriculture is mostly primitive, with less adoption of improved technology compared to non-tribal villages with proper land rights and titles. Tribals without land rights and titles are not able to benefit from government as well as private institutions in getting credit, farm extension, seed and other inputs.
There is a need for increasing effectiveness of land rights and titles among the tribal villages and indigenous people in India to increase investment, productivity and food security and to reduce poverty among the tribal population in India.
“The Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) - an Opportunity for Integrated Environmental Land Management for Traditional Peoples and Communities in Brazil?"
1GIZ (German Development Cooperation), Brazil; 2Ministry of Environment, Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 3Ministry of Environment, Secretariat for Extractivism and Rural Development, Brazil; 4University of Brasilia, Brazil
Tropical forests in Brazil are not only important for sequestrating carbon, thus reducing net emissions and mitigating global climate change effects, they are also a space for securing livelihoods and preserving the cultural, spiritual and religious practices of traditional peoples and communities. The New Forest Code of 2012 established the obligatory rural environmental registry “CAR – Cadastro Ambiental Rural” for the protection and restoration of forest areas on rural land in Brazil. Traditional peoples and communities require that their cultural and territorial specificities are inclusively considered in the CAR system and in the process of environmental regularization so that their land rights are secured and they can also benefit from public socio-environmental programs. This paper discusses how the CAR can be truly inclusive of diverse traditional communities and how it can best contribute to improving their access to public policies and to promoting Integrated Environmental Land Management.
Avoiding the Worst-Case Scenario: Whether Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Africa and Asia are Vulnerable to Expropriation without Compensation
University of Groningen
This paper examines whether national expropriation and land laws in 30 countries across Asia and Africa put Indigenous Peoples and local communities at risk of expropriation without compensation. In particular, this paper examines whether national laws ensure that communities are eligible for compensation, and whether eligibility requirements effectively close the door on communities seeking compensation. The analysis is based on an assessment of national-level expropriation and compensation procedures, and also draws on research findings from the legal indicator data available on LandMark, a global platform of indigenous and community lands. The analysis measures national expropriation and land laws against a set of "compensation security" indicators. The indicators ask questions about whether laws impose restrictions on the rights of communities to receive compensation upon expropriation. The indicators were developed based on the principles established in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (2012) (VGGTs). By measuring national laws against international standards, and examining whether these 30 countries’ national laws provide potential loopholes through which governments may expropriate community land without compensating affected communities, this paper highlights legal gaps that must be filled in order for the VGGTs to be adopted in these 30 countries.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-01: Private Sector Business Models in Land Administration|
Session Chair: Alasdair Murray Lewis, HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
Public-Private Partnerships as a Tool to Promote Sustainable Land Administration: Cabo Verde as a Promising Candidate in a Development Context
1DAI, United Kingdom; 2DAI, United Kingdom
Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have a long history of being used effectively for infrastructure projects and more recently are being used in the context of services. The experience of using PPPs for land administration services is limited but with some notable success in developed economies. In a development context, where donor-funded titling or regularization projects often face serious challenges of sustainability, a PPP approach could provide a model for completing reforms nation-wide and sustaining progress initially achieved in a “project” setting. Donor-funded projects often fall short of covering an entire nation’s cadastre due to time and budget constraints. Moreover, projects may not last long enough to solidly establish information systems to record all subsequent transactions
Cabo Verde presents a promising setting for a PPP approach. With donor support, Cabo Verde has embarked on an ambitious initiative to create a multi-functional cadastre. But the support will cover only four of the nation’s nine inhabited islands. A PPP approach could provide an effective mechanism to complete the nation’s cadastre and ensure a transition to a modern cadastre where all subsequent transactions are sustainably maintained. The country’s modest size represents a very manageable context in which to implement the PPP on nationwide scale.
LRA's Geo-Spatial Systems and Databases
Land Registration Authority, Philippines
In the Philippines, Land Registration Authority is currently implementing the Land Computerization Project, which has Geographic Information System and map database derived from the technical description of the Certificates of Title. These are powerful tools that are used to identify the location of properties and the identification of properties falling within specified parameters and areas of interest.
LRA provides Geo-spatial Services:
o Local Government Taxation – delivery of parcel map databases to be used to migrate and update existing real property tax maps, ensure the accuracy of their records, and increase in tax collection efficiency.
o Agrarian Reform – Ensure that lands targeted are within areas/domains classified as alienable and disposable.
o Asset Identification – For water utility companies in identifying titled properties falling within the area of interest.
o Rivers, Waterways, Dams, Irrigation - For Government’s river and waterways rehabilitation effort and irrigation expansion program by identifying titled properties and the land covered, which fall within the corridor of the alignment of interest specified.
o Electrical Power Transmission, Roads and Railways - acquisition of right-of-way for transmission lines, towers, roads, railways, and bridges by identifying titled properties and land covered which fall within the corridor of the alignment of interest specified.
Registry Cadastre Services Decentralization In The Property Management System In Honduras
Programa de Administración de Tierras de Honduras PATH, Honduras
The property services decentralization has been included as one of the necessary requirements to cope with the challenges arising in the growth of the transactional volume of properties rights operations increasing of user’s expectations of improve the services quality, and reducing costs and response times resulting in thrusted registry.
Through this mechanism, the Honduran National Administration System of the Property (SINAP), seeks to take the route towards decentralization hoping to achieve efficiency, transparency and agility in the transactions; thus, creating a greater dynamics in the land market.
The background of a decentralized administration model.
The Honduran National Administration System of the Property, based on the Property law passed by Decree 82-2004, faculty the Property Institute to designate and regulate Partners Centers for operating and managing the registry services that rely on the Property Institute, considering that services administration through a public-private partnership count with mechanisms and more agile procedures to respond to the requirements for the establishment and promotion of a stock market.
The first Partner Institution delegating was the Honduran Chambers of Commerce and Industries, of the managing and operation of the commercial register, in July 2006. Ten years later, in April 2016, was formed the second Associated Center.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-02: Progress with Data Availability for Tracking the SDGs|
Session Chair: Haishan Fu, The World Bank, United States of America
Implementing the SDGs: Institutional responsibilities, timelines, and implications for land-related indicators
United Nations Statistics Division, United States of America
To be completed
How the World Bank is supporting the SDG process
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Operationalizing indicator 1.4.2: Data availability, methodological issues, and country examples
1World Bank, United States of America; 2UN Habitat, United States of America
We explore the extent to which existing household- and administrative data can help operationalize SDG indicator 1.4.2. Widely available data (Census, DHS, MICS, LSMS) point to stark gender differences but little meaningful variation in house or land ‘ownership’ or perceived levels of tenure security, suggesting that information on area registered or mapped from administrative sources will have to be at the core of efforts to operationalize this indicator. We discuss available data and ways to collect them globally and use country examples to point towards data quality; validity; and sustainability as key areas for attention, provide initial suggestions on how to operationalize these, and show how doing so can inform policy and programs. We also illustrate how linking registry to socio-economic data and household surveys at different levels allows incorporating equity and distributional dimensions; quantifying informality; and exploring the incidence of rare events (e.g. disputes). Steps to increase coverage, in collaboration with local institutions and in a way that builds local capacity, are drawn out.
A Standard Land Module for Multi-topic Household Surveys
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2The World Bank, Italy
Although land is a key asset for individuals, households, and societies, complexity and variation in institutional arrangements imply that, although land sections of relevant questionnaires are large, coverage of non-agricultural land and consistency of the information collected, e.g. with respect to gender is often limited. To improve consistency in data collection without sacrificing relevance, this note presents a parcel module and questions community level that can be integrated into ongoing survey instruments with minimal adaptation (in terms of coding). This will allow existing surveys to be used more effectively to facilitate richer analysis, build local capacity, and report on key land indicators, including those for the SDGs, in a comparable way. It will also help open up new areas of analysis by helping to integrate household surveys with administrative data or remotely sensed imagery.
How Geospatial information can make the SDGs more actionable: Overall framework and specific opportunities for indicator 1.4.2
1Group on Earth Observations (GEO), France; 2United Nations Statistics Division, United States of America
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-03: Addressing Land Rights Risks in Value Chains|
Session Chair: Judy Beals, Oxfam, United States of America
Effective Multi-stakeholder Engagement Processes
The Consensus Building Institute, United States of America
To be completed
Land Rights in Global Value Chains
Cargill, United States of America
To be completed
Responsible Investments and Land Rights
CDC Group, United States of America
To be completed
Expanding and Leveraging Private Sector Action on Land Rights
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
To be completed
Examples of NGO-private Sector Engagement from Lao PDR
Village Focus International, Lao People's Democratic Republic
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-04: Towards Regional Cooperation on Land Governance in the Arab States|
Session Chair: Franck Bousquet, World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Challenges of Land Issues to Attract Investments in Kuwait
Municipal Council of Kuwait, Kuwait
To be completed
Land Systems to Promote Real Estate Investments
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
To be completed
A Strategic Vision for Regional Cooperation in the Arab Region
Ministry of Finance, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)
To be completed
Importance of Regional Cooperation to Promote Land Governance in the Arab World
National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt
To be completed
To be completed
Conclusions and Next Steps
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-05: Do We Need New Institutions to Implement African Land Policies?|
Session Chair: Andre Teyssier, World Bank, United States of America
Institutional reform to implement the new land policy in Rwanda
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda
Establishment of the Agence Nationale du Domaine et du Foncier in Benin
Agence Nationale du Domaine et du Foncier (ANDF), Benin
To be completed
Policy and Institutional Reform in Mali
secretariat permanent de la reforme domaniale et fonciere au Mali, Mali
To be completed
Policy and Institutional Reform in Mauritania
University of Arizona, United States of America
To be completed
Institutional developments in Madagascar Land Sector
Land Observatory Madagascar, Madagascar
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: Capacity Building for Scaling Land Administration|
Session Chair: Chrysi Potsiou, FIG, Greece
Body Of Knowledge
International Association of Assessng Officers, United States of America
Local jurisdictions in the United States have developed one of the most progressive and efficient property tax assessment systems in the world. The International Association of Assessing Officers was formed in 1934 to assist in developing the standards by which that system is measured and through which it is improved. Subject matter experts within that group are currently taking those standards and the education material that has been developed over the years and combining them into a set of documents that will be collectively referenced as a body of knowledge. These documents will describe what is needed to be an effective assessor working in several disciplines of the profession. It is divided into eight broad subject areas, each of which will contain information needed by those learning that particular discipline as well as those who have been practicing several years. These documents will then form the basis for future IAAO education programs and provide direction for our professional designation program.
The National Land Capacity Building Model for Informatization – an ICT based model to strengthen human resource capacity for the sustainability of land administration modernization projects
1LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 22E Consulting; 3GEOMEXSOFT.,LTD
No matter the size of a country, land is always a scarce resource. Therefore, it is important that land is managed effectively and efficiently and good land governance take place. A way this can be achieved is a modern land administration system based on ICT based land information system and many countries seek to do so. But when they embark on such projects, human capacity strengthening happen once projects begin, preventing the country to be in charge of the project.
Based on this understanding LX, the Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation and Consortium developed a capacity building model that aims to tailor-make a capacity building model that is suitable for the country so that its own experts can lead a project. Called the National Land Capacity Building Model for Informatization, this model focuses on the analysis, construction, development, maintenance of land service or system, digitally based, by looking at different sectors from policy, planning, land data, data acquisition, expertise, etc. It is systematically designed into three areas -- tool to analyze the capacity of the country in land administration, tool for development of capacity building, and finally methodology for strengthen the capacity in this sector. This paper examines it.
Towards a Curriculum on Responsible Land Administration
1RMIT University, Australia; 2Ardhi University; 3Global Land Tools Network; 4University of East London; 5University of Florida; 6University of Twente
The New Urban Agenda commits UN member states to promote increased security of tenure for all, recognizing the plurality of tenure types, and to develop fit-for-purpose, and age-, gender-, and environment-responsive solutions within the continuum of land and property rights, with particular attention to security of land tenure for women as key to their empowerment, including through effective administrative systems. This is the essence of ‘Responsible’ Land Administration.
Improving the capacity of higher education institutions to teach principles of responsible land administration and land governance will be needed to achieve the goals of the New Urban Agenda.
In late 2016, an Expert Group Meeting was held at the University of East London and the outcome of discussions fed into an expanded draft curriculum outline that will form the basis for the development of teaching materials. The EGM was charged with designing and to establishing a RLA curriculum that will help develop a new wave of graduates. They will become change agents for seeking tenure security and housing for all, using pro-poor and gender-responsive approaches. This curriculum will be discussed in this paper.
Curriculum reform in land governance education: the need for transforming existing curricula in Africa
1Chair of Land Management, Technical University of Munich; 2Licensed Surveyors Association of Ghana, Ghana; 3Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Higher education curricula in African are not adequately responding to Africa’s needs in capacity development in land. This calls for a (re)conceptualization of the role curricula play in capacity development in the continent’s land sector. The African Land Policy Initiative recognized this in its assessment report on the continent. However, there is a lack of follow-up research to investigate more carefully the best ways forward. This study contributes beyond theory by examining curricula in land education from 10 African countries. The countries are Botswana, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Kenya, Mauritius, Uganda, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania. The study examined curricula from selected institutions from these countries to ascertain their adherence to current needs in Africa. Using a track system derived from African Land Policy Initiative’s assessment report, the study critically investigated these curricula’s relatedness to the current requirements in land education in the continent. It makes specific recommendations for improving curricula in land education in Africa.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-07: Round Table: Colombia Opportunities for Land Governance|
Session Chair: David F. Varela, McGill University & Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, United States of America
Follow up on the Colombian Peace Agreements and Land Tenure Issues: transitions, property rights and tenure security
Colombia Rural S.A.S.
The Colombian Government proposed a comprehensive rural reform as part of the Final Peace Agreement to overcome the armed conflict that has affected the country for the past 4 or 5 decades. The President of the Republic asked the Colombian citizens to vote for the implementation of this agreement and in an unexpected result with a difference of more than 50.000 votes the country voted against its implementation. Some of the motivations to vote this way are related to the tools described in the comprehensive rural reform regarding land tenure.
This paper analyzes these claims to identify whether the motivations behind them respond to actual political positions against land distribution and formalization or to misleading perceptions based on the lack of understanding of the law. Moreover, the analysis identifies what areas of the current policy and the proposed reform do have the potential to affect property rights and security of tenure of legally or legitimately acquired land. Finally, the paper draws some policy recommendations for an effective rural reform in the colombian context and the respect of property rights, using the concept “pardon” applied to land tenure in a post-conflict society.
Land Restitution in Colombia: proceeding to a regional sustainable peace
1Universidad EAFIT; 2Escuela Superior de Administración Pública -ESAP-; 3Asociación Colombiana de Investigadores Urbano Regionales -ACIUR-
One of the causes of Colombian armed conflict is the lack of institutional security for land tenure in rural areas. Since the 19th century, the government faced struggles for managing and surveying public domains, which in the transition to the 20th century reflected a strong land agglomeration by regional elites and a systematic exclusion of local peasants. This lead to a direct confrontation, in which peasant’s social mobilization conduced to several invasions into elite’s land. By the 1980’s -1990’s the incursion of guerrillas and paramilitaries transformed the rural areas into war scenarios, were land grabbing was a mechanism of territorial dominion; many habitants were displaced leaving behind their properties. Since 2011, the Colombian government acknowledged the situation and incorporated the ‘Pinheiro Principles’ into the victim’s legal framework, promoting land restitution as an integral mechanism to guarantee non-repetition and reparation. This program became a peacebuilding strategy characterized by the recognition of land’s rights to peasants, and also for re-organizing the land tenure system by a Human Rights approach. This paper focuses in the main challenges that face the program in different regions and how it is becoming a successful strategy in order to provide land tenure security in the countryside.
Bread or Justice? Land Restitution and Investments in Colombian Agriculture
1Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research, Norway; 2Universidad del Norte, Colombia
Colombia planned to restitute 7 million HA of land to IDPs in Victims’ Law in 2011. However, only a small share is formally titled and there is no complete land-registry. Other poor IDPs would later settle on idle land and start farming. Migrants to cities had sold their rights in seemingly voluntary agreements. So far, the courts have only restituted 187.000 hectares (URT 2016). The backlog of both realized and unrealized claims reduces tenure security for the current landholders and thereby their willingness to invest in production. Furthermore, the process has disclosed irregularities in land registrations and the banks stopped accepting title deeds as collateral for loans.
The investment boom in the Montes de Maria region busted when the restitution process. Investors, who had bought land directly from the IDPs in considered dubious trades, lost their rights to the land. Others risked restitution claims based on historic wrongdoings, known or unknown to the current landholder.
Our case study Agropecuaria El Carmen de Bolívar, bought 120 different parcels on 6500 HA for a dairy operation. They replaced cows with less labor demanding buffalo to minimize risk.
Analysis of the Implementation of Multipurpose Cadastre in Colombia from an International Perspective
1University of the Andes, Colombia; 2University of Melbourne, Australia
The objective of this paper is to analyse the implementation of this new cadastre system from an international perspective. The analysis looks to evaluate if the government proposal to be implemented adjusts to the current needs of Colombia, taking into account the experiences and successful practices of other countries, identifying strengths and weaknesses of the current proposal. Furthermore, the research embraces the lack of an evaluation framework for assessing the new multipurpose cadastre plan, which permits the generation of feedback on legal, economic, physical, and institutional aspects, while taking into account economic, social and environmental issues. This evaluation framework includes key indicators that allow the evaluation of the proposal and serve as a monitoring framework useful for government decision makers. Kaplan and Norton in 1996 said “ You can’t improve what you can’t measure and if you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it” for that reason this research wants to demonstrate the importance of applying an evaluation framework to improve the new multipurpose cadastre implementation in Colombia, providing for the possibility of change, and to meet the varying requirements of the country through the years.
Ungendered policies. Gender and land restitution process in Colombia
1Universidad del Norte, Colombia; 2Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science
Since 2011, the Colombian government has implemented a process of land restitution of lands abandoned or dispossessed during the ongoing internal armed conflict. The aim of the policy is to restore 6 million hectares up to 2021, through a mixed transitional process that includes administrative and judicial measures. The Law 1448 of Victims and Land Restitution proposes preferential treatment for women. This includes prioritizing their cases, but also a general gender orientation in the process. In this paper we wonder about the gap between the policies and the realities in the process of land restitution in Colombia. We argue that although the policy is gender sensitive, does not respond to the actual gender differences. To do this, we present an account of the debates on this issue in the country. Then, based on data obtained from a survey conducted among 205 beneficiaries of the policy between December 2015 and February 2016, and the qualitative information gathered during field work between 2012 and 2016, we derive a set of distances between the policy formulations and the observed reality. On this basis we suggest some gender signals to be considered in future efforts, and propose some policy considerations.
Access to Land as of Comprehensive Compensation for Indigenous Populations in Colombia
USAIDs Land and Rural Development, Colombia
The internal armed conflict in Colombia has not just perpetuated the land problems experienced by indigenous people; it has also resulted in serious consequences with regard to their ability to survive, by putting their culture, environment and identity at risk, which are specific to each indigenous people. Thus, these violations of their fundamental rights have had severe implications for the collective land rights of each of these peoples.
The Serranía del Perijá mountain range is located in the northern area of Colombia, in the border with Venezuela. The Yukpa people, victims of the internal armed conflict, have traditionally inhabited this area. The Land Restitution Unit (LRU) of Colombia initially conducted three characterization/ diagnostic studies on land and ethnic rights. In 2016, USAID's Land and Rural Development Program (LRDP) supported three additional studies and issued a series of recommendations on how to improve the methodology. These three studies included all of the Yukpa community, which became the first indigenous people to complete the administrative phase of the restitution process. These characterization studies are to serve as the main input for transitional justice to make decisions regarding ethnic community patients.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Frontier of Sustainable Land Management Research|
Session Chair: Paola Agostini, The World Bank, United States of America
Geospatial Impact Evaluation and Valuation of Land Degradation Projects
1Global Environment Facility Independent Evaluation Office, Washington DC; 2College of William and Mary, USA; 3University of Maryland, USA
We will present the impact assessment and valuation of GEF Land degradation projects using geospatial and econometric methods. The use of machine learning algorithms for assessing the factors influencing the environmental outcomes of the land degradation projects will be discussed. We will also present the use of Value Transfer Approach to estimate the amount of carbon sequestered highlighting the additional benefits generated from these projects. Our work demonstrates the utility of satellite-derived land degradation indicators and geospatial methods for impact assessment and valuation of sequestered carbon using the indicators proposed by the UNCCD's Land Degradation Neutrality(LDN) framework recommended for the SDG target 15.3. Lastly, we will share our experiences in using these methods, lessons learned and future work.
Quantifying The Multiple Environmental Benefits Of Sustainable Land Management Projects: An Analysis Of The Land Degradation Portfolio Of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
World Bank, Global Environment Facility, United States of America
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the financing mechanism of several Multilateral Agreements for the Environment. The Land Degradation (LD) Focal Area is the GEF mechanism under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) for investing in Sustainable Land Management to improve or restore ecosystem services in production systems. This paper presents the first analysis of LD Focal Area Tracking Tools available from a cohort of 1117 GEF projects submitted between July 1st 2010 and June 30, 2016, equivalent of 504 million of US dollars of GEF grants. These projects include direct interventions on 50.5 million ha of production landscapes, benefiting to 40 million rural people (half of them being women). The multiple global environment benefits are related to the maintenance, enhancement, or restoration of ecosystem services, including biodiversity, water, carbon, and forests resources. This analysis uses the tracking tools and other relevant data to quantitatively discuss the global environment benefits, local socio-economic benefits, and contextual information on the extent and drivers of land degradation at the GEF portfolio level. Recent findings will help to complement the analysis and the discussion (Value for Money study from the Independent Evaluation Office, Land Degradation Neutrality and SDG 15.3).
SLM Intervention Impact Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Data
The World Bank, United States of America
The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of watershed conservation and management practices on introduced in the Abbay River-Basin of the Amhara and Benishangul Gumuz Regions in Ethiopia from 2009-15 as part of the Tana Beles Integrated Water Resources Development Project (TBIWRD). Specifically, this paper examines the impact of project interventions on vegetative intensity as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The Google Earth Engine developer platform is used to compute seasonal average NDVI values at the pixel level (30m resolution) in project areas as well as proximate, non-intervention(control) areas. A panel dataset is constructed combining pixel-level NDVI with micro-watershed-level M+E activity data. Controlling for pixel characteristics by way of a fixed-effects regression model, we find TBIWRD has had a positive impact on vegetation outcomes as measured by NDVI. These results are found to be robust to various specifications.
Building Local Capacity to Monitor Land Use Change and Intervention Impacts
Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE), Senegal
To be compeleted
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
UC San Diego, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: New Approaches to Secure Pastoral Tenure|
Session Chair: Harold Liversage, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
Land Use Change in the Bale Mountains Eco-Region of Ethiopia: Drivers, Impacts and Future Scenarios
1SIT/World Learning Inc; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Livestock has been an integral part of the Bale Mountains Eco-Region landscape for many centuries. This paper describes the results of a research study undertaken in the region comparing land use change and livestock movements over a period of eight years from 2008 to 2016. The study provides some insights into the trends of intensification that have taken place, the challenges of this, and indications of who is benefiting from these processes and who is not. In 2008 the majority of the area was predominantly livestock in terms of production systems, with the traditional godantu movement system still functioning well despite challenges. However by 2016 though livestock numbers have not decreased in all areas, poverty levels have grown and access to resources for livestock production have become increasingly difficult for many. Key causes of this is the allocation of land to investors by local governments, trends in privatisation of resources, and a strengthening of the boundaries of the Bale Mountains National Park. The paper concludes by making recommendations for reconciling some of the conflicts arising, particularly over land use, and how land management in the area can be improved.
Securing Shared Grazing Land and Water Resources in Semi-Arid Pastoral Areas: Application of Social Tenure Domain Model Experience in Rural Kenya
1Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya; 2UN-HABITAT; 3International Fund for Agriculture Development
Development of smallholder dairy farming in Bomet County of Kenya is constrained by among others, lack of proper management of communal grazing lands, resource over-exploitation, low quantity and quality of water and pasture. With the support of IFAD and UN-Habitat, through Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) the Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme(SDCP) in Kenya is piloting the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) to secure tenure on land and other natural resources.The project is implemented jointly by SDCP, Resource Conflict Institute (RECONCILE), Pamoja Trust and Technical University of Kenya. Using a census survey in Sugumera of Bomet County, 498 smallholder farmers were interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaires, and using GPS, coordinates of their homesteads, farms, communal grazing lands and water points were collected. Data entry and analysis and creation of outputs (spatial and non-spatial maps) were done using STDM software.A total of 43 common resources were identified and documented. The database and analysis results were presented, validated and discussed at a community meeting.The results brought to the knowledge of many farmers especially the poor and vulnerable, the diverse resources available and how they could share across seasons including creation of seasonal access corridors and established a local resource management framework for sustainability.
Making Rangelands more Secure in Cameroon: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Policy Makers, Development Actors and Pastoralists
1Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries Yaounde, CAMEROON, Cameroon; 2Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) CAMEROON; 3Community Initiative for Sustainable Development (COMINSUD), Bamenda, Cameroon; 4International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
In Cameroon, rangelands occupy about 20 % of surface area; provide critical habitat to many animal and plant species; offer many vital goods and services to society and are home to pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, crop farmers, fishermen and hunter-gatherers, who for centuries co-existed peacefully. In recent years this harmony is being threatened by changing land use patterns, poor land use planning and poor recognition of ownership rights. Despite efforts by state and non-state actors to improve pastoral tenure security little has been achieved because of poor coordination among actors and a complete absence of opportunities to document and or showcase these good initiatives. This study, supported by the ILC Rangelands Initiative, sought to identify, review and analyse the different initiatives that are contributing/have contributed in making rangelands more secure. A case study approach was used to document initiatives using primary and secondary sources and with choice predicated on the prominence, variety and indicated successes of the initiatives. Ten initiatives were showcased under five thematic areas ranging from: governance/decision making processes; resolving conflicts; land use planning; empowering communities; protecting pastoral resources. The results of this study will contribute to a more targeted development of future initiatives that build on past good practices.
Land Use Planning and Communal Land Tenure Reforms in Pastoral Areas: The Experiences of Kenya
National Land Commission Kenya
This paper analyzes planning and communal land tenure reforms for rangelands in Kenya. It proposes a framework to manage the dichotomy in a manner that yields sustainable livelihoods for the pastoralists. Key considerations are the deficiencies of the land management choices prevailing in Kenya rangelands and the East Africa/Horn of Africa region more generally, and how they impact on the pastoralist’s principle of “the commons”. This study adopts a qualitative, exploratory approach. Three government documents are considered; namely the County Spatial Planning Manual, Community Land Act (2016) and the County Land Management Board development control regulations 2015. The three documents present a paradigm shift in planning and management for community lands and presents tangible benefits for rangeland communities. With the CSP, CLA and CLMB, rangeland communities are now obliged to carry out more systematic planning, and management of rangeland resources, and resources harnessed for national interests, the communities are entitled to benefit sharing. The results of this study is useful to policy makers, planners and development managers in Kenya and East/Horn of Africa and beyond. The experiences described here also show that through a multi-stakeholder process land use planning and land tenure challenges in pastoral areas can be simultaneously addressed.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-10: Contribution of Knowledge-Action Networks |
Session Chair: Peter Messerli, University of Bern, Switzerland
Establishing a Science-policy Interface for Sustainable Land Systems – an Initiative of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP)
1University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE); 2Global Land Programme
Land use plays an essential role in mediating the tension between planetary boundaries and growing development aspirations worldwide. Land use change is both consequence and cause of global change, and a solution towards sustainability transformations. The Global Land Programme (GLP) produces knowledge to better understand and guide such transformations under the Future Earth Initiative global research programme of the International Science Union. Because land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development, implementation of the SDGs may translate into competing claims on scarce land resources. Research also points to emerging opportunities for land-based innovations, and the possibility that co-design of sustainable land systems may play a strong role in alleviating these competing claims and aid achievement of the SDGs. GLP undertakes to strengthen its transformative potentials by intensifying its competencies in co-production of knowledge and establishing science-policy interfaces with non-academic partners at national and international levels. We present insights from recent research and ‘mapping’ exercises exploring what goals and targets of Agenda 2030 are most dependent on sustainable land systems; discuss our analysis of key interactions, trade-offs, and synergies; identify knowledge gaps and explore opportunities for co-design and support to societal actors.
Future Earth and the Science-Policy Nexus: Co-designing a solutions-oriented science for global sustainable development
Future Earth is an international research program whose main goal is to foster the generation of knowledge needed to accelerate transformations to a sustainable world. In the realm of sustainability science, Future Earth serves as a key emerging platform for international engagement to ensure that knowledge is generated in partnership with societal decision makers who rely on science to further sustainability goals. Future Earth has worked at structuring its links to policy and action through Knowledge-Action Networks that align with key sustainability challenges related to decarbonization; the difficulties of delivering water, energy and food to growing populations; the management of the complex connections between human and environmental health; the future of cities and rural landscapes; the wise use and stewardship of natural assets; the reduction in the environmental costs of consumption and production; and the establishment of robust governance that effectively manages risk and security. Engaging the science-policy interface is a core function of these Knowledge-Action Networks. We will present the way that one of these Knowledge-Action Networks, on the food-water-energy nexus, is designing its science-policy interface through agenda setting and capacity building. The presentation will focus on upcoming work in Africa.
Rethinking the science-policy nexus in the land sector – Promoting People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring
1CIRAD, France; 2Iternational Land Coalition, Italy
The presentation will contribute to rethinking the science-policy nexus in the land sector, by presenting ILC's People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring strategy. It will detail a diverse set of possible activities in this framework as well as critically assess them by reflecting on the potentials (data ownership, inclusive decision-making) and challenges (data quality, power biases)of People Centered Land Governance and Monitoring tools and instruments.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Experiences with Land Tax And Valuation|
Session Chair: Randy Ripperger, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Fiscal Instruments For Sustainable Development: The Case Of Land Taxes
Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) Berlin, Germany
Economists argue that land rent taxation is an ideal form of taxation as it causes no deadweight losses and has therefore no adverse effects on growth. We first provide a comprehensive overview of direct and indirect welfare and development effects of land rent taxation. Barriers and constraints of implementing land taxes are also discussed, particularly the existence of a land registry, the role of administrative costs, compliance, evasion and political economy aspects. We extend this review with an in-depth analysis of current land tax systems and reform options in six case study countries. Our main finding is that land taxes provide a large and untapped potential for financing governments. Formalizing and securing land tenure by establishing a land registry is a pre-condition that further provides substantial co-benefits for various sustainable development objectives. Widespread concerns regarding the feasibility and costs of implementing land taxes are rarely valid, as land taxes are in these aspects comparable to other taxes. Political will and investment in the quality of administration are, however, decisive. Considering some key principles in designing the land tax can help reduce administrative costs, avoid adverse distributional effects and increase compliance.
Leveraging the Land: Creating Sustainable Internally-Generated Revenue
Trimble Navigation, Ltd, United States of America
In many regions, governments have relied primarily — or in some cases exclusively—on a single source for their revenue. Business activities related to natural resources are often the dominant component in this singular dimension revenue stream. Natural resource industries such as mining and petroleum production can provide significant income through leases and production fees as well as income taxes on workers’ wages. In this paper, we will examine the benefits and challenges of diversified IGR that includes land in the financial portfolio. One of the best approaches to mitigating the risk of excessive or unexpected changes in revenue is to establish a diversified stream of internally-generated revenue tied to repeatable and sustainable activities. Common sources of IGR include government fees, port entry charges and taxes on sales, income and property. But many countries have yet to generate IGR from land and land rights within their borders. We will also consider strategies to implement land-based IGR. In doing so, we must take into account that land is the source of livelihood, cultural identity and continuity for individuals and the country. These components play a role in defining how the assets of land and land rights are defined, identified, defended and leveraged.
The Principles Of Land Acquisition, Expropriation, And Compensation Calculation For Infrastructure Projects In Turkey
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey
Land acquisition and expropriation processes for public investments are observed to be dealt with differently almost in each country and there is a lack of international standards and best practice guidelines in this field. Property ownership and use, interfere with ownership, realization of infrastructure investments, and regulation of settlements are comprehensively regulated by the Constitution, Law of Expropriation, and various laws on public and private law in Turkey. For the acquisition of real estate in large quantities required for the realization of development projects, methods such as expropriation, purchase, establishment of easement rights, and lease are used. Each real property acquisition method is regulated by different laws and the implementation stages, procedures, valuations, and payment of the determined amount of each of the methods differ.In this study, the basic principles and basic problems in land acquisition and expropriation practices for public investments have been defined and in the second stage, principles of valuation of the expropriated real estate based on their types and methods for calculation of compensations have been examined.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-12: Realizing Land Administration Reforms|
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
Delivering Land Administration Services At Scale
Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Land records system in Punjab province of Pakistan was inherited from the British era and was maintained in the manual/paper form. Recognizing the importance of security of records and compilation of a consolidated database of record of rights Government of Punjab, Pakistan with the financial assistance of World Bank has completed a major governance project titled “Land Records Management and Information Systems”. The services with regards to issuance of computerized Fards (copy of record of right), computerized attestation of mutations, e-passbook for agriculture loan and instant updation of record at website are being rendered through Arazi Record Centers established in all 143 tehsils of the Province. System has been linked with the financial institutions, allied Government departments, courts & agencies. Automation of land records has accomplished its basic objectives by bridging most of the gaps that have been created between the service delivery and the expectations of public due to technological advancements. Introduction of digitized system ensured the better safe gardening of the interest and protection of the rights of the socially disadvantaged groups particularly women & deprived class. Increase in tenure security and positive impact on land markets & property prices are expected in times to come.
How to Implement a Broad Reform Agenda - The role of the Agency for Real Estate Cadastre in development of the property market in Republic of Macedonia
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
The Government of RM has identified Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, as a significant part in the governmental overall program, as a catalyst to transition to a market economy, and for support private investment and business creation. The establishment of the REC, the development of various e-services, shortening of time for property registration, the digitalization of cadastre maps as well as the advancement of the geographic information system, led to a significant increase of the number of registered transactions, registered mortgages and the value of the mortgage loans.
The number of days to record the purchase or sale of property or mortgages dropped 96 percent from 30 days in 2005 to just one day in 2015. AREC is now widely recognized as a valuable asset for the real estate market growth: the number of property transactions more than tripled, while the number of mortgages more than quintupled). Increased numbers of foreign and domestic investments, such as Greenfield investments, have a direct influence on the Government Development Agenda, improvement of the economic growth and competitiveness on a permanent basis, higher employment, higher living standards and quality of life.
Better Land Management in Botswana Through an Integrated Electronic Land Information System
1ENKON Information System, Canada; 2Ministry of Land Management, Water and Sanitation Services, Botswana; 3Lantmäteriet; 4Ministry of Land Management, Water and Sanitation Services, Botswana
The Government of Botswana has a long term commitment to improving land management administration to make it customer-oriented, efficient and effective, and to support the long-term socio-economic development of Botswana. It recognizes the importance of having strong land management policies and practices for its tribal, state and free-hold lands and the long-term commitment is to “achieve a good Land Administration System”.
To further its commitment to good Land Administration, the Government of Botswana has implemented an integrated electronic Land Information System (“LIS”) that will not only meet its needs in the short term, but also has the capacity to grow as new land management policies and procedures are established in the future. The LIS results in better harmonization, standardization and integration of reliable, cost effective and transparent land management processes in Botswana across the many government agencies involved with land management. For example, it provides effective, and easy to use, on-line registration of lots, electronic land title transfers, simpler allocation of lots to its citizens, better dispute and claim management, an efficient registration of survey plans, and incorporation of many other land processes related to administration and registration of Tribal Lands.
Scaling Up a Pilot Land Management Initiative in Uganda to a National Land Information System (NLIS)
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD), Uganda; 2Institut Géographique National-France International (IGN-FI); 3Innola Solutions, Inc.
Land Administration and Management in Uganda faced serious challenges prompting the government to adjust laws and policies and implement a series of innovative initiatives. Following the successful implementation of the pilot Design, Supply, Installation, Implementation of the Land Information System and Securing of Land Records (DeSILISoR) Project 2010 to 2013, in 2015 the Government of Uganda with support from the World Bank commenced the implementation of a five year initiative known as the Design, Supply, Installation and Implementation of National Land Information System Infrastructure (DeSINLISI) Project to scale up the computerization of an integrated land management system nationally. The paper and presentation will describe the experiences scaling up from a pilot programme to a National Land Information System (NLIS) detailing the massive data conversion and integration efforts, including the conversion of historical data and ongoing transactions in addition to valuation and other paper document scanning and indexing along with the scanning and vectorization of cadastral maps.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-13: Traditional Institutions' Role to Document Communal Rights|
Session Chair: Rachael Knight, Namati, United States of America
A Statutory framework for the documentation and codification of customary and informal land rights regimes
1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2GROOTS Kenya
In most African countries, the majority of the population lives in rural areas, and holds land based on undocumented customary arrangements. Conflicting statutory law or corrupt customary leaders can weaken customary systems. As global competition for productive land and valuable natural resources increases, both domestic and foreign investors can too easily ignore or dismiss customary rights, especially when those rights are undocumented. Without urgent action to document customary lands, strengthen equitable land governance by customary institutions, and integrate customary and statutory law, millions of people are at risk of losing their rights to land and resources held under customary tenure. And, today, strong customary institutions that stand on the side of local people are more important than ever. Approximately 65-70% of land in Kenya is estimated to fall under the category of “community land”. The Community (Grassroots)-led land mapping model,developed by GROOTS Kenya & social tenure domain model (STDM) developed by GLTN are examples of community led tools for documenting and securing communal land rights. Both tool offer us key lessons for consideration in development of a statutory framework for documentation of communal lands.
The Tragedy Of Myopic Policy Planning For The Commons: Managing Customary Land And Other Natural Resources In Zimbabwe’s Mberengwa Communal Area
Women's University In Africa, Zimbabwe
The experiences of Mberengwa communal area, with regards to management of customary land, reveal that the traditional systems of land governance promoted at independence were based on myopic land policy planning. They give a façade of equal access to land and grassroots participation, yet threaten the virtue of livelihoods and natural resources sustainability. The communal natural resources in this area are collectively owned and managed by traditional systems of authority through a system of land centralisation which was adopted during the colonial era. In this study, I expressly focus on the nature of existing traditional land tenure system, interrogating how it works, how it benefits individuals, households and the entire community. I inevitable explore the traditional institutions that are central in the management of land and related natural resources. Using Key Informants, Transect walks and Observations, I established that the management of natural resources of the commons in post-colonial Zimbabwe is very problematic and results in unsustainable utilization. The traditional institutions are rendered weak to manage these resources in the face of increasing population pressure. Certain harmful land and natural resource use patterns deemed harmful to the environment, are difficult to halt as the community switches into a survival mode.
The Evolution of Collective Land Access Regimes in Pastoralist Societies: Lessons from East African Countries
Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Kenya
This study examines the evolution of collective land tenure regimes in East Africa including how they affect pastoral communities. Specifically, the drivers and impacts of changes in collective land access across time are identified. First, the study synthesises regional evidence on East Africa’s pastoral communities before examining changes among collective land tenure regime in Kenya using existing literature, secondary data and primary data. Second, using theory testing process tracing method to analyse the key drivers on changes in collective land tenure. Land individualisation and privatisation policies implemented during the colonial period and maintained by post-independence governments did not yield the desired outcomes of increasing investments on land and improving productivity and incomes, especially in areas where land is accessed collectively. The growing trend towards individualisation of land in pastoral areas is triggered by a combination of factors including the potential for change in land use, proximity to urban cities large-scale infrastructural developments and the nature of community mechanisms for accessing and managing collectively owned land and other resources. To sustain pastoral productive systems, the maintenance of collective access to land especially where extensive livestock production systems are likely to be practiced, will provide economic and social benefits to communities.
Mapping as Empowerment: Lessons from a Year of Participatory Community Mapping
1Namati, United States of America; 2Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 3Kenya Land Alliance, Kenya
Participatory mapping is often presented as an approach that empowers people to create their own maps. Unfortunately, complex tools and inappropriate recommendations have too often led to ineffective or unsustainable mapping programs that do not achieve the targeted empowerment outcomes or even disempower communities. This is particularly concerning for efforts aimed at strengthening land rights and governance process for indigenous and customary communities. The nexus between participatory mapping and legal empowerment as it relates to formal recognition of land rights warrants further attention and is central to the work of Namati, Cadasta, and our partner organizations. This paper synthesizes lessons from seven participatory mapping exercises undertaken by Namati and Cadasta with partner organizations in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, and Myanmar over the past two years. These exercises informed the development of a suite of tools, methods, and training supports that can be tailored to particular goals and context of an organization and community. This paper analyzes lessons from the pilots and shares suggestions for how to leverage mapping for empowerment – for communities, civil society, and governments.
|12:00pm - 12:30pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-01: Caucus on Women and Land|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-12: Plenary: Land Policy Options for Sustainable Urbanization|
Session Chair: Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, World Bank, United States of America
More Revenue Mobilization by Strengthening Land Administration in Kampala
Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA), Uganda
Empirical evidence shows that over the past five years lands revenue on average contributed 10% of the total revenue collected in Kampala. The land revenue sources included leasehold premium charged at 10% of the market value of land, annual ground rent charged at 0.5% of the market value of land and a plethora of land services including land registration, land ownership verification, placement and removal of caveats, land subdivision and consolidation, surveying and mapping services, GIS services and so on. In FY2014/15, lands revenue rose from US$ 2 million to US$ 3.2million (14%) of the total revenue. The steady performance is attributed to implementation of the online electronic payment system (e-citie), computerization of the lands register.
Proposals to improve revenue collection include, proposals on adopting low-cost land administration tools, improving access to land information through web-based interfaces, guarding against corruption, enhancing the land ownership rights of women and minority groups, enhancing land ownership rights in informal settlements, reviewing the land policy to provide for leasehold as the urban land tenure and reviewing leasehold premium and ground rent charges with due consideration of local conditions and international best practices
Drawing Lessons from the Brazil Slum Upgrading Program Minha Casa, Minha Vida
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Role of Land Policy in Financing Johannesburg Urban Development
City of Johannesburg, South Africa
To be completed
Land Value Capture for Urban Revival: The Case of Shenzen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States of America
To be completed
|1:30pm - 5:00pm||Methodologies for monitoring impact of sustainable land management programs|
By invitation only. Please contact Philippe Dardel <firstname.lastname@example.org>
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-01: “One-Map” Policies in Asia|
Session Chair: Mika-Petteri Törhönen, The World Bank, United States of America
One Map Policies in Asia, with reference to Indonesia
The World Bank, United States of America
OneMap Myanmar – Enabling a Multi-stakeholders Environment for the Coproduction of Data, Information and Knowledge on Land
1Centre for Development and Environment - University of Bern; 2Land Core Group
OneMap Myanmar is an initiative of the government to democratize access to data, information and knowledge, in order to enable government and citizens to make more sustainable and evidence based decisions on land management and broader development planning.
OneMap Myanmar brings together 25 government agencies, civil society organizations and representatives from the private sector to jointly produce, verify, and analyse data and information on land, through multiple engagement processes at national and local levels. The resulting data and knowledge are made available on an online open-access spatial data platform, allowing users to display, search and use databases reflecting the multiple perspectives and claims on land.
OneMap Myanmar uses multi-stakeholders approach to address the complexity of land governance burning issues in the highly dynamic context of post election Myanmar. This presentation first gives an introduction of OneMap as a multi-stakeholders initiative for the coproduction of data and knowledge on land, and shows how geospatial data is used to support and nourish on-going policy and law formulation processes. It then focuses on an-in-depth review of the oil palm sector land-use planning in Tanintharyi region, in order to demonstrate how this coproduction of data and knowledge allows addressing critical issues effectively.
Cross-Sectoral Information Integration and Sharing in an eGovernment Framework Supporting Integrated Land Development Planning
1Centre for Development and Environmnet CDE, Office in the Lao People's Democratic Republic; 2Department of Land Administration, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Laos; 3Department of Planning and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Laos
Development challenges have become increasingly complex. Sectoral approaches therefore have become less effective in tackling burning development challenges.
In Laos, the government struggles to gain an overview of what is happening in land investments across the country. Land concessions can be granted by different institutions and at different administrative levels. However, there is no institution in charge of keeping track of such developments.
Therefore, key departments of the Lao Government are supported in compiling, harmonizing, integrating and exchanging information on different aspects of land investments from all sectors and administrative levels. To that end, the Lao Government is developing a cross-sectoral land investment database system, hosted within its national eGovernment framework.
This Lao land concession information system is part of the broader cross-sectoral Lao DECIDE info project, which is a multi-stakeholder governmental information integration and sharing initiative. On a voluntary basis, institutions can partner up and make their sectoral data available to specified user groups in a standardized way facilitating cross-sectoral information exchange, integration and analysis.
Currently, the platform provides one-stop access to highly detailed information at the national level, integrated across the following sectors: demography, poverty, education, health, foreigner direct investment in lands, ODA, agriculture and environment.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-02: Expanding African Capacity for Land Governance|
Session Chair: Michael Toman, World Bank, United States of America
Building Research Capacity on Land in Africa: Harnessing AERC's Experience
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
To be completed
How NELGA Hubs can Help Support Informed Land Policy at National and Regional Level
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
The Network of Excellence on Land Governance in Africa (NELGA) proposed that regional educational hubs be established in order to support informed land policy development and implementation. The goal is to support the establishment of networks, support curriculum development, training, research and knowledge diffusion as well as to support monitoring and evaluation in land policy development. Policy formation is a slow process and should be informed with appropriate theories. In order to better inform the policy development process it is necessary to conduct research to inform our theories and to conduct public outreach to contribute to the policy development process. NELGA hubs should integrated public outreach and research in their mainstream activities in order achieve their goals. It is suggested that the hubs consider public outreach as a key priority that runs parallel to their research activities, and that public outreach should precede research. Outreach should be conducted at different scales and should include the use of social media. Regular publication of even preliminary research work, not only in journals, is required to engage the policy makers. This provides sufficient, and appropriate, information with which to engage policy makers.
Supporting Access to Spatial Data and Capacity: A Regional Perspective
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Rwanda
To be completed
NEPAD's Role in Strengthening National Institutions for Data and Land Policy Analysis: Opportunities to Build on LGAF
1NEPAD, Zimbabwe; 2NEPAD, South Africa
To be completed
Long-term Benefits from Supporting National Policy-making through Spatial Data and Analysis: The Example of Senegal
Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE), Senegal
To be completed
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-03: Localizing Real Rights: How to Link Registry and Cadaster?|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Introduction to State of Play
COLEGIO DE REGISTRADORES DE ESPAÑA, Spain
HMLR Land Registry of England and Wales: A Graphic Identification without Cadastre
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
To be completed
Economics of the Interaction between Land Registries and Cadastres
Pompeu Fabra University, Spain
Relying on the sequential-exchange theory of property rights (Arruñada 2012), this paper distinguishes between physical and legal land demarcation in order to understand the costs and benefits of three major demarcation policies. The analysis supports voluntary instead of mandatory demarcation, competitive provision of demarcation services and non-integrated services for land administration. Consistent with this theoretical argument, it empirically verifies that demarcation conflicts play a minor role in title-related litigation, and even seems to increase after physical demarcation is made mandatory. Moreover, a related popular policy, that of linking and even merging cadastres and land registries, does not correlate with lower transaction costs.
Advantages and disadvantagesof a merger organization:the case of the Kadaster- Netherlands
European Land Registry Association, Netherlands, The
The Dutch merger of Cadastre and Land Registers is strongly based on Dutch culture and history. The original aim of merging was to achieve economies by preventing duplications and to ease the sorting out of information. Especially during the years of manual registrations this purpose seems to be achieved. In present time these types of advantages are less serious. Without merging the same type of economies can be achieved by electronic connecting of registers. Main drawback is the hybrid juridical system. The system of one servant for two masters with different demands contributed to misunderstandings, inadequate security demands for ICT systems, hampered the exchange of data with other registers and increased the financial vulnerability. In future new technical developments could very well result in a change of the merger. At the horizon appears a multi purpose Land Register with a department for outsourcing surveying activities.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-04: Expanding and Sustaining Land Registration|
Session Chair: Jorge Espinoza, GIZ, Germany
Land Policy and Urban Development in Mali: Coping with the Data Quality Challenge
1Institute of Research for Development (French IRD), France; 2Université des Sciences Sociales et de Gestion de Bamako, Mali; 3Institut d'Economie Rurale, Mali
This paper deals with administrative data regarding the registered land property in Mali, especially in the capital city of Bamako and surroundings. For the last two years, two studies have been focusing on the exponential flow of new titles and their beneficiaries, on the one hand; on the availability of geospatial data regarding these formally secured rights, distinct from provisional and customary rights, on the other hand. The analysis has put the stress on the noticeable challenge of data quality; however it has been conducted along with the reform of land management which has been launched by the government of Mali in 2014.
This work identifies many methodological limits but also the informative potential of the existing documentation at the scale of two regions and about twenty municipalities. The research partnership is therefore founded in its role: for measuring the process of urban sprawl and land grabbing; for documenting a shared vision of planning the peri-urban area; for highlighting the current critical and deregulated land management, and its consequences for urban investments. A knowledge and data strategy is finally advocated for putting the common interest at the core of land and urban policies in Mali.
Implementation challenges of land administration in rural areas of Haiti: from the elaboration of a pre-cadaster methodology to the land tenure reform
1Comité Inter Ministériel d'Aménagement du Territoire, Haiti; 2Inter American Development Bank; 3World Bank
The earthquake of January 12, 2010 highlighted the deep institutional weaknesses in terms of land tenure in Haiti. It showed the failures of the current system of identification of property, people and rights. This results in high land insecurity for the majority of Haitian and has consequences for land use planning competencies including the protection of natural areas, agricultural productivity but also for tax collection capacity.
In the face of such challenges, the Haitian government decided in 2011 to deal with the Land tenure reform as a whole, proposing to change the legal framework, modernizing land administration tools and elaborating a methodology for the establishment of a “pre-cadaster”. The developed “Plan Foncier de Base” (PFB) is a pre-cadaster consisting of a permanent geo-referenced data base on land tenure that links parcels, owners/occupants and land rights. The objectives of the reform are to improve the security of rights on land for both people and investors.
But while the PFB is a big step towards the development of the cadaster, several challenges for cost-effective and fast expansion of coverage, but also to obtain land appraisal remain to be solved. Those elements will be discussed throughout the paper.
Role Constructive Notice Could Play to Formalize Property Rights in Kosovo
Tetra Tech, United States of America
For cultural and historic reasons property rights in Kosovo have been transacted outside the cadastral system creating widespread informality. This paper discusses reasons for informal land holdings in Kosovo, how they have been exacerbated by displacement caused by the1998-1999 conflict, and recognition by the country’s National Strategy on Property Rights of the need for an adjudicatory body applying streamlined administrative procedures to provide legal recognition of informal rights to update Kosovo’s cadastral records and resolve informality at scale. Through legal analysis, the paper explains how the legal doctrine of “constructive notice” coupled with a statutory deadline within which rights must be asserted can be applied to administrative procedures to make the process of rights recognition more efficient. Constructive Notice must, however, be delivered through robust public information and outreach campaigns to ensure any parties with an interest in the claimed property, particularly displaced persons and women, are provided with knowledge of the formalization proceedings and information required to assert their rights. Through more effective notification of formalization proceedings, the Government of Kosovo can efficiently resolve informality at scale while providing due process safeguards to protect the property rights of all its citizens.
Land Administration and Management in Haiti Program: Next Action Phase Delivering Scalable Community Level Solutions
Habitat for Humanity International (retired), United States of America
The ongoing work of the Haiti Property Law Group has reached impressive milestones with the support of the Land Administration and Management in Haiti Project (“LAMP”) and is beginning an exciting new phase. LAMP has supported steps by the Haiti Property Law Working Group to advance access to land rights while leveraging substantial in-kind and financial resources. The Haiti Property Law Working Group, Groupe Foncier, which began in 2011, has evolved into a highly effective nearly all Haitian forum for developing tools and actively tackling property rights issues. The Group of nearly 300 professionals (notaries, lawyers, surveyors), representatives of Haitian and other governments, donors, the business sector, civil society and NGOs, has developed a common understanding of current customary and formal land laws through the research and publication of two manuals and training materials. Based upon this five-year foundation, the Group is launching a new action phase applying the tools it created to solve individual and community-based land rights issues The session will share the highlights as the LAMP enters a new phase in its transformative work. The session will include discussion of the replicability of this work and next steps.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-05: Building Institutions for Land Administration Services|
Session Chair: Stig Enemark, Aalborg University, Denmark
Institutional Reform as a Key Driver in the Delivery of Modern Land Administration
GIS Transport, Nigeria
The Kaduna Geographic Information System (KADGIS) is the largest GIS project in Nigeria. An ambitious government target of titling all land in the state has required the speedy establishment of a service agency capable of maintaining significant production levels together with a revenue management system to prevent leakages.
To make this possible complete institutional reform was required, with the old ministry closed, and a law established the agency, and a Director General reporting directly to the Kaduna State Governor. The presentation of comprehensive rules and regulations at stakeholder outreach meetings provided assurance and guidance for the general public and professionals.
KADGIS operates from refurbished offices, with operational and ‘business’ units centrally located, and initially focused on mass data capture activities, enabling the commencement of two systematic land titling programmes and customer service operations.
A modern and efficient land administration system and cadastral system operated by 350 fully trained staff are producing secure land titles and increasing Internally Generated Revenue (by second quarter 2017 over 1,000 land titles per week, N1 billion in revenue per month), as well as delivering products including maps, reports and analysis, supporting informed decision and good governance in all Kaduna State Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs).
The National Spatial Data Infrastructure of Zambia
Sivan Design D.S. Ltd, Israel
One of Zambia's important challenges is to recognize the title of property owners on their land. The Ministry of Land, Natural Resources and Environment Protection (MLNREP) is in charge of managing the country's land resources. To begin a LAND AUDIT and to be efficient in charging the revenues, the Ministry has installed ZILMIS – the Zambia Integrated Land Management Information System. The MLNREP has contracted Sivan Design D.S Ltd to design and implement the system. One of the deficiencies in obtaining an ideal system is the absence of a good quality and up to date national map. To that end, Sivan Design is leading a joint venture together with another Israeli company – Ofek Aerial Photography and with Ground Force Land & Engineering Services, a surveying Zambian company that is in charge of quality control of the field surveys executed by the surveyors of the Ministry, under the Surveyor General. The goal of this JV is to create a National Spatial Data Infrastructure that will serve the Ministry, to maximize the usage of accurate geographical data for the benefit of the public serving both the Ministry and other E-GOVERNMENT initiatives.
Establishing A Delivery Unit For Land Administration- How To Deliver Land Administration Services In Developing Countries, Sustainably And To Scale.
Private Individual, United States of America
At a time when the SDG’s are in their infancy, it is essential that the global community discovers how to deliver public service reform. Land rights are the corner stone for some of the SDG’s. Land administration is a vital element in providing secure assets to the poor, and in turn, improving their opportunity for better well being.
Global guidelines such as the Voluntary Guidelines for Land Tenure and Fit For Purpose Land Administration supports nations on how to technically improve their land administration systems. However, guidance on how to manage the implementation of an improved land administration system is lacking in comparison.
This paper argues that a framework for delivery is required which relies upon:
1- Adaptive learning to influence the management approach,
2- Ensure that success is defined and agreed upon across stakeholders,
3- To provide operational tools in financial, human resource and risk management.
Further guidelines are now required on the delivery question for land administration reform in developing countries, and it is hoped that this paper is the first step in ensuring that this happens.
Conceptual Modelling Of Information System Process To Design Tech Solutions To Fight Land Corruption Through Transparency International's Land and Corruption In Africa Programme
Transparency International-Secretariat, Germany
Transparency International (TI) has a project focused on fighting corruption in the land sector in sub Saharan Africa. The challenges that TI faced in using technology as a tool to fight corruption on this project, provided an incentive to develop a new approach to implementing technology.
Even if the issues addressed by the project are clearly identified, identifying how technology can be used to address these issues remains a challenge. In Sub Saharan Africa, land issues varying from one country to another. In addition, TI chapters taking part in the project are free to decide which specific issues they would like to target and which different approaches they will use to address these issues. In order to avoid the development of solutions which would not be compatible with the reality on the ground, the usage of technology requires a more in depth analysis.
TI has commissioned research based on the experiences and challenges in four pilot chapters, to develop a conceptual model of information on how the chapters will work in the land sector. The conceptual model served as a baseline to identify and conceive successful and innovative tech solutions to fight against corruption in the land sector in Africa.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-06: Land Governance in Latin America & the Caribbean|
Session Chair: Enrique Pantoja, World Bank, United States of America
Comparative Land Governance Research in the Caribbean and Latin America: Recent Findings from Five National Case Studies
Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Strengthening land governance is critically needed in Latin America and the Caribbean to protect the environment, achieve gender equality in land rights, expand the transparency of land records, and facilitate planned urban growth. The region faces major challenges in land tenure informality and overlapping mandates for titling, mapping, and registration.
This research responds to the gaps in land governance information within five Latin American and Caribbean countries—Barbados, Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. The research draws upon a methodological framework inspired by both the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework and USAID’s Blueprint for Strengthening Real Property Rights. Applying this methodology illuminates the interplay between land administration and social housing provision, and the extent to which legislation and regulations affect land tenure rights, especially those of women and ethnic minorities. Findings are also compared to previous land governance assessments conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, and Peru. This research ultimately underscores the continued need for improved inter-agency coordination on land governance.
The methodology discussed in this paper is employed by Diego Erba, Charisse Griffith-Charles, and Robin Rajack in detailed Land and Poverty Conference 2017 papers on land governance in Brazil, Ecuador, and Trinidad & Tobago.
Challenge and Opportunities for the VGGT Implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean
Almost five years after the adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (the Guidelines) by the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), this paper will focus on the challenges faced and the opportunities generated for their implementation in a specific region: Latin America and The Caribbean (LAC). As a first part, the paper will explore some of the regional trends impacting governance of tenure. The paper will then develop a second part on the advances and limitations made and faced for improving the governance of tenure using the Guidelines in LAC at country level (drawing lessons from various countries), at sub regional level (in particular by Reunion Especialisada por la Agricultura Familiar – MERCOSUR), and at stakeholders level (such as civil society, Indigenous People…).The third part of the paper will explore challenges ahead and suggest ways forward to enhance the Guidelines implementation in the region.
The Challenges of Land Governance in a High-Income, High-Potential, Small Island Developing State: the Case of Trinidad and Tobago
1The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Inter-American Development Bank
A recent participatory land governance assessment performed in Trinidad and Tobago with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) examined the land governance through a stakeholder assessment process. Experienced and knowledgeable land professionals were brought together to discuss the various perspectives on the country’s land governance to arrive at grades in different aspects of its performance. The assessment process utilised the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) of the World Bank, and Global Housing Policy Indicators (GHI) to provide standardisation of the methodology. Various dimensions of land governance were assessed inclusive of law and public policy, registry and cadastral information systems and services, land use planning and management, and land tenure regularisation.
This paper presents the perceptions of the country’s land governance held by participants to the study, supported by census and institutional data where possible. These perceptions and the limited data available can help to point toward concrete programmes that can be undertaken to address the land governance gaps to improve equity and sustainability in the country.
It is recommended that transparency and accessibility of the land information would go a long way toward interrupting corrupt practices, where they exist, and also encouraging registration and confidence in the systems.
Applying an Adjusted Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) to Evaluate the Relationships between Land Cadasters and Informality: Lessons from Brazil and Ecuador | Usando el Marco Ajustado de Evaluación de la Gobernanza de la Tierra (LGAF) para evaluar las relaciones entre el Catastro Territorial y la Informalidad: Lecciones desde Brasil y Ecuador
1Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentine Republic; 2Inter-American Development Bank
In Latin America, a territorial cadastre is a public registry that manages information relating to parcels. The majority of cadastres are still structured under the orthodox model, which accounts only for economic (land and building values), physical (form, size, and location of parcels), and legal characteristics (tenure). Much of this information may be out of date and incomplete, particularly because the orthodox cadastre is typically restricted to private properties. Moreover, the orthodox model fails to encompass key parcel level data needed for urban policy decisions, such as information on transportation, infrastructure, and utility networks, as well as environmental attributes and the socioeconomic profiles of occupants. These data are structured under the Multipurpose Cadastre - MPC, which connect institutions and systems.
To evaluate the relationship between Cadastres and Informality, a study supported by the Inter-American Development Bank was developed, following the Case Study Guide provided by Sanjak & Donovan (2016). The case was focused in Brazil and Ecuador using both, qualitative and quantitative information, and permits to conclude that the integration of urban data into a MPC, incorporating the irregular settlements is the first step to know the real face of the cities. It will definitely conduce to the informality reduction.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-07: Land Use Planning for Disaster Preparedness|
Session Chair: Conor Sheehan, Enterprise Ireland, Ireland
International Standards- a critical contribution to disaster recovery
Returning confidence to markets that have been affected by disasters is critical to their economic recovery and information is a key component in the recovery process and the restoration of confidence. International Standards potentially have a key role to play in this important area. Research has shown that actions taken quickly and decisively after a deserter occurs significantly affect the post disaster recovery period. How International Standards can contribute to this critical area has not been fully considered. The paper will examine the role and how International Property Measurement Standards, International Valuation Standards, International Construction Standards and International Ethical Standards have the potential to significantly affect and improve the outcomes following a disaster.
The paper will explore how International Standards can play a significant role to assist in:
• Efficient distribution of emergency aid
• Reduce ‘Time stealers’ in critical situations
• Benchmarking for donor organisations to measure efficiency
• Reduce risk
• Increase economic activities
• Improve transparency
The paper will examine how the international standards contribute to the De Soto principle of creating capital. The paper will also explore how international standards can help in ‘thinking outside of the box’ to deliver extraordinary results.
Urban Disaster Resilience through Risk Assessment and Sustainable Planning
IABG mbH, Germany
Urban disaster risk is a growing problem driven by two megatrends of global change: urbanization and the increasing frequency and intensity of climate-related extreme events. Coastal cities are additionally confronted with sea level rise, land subsidence and coastal erosion. Combined with high levels of societal vulnerability, these trends increase disaster risk and associated loss of life and economic damage. Tunisia faces major risks among the EU neighbourhood countries, given its rapid population growth and almost 80% of its urban areas concentrated along the Mediterranean Sea. The implementation of an urban Risk Information and analysing system, faces several major challenges including the lack of relevant geospatial data for urban risk analyses as well as an insufficient understanding of the underlying drivers, current hotspots and possible future scenarios of urban disaster risk. The presentation shows a standardized procedure to provide reliable data and information on urban growth and disaster risk trends. This will be achieved by integrating geospatial data derived from high resolution satellite imagery, available socioeconomic data, and information obtained from expert interviews into a multi-hazard risk assessment.
Searching Position in Non-residential Areas in Emergency and Disaster Situations by using the National Point Number
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The address system based on the street name and the parcel number are used for searching position effectively in the residential areas. But it is not easy to search position in non- residential areas like mountains, forests, shores, if there is not enough information of position about these areas. So in these areas, it is impossible to tell exact position to rescue team in emergency, disaster situations.
In order to make up for this problem, the national point number was introduced for searching location in non-residential areas in Korea. The national point numbers have been installed in the mountains, forests, shores to prepare for emergencies, disaster. It is produced by the gird reference system and composed of a two-letter pair Hangul and 8 Arabic numerals. These letters indicate position of specific region.
As accuracy of the national point number is very important, a designated organization by the government can verify position of it to enhance the reliability of accurate position.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the current condition of the national point number in Korea and the verification method of it for accurate position.
Harnessing Land Information Through Cloud-Based Platforms For A Resilient Society
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
In many countries land is a scarce and valuable resource which critically underpins the wellbeing of its citizens as well as being a pillar of economic activity. Ownership, rights and utilisation of land needs to be managed but land is also a crucial factor in dealing with unplanned events, such as natural or man-made disasters. Geospatial data representing information about land has been proven to increase the resilience of communities dealing with events such as flooding, environmental issues, climate change, disease outbreaks etc.
A closed, tightly managed Spatial Data Infrastructure has been developed to strengthen national resilience and put information at the fingertips of decision makers in the United Kingdom: ResilienceDirect. This national crisis management tool brings together emergency response stakeholders and government agencies from across the country, enabling the creation of a single operating picture when needed. Developed using open source technologies by Ordnance Survey, Great Britain’s national mapping agency, it brings together over 2,000 geospatial datasets and OGC-compliant web mapping services from response agencies. Many of these are land-related and include the Environment Agency (e.g. live flood alerts), British Geological Survey (e.g. landslide susceptibility), Met Office (e.g. live rainfall prediction) and Health & Safety Labs (e.g. population density)
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-08: Addressing Land Tenure Aspects of REDD+|
Session Chair: Esther Mwangi, Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
Creating an appropriate tenure foundation for REDD+: The record to date and prospects for the future
1Independent consultant, United States of America; 2Ministry of the Environment, Switzerland; 3North Carolina State University, United States of America; 4CIFOR, Indonesia; 5CIFOR, Peru; 6Independent consultant, Australia; 7Paul-Valéry University, France; 8Independent consultant, Tanzania; 9University of Melbourne, Australia
This paper reports on “before-after/control-intervention” research to assess how proponents have performed in addressing tenure in subnational REDD+. Research was carried out in two phases (2010-2012 and 2013-2014) in five countries (Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia) at 21 subnational initiatives, 141 villages and 3,754 households. Three questions were posed: (1) How has perceived tenure insecurity of village residents changed?; (2) What are the main reasons for that change?; and (3) How do village residents evaluate the impact of tenure-related interventions on wellbeing? The findings are that: (1) tenure insecurity decreases only slightly across the sample; (2) being in a REDD+ intervention area has decreased smallholder tenure insecurity only in Cameroon, and has increased insecurity of smallholder agricultural tenure in Brazil; (3) the main reported reasons for worsening tenure security are outside companies, lack of title, and competition from neighboring villagers; and (4) views on the effect of tenure interventions are overall positive. By and large, proponents have little to show for their efforts. Work on tenure remains an urgent priority for safeguarding livelihoods and for reducing deforestation. This will require increased attention to participatory engagement, improved reward systems, tenure policy reform, integration of national and local efforts, and “business-as-usual” interests.
Community Land Rights Delimitation and Natural Resources Management in Mozambique: Significance and Implications for Sustainable and Inclusive Development
1World Bank, Mozambique; 2World Bank, Mozambique
While Mozambique has come a long way since the signing of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992, which ended the country’s seventeen-year conflict, many structural land and natural resources challenges persist. One key challenge continues to be the reconciliation of rural poverty reduction efforts and environmental sustainability. Two central issues permeate this overarching challenge: community land tenure regularization and natural resources management. Despite the common inspirations and the positive synergies that would arguably be produced by tackling these issues in an integrated fashion, Mozambique’s policies since the late 1990s have dealt with them in a largely disconnected manner. Reintegrating these issues into concerted policies would yield substantial benefits to communities, enabling poverty reduction efforts and more sustainable management of the country’s natural resources base. This would entail more strategic implementation of community land rights delimitation in Mozambique, as part of a wider rural development strategy and program that has sustainable natural resources management at its core.
Gender In Collective Tenure Regimes: Women Rights And Forest Tenure Reforms
1CIFOR, Peru; 2Independant
Based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms by the Center for International Forestry Research, this paper examines results from a research project in Indonesia, Peru and Uganda. This paper uses a gender perspective to analyze how these reforms have resulted in changes in tenure arrangements that have affected men and women in distinct ways and how these may affect tenure security outcomes. In particular, we focus on formal and informal local-level practices, including customary tenure systems, to understand how collective land tenure regimes define institutional arrangements to consider rights of women and other vulnerable groups and the challenges these face to exercise their rights and attain secure tenure and access to resources.
Using a mixed-method approach, research combined different quantitative and qualitative data collecting tools. At the national level, legal and historical analysis of key regulations around reforms illustrated how reforms emerged. At the local level, semi-structured interviews, intra-household surveys, and focus groups generated information and promoted the participation of local stakeholders in the discussion of the origins, and nature of forest tenure reform outcomes. The sample includes 55 villages in ten different tenure regimes and over 1300 households across the three countries.
Securing the Commons in India: A Polycentric Approach
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Foundation for Ecological Security, India
Common pool land and water resources in India play vital, but often overlooked, roles in livelihoods and ecosystem services. However, these resources are often fragmented and fall under different government departments, resulting in uncertain tenure for the people who depend on these resources for fodder, fuel, water, and other products. An Indian NGO, Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), has developed a process for “commoning”—assisting communities to secure the commons by forming inclusive local institutions to manage the resources, and to work with different government departments to gain stronger rights to the commons.
This paper applies polycentricity theory to examine the institutional arrangements that govern the commons in FES sites in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and identify factors for effective commons management. It draws on village-level netmapping exercises and key informant interviews to show the complex flows of resources, information, and influence related to the commons among Forestry, Revenue and Watershed Management agencies, local government, habitation-level organizations, and NGOs, and the MNREGA rural employment guarantee program. The methodology developed here can be used as a diagnostic tool and guide for interventions to help communities to strengthen their tenure on the commons and management of those resources.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-09: Increasing the Sustainability of Pastoral Production Systems|
Session Chair: Gunnar Kohlin, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Institutional Innovation and the Protection of Livestock Corridors in Agropastoral Drylands
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America; 2Syracuse University; 3Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricole; 4Pole Pastoralisme et Zones Seches
The need to protect livestock mobility in the Sahel has been demonstrated by researchers and is increasingly acknowledged by national governments. Nonetheless, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Policy tends to be based on an abstract conception of mobility that insufficiently addresses the multiple dimensions of resource use and access. This study used participatory mapping to collect data on the corridors, resting points, and water resources used by pastoralists in eastern Senegal. The GIS database (including 5000 km of corridors, 744 encampments, and 1010 water points) depicts how mobility functions within a network of linked resources. Adopting a network approach can address the “paradox of pastoral tenure” by maintaining flexible resource use within a framework of protected resources. Finally, qualitative data from 14 municipalities along the mapped corridors was used to characterize institutional challenges to corridor protection. Resource users hold two competing perspectives on corridors. The first is control-oriented, focusing on preventing crop damage and reducing conflict; the second is access-oriented emphasizing corridors as a means to maintain access to pastures. Without a clear understanding of the functions of corridors, formalization can result in corridors restricting livestock mobility.
Transformation Of Land Tenure In Semi-Arid Areas And Implications For Climate Resilient Economic Development
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2University College London, United Kingdom; 3Independent consultant, Kenya
The Pathways to Resilience in Semi-arid Economies (PRISE) programme seeks to examine the role of land tenure in reducing climate vulnerability and enhancing climate-resilient economic development in the semi-arid lands of Kenya. These areas face a range of interacting drivers of risk, including climate change, land use change and land tenure reform, which are affecting local people’s ability to adapt and thrive.
Focussing on Kenya’s arid and semi-arid counties, and Kajiado county in particular, this paper documents the recent policies and trends that underlie the transformation of land tenure and implications for land use and governance in a changing climate. It goes on to explore how such transformations affect communities’ abilities to adapt to climate change by comparing the outcomes of different land tenure regimes (private and communal) on livelihoods and disaster risk management.
Finally, the implications for climate-resilient economic development will be explored particularly the impact of land tenure transformation on the potential of climate-smart livestock value chains to strengthen the resilience of pastoralist communities in the semi-arid lands of Kenya.
Public Lands Ranching in the U.S. - Social and Economic Characteristics of Public Lands Ranchers
1Sustainable Rnglands Roundtable University of Wyoming, United States of America; 2Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming, USA; 3Department of Ecosystem Science and Mgmt, University of Wyoming, USA
Federal land management agencies in the United States work with ranchers through grazing permits to facilitate livestock use and management of public lands. Reliable information documenting social and economic characteristics of ranchers who operate on public lands is needed to help land managers and policy makers, responsible for administering the nation’s rangelands, to understand ranchers’ economic and social diversity, as well as the variations among their operations, and their contributions to local communities and organizations. To obtain this information, a national survey was administered in 2015 to gather these data, mirroring in part a previous survey conducted in the late 1990s. Data were collected to be statistically relevant at the national level. Cluster analysis was used to determine different rancher groups in both studies, and the rancher groups were then compared to one and other, and previous survey results, to identify sources of income, type and numbers of livestock, values that keep ranchers ranching, and participation and leadership in community organizations. Data analyses sought to evaluate similarities and differences among the groups of ranchers, and potential responses/reactions to policy changes impacting public land management through grazing permits, upon which many western ranchers rely as part of their overall operations.
Dispossession through Formalization: The Plight of Pastoralists in Tanzania
1University of Michigan, United States of America; 2University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Danish Institute of International Studies (retired)
Advocates of formalization promote it as a means of ensuring tenure security for smallholders and reducing conflict. Yet in Tanzania conflicts are on the rise, especially in areas earmarked for the SAGCOT (Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania) agricultural investment program. Here, formalization is occurring alongside large-scale evictions of pastoralists and, to a lesser degree, of small-scale farmers. In this paper we explore the antecedents and rationales for formalization in Tanzania, and the effects on those who are the intended beneficiaries. We identify the main drivers underlying the up-scaling in formalization efforts since 2009. We furthermore disentangle a series of simultaneous developments to assess their relative weight in the rising levels of conflict: (1) SAGCOT investment activities; (2) the G8-led Land Tenure Support Program formalization initiative; (3) the longstanding Tanzanian government objective to end traditional modes of livestock keeping; and (4) the recent full waiver issued by the World Bank releasing Tanzania from its obligation to adhere to the safeguard policy for indigenous peoples. Rather than enhancing tenure security as is so often touted, formalization, we posit, seems instead to be facilitating the wide-scale dispossession of especially pastoralist lands to support foreign investment and conservation agendas.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-10: Reducing the Risks of Agribusiness Investment|
Session Chair: Marc Levy, Earth Institute, Columbia University, United States of America
Advocating for Safeguards in Governing Land for Investment: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda, and Malawi
Human Rights Watch
With the new wave of land related laws and policies enacted in Africa recently, special focus should be on key governance gaps related to how land is allocated for investment purposes vis-à-vis local communities. We argue that governments and donors such as the World Bank need to undertake preventative measures when embarking on policies that encourages large-scale land based investments for extractives, agriculture and infrastructure.
To highlight governance gaps related to governing land for investment we use data from Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda and Malawi based on field research conducted in 2011, 2012, 2013-2014 and 2015-16 respectively. We interviewed approximately 330 respondents for the four case studies, including local community members, government officials, investors and other stakeholders. We find that when there are weak government policies, lack of transparency in land transactions and monitoring of negative consequences for communities, vulnerable groups are disproportionately impacted.
We conclude by proposing measures to close these governance gaps. These measures should be tailored to address the distinctive impacts on women and men. This will ensure that projects planned and carried out do not violate rights of local communities, and would minimize displacements and disruptions of livelihoods.
Responsible Large-Scale Land Investments in Uganda: Current Application and Potential Scope of International Safeguards
1University of Marburg, Germany; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
A number of international initiatives have endorsed voluntary safeguards such as the VGGT to stipulate responsible large-scale investments in land and agriculture in developing countries. The underlying assumption of these safeguards is that investors face numerous risks related to land disputes and hence have intrinsic motivations to responsibly acquire agricultural land in order to mitigate these risks. Despite the central role of investors for the implementation of voluntary safeguards, few systematic attempts have been made to share the experiences and perspectives of investors regarding the implementation and operationalization of such guidelines and principles. This study focuses on how voluntary safeguards are operationalized by large-scale agricultural land investments in Uganda and whether the resulting activities successfully mitigate risks of (land) disputes. Primary data was collected during a field research in Uganda in August 2016 through key informant interviews with investors, community associations, the local government, CSOs, donors and national government agencies. Our findings highlight that land acquisitions in line with safeguards can successfully mitigate risks for investors. But low awareness for the risks of land disputes, insufficient knowledge of guidelines and principles, monitoring of investments and secondary effects on land markets remain a challenge for responsible large-scale land investments in Uganda.
Mechanisms for Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Negotiation of Land Contracts
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
Investor-state contracts are regularly used in low- and middle-income countries to grant concessions for land-based investments, such as agricultural or forestry projects. These contracts are rarely negotiated in the presence of, or with meaningful input from, the people who risk being adversely affected by the project. This has serious implications for requirements for meaningful consultation, and, where applicable, free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), and is particularly important in situations in which investor-state contracts grant the investor rights to lands or resources over which the community has legitimate claims.
The paper explores how consultation and FPIC processes can be integrated into investor-state contract negotiations, taking into account the practicalities of contract negotiations, to better safeguard the land rights and human rights of members of project-affected communities. Based on a review of relevant international law standards and guidance documents, as well as a close analysis of typical investor-state negotiations and of consultation and consent processes in other contexts, the paper provides various options that may be appropriate, depending on the local context and the community’s resources and decision-making structures.
Pre-existing Community Land Disputes In Private Sector Investments and Development Interventions
1The Cloudburst Group, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant
Pre-existing community land disputes can profoundly affect private-sector investments and development programs or interventions. If these disputes, which can sometimes be difficult for outside actors to identify, address and mitigate, are not recognized they can re-ignite or trigger conflicts that delay, stop, or add significant financial and other costs to projects. Finding practical methods to address these conflicts is essential to promoting sustainable development and inclusive enabling and investment climates. Unfortunately, the issue of pre-existing community land conflicts is often which increases risks for communities, investors, development agencies and other stakeholders (such as host governments). This paper explores this under-addressed issue and provides clear and practical guidance on strategies to identify and address pre-existing community land disputes with a focus on the agricultural sector. It provides a brief and simple typology of land disputes with examples of how pre-existing disputes have affected projects. It identifies lessons learned from efforts to identify and address such disputes and, finally, it offers actionable recommendations for private sector and public sector actors to reduce harm and increase positive outcomes.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-11: Establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)|
Session Chair: Luis Bermudez, OGC, United States of America
Assessing The Maturity Of National And Regional Geospatial Infrastructures: Providing The Evidence To Assist Economies And Improve Strategic Decision-Making
1Location International; 22market2market; 3New Frontiers; 4Mercury Project Solutions
Location information is fundamental to providing a consistent, authoritative evidence-base for policy development, enhancing decision-making, facilitating implementation and longer-term monitoring and for reducing the cost of regional and national government operations.
When assessing, planning, and implementing geospatial infrastructures, governments benefit from a strategic approach that is evidence-based, consistent, repeatable, measurable, and allows comparison with other nations and regions.
This paper will give a strategic understanding of the rapidly changing global geospatial landscape. It will include a tested methodology for assessing the maturity of regional or national geospatial infrastructures currently in place, enabling the establishment of a sustainable geospatial infrastructure strategy that is consistent, repeatable, comparable and measurable, and an associated implementation plan. This paper will show how that process can assist the economy and improve overall strategic decision-making.
Creating a Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Diagnostic Tool
1World Bank, United States of America; 2FAO of the UN, Rome Italy; 3Consultant
Geospatial data have played an increasingly important role over the last two decades in supporting effective decision making to address social, environmental and economic issues. Being able to access up to date, definitive and reliable geospatial data allows decision makers to see where resources, infrastructure and people are located, and the environment they are in.
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is a framework of policies, institutional arrangements, technologies, data and people that enables sharing and effective usage of geographic information.
A joint World Bank-FAO team is working to create a Diagnostic tool and related Scorecard to assess the level to which a country’s national SDI has developed, and therefore its capacity to address its development needs with geospatial data.
The objective in producing an SDI Diagnostic and Scorecard for a country is to be able to conduct a quick assessment that provides a clear picture of the current status of NSDI development in order to identify missing components, or components that might require strengthening or further development. The results would help to identify areas for support intervention that would directly impact a country’s ability to realize the 2030 the Sustainable Development agenda.
Governance in Support of Global Agenda. Good Practices from Serbia
1Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN, Italy; 2Republic Geodetic Authority, Republic of Serbia
We live in a world of tremendous changes: unpredictable climate change, enormous demand for land and other natural resources, huge migrations of people to new megacities, millions of migrants have made their way across the Mediterranean to Europe, and all this in a world where the population is still growing.
In response to these challenges, on September 27, 2015 the UN’s 193 Member States have adopted new global goals for the next 15 years at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in New York. “Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets). Monitoring the progress will become obligatory for all countries.
Action on climate change is essential to meeting development aims. At the Paris summit in December 2015, 196 countries negotiated new climate change agreement. Climate change is expected to lead to reductions in agricultural productivity, and threatens the availability of natural resources, livelihoods and food security of small farmers and the rural poor.
Many of these challenges have a clear land dimension: unequal access to land; insecurity of tenure; unsustainable land use; and weak institutions for land administration, etc. Responding to these challenges is particularly difficult when the governance of land is weak.
Potential of Spatial Data Infrastructure in Poland
Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland
Through this paper I would like to tell you a Polish story on building Spatial Data Infrastructure. Before 2007, spatial data was difficult to find online at national and also at EU level, and were often poorly identified/documented. They were often kept in incompatible formats, making it difficult to combine different spatial datasets. Many public authorities did not have online services in place enabling people to discover, access, use and share their spatial data (within countries and across borders). This situation was also in Poland where together with the implementation of INSPIRE principles was a major milestone in building Polish Spatial Data Infrastructure. Poland transposed INSPIRE directive in 2010, since that time legal mechanisms for coordination of spatial information, data sharing between public authorities or interoperability for spatial data sets and services exist. Paper depicts national coordination structures‚ impact of INSPIRE directive as catalyst, solutions introduced in SII act and their results in practice, success stories – through use cases on spatial information. Also it is worth to mention last activities on removing barrier to access to spatial data - beginnings of open data policy in Poland.
Boosting the registration of land rights in step with the SDG’s
Kadaster, The Netherlands
Registration of land rights (both formal and informal) is a starting point for different goals, as formulated by the United Nations in the so called Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) for 2030.
Likewise the development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), being successful in land registration demands for the development of hard components as well as soft components. The hard components are the data, standards, infrastructure and technology relevant to the administration of land rights and the management of land. The soft components are the institutions, processes, financing, organisation and leadership. Both hard and soft components need to be in place to achieve successful implementations at national and local level of land administration systems.
It is believed that with the present state of technology, knowledge, level of ambition and commitment as defined in the SDG’s, the momentum is there to boost the registration of land rights worldwide. This registration will increase the opportunities for sustainable development and the avoidance of future conflicts. However, it requires joint activities focused on concrete results in land registration that match with the SDG’s. Advocacy, leadership and financing need our full attention. It is up to large international organisations to take the lead in this.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-12: Making Land Rights Real|
Session Chair: Everlyne Nairesiae Lingoine, GLII/GLTN - UN Habitat, Kenya
Land: The Hidden Assets in African Cities
Global Observatory linking Research to Action (GORA), United States of America
African Capital cities offer multiple opportunities as a hub of economic activities as well as a link to local, regional and global economies. Today, they have an added advantage associated with their high population density and their youthful population, two important drivers of economic productivity and growth. Cities are built by people; with their concentration offering agglomeration of economies starting from their land and housing assets that constitute more than half of their wealth. With functioning institutions and laws, land and housing assets contribute to the planning, management and provision of services in settlements. However, in absence of functioning institutions and laws providing legal propriety rights, most of these assets remain dead investments sheltering only people. To tap into the potential of high densities, African cities must formalize their land system, which will be the driver of many other components of their foundation such as streets and public spaces, provision of basic infrastructures such as water, sanitation and energy, and management waste. It is urgent that national and local authorities recognize the wealth of their citizens and involve them in the planning, the building and the management of their city.
Community-Led, Citywide Settlement Profiling And Upgrading As Evidence Based Approach To Land Governance: The Case Of Muntinlupa City, Philippines
1Homeless People’s Federation Philippines, Inc.; 2Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives, Inc.; 3Technical Assistance Movement for People and Environment, Inc.; 4LinkBuild, Inc.; 5UN-Habitat/GLTN
Difficult living conditions for Informal Settler Families (ISFs) in the Philippines are worsened by the natural hazards and disasters that characterize it, for example, flooding and earthquakes. ISFs are the first and worst affected by these events, as well as man-made and health hazards, such as fires and dengue outbreaks.
Statistics about informal settlements in the country are limited, often because standard data gathering methods involve only counting of structures with little comprehensive studies on what lies within them. Other challenges in securing comprehensive information about settlements include mistrust against government-affiliated data gatherers for fear of eviction, the frequent changes in these settlements, and the lack of data gathering resources.
This scenario makes it difficult for governments to meet ISF needs and strategize hazard prevention measures and responsible land governance. It likewise makes ISFs invisible in government records. Despite these risks and the inability of governments to protect the urban poor, many ISFs consider land-tenure security their greatest need, which the legality of land and their low income, make it seemingly less attainable. This paper presents initiatives to overcome this absence of informal settlements information in Muntinlupa City, Philippines building from the partnership initiative with the Global Land Tool Network.
Making the Community Land Bill Effective: The Case of Mashimoni Settlement in Nairobi County and Kwa Bulo Settlement in Mombasa County of Kenya
1Pamoja Trust, Kenya; 2UN-Habitat/GLTN
This paper will highlight the partnership between the Global Land Tool Network and Pamoja Trust in empowering the urban poor communities in select areas with the relevant pro-poor land tools and approaches towards improving their tenure security status and living conditions. It will make a justification why the need to strengthen community organizations towards land claims and occupation in informal settlements as a way of improving their tenure security, access to basic services and infrastructure and inclusion to governments’ planning work. It will also provide critical analyses on how these grassroots-oriented tools implementation and partnerships with local government authorities can enhance the implementation of the newly legislated Community Land Act and ensure inclusive policy dialogues. The urgent call by informal settlers to “count them in” in the urban landscape must be heard and the paper will provide several arguments why authorities need to do so building from the experiences of the two case studies. Finally, the authors will offer key recommendations on how these experiences can be used in similar instances within the country and elsewhere.
The Role Of Gender In Securing Land Rights For Equity, Sustainability, And Resilience
1Slum Women's Initiative for Development (SWID), Uganda; 2Metropolitan College New York City
The role of gender in securing land rights for equity, sustainability, and resilience.
The Slum Women’s Initiative for Development (SWID) a non-government organization operating in Jinja District, Uganda has conducted extensive studies in within Jinja district which continue to document the inherent inequality faced by many women. Their unequal status, reflected in a range of social and economic indicators, highlights the specific vulnerabilities they face. In many cases, for example, women could not apply individually for land titles under their names. To avert the challenges, SWID has devised gender sensitive approaches to ensure that women, men, and youth have equal rights to land. We have mobilized women, men and youth, using the power of groups as an organizing tool, trained a team of paralegals made up of men, women, and youth who go around in the community to sensitize people on land rights. There has been significant progress, with increasing percentages of women’s names appearing on the land titles. Advocacy and hard work, has made men change attitudes and allowed women’s names to be put on land documents as owners rather than witnesses as it used to be.
Securing Land Rights within the Continuum of Land Rights Approach: Evidence from the Poor Urban Communities in Kenya and Uganda
1UN-Habitat; 2African Institute for Strategic Research Governance and Development
Implementation of land tenure security interventions in Kenya and Uganda through the adoption and implementation of pro-poor and gender responsive land tools and approaches within the continuum of land rights approach has contributed to positive outcomes in the lives of the urban dwellers, the community and to a large extent, to the local government affairs. Such impact pathways are multi-dimensional and occurring in many and different forms. The main parameters of change relate to, among other things; perceptions of tenure security; change in local power relations, the organization of communities to engage policy makers at national and local government levels, local economic conditions and the over-all land governance.
Essentially, the paper illustrates that voices from the community confirmed such impacts. The paper further argues that in securing tenure rights within the continuum of land rights framework, a new methodology needs to be put in place where “people” should be at the centre. The paper concludes with a suggested impact pathways for securing land rights with the continuum of land rights approach.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-13: Institutional Arrangements to Manage Communal Rights|
Session Chair: Sandra Joireman, University of Richmond, United States of America
Managing Customary Land in Fiji
I Taukei Land Trust Board, Fiji Islands
The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate an existing institution in Fiji, the I Taukei Land Trust Board (TLTB) solely deals in Indigenous Customary Land and specifically the management of that land through leases i.e. over 40,000 leases of all types of uses from residential, industrial, agricultural to that of conservation or licensing for felling and gravel extractions in partnership with other stakeholders in Fiji; the paper illustrating functions and processes that has successfully protected and progressed Indigenous Landowners in the context of contributing to the country’s whole economy through their land/asset holdings.
Fiji is a small island nation located in the South Pacific having 300+ islands only with only 900,000 in population; the above stated platforms is a stepping stone for the indigenous people of Fiji and for the South Pacific. As such Fiji feels the need to share the progresses made thus far as a bench mark to the Pacific Region or the world, where the results in Fiji would be one to display, encourage and educate the Pacific of a positive depiction of indigenous people working together with support of Government and other stakeholders to progress for the betterment of their future generations.
Complications in land allocations: appraisal of the Community Land Act 2016, Kenya
National Land Commission, Kenya
Land use, management and ownership in Kenya has over the years been an emotive issue. Being the most valuable resource, it was a key driver for the new constitution. The manner in which this resource is allocated, accessed, and managed is central to the country’s efforts to promote socio-economic development by alleviating poverty and creating wealth. However, this has not been the case since independence with increased land historical injustices. Njonjo and Ndungu Commissions were formed to bring land reforms. The land reforms failed to confront the materials consequences of unequal access. New laws either were not redistributive or transformative save for the new Constitution of Kenya (2010). The purpose of the Act is to provide for the recognition, protection, and registration of community land rights, management and administration of community land and the role of County Governments in relation to unregistered community land.The Constitution vests community land and its ownership in communities identified on the basis ethnicity and culture or similar community of interest. In view of this, community land ownership in Kenya, if unregistered would be held by county Governments on behalf of the communities. However, these is set to change once the communities secure collective titles.
Territorial planning at community level in Mozambique: opportunities and challenges in a context of community land delimitation
1Community Land initiative (iTC), Mozambique; 2Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development, National Directorate of Land
This paper highlights the potential methodological approaches that can be integrated in a fit-to-purpose administration system, specifically with community land delimitation process, to improve land use and territorial planning at community level. The intention is to bring importance to the development practitioners to look at rural communities as dynamic settlements that gradually are becoming urban settlements. Land dynamic in Mozambique is complex, as it is directly linked to economic, social and environment aspects. Most of the challenges we face in the land sector are caused by population growth; increased land-based investments, infrastructure development (roads, bridges, electricity, etc.), climate change, poorly led resettlement processes and limitations in institutional capacity. The 40% growth of Mozambican population, since 1997, will leads to similar world’s unprecedented demand for food, water and energy, as mentioned by Kring (2012). These factors increase challenges to the land administration system, and some, as stated by Monteiro (2016), include: (i) need of territorial planning, with a balanced and sustainable use of land and natural resources; (ii) Community accountability, recognizing the role of rural communities in land administration and management systems; and (iii) information management, to ensure accessible, reliable and efficient information for land use planning, management and economic growth.
Has Devolution of Forest Rights in Nepal Enabled Investment in Locally Controlled Forest Enterprises?
1Tribhuvan University, Nepal; 2Center for International Forestry Research; 3Forest Action, Nepal
Nepal embarked in the 1970s on an ambitious national initiative to devolve forest rights to local communities. Historically, forest rights were largely vested in the state, and most uses of forested land and products were subject to strict direct regulation by district-level forest agencies. Recent reforms grant a significant range of forest use and management rights to Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs). Anecdotal evidence suggests that CFUGs are using their new proprietary rights to spawn or attract a variety of forest-based enterprises, including timber harvesting and milling companies, tourism activities, and small firms that process and market NTFPs. This paper reports on the first systematic study that evaluates the investment effects attributable to Nepal’s forest rights reform program. In addition to assessing the affects of tenure reforms on investment activity, it considers the performance of CFUGs in fostering and managing investment, how regulatory roles of forest authorities have changed in light of the greater rights exercised by community institutions, and the patterns of local participation and benefit-sharing in new forest-based enterprises.
|3:45pm - 4:00pm||Coffee Break|
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-01: Global Status of Quality of Land Regulation in 2016|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Approach to Global Indicators
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Expanding the Property Module in Doing Business
World Bank, United States of America
Most people are very familiar with the current structure of the Doing Business report covering 11 topics, but 14 years ago things were a little different. The Doing Business report was born in 2003 with 5 topics and 133 economies and the registering property topic was included in the report in 2004.
This presentations presents some of the most important methodological changes and expansions experienced by the registering property topic since its inception in the Doing Business report and focuses in the discussion of the “quality of land administration index” introduced in 2015.
The presentation also discusses some findings from the last doing business report and present some examples of reforms to improve the quality of the land administration implemented by various countries during 2015/2016.
Next Phase for Enabling the Business of Agriculture
World Bank, United States of America
Enabling the Business of Agriculture provides data and indicators on legal barriers for businesses operating in agriculture in 62 countries and across 12 topic areas: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance, markets, transport, information and communication technology (ICT), water, land, livestock, gender and environmental sustainability. This year scoring was piloted for the land topic for 38 countries. The data for the remaining 24 countries will be collected next year along with a further refinement of the methodology. Enabling the Business of Agriculture features two types of indicators. Legal indicators primarily reflect the text of laws and regulations and assess their conformity with a number of global regulatory good practices. Efficiency indicators measure the transaction costs that firms have to bear to comply with national regulations on the ground. Enabling the Business of Agriculture aims to improve farmers’ access to agricultural inputs, goods and services. By providing key data on regulatory frameworks that is globally comparable and actionable, Enabling the Business of Agriculture strengthens the information base that can be used for policy dialogue and reform. Such efforts can stimulate private sector activity and lead to more efficient and effective agricultural value chains.
Piloting the Land Component in EBA
World Bank, United States of America
The land indicator in EBA builds on the improvements made to the ‘Registering Property’ indicator under ‘Doing Business’ in terms of adding information on reliability, transparency, coverage, and dispute resolution by adding relate to (i) coverage, relevance, and currency of records for private land; (ii) management of state land, especially recording of boundaries and transparency in the way in which such land may be transferred; and (iii) maintenance of an environment that supports equality of opportunity, including by gender, and that allows individuals to use land, but also limits the need for land acquisition for public purpose, and provides for transparent processes allowing those affected by acquisition access to fair compensation for improvements made to the land and enable them to maintain their living standard. The presentation will discuss the choice of indicators for each of these areas and good practice for each of them and results from 39 countries. Ways to expand coverage and areas where more research is needed will be highlighted.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-02: Approaches to Securing Common Land in Different Regions|
Session Chair: Runsheng Yin, Michigan State University, United States of America
Exploring Participatory Prospective Analysis: A collaborative, Scenario-based Approach for Analyzing and Anticipating the Consequences of Tenure Reform Implementation
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
The Government of Indonesia has made a commitment to putting 12.7 million hectares of state-owned forestry land under community management. Implementation of this ambitious reform in forest rights was intended to engender active collaboration between state and non-state institutions. However, limited coordination in planning and implementation has observed among stakeholders. Participation of local communities is limited. The Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA), a foresight based co-elaborative approach, is used as an entry point for engaging stakeholders, in the process of forest reform implementation, to ensure that local voices are accommodated.
This synthesis paper show the most relevant results from Indonesia case, where actors with diverse interests have explored and anticipated trajectories of tenure security, identify actions to mitigate negative implications, and promote positive changes. The PPA processes can be instrumental in strengthening the stakeholders’ capacity to anticipate future consequences of a policy option with regards to the future scenario through the implementation of forest reform including the drivers of tenure security and actions plan to be implemented across multiple settings and governance levels. It is also shows the usefulness and viability of the approach for enhancing collaborative governance of tenure and building robust institutions in support of equitable tenure reform implementation.
Collective Titling in Peru: Challenges and Opportunities
1CIFOR, Peru; 2UNALM, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Peru
Peru has been at the forefront of Latin American countries with a large number of indigenous peoples lands titled in the Amazon. Since 1974, more than 2,000 communities have been titled over 11 million hectares. While this is an important progress, pending demands over recognition of indigenous lands has been estimated around 20 million hectares, about 1,000 communities are yet to be titled. Based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms by the Center for International Forestry Research, this paper will present results from a global comparative study on how reform around recognition of indigenous collective titling emerged and has been implemented in Peru. It will assess the progress and current constrains to implementation. It will also discuss challenges and opportunities to sustain outcomes on livelihoods at the local level. This paper is organized in three sections. The first section provides a brief discussion on tenure reform processes, reviewing important provisions in key reforms recognizing collective rights to land and forests. The second section weighs these formal legal regulations against actual implementation practices. Finally, the third section analyzes these changes to discuss lessons on how implementation processes can improve or hinder tenure security of indigenous communal lands in Peru.
Securing Forest Tenure Rights for Rural Development in Latin America
The World Bank Group, United States of America
This contribution presents the results of a six-country study designed to assess the current status of forest tenure reforms in Latin America and identify the actions needed by governments to leverage sustained political, institutional, financial, and technical support to strengthen and operationalize them. It aims to contribute to the discussion and analysis currently under way in many countries in Latin America, and in other parts of the world, regarding the key policy, legal, institutional and technical elements that are needed to strengthen, secure and expand indigenous and community forest tenure. The study presents key overarching findings from the six country studies, and concludes with recommendations for future work, including recommendations on ways government and donor programs can support further recognition and support of indigenous and community forest rights. A particular contribution of this study is that it goes beyond previous assessments of legal frameworks or the geographical extent of recognition to examine the challenges and limitations of implementation of forest tenure reforms. This is a critical area of focus as countries move beyond the enactment of reforms to focus increasingly on the institutional and regulatory conditions needed for the effective realization of forest tenure rights.
Making Legality Work to Recognize Land Rights, Improve Land Governance, and Combat Forest Conversion
European Forest Institute FLEGT/REDD+ Unit, Spain
The new wave of tropical deforestation driven by global commodity trade is driven in part by widespread disregard of land rights and governance challenges in land allocation. Forest land is being cleared for agriculture and other uses at a staggering rate and much of this forest conversion is illegal. Thus, trade in timber emanating from such conversion is also illegal. The European Union’s Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade initiative (FLEGT) has been a key contributor to reduction in illegality in tropical timber trade, by combining market pressure with a stakeholder-driven approach to identifying and establishing a system to ensure timber exports are legal. The system is developed and applied through trade agreements called Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs). FLEGT stands out among governance reform efforts in the commitment and composition of stakeholders, the technical focus, and its continuing and accountable nature. Lessons from FLEGT show the potential of deliberative transformation of legal frameworks, systems for continued assurance of accountability, and platforms for meaningful dialogue on equal footing for improving land governance.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-03: Acting to Secure Community and Indigenous Land Rights |
Session Chair: Ruth Meinzen-Dick, IFPRI, United States of America
IFPRI, United States of America
To be completed
Perspective from Government on Progress and Challenges of Implementing Kenya's Community Land Rights Bill
National Land Commission, Kenya
To be comThe need for mainstreaming of the commons plus a comprehensive strategy to secure the commons has become a major global concern of the 21st century. This will require out of the box reform mechanisms and the participation of the communities concerned. Kenya has made credible progress towards secure tenure and land use for the commons. These include sessional paper number 8 of 2012, the Kenya Vision 2030 annex and lately the enactment of Community Land Act 2016. The broad goal of these initiatives is a) the safeguarding the state of the commons and promoting sustainable management of natural resources and b) eradication of marginalization, enhancing of community resilience, empowerment and food security of the commons communities. These will be achieved through a) community land reforms b) Demand-driven development planning and investments; c) ASAL Knowledge Management; and d) Private sector and other partnerships. The above reflects a fundamental shift in development and governance heralded by Kenya’s new Constitution and legislative reforms in land sector. The ultimate is accommodate the unique challenges and opportunities of environments, and harness the contributions of both state and non-state actors, and empower commons citizens in their search for a more just, secure and prosperous future.
Devolving rights over forest land to communities in Indonesia
Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia
Indonesia Ministry of Environment and Forestry experience with devolving rights over approx. 12.7 million ha of forest land to communities.
Perspective of Implementing Community Land Rights in Uganda
Land and Equity Movement in Uganda - LEMU, Uganda
To be completed
Lessons from Programs Designed to Strengthen the Commons
International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
To be completed
Current Research on the Commons: Topics, Methods, Insights
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
To be completed
International Land Coalition, Italy
To be completed
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-04: Experiences with Implementing Land Readjustment|
Session Chair: Robin Rajack, Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Rethinking Land Readjustment from a Governance-Centered Perspective: The Case of A Land Readjustment Pilot in Tra Vinh, Vietnam
World Bank, United States of America
Land readjustment (LR) has been used in many countries as a tool to promote more inclusive and efficient urban development. LR refers to a participatory process in which a group of neighboring land owners and occupants combine their land for unified planning and redevelopment in collaboration with the government or private developers. This is a win-win situation: government can upgrade the neighborhood without having to use its power of eminent domain, which often raises issues of fairness and transparency, and the landowners can remain in situ and enjoy better living conditions and an increase in their real asset value. Since March 2015, the World Bank has been providing technical support to Tra Vinh City in Vietnam on a pilot LR project, as well as to national ministries on legislation that would enable wider application of LR in Vietnam. This paper uses the Vietnam LR Pilot as a case to reflect emerging challenges, approaches and the process of applying LR from a governance-centered perspective, and also discusses how supporting legislation, an organized community, collaboration between the public and private sectors, and trust-based relationship among stakeholders could be gradually developed and strengthened to build viable institutions and governance for managing land development.
Exploring the Potential of the Land Readjustment Approach in Allocating Land for Affordable Housing from the Market Legitimacy Perspective
1University of Twente, Netherlands, The; 2Kathmandu University, Nepal
Despite growing popularity of Land Readjustment as a tool for land development in both developed and developing countries, there is a tradeoff between its applications to address the land issue for low-income housing. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze LR process from the market perspective and its feasibility to address land for affordable housing. The methodological approach adopted in this paper is the exploratory and explanatory case study approach. Finally, this study provides insight to the LR policy from the market perspective. The outcome of this study provides the number of factors that generates market legitimacy in the LR approach for allocating land for affordable housing.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-05: Mobile Technologies to Scale Up Land Data Collection|
Session Chair: Collins Odote, University of Naiorbi, Kenya
Embracing the Rubber-Boot Approach to Securing Customary Land Rights with focus on Low-Cost Land-Use Inventory
1Chair of Land Management, Technical University Munich; 2Public and Vested Land Management Division, Lands Commission. Accra-Ghana
The study is based on fieldwork conducted in Ghana. It provides a case of where and how the Rubber-Boot Approach (RBA) has been used in a rural area of Ghana to measure an area of more than 50 hectares. Within the case study area, the participation of local people in the mapping of land rights including pro-poor used to be a challenge, especially due to their complex, pluralistic customary land tenure systems. Also, capacity development in mapping used to be a major impediment to their involvement in inventory exercises with professional surveyors. Having tested the RBA in the area, our study identified potentials for securing customary land rights at a quick pace, low cost and enhanced tenure security. By way of result, the RBA offered to land owners and users in the area, accurately mapped land parcels with additional documentation at an affordable price while enhancing tenure security on customary land. Furthermore, it shows how the approach can be applied to large-scale land inventory that documents all rights and responsibilities within a mapped area. Additionally, it exposes the possible difficulties and obstacles related to the simple mapping processes.
From Squatter Farmers To Tenant Farmers: Application Of Low Cost Geo-Spatial Technologies in Kalangala
1Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/GLTN; 3IFAD
Kalangala district in Uganda was largely comprised of subsistence farmers and fisher folk. The UNDP Human Development Index for Uganda, showed that in 2000, Kalangala district was ranked the 71st poorest district in Uganda, out of 76 districts, The district was known for high levels of poverty, depletion of forests and dependence on capture fisheries.
The Government of Uganda through a Public Private Private partnership has supported 1,801 smallholder farmers (34% female) to grow oil palm in Kalangala. So far, 1,200 farmers on 2,500 hectares are harvesting. Farmers have now planted 4,424 hectares of oil palm.
Majority of the farmers lacked security of tenure when they planted their oil palm. Most of the land owners do not live on the island and had no interest in the island at the time it had a few economic activities. As the land values increased, conflicts with the land owners and neighbors started. The use of the Q-GIS based Social Tenure Domain model has allowed farmers to document their interests on their land and engage the land owners with evidence in partnership with IFAD and the Global Land Tool Network. This has helped them register as tenants to the landlords.
Scalability of Forest Land Mapping Interventions Undertaken Using GIS Technology in Context of Up-Scaling Implementation of Forest Rights Act in India – Emerging Evidence from the Ground
World Resources Institute India
The enactment of Forest Rights Act (FRA) in India gave the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers a right to security of tenure and is important for securing livelihoods of the forest dwelling communities and for strengthening local self-governance of forest resources. A problem, however, that the forest dwelling population faces is that though FRA is a potentially empowering legislation for forest dwelling population to seek forest and tenurial rights, and from gender and social justice perspective - it enunciates that the forest dwelling population demand claims over forest land and forest resources from the state. The process of rights recognition has been slow, and multiple impediments to implementation of FRA across India have been identified. Two methodological approaches (using Android App and GPS) have been developed to map IFR and CFR area with an aim of supporting smoother implementation of FRA. These technological innovations have been explored by NGOs with an aim to make the claim process more participatory, and to involve legitimate right holders in mapping of forest land to claim CFR or IFR right. This paper discusses findings from an assessment of scalability of the two technological interventions in context of implementation of FRA in India.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-06: Can Documenting Communal Rights be Cost-Effective?|
Session Chair: Brent Jones, Esri, United States of America
Land Documentation in Zambia: A Comparison of Approaches and Relevance for the National Land Titling Program
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Zambia; 2USAID; 3Surveyor General, Ministry of Lands, Zambia
Since 2014, Zambia has been preparing for the launch of a systematic land documentation process to increase tenure security, improve service delivery in informal settlements, rural areas and peri-urban areas, as well as increase tax revenue. Zambia’s Ministry of Lands has the intention to launch a National Titling Program. This paper examines the approaches piloted in Zambia on customary and state land documentation over recent years. It examines the hardware, software, data standards and processes associated with systematic documentation in Zambia, as well as the anticipated structures for long-term administration. For example, it examines the extent to which each process includes spatial data, data accuracy requirements, how each process validates field data collected through witnesses and key informants, and the structure of land certificates. The paper continues to consider how the approaches will have to be adapted in informal settlements, peri-urban and rural areas. While most of the land documentation experience in Zambia to date has focused on rural, customary chiefdoms, the most pressing need for documentation will be within the informal settlements and at the peri-urban interface of customary and state land.
Rigorous Impact Evaluation of Land Surveying Costs: Empirical Evidence from Indigenous Lands in Canada
1Natural Resources Canada, Canada; 2University of British Columbia, Canada
The cost of systematically registering property in land administration systems has been a topic of much discussion and analysis in the last decade. Various reports suggest survey costs make up somewhere between 30-60% of the total cost of registering property. A review of 97 land surveys conducted on Indigenous lands in Canada revealed the median cost to fully survey a parcel of land is approximately $4,300/parcel. A multiple regression analysis showed significant relationships of the survey cost with: 1) the number of parcels - for every additional parcel surveyed, the cost decreases by $112/parcel; 2) Area – for every increase of 1 hectare, the cost increases by $34/parcel; 3) water boundaries – if a boundary in the survey is a water boundary the cost increases by $3090/parcel; 4) Company size – larger companies are $1900/parcel less expensive and medium size firms are $1500/parcel less expensive when compared to small companies; 5) distance – as the distance travelled to the survey location increases by 1 km, the cost increases by $2.40/parcel. The results of this research can potentially inform discussions both within Canada and internationally on the use of a land survey in developing or reforming land and resource tenure systems.
Stakeholder Engagement and Conflict Prevention in Village Boundary Setting/ Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) – Lessons Learned/Evidence from Indonesia’s Participatory Mapping and Planning (PMaP) Project, MCA-Indonesia Green Prosperity Project (GP)
Abt Associates, Indonesia
The Green Prosperity (GP) Project in Indonesia is an important and ambitious program with multiple aims. A key stage of GP has been the Village Boundary Setting and Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) under the Participatory Land Use Planning (PLUP). The work undertaken reveals significant lessons for future development projects in regional Indonesia. One lesson involves promoting an embedded participatory approach to stakeholder engagement that understands local contexts and dynamics. Paying ‘lip service’ or taking a ‘one size’ approach is not a recipe for success in multi-ethnic Indonesia. This ethnographic approach embraced a participative partnership, focusing on deep connections between facilitators and village communities. It resulted in effective, flexible and sustainable outcomes in: identifying and understanding disputes, conflict prevention and establishing and maintaining support for the objectives and operations of the program. Participatory Mapping and Planning (PMaP) activities, established an engagement framework underpinned by the Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) principles. It critically sourced, trained, guided and utilized local people, in a partnership for success. This paper highlights the critical importance of promoting contextualized understandings of localized socio-cultural and political dynamics through stakeholder engagement in conflict prevention, within village boundary settings and introduces the concept of Ethnographic Participatory Partnership (EPP).
Strengthening Indigenous Peoples Land rights in Honduras: The Miskitu People’s experience of Collective Land Titling, lessons learned and main challenges for the future
1Programa de Administracion de Tierras de Honduras (PATH II); 2World Bank; 31; 41
The paper will discuss a new model of indigenous people’s community land titling implemented in Honduras: the Inter-Community Land titling. This model, which is based on the International Labour Organization’s ILO Convention No. 169, which the Honduran government approved as a legally binding instrument, that establishes the government’s obligations regarding the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples. Specifically, the Convention 169 states the indigenous people’s rights of ownership and possession over the lands, which they have traditionally occupied, but also to the lands to which “they have traditionally had access for their subsistence and traditional activities”.
Derived of the initiative from 2012 to 2016, the results reflect the Intercommunity titling of the Miskito’s people’s and other indigenous people’s community land through the intercommunity land titling model of 14 thousand square kilometers equivalent to 12.5% of the country’s territory.
Accordingly, the paper will: (a) Describe the Miskitu people’s and the Government’s efforts for the recognition of the Miskitu peoples land rights; (b) identify the main political, institutional and technical lessons that have contributed to the obtained results and joint efforts to overcome the main challenges; (d) present the main challenges for the future.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-07: Vision for Achieving Global Land Tenure Security|
Session Chair: Jorge Munoz, World Bank, United States of America
Global Campaign to Eradicate Insecurity of Tenure by 2030
1Know Edge Ltd, United Kingdom; 2Aalborg University, Denmark
The global eradication of infectious diseases through highly coordinated campaigns has been successful. Although insecurity of tenure is not a disease, its impact is devastating in terms of trapping people in poverty, displacing communities and making them homeless, and reducing food security and creating hunger. Only about 30% of the world’s population are covered by official land administration systems while the rest potentially suffer from insecurity of tenure. This is a human rights issue. Therefore, should a global campaign to achieve 80% global security of tenure by 2030 be planned and initiated?
It is time for the land sector communities to be more ambitious in their goals, involve new partners to support innovation, adopt highly scalable approaches, collaborate more effectively under this common objective to eradicate this scourge on the earth and create land rights for all. This proposed global campaign could well be the necessary catalyst for change.
The paper will initially investigate the drivers that are emerging at the highest levels to raise the necessity and urgency to initiate a scalable, global campaign to eradicate insecurity of tenure. The paper will then discuss how the global community needs to change and coordinate to make it happen.
Opportunities And Constraints For Building A Global Movement For Secure Land Tenure And Property Rights
Land Alliance, United States of America
This paper explores opportunities and constraints for the emergence of a robust global movement dedicated to solving the problems of insecure land tenure and property rights. It surveys evidence from movements in other fields such as public health to draw lessons for a movement around land tenure and property rights. The paper draws on lessons learned from successful global movements such as the anti-tobacco movement, the HIV/AIDs movement, and others to set out a theory of successful movement creation applicable for land tenure and property rights. The paper call for building a global movement for land tenure and property rights through a series of steps at local levels supported by a global support structure which emphasizes urgency, accessible evidence, media involvement and narratives of success to unleash broad social and economic energies for change in land tenure and property rights at a bigger scale and faster pace than has been achievable to date. It focuses on data gaps as a particular concern and highlights new instruments like the PRINDEX indicator of citizens perceptions of security of tenure to address them.
Land in the New Urban Agenda: Opportunities, Challenges and Way Forward
1UN-Habitat; 2United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR); 3Huairou Commission; 4Habitat for Humanity International
Land underpins all the key aspects of the New Urban Agenda (NUA) which was adopted at the closing plenary of the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) in Quito, Equador in October, 2016. The mainstreamed land agenda in Habitat III Outcome Document is critical for sustainable development, shared prosperity and social inclusion.
The New Urban Agenda intends to guide the next twenty years of sustainable housing and urban development. The Outcome Document clearly outlines the social, environmental and economic functions of land including tenure security for all. These commitments reinforces the various goals and targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (e.g. SDG Goals 1.4, 5 and 11) and in many respects mirrored several principles of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Governance of Land, Forests and Fisheries in the Context of National Food Security (VGGTs).
This paper will elaborate where “land governance” in the New Urban Agenda is and how these land components relate to SDGs’ goals and targets and to VGGTs’ principles. The paper will also discuss what are the potential gaps and challenges and will offer some concrete recommendations on how the land governance aspects of the New Urban Agenda can be implemented.
Evidence Based Land Governance to Achieve Agenda 2030; Experiences from Global Land Indicator Initiative
1GLII/GLTN - UN Habitat; 2Oxfam International; 3Landesa; 4UN Habitat; 5International Land Coalition
Land is central to ending poverty and inequality. For the first time, land targets and indicators are explicitly included in the global Sustainable Development Agenda2030. Target 1.4 and indicator 1.4.2 serves to monitor the percentage of adult population with secure tenure rights to land (out of total adult population), with legally recognized documentation and who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and by type of tenure.
The need to step up global monitoring of land governance issues saw the start of Global Land Indicators Initiative (GLII) in 2012 by UN-Habitat, Millennium Challenge Cooperation, and World Bank; a global multi-stakeholders platform dedicated to make global comparable land monitoring possible for transparency, accountability and policy decision making. This platform is hosted by GLTN at UN-Habitat. Significant achievements of GLII platform include development of a set of 15 globally comparable land indicators that go beyond provisions on land indicators in the SDGs. This paper explains how GLII partners developed nationally applicable and globally comparable indicators, methodology and data protocols for measuring tenure security; and the use its five working papers in influencing learning and capacity strengthening for evidence based ;and governance. GLII working papers will be shared during the session.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-08: Land Policies for Affordable Housing|
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Law and Inclusive Urban Development: Lessons from Chile's Enabling Markets Housing Policy Regime
Stanford Law School, United States of America
This paper addresses the recent international trend in development theory and practice towards a so-called “enabling markets” approach in housing policy. This approach calls for delegating to housing markets the responsibility of providing affordable housing and therefore limiting the role of government to stimulating the market through targeted subsidies. I ask whether an enabling markets policy constitutes an adequate regulatory strategy for the provision of sustainable housing solutions for the urban poor. I explore this question through an in-depth case study of Chile’s pioneer market-based housing policy regime. My analysis demonstrates that a market-based strategy based on targeted subsidies aimed at promoting homeownership does not necessarily lead to affordable housing for the low-income sector of adequate quality, because the policy strategy does not interfere with the market dynamics that tend to concentrate the poor in cheap, isolated, and underserved urban neighborhoods. The evidence collected suggests that Chile’s government needs to use land use governance mechanisms to ensure that low-income housing is fairly distributed within cities. The Chilean experience casts doubt on the general market-oriented approach to affordable housing policy, and suggests that an enabling housing markets strategy should be complemented by a planning housing markets approach.
Housing Affordability: The Land Use Regulation link to Informal Tenure in Developing Countries
Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
This paper provides empirical evidence on the causal association between land use regulation and housing affordability in cities from Latin America, where informal residential tenure condition of households is widespread. Filling the gap of the lack of a source of comparable and systematic knowledge on the topic, we collected a nationwide survey of local land use regulation from planning professionals in Argentina’s municipalities. A set of land use indicators are then created allowing the analysis of the regulatory environment (e.g., existence of land use plans; authorities involved in zoning changes and residential projects approval processes; existence of building restrictions, infrastructure provision, the presence of access to land regulatory elements, and the cost related to project approvals). Between other findings, we document that highly stringent regulatory context constrains formal housing development, inducing lower rates of compliance with property laws. We also find negative effects on formality for residential approval costs, tighter regulation (in the form of more authorities involved in housing projects approvals), and positive effects on formal tenure housing driven by the existence of inclusionary policies.
Evaluating “Zero Land Policy”: Iran’s initiative to provide homes for those with lower incomes
Research Center of Iran's Parliament, Iran, Islamic Republic of
“Zero Land Policy” is the main idea behind Iran’s nationwide “Mehr (Love) Housing Project”. ZLP was designed on the basis of the idea that the value of the land contributes to a great deal to the total costs and expenditure of the house built on that land (from 40% in small cities to 60% in capital Tehran).
In this project, governmental and national lands were allocated under the “99 years ownership/leasehold” plan, which is basically a design for a 99-year leasing of lands with very low pricing (near zero) to housing cooperatives for the purpose of building houses for those with lower incomes. Individuals who receive “99 years lands” can convert these lands to freehold and reverse the 99-year condition in return for a specified premium later.
So far, more than 2 million residential units with a total capacity of 8 million individuals (10 percent of the country’s population) have been allocated as part of the project.
The present study aims to investigate and evaluate the policies behind Mehr (Love) housing project based on the idea of Zero Land policy.
Land Administration Effectiveness in State-Subsidised Housing in Du Noon, Cape Town, South Africa
University of Calgary, Canada
Du Noon is a Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) housing development in Cape Town, South Africa built in the 1990s. The RDP programme and subsequent state-subsidised housing programmes have delivered some 3.7 million housing opportunities, and it is one of the largest housing and land titling programmes ever undertaken. The study examined the effectiveness of land registration in state-subsidised housing developments, the involvement of community based organisations in land governance, the impacts of the behaviour of the of officials and CBOs in the housing delivery process, and the consequences of relaxing building standards in pro-poor housing projects. The study builds on a number of case studies where official systems of land tenure administration function very well. In Du Noon this is not the case. Contributing factors may be that community based organisations have offered alternative strategies to transact in land, the relaxation of building standards has reduced the level of visible administration by street level bureaucrats, and entrepreneurs have bought houses for well below cost, demolished them and built blocks of flats that cover the entire site. Ongoing visible administration and title maintenance appear to be critical elements that are missing.
“From The Right To Housing To The Defense of Titling And Private Property: A Critique Of The Peruvian Approach to Housing Informality And A Contribution To A New Land And Housing Policy”
Special Program for Urban and Regional Studies - MIT, United States of America
Traditional explanations of informality in rapidly urbanizing regions like Latin America have often reduced the phenomenon to an inadequate urban planning system, incapable of coping with the dramatic rate of urbanization that outstrips every form of planning process. However, less attention has been brought to the economic and political structures that actually cause and reproduce informality. This work firstly explores the land and housing policies implemented in Peru through the second half of the 20th century that allowed informal settlements to occur. Secondly, it analyses the land deregulating policies and the land titling program that was massively deployed during the 1990s under the neoliberalizing project of former president Alberto Fujimori, with the financial aid of international development banks and following Hernando De Soto’s famous theory on property rights and informal settlements. The analysis shows how on one side these policies augmented the gap that separated the population from the formal market which ended up reproducing informality; and on another side, it shows that these policies functioned within an authoritarian regime that used titling and social spending to create strong clientelist bonds with the poorest sectors of the population, while undermining the State’s own financial capacities for investment in creating affordable land and housing.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-09: Can Agribusiness Investment Enhance Local Welfare?|
Session Chair: Derek Byerlee, Georgetown University, United States of America
Contextualizing International Voluntary Guidelines into Country Specific Land Investment Governance: Experience from Tanzania
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
This preliminary study involved consultation of responsible district government officials and relevant Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) on various issues related to land and investments. Among other areas, the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) was selected as a study site and study used the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) to obtain information. Questionnaire designed reflected land investment governance process thematic areas. This ranged from investment pre-planning and organization stage, negotiation and preparation of investments contracts to implementation of investments.
Throughout this paper, different issues are discussed including but not limited to inadequate awareness and understanding of Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC) mandate and the land allocation process among land based investment stakeholders; Practices that do not adhere to Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) principle; Existing compensation practices that are conducted in an inadequately and vague processes ; Dispute resolution mechanisms that are inadequately culturally sensitive and with a bias against women and evidences of weak land-based investment monitoring and evaluation system. The paper concludes that there is inadequate implementation of land investment governance good practices principles in Tanzania. The study further recommends Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), and government to address highlighted gaps in land investment governance.
Experiences of Agribusiness Investments in Lao PDR
1Village Focus International; 2Ministry of Planning and Investment
Following a decade of rapid economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, Lao PDR (Laos) is transitioning from a policy of “turning land into capital” towards promoting “quality investment”. Underpinning this shift is a growing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Responsible Agricultural Investment (RAI) across public and private sectors. However, understanding and implementation / enforcement of these concepts is limited. At the same time, cross-sector collaboration towards responsible investment remains rare. This paper examines a multi-stakeholder initiative, the RAI Working Group, which represents new territory for cross-sector collaboration and dialogue towards RAI in Laos. Key insights from the multi-stakeholder process reveal that: government plays an important role in setting standards for quality investment; investors need to go beyond compliance with domestic laws to reach international standards; community consultations prior and during investment are essential; and deeper understanding of how to implement socially and environmentally responsible business practices is required by all actors involved. The working group process showed an effective way of identifying ‘common ground’ to work towards deriving mutual benefits from RAI for national growth and sustainable development, profitability, and – most importantly – for communities affected by investments.
Private Sector Responsibilities in Agriculture under the VGGT
Land Tenure Investment Consultant, United States of America
FAO has commissioned a series of technical guides to assist those wishing to adopt and implement the relevant provisions of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT). This paper is an abbreviated version of one of the newest of those guides, one aimed at financial investors in the private sector. Entitled, “Responsible Governance of Tenure: A Technical Guide for Investors,” the guide is intended to help investors act with due diligence to achieve socially responsible and financially sustainable investments in agricultural land. The guide recognizes that, while even the best project may elicit criticism, investors who evaluate, structure, operate and monitor their investments in a way that is consistent with the VGGT are likely to create projects that do no harm, maximize benefit-sharing and yield a reasonable return on the investment. This is part of a broader objective of promoting land-based investments in agriculture that are more likely to benefit all stakeholders – investor, local community and government. The technical guide can be found at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5147e.pdf.
How Behind the Brands companies are implementing their land rights commitments in Brazil
Coca-Cola and PepsiCo committed to ‘zero tolerance’ for land grabs in late 2013 and early 2014, respectively. Since, Oxfam has been monitoring the companies’ progress implementing their commitments and providing advice on how they can improve. Both companies have now taken an important step by assessing risks and impacts of their cane sugar sourcing on land rights in Brazil; Coca-Cola by conducting a baseline study, PepsiCo through audits. Assessment processes, when done well, help companies identify issues and steps to take to address them. Community-based human rights impact assessments are another helpful input. Oxfam commissioned an external evaluation of the companies’ efforts in order to understand their quality and ascertain how they can improve future practice. It found Coca-Cola’s baseline study was comprehensive in scope. Per a recommendation from the evaluation, Coca-Cola published elements of a plan for how it will address findings of its study, including steps to ensure suppliers adhere to its land policy. PepsiCo’s approach requires improvement, particularly around its scope, its stakeholder engagement, and disclosure. Per recommendations from the evaluation, PepsiCo recognized it needs to go further in Brazil and adopted a new approach for all future assessments based on good practice.
Pilot Use of Responsible Agricultural Investment Principles: A Status Update
1UNCTAD, Switzerland; 2World Bank, USA
The pilot testing of principles for responsible agricultural investment by investors and governments is part of a systematic programme of work being undertaken by the inter-agency working group (IAWG) of FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and World Bank. It is intended to generate a body of empirical knowledge on responsible agricultural investment. Through this work the IAWG seeks to distill the lessons from past and current agricultural investment in order to understand “what works and what does not work” in practice for host countries, local communities, investors, and other parties impacted by agricultural investments. Bearing in mind that these findings are contingent on factors such as the scale of an investment, the crop being planted, business models or government policies in place, the lessons can be applied accordingly. This report provides the authors' interim assessment of this work.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-10: Land Policy Developments in Africa|
Session Chair: Moses Kibirige, World Bank, Uganda
Towards an efficient and effective Land Administration System: The case of Ghana’s legislative Reform; Lessons and Challenges
MINISTRY OF LANDS AND NATURAL RESOURCES, Ghana
Ghana started a legislative reform of its Land Administration System in 2003. The reforms emanate from its National Land Policy which came into effect in 1999 identified about 166 pieces of legislation (including subsidiary legislation) that formed the legal framework for land administration. These were variously described as inadequate, conflicting, overlapping or outdated. In other words, the substantive land law remained in a highly unsatisfactory state, being derived from varied sources which can be excessively complex, difficult to ascertain and sometimes based on uncertain principles. Other land tenure arrangements including the management of family lands, the menace of landguards and existence of customary land secretariats as structures at the local level were without any legal framework.
The paper discusses the approach, methodology and innovation adopted to enact the Land and Land Use and Spatial Planning Bills and the New key provisions introduced. It draws lessons for other countries, especially those in Africa.
The South African Land Observatory – The Establishment of a Multi-stakeholder Platform for Multi-level Evidence-based Decision-making on Land in South Africa
1University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Land Coalition
This paper proposes an in-depth technical outline and a critical assessment of the implementation of the South African Land Observatory (SALO). The goal of the SALO is to facilitate evidence-based and inclusive decision-making over land resources in South Africa by generating, analyzing and making available land-based information and by widening participation to all stakeholders. Given the experiences within the different programs of land tenure, redistribution and restitution in South Africa, it is important to gather information that will address identified challenges/concerns in each locality, as well as identify what is necessary for effective land reform to occur. To address these and other questions, the establishment and development of well-coordinated information and data gathering, useful to all stakeholders and aiming at supporting evidence-based decision-making is essential.
Using LGAF as a basis for land policy dialogue and monitoring progress
NIRAS/LGAF Ethiopia Country Coordinator, Ethiopia
Implementation of LGAF in Ethiopia has been initiated in September 2014. Information related to nine themes are collected from existing record, administrative reports, existing policies and legal frameworks and from review of institutional setups at federal and regional levels by nine professional experts assigned for each thematic area/panel. Background reports had been reviewed by many, which includes the country coordinator, World Bank expert responsibly for the process, Technical Advisory Group (TAG) established for the purpose under LGAF Africa secretariat, three national senior experts appointed to review three themes each of them, and national senior experts participated in panel sessions and validation workshop. The validation workshop had been conducted in December 2015 that marked the end of the assessment process. Although recommendations are given in each thematic/panel areas, they are not presented in a prioritized order. It may be difficult to implement all recommendations at once due to various limiting factors. Hence, it is absolutely essential to make prioritization of recommendations. The country report does not include roadmap to frame implementation of recommendations in a step by step manner. Therefore, prioritization workshop had been organized 14 - 16 February 2017 and recommendations are prioritized. Formulation of roadmap will follow.To be completed
Delivering Land Administration Service At Scale Through Major Land Reforms- Malawi`s Experience
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development
Malawi Government is implementing national wide land reforms to improve service delivery. The need to migrate from paper based to electronic based land records has become a priority. So far, land records for estates leases have all been digitized and has revealed alot of things. Meanwhile, a performance survey of these estates is also underway to investigate more in terms of how they have been performing with respect to productivity . Government is also planning field verification to ensure that the degitized data is indeed reflecting the true picture on the ground before enforcement of breach of covenants can commence. These activities have been implemented with support from Agriculture Sector Wide Approach - Support Project financed by the World Bank. These records are now in a database and can easily be accessed as opposed to the paper based records. Moreover, the captured data has revealed that most of the leases on estates have expired and many owners of these estates are not paying ground rent accordingly. This project has really assisted Government to plan effectively in terms of making underutilized land available to investors in agriculture sector. This is part of the major national wide land related reforms underway in Malawi
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-11: Towards Quantifying the Economic Benefits of NSDI|
Session Chair: Timothy Trainor, UN-GGIM, United States of America
Digital Globe for Sustainable Development to the Developing Countries: Case Study in Sri Lanka
Scientific Research Development Institute of Technology Australia, Australia
Availability of Spatial Data is abundant but the lack of conversion of data to interpretable knowledge is one of the biggest issues in developing countries. There are various approaches currently being tested to overcome this situation. This study investigated the real issues related to conversion of spatial data and suggested an affordable solution, which can be applied in Sri Lanka. Further the study can be used in other developing countries to create a geospatial framework catalogue to maximize their usage of spatial investment for a sustainable development. The Sri Lanka Globe(S-Globe) plays a critical role in sustainable development in key areas: development design, project management, land administration and monitoring, town planning, water sensitive urban design, solar access, transportation, ecosystems protection, energy and water efficiency. This study has identified major eleven themes which are crucial for development of S-Globe, are briefly discussed in this paper. Further, currently available consumer and professional grade base maps and their advantages and disadvantages are further investigated in this research. The study revealed that Sri Lanka could use consumer-grade base map at phase I, but finally it should go with professional-grade base map at phase II, for the maximum benefit of sustainable development of the country.
Geospatial Information drives benefits beyond Land Administration – why aren’t we taking them?
Ordnance Survey International, United Kingdom
Low-income nations may in part still use mapping from the last century, perhaps 1:50,000 scale, but neither maintained nor digital. High-Income nations maintain large scale, attributed and accurate data from addressing to topography, imagery to networks. This geospatial data contributes towards GDP increase of between 0.2% and 0.6% and wide-ranging non-quantifiable benefits. Improved availability of this underpinning geospatial data, the digital version of the national infrastructure, leads to opportunities for better government, more transparency, effective urban planning, improved resilience, increased resource/asset and environmental management, and new business opportunities.
Low-income nations are often investing heavily into land administration supported by the global community. A sustainable land administration system can bring economic and social benefits. However, geospatial data collected to underpin land administration is not well used for wider benefit to the nation. Nor is the opportunity taken to collect other features concurrently to cost-effectively improve the national geospatial database and support wider socio-economic benefit.
Economic and societal benefits of geospatial enablement are well documented in high-income nations but not in low and middle-income nations. This paper will examine the benefits of geospatial enablement globally and conclude by offering thoughts on building geospatial capacity in nations.
Economic and Financial Analysis of National Spatial Data Infrastructure: A Case Study
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Consultingwhere, United Kingdom
The importance of geospatial data is emerging as a key enabler of the global development agenda. It is recognized that many of the challenges to be tackled under the Sustainable Development require location-based information. At the national and local level spatial data for both the public and private sectors is gaining importance- for better decision making and management of public sector assets and for the economic potential that geospatial data triggers for private sector business development and start-ups that stem from access to up-to-date geospatial data. However, the business case and economic rationale for governments to invest in the spatial data infrastructure and geospatial data have not been rigorously assessed or accepted.
A team at the World Bank is currently developing a global National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Diagnostic Scorecard to be used as a standard assessment tool. As part of the diagnostic tool, the team aims to develop a methodology to assess the benefits of investments in NSDI with a focus on low and middle income countries. This paper will attempt to develop the business case in a specific developing country in conjunction with a World Bank portfolio and project context.
Best Practice in Business Case Preparation: Valuing Social and Economic Benefits of Investment in Geospatial projects
Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom
Moves towards standardisation of the procedures by which bids for funding are evaluated in both public and private sectors are emerging. It is critically important that those working in the field of land governance, particularly on geospatial projects, are exposed to best practice to increase the chances of successful funding.
Illustrated with examples drawn from extensive practical experience in this field, the presentation will, using a simple methodology:
• Explain the concepts and language of business case development;
• Introduce value chain mapping techniques used by economists to identify the key actors and processes that add socio-economic value.
• Assess the principles of cost and benefit measurement for both “tangible” and non-market factors;
• Offer advice on how to communicate business cases to senior decision makers to maximise impact;
This presentation is part of the outreach initiative of the GeoValue community of practice, With sponsorship from organisations such as NASA, USGS, JRC and EuroSDR, it holds regular events to promote multi-disciplinary understanding of how to value investment in all types of geospatial systems including earth observation, SDI and GIS.
This presentation and those linked to it, on economic value assessment, will present material from the forthcoming book “Data to Decisions”.
Economic and Financial Modelling of the Impact of Geospatial Information - Techniques and Results for land administration in developing Nations.
1ACIL Allen Consulting, Australia; 2Consultingwhere, UK
Geospatial systems and infrastructure can play an important role in improving productivity, supporting sustainable development and mitigating and managing the impact of natural disasters in both developed and developing countries. A key challenge for policy makers and program managers has been in evaluation the net benefits of policy change or investment with respect to these systems.
This paper discusses the approaches to evaluating the net impact of policy change or investment in geospatial systems. It sets out the economic theory underpinning the approaches including economic welfare analysis, value added approaches and real options concepts. It discusses application of these concepts to socio economic impact assessment including benefit cost analysis, value added analysis, input-output analysis and computerised general equilibrium modelling.
The paper also discusses problems and challenges in applying these techniques including dealing with the impact of resource transfer, valuing intangibles, risk and uncertainty and valuing social impacts and non-market benefits, such as safety, amenity and quality of life within the overall context of socio-economic assessments.
Approaches to dealing with uncertainty including sensitivity testing, discount rate adjustments and real options analysis are also discussed.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-12: Policies for Urban Regularization|
Session Chair: Manohar Velpuri, FIG, Denmark
Between informal and illegal: Noncompliance with Planning and Building Laws
1Neaman Institute, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel; 2Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Most countries have planning laws on their books, but among developing countries, these are often unsuitable Western imports. All planning laws are predicated on the assumption that the general public will comply. However, in the majority of countries around the globe – including a few OECD countries - this assumption doesn’t hold. In the discussion about developing countries, attention is usually given to informality in land tenure, and almost none to planning and buildings laws.
The reasons underlying noncompliance with planning laws vary most strikingly between the global north and south. In the south, the reasons are often basic human needs for food, shelter or employment. Among the advanced economies, illegal construction usually occurs on one’s legally owned land and the motivations are different.
Why is it so difficult for governments to achieve compliance with planning laws? The discussion usually neglects a key player: the format and contents of planning laws. How do these relate to the socio-cultural and economic structures of different societies? There is no systematic comparative research on these questions. The paper will provide a framework for analysis intended to help policymakers design planning laws and enforcement mechanisms which can engender greater public compliance and thus, relevance.
Honduras Experience with Land Regularization in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas
1Programa de Administración de Tierras de Honduras (PATH II), Honduras; 2The World Bank
In Honduras, despite the existence of property registries, the country has faced increasing levels of informality and land conflicts. The increase in informal employment is mainly due to the lack of housing projects for low-income families, rural-urban migration and the incidence of natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch. As a result, many Hondurans, particularly poor communities, have been unable to regularize their land tenure, which excludes them from the formal land market while restricting their access to the financial system.
It is estimated that about 60% of the parcels in the country lack a title of ownership or possessing a situation of irregularity. In this sense, it is very relevant to analyze the results that have been achieved so far, under the property regularization based on public need, through which some 46,000 titles have been issued in informal settlements of the country.
Despite all the challenges faced during 11 years of implementation, the results are satisfactory. In addition to having integrated these new owners in the formal land market, a very important result is that approximately 97,000 beneficiaries now enjoy social peace, since they cannot be evicted from their land, even though some of them are still in the process of obtaining their property title.
(Formalizing) Informal Housing: Addressing the Elephant in the Room
1Land Alliance; 2World Bank; 3NG Quality
In the next 20 years, the world would need to build as much urban housing as was built in the past 6,000 years. Incremental and self-construction of homes, which normally are not registered and do not comply with building codes, will continue to be the de-facto most important housing solution around the developing world. The existence of a fast, low-cost and transparent process for the regularization of informal constructions could play a key role in (i) incentivizing homeowners to invest their resources in upgrading their properties; (ii) increasing the property tax base for local governments; (iii) growing the demand for credit for home improvement; (iv) creating an attractive market base of housing units that comply with minimum standards for insurance companies; and (iv) granting legal security and giving families the opportunity to make the best possible use of their most important—and sometimes only—asset. In this paper we show the technical, legal and economic viability for the introduction of a program for the formalization of self-built homes in Lima, Peru and provide guidelines for how it could be replicated in other Latin American countries.
Invasion of vacant lands in the realm of urban development: a case study of the Kenya coast
National Land Commission, Kenya
Kenya has witnessed a massive growth in its major towns/ cities from the recent past. Populations have also increased both in the urban and county with a total estimate of 26.4% urban population in the year 2016 as compared to 10.3% in 1970s. While this is a great urban development milestone achieved, it has brought new challenges to the cities – congestion, escalating costs of living and high crimes are just but a few problems encountered. It is estimated that more than 250,000 Kenyans move into the cities every year. One of the World Bank’s fourth Economic Update titles “Turning Tide in Turbulent Times” argues that East Africa’s largest economy can benefit from demographic change and rapid urbanization, despite the pains it entails. One of those pains Kenya entails and the most critical issues is the invasion of public land and private land. This is resulting from problems of urban squatters, increasing populations and land grabbers. As such, the problem presented is far complex. majority of these people have invaded public and private properties without having any lawful right to be on the land they occupy.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-13: Land Dispute Resolution Mechanisms|
Session Chair: Tim Hanstad, Landesa, United States of America
Analyzing the enabling environment for transforming forest landscape conflicts: the example of Lao PDR
1RECOFTC, Thailand; 2Independent Consultant
Forest landscape conflicts can be devastating on many levels – economic, environmental and social, from individual, to subnational, national and global levels. They are symptomatic of many issues revolving around weak governance. The problem is that seldom are they effectively addressed.
The aim of the paper is to better understand how and why forest landscape conflicts are happening, who is addressing them, and what can be done to prevent conflict or improve conflict outcomes. Using Lao PDR as a country case study the work also aims to develop an analytical framework for understanding conflict dynamics and capacity gaps that can be applied in similar countries around the world. Lao PDR was chosen due to the high prevalence of forest landscape conflicts, the multiplicity of causes and types of conflicts, and the relative paucity of relevant research and data.
Using literature reviews as well as interviews and focus group discussions, the research found that there is no effective system in the country for transforming conflicts. This is reflected in the low capacity of government staff to address conflicts effectively. To address these challenges, the work puts forward an integrated policy and capacity development program to systematize conflict transformation.
ADR as a viable tool in land conflicts: a Kenyan Perspective
National Land Commission, Kenya
Land is a popular asset among a diverse array of citizens and organizations in Kenya. It is a key driver of socio-economic development in the society and the country at large. This is in view of the fact that land has a great potential for economic growth of a country. Individuals, communities and organizations have over the years embarked on investing in land. Currently there are increased trends on the levels of investments and or grabbing of lands for the same purposes. In Kenya, the land sector has been a key driver of the social economic development and as such heavily invested in. This practice on one hand, has allowed genuine investment. On the other hand, this practice has witnessed a high rate of land grabbing by individuals and even organizations. As a result, conflicts have been increasingly acknowledged, a critical factor to the attainment of secure land tenure rights, development, peace-keeping and peace building. In addition, cases resulting from these conflicts have been dragging in courts for years. People are now tired of going to courts to seek redress and justice. The study would highlight group ranches, resources available, ADR applications and challenges encountered while trying to seek justice.
Managing Challenges And Security Threats From Conflicting Judgements On Land In Ghana
Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources, Ghana
Land ownership in Ghana has multiple hierarchies of interests and rights.Customary land boundaries remain indeterminate and quantum of rights and interests unclear. With rapid urbanisation and growth of cities especially the capital, Accra, contestation over land ownership among reputed land owners has been on the increase. High demand has raised land values and the propensity to appropriate lands in this hazy environment engenders several disputes which which end up in the courts for adjudication.
Unfortunately, many cases that are adjudged by the courts tend to conflict with or overlap each other thereby creating further uncertainty as to the ownership of the lands. This study examined some key judgements in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area with the view to ascertaining the incidence and extent of such judicial conflicts over land and explore measures to ameliorate the trend.
The findings reveal many conflicts and overlaps in court judgements which accentuate the confusion over land rights, freeze land for development, lead to frustration and use of self-help to protect lands among other ills. To achieve Ghana's development agenda and ensure peace, vigorous interventions have led to improving court processes, infrastructure and enhanced capacity of court actors. It is good beginning for the nation.
|6:00pm - 8:00pm||Conversatorio y recepción: Red Interamericana de Catastro y Registro de la Propiedad|
|Organization of American States (OAS)|
|6:00pm - 8:00pm||GLTN Partners' Reception|
By Invtation only. Please contact: Ombretta.Tempra@unhabitat.org
|East Dining Room - World Bank|
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-01: Land Administration|
Strengthening Land Governance To Advance Africa's Social And Economic Transformation
1NEPAD, South Africa; 2BEAT, Zimbabwe
Empirical Analysis of Models on Good Governance in Land Administration: Basis for Philippine Poverty Alleviation
1ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, Philippines; 2Crisanto A. Cocal Law Firm
Strategic Business Plans as Tool to Implement the Government Development Agenda
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Leveraging Collective Land Documentation Processes to Secure Community Land and Resource Rights: Lessons from Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria
1Adam Smith International, Nigeria; 2Sustainable Development Institute
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-02: Land Administration|
A New, Old Role Of Cadastre – Taxation
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
The Performance of Local Grassroots Level Rural Land Administration Institutions in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
Regularization in Brazil: the study of successful cases
Universidade de Campinas, Brazil
Sustainable and Effective Land Management: GDRLC, Turkey
General Directorate of Land Registy and Cadastre, Turkey
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-03: Land Administration|
Development of Land policy in Republic of Macedonia-Why it is Important for the Country
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Brazilian Amazon Deforestation and Land Governance
Land Governance and Management, Strategic Leadership, Land Governance.
PhD student, Kenya
The Project Of Land Reform In The Congo. The Impasses On Starting Point
Université Catholique du Graben, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Infer Geospatial Metadata to Churn out and Showcase Utility by Employing ‘Management by Objective’: Case Study from India
The American University of Nigeria, Nigeria
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-04: Land Administration|
Forest Tenure Reform Implementation: Perspectives From National And Sub-national Government Officials in Multiple Settings
Centre for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
Perspectives on Capacity to Produce Credible, Reliable Evidence on Land Governance: Observations from LGAF Processes in 5 African Countries
Sue Mbaya and Associates, South Africa
Land Administration Reforms for Enhancement of Delivery of Land Services in Uganda
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Enabling Formalising Of Informal Markets Through Block chain For Unregistered Real estate
1FIG, Denmark; 2Texas A&M; 3Absolutum Pte Ltd; 4k2amanagement; 5Paypal; 6Zurich financial services
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-05: Land Administration|
Use of Standard Vocabularies in the Land Sector
Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The
Information at a glance - Distribution system for data and services dissemination
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Analysis of the Economic Impact of Systematic Land Title Registration (SLTR) in Kano State, Nigeria
Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, Nigeria
Securing Land Rights for Equity, Sustainability and Resilience: Evidence from Innovative and Gender Responsive Tools for Implementation of Uganda’s National Land Policy
1United Nations Human Settlement Programme, Kenya; 2Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
SiGIT Mobile Application For a Sustainable Land Registration in Mozambique
EXI LDA, Mozambique
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-06: Taxation and Valuation|
Mass Valuation for Taxation in Circumstances of Limited Market Transparency. Nigeria Case Study
The Requirements Of Mass Appraisal For Real Estate Valuation For Taxation And Proper Tax Administration: Land Implications In The Case Of Turkey
ankara university, Turkey
Towards an Improved Local Governance and Service Delivery:Opportunities and Challenges of Property Rating in Ghana and Uganda
1Lands Commission, Ghana; 2UNOPS, Uganda
Viability of Premiums, Annual Rents and Property Taxes as a Means of Financing Infrastructure Development in Kenya
Pamoja Trust, Kenya
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-07: Valuing Land for Taxation & Compensation|
Financing Rural Infrastructure For Food Security
Eminent Domain – Factual Issues with Land Acquisition And Proposed Remedies For Sustainable Development In India
Bhartiya Agro Economic Research Center, India
Rehabilitation and Resettlement in Tehri Hydro Power Project-India
1Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India; 2National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj (NIRD & PR), India; 3Griffith University, Australia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-08: Expropriation and Compensation|
A Shifting Perspective of Land Acquisition Regime in India: An Evaluation of the proposed “Governance Framework, Pro-poor Development Rights and Urban Policy Management” through “Results Based Management / Evidence Based Approach” to Urban Policy and Management.
Public Sector Management Expert (South Asia), Jindal School of Government and Public Policy, India
Land Heirs Without Land
GADL (Groupe d'Appui au Développement Local), Cameroon
From the Right to Compensation to the Right Compensation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions
1University of Reading, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development; 2Land Portal Foundation
National Consultant-Social Safeguard Resettlement Specialist
Coastal Climate Resilient Infrastructure Project (CCRIP), ADB, Bangladesh, People's Republic of
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-09: Expropriation and Compensation/ Geospatial and Land Data|
Land For Infrastructure Development: Compulsory Acquisition And Compensation Of Unregistered/Undocumented Land In Kenya
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya
Recent Developments in Land Consolidation Projects in Turkey
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, General Directorate of Agrarian Reform, Ankara, Turkey
Insights from Space and Time: Big Data for Land Governance
Jacobs University, Germany
Governance And The Geo-web: Enhancing Participation And Governance Within Informal Settlement Upgrading Processes
University of Nairobi, Kenya
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-10: Geospatial and Land Data|
A Methodological Approach To Estimate Changes On Population Density In A LUCC Model: A Case Study In Bogota, Colombia
1Universidad de los Andes, Colombia; 2The University of Melbourne, Australia
Pixel Level Land Use and the Impacts of Biophysical Factors
1Purdue University, United States of America; 2Kansas State University, United States of America
The US Soil Information System: A Model for Data Collection, Curation and Distribution
USDA-NRCS, United States of America
Drivers of Deforestation in Indonesia: Spatial Panel Data Analysis
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-11: Geospatial and Land Data|
Spatially Smoothing Farmer's Biophysical and Perceived Vulnerability to Climate Change
Iowa State University, United States of America
Weather-Based Irrigation Control in the Cloud
Davidson Consultants, United States of America
Spatial Data and Service Infrastructures to Support Inter-Disciplinary Modeling of Disaster Cascades and Resilience Assessment
1National Technical University of Athens, Greece; 2ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Big Data And A Spatial Hedonic Approach: Addressing The Land Market Information Gap And Estimating Land Prices Determinants In Metropolitan Regions From Developing Countries.
Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
STDM Software Advances - Desktop and Online Hosting Options
1Metaspatial, Germany; 2UN Habitat
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-12: Geospatial and Land Data/ Land Markets|
Use of Linked Data in Preventing Forest Fires
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Partage des résultats de l’étude étude régionale sur les marchés fonciers ruraux en Afrique de l’Ouest et sur les outils de leur régulation commanditée par UEMOA et confiée à IPAR
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
Land Tenancy Contract Structure and Its Economy Impact
Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, People's Republic of China
Soil Moisture Determination Using Remote Sensing Data for the Property Protection and Increase of Agriculture Production
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-13: Land Markets/ Urban Land Governance|
Efficiency of Land Tenure Contracts in West Java, Indonesia.
Indonesian Institute for Agricultural Technology transfer, Indonesia
Using Participatory Video to Promote Land Rights of Women: A case study of How Corruption Impacts on Widows in the Northern Region of Ghana
1InsightShare-UK; 2Transparency International - Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana
Does Land Tenure Explain Distress Sale in Agriculture?: Evidence from India
SJM School of Management of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India
Property Rights and Owner Occupied Housing Investment: Evidence fromUrban Ethiopia
Makerere University, Ethiopia
Proposed Private Sector Driven Interventionist Implementation Of The LGAF, Towards Equitable Land Governance / Ownership Delivery For Nigeria.
Universite Libre De Bruxelles, Faculty of Architecture, La Cambre-Horta, Place Eugene Flagey 19, B-1050 Brussels.
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-14: Urban Land Governance|
Land Governance in Urban Areas: Case of Nairobi City
Technical University of Kenya, Kenya
Working With Local Poor Land Owners In The Peri Urban Areas Of Lima Peru, To Creating Land Supply For Housing
1Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano CENCA; 2Habitat for Humanity International LAC Region
Does Urban Extension Affect Inequality And Segregation? An Empirical Study Of Causal Effects In Argentina’s Cities.
Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Can extractive cities become sustainable? Contribution for a policy making framework in Argentina, Brazil and Chile
MIT, United States of America
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-15: Urban Land Governance|
Knowledge Mobilization and Capacity Building for Action towards Co-responsible Land Governance
1Grupo Urbano de Instrumentos de Suelo, América Latina y Caribe; 2Habitat for Humanity International Latin America and Caribbean Area Office; 3Land Portal Foundation
Infrastructure Cadastre is key factor for economic growth and development of the country
Agency for Real Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
An experience of regularization private urban in Brazil: the case of Terra Nova Urban Land Regularization ltda.
1universidade estadual de campinas unicamp, brazil; 2universidade estadual de campinas unicamp, brazil; 3universidade estadual de campinas unicamp, brazil; 4terra novaregularizações fundiárias urbanas ltda
Urban planing for sustainable development - Macedonian experience
Agency for real estate cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Analyzing Land Use Change In Urban Environments In Africa Sub Sahara
Ministère des Marchés Publics, Cameroon
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-16: Impact Research|
Inheritance Dynamics and Women land Rights in Nigeria
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2The World Bank, United States of America
Land access, tenure security and the fate of rural youth in Africa: the case of Ondo state - Nigeria
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2The World Bank, United States of America
Land Access, Tenure Security and the Fate of Rural Youth in Africa: The Case of Mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique
Land Service Delivery and Its Challenges in Nigeria: Case study of eight states
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Hohenheim University, Germany
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-01: Investing in the Commons: Choices and Consequences|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Translation French, Streaming.
Lessons from Investing in Land-based Commons by the French Technical Committee on Land Tenure and Development (CTFD)
1CIRAD, France; 2French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France
To be completed
The Commons in the Tonle Sap Flood Plain: Insights from community fisheries management
1Mekong Region Land Governance; 2Analyzing Development Issues Centre; 3French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) - UMR Passage
To be completed
Uneasy Relationship between Co-management (involving state agents) and Commons Management
To be completed
Benefits Derived from Official Recognition of the Commons by the State and Central Authorities
1Comores; 2Senegal; 3Kenya
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-02: Forest Tenure Reform Implementation: What have we Learned?|
Session Chair: Esther Mwangi, Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
Translation Spanish, Streaming.
Over the past two decades many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have adopted and implemented reforms in the natural resources sectors that have aimed at devolving or decentralizing forest and land management to lower levels of governance. The reforms have been aimed at securing the tenure rights of local communities living adjacent to forest resources as a pathway to improved livelihoods and sustainable use and management of forest resources. In addition, reforms have also targeted increased participation of different actors in decision making including women and marginalized groups. In the past five years, some countries have reviewed and re-authorized their laws while others are currently in the process of review and re-adjustment. It will involve a presentation of evidence and lessons from CIFORs Global Comparative Study on Tenure (GCS-Tenure)—see: http://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/.
Key Lessons from CIFORs Global Comparative Study on Tenure Reform Implementation
Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
To be completed
Case Study Colombia
Land Titling Office, Colombia
To be completed
Case Study Indonesia
Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia
To be completed
Case Study Kenya
Kenya Forest Service, Kenya
To be completed
Case Study Nepal
Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Nepal, Nepal
To be completed
Case Study Peru
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Peru
To be completed
Case Study Uganda
Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda
To be completed
The World Bank Group, United States of America
To be completed
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-03: Using Remotely Sensed Data to Improve Land Use Efficiency|
Session Chair: Guido Lemoine, European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Italy
Tools for Improving Land Tenure Project Outcomes with Through Mobile Access to Land Management Information with the Global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS)
1USDA-ARS, United States of America; 2USAID, United States of America; 3University of Colorado @ Boulder, United States of America
Securing land tenure is often a necessary but rarely sufficient requirement for long-term sustainability of agricultural production and rural communities. To maintain and increase its value, land must be managed within its sustainable potential. This paper reviews the challenges of determining the potential of specific land types (soil+topography+climate), and accessing relevant information and knowledge necessary for management. It describes the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS), which is addressing these challenges described by providing soil-specific knowledge and information through mobile apps and cloud-computing. This system can also be used to more equitably allocate land based on its sustainable production potential. The free apps are currently being used to inventory and monitor the impacts of several rangeland restoration and management projects. By the end of 2017 they will provide users with relative potential production and soil erosion risk under several management scenarios, including annual cropping. The system is completely open, and all data are available on a data portal and through APIs. User inputs are used to increase the precision of soil identification using a simple icon-based interface supported by short embedded video clips. Future versions will provide soil-specific management information from new (including user-generated) and existing knowledge-bases.
Utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the agricultural sector
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Although there has been substantial technical advancement with respect to the exploi-tation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information during the last few decades, little attention has been given to the potential for geospatial methods to collect accurate data in agriculture and evaluate it. With this in mind, the present paper has shed light on the effective utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the agricultural sector by introducing a state-of-the-art geospatial information system; that is, the Korean Land Change Monitoring System (KLCMS). Moreover, this paper reports on two main applications of KLCMS to the agricultural environment in South Korea.
First, with a periodic monitoring, a state-owned land information system can decline the rate of the occupation without permission on state-owned lands, imposing property taxes on the use of them. Furthermore, a management system for supply and demand of agricultural products can precisely estimate crop areas by using images from UAVs, which would forecast yields of farm products.
In conclusion, these utilizations might contribute to suggesting feasible solutions for sustainable agriculture and rural development in South Korea as well as further develop-ing countries.
A Space-time Analysis Approach to Tackle Some Emerging Environmental Issues
Arizona State University, United States of America
Our planet has been experiencing significant changes in global population, urbanization, energy use, food security, water use, climate, and atmospheric conditions since the last few decades. These changes are emerging along with the rapid growth of spatiotemporal climate, environment, socio-economic, atmospheric and advanced analysis approaches. The integrative space-time system of geographic information science offers a unique and effective framework to investigate spatial-temporal processes and interactions in a wide range of environmental applications for informed decision-making. This trend is further enhanced by the growing availability of high temporal resolution data, computational performance of space-time concepts, and emerging data-intensive or big data-driven science. Especially with regards to remotely sensed image analysis spatio-temporal method has received attention since high temporal resolution MODIS was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999. This paper attempts to demonstrate if and how spatial-temporal image analysis can be employed to tackle some emerging environmental issues in connection to evidence-based sustainable land management. Example applications include (1) Environmental concerns of deforestation in Myanmar; (2) Spatio-temporal modeling of the urban heat island in the Phoenix metropolitan area: Land use change implications; and (3) Examining the ecosystem health and sustainability of the world’s largest mangrove forest.
A Cost-Effective Approach to Meeting Data Needs for Multi-Purpose Land Governance in Africa
Earth Institute, Columbia University, United States of America
Demands on land governance in Africa have grown faster than supply. In addition to the traditional purposes of access and property rights, processes of land governance in Africa are now increasingly expected to play a role in carbon management, regulation of land degradation, biodiversity protection, provision of food security, protection of indigenous rights, conflict management, population movement and resettlement, disease control, and sustainable water management. We build on the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) to identify the principles that can guarantee a cost-effective, scalable approach to meeting land governance data needs. 1) blending of official and unofficial data sources, 2) select investment in “club goods” that fill critical data needs more effectively than public good or private investments (for example, investment in high-capacity infrared and x-ray spectroscopy), 3) specification of land-governance data requirements around decision-support needs, 4) willingness to provide data in probabilistic terms, 5) creation of public-private data partnerships, 6) open-data architectures that extend principles of openness to sample frames, collection algorithms, estimation procedures, and fitness-for-purpose evaluations. We illustrate how such principles have made a difference in specific settings in Africa, and utilize quantitative evidence to demonstrate how the principles provide more value at lower cost than conventional approaches.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-04: Policies for Improving Urban Governance|
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
Comparative Analysis of National-Level Residential Planning Parameter Guidelines For Five Sub-Saharan African Countries
World Bank, United States of America
A comparative analysis of the urban planning parameters and guidelines is conducted for five Sub-Saharan African countries – Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda. The analysis focuses on the planning parameters for residential uses, and in particular, examines the density, plot size and site/plot coverage standards. The comparison is done between the national-level standards/guidelines. These usually exist as a compendium to the national-level Urban Planning Act (eg. as a subsidiary legislation, or in a manual, handbook or code form). The main objective of the study is to better understand the approach adopted in these SSA countries to guide residential urban development. This is particularly important in the context of SSA cities where informal settlement occupy high proportion of urban land, and where there are hige challenges in the ability to support affordable housing for a large urban poor population. It further attempts to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the guidelines examined, as a first step to potentially improve them. Potential areas for future research are also identified. The study is also one of the first attempts in this direction to fill a gap in current literature.
Addressing New Land Governance Challenges: Governance Schemes For Urban Regeneration Project In Latin America
World Bank, Colombia
Urban regeneration projects need an institutional capacity and solid arrangements between local governments and private sector. Implementation of these projects faces difficulties in urban infrastructure finance, land owner’s participation, public and private agreements for its development, and the continuation of projects beyond the city mayor’s period. In Colombia, cities have been leading urban regeneration projects for deteriorated areas using land use master plans for specific areas of cities “partial plans” (PP). Urban regulations stablish that public development agencies and public and private institutional agreements could be in charge of formulation and implementation of PP. Definition of procedures, roles, and interaction mechanisms between public and private entities are some of the components of these PP governance schemes (GS).
Main role of governance schemes will be presented through the study of 2 urban regeneration projects in Colombia, the PP of Fenicia in Bogota and the PP of Sevilla in the “Innovation District of Medellin. The study of governance schemes of these PP could be an example for other urban regeneration projects including: i) scope of the project, ii) urban regulations, iii) stake holder participation mechanisms, and iv) institutional agreement
Automated Landuse Clearance For Effective Development Control Mechanism: The Case Of Megacity Dhaka
RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh), Bangladesh, People's Republic of
Sanction of a landuse clearance following the master plan is the major activity of development control practiced for a few decades in Bangladesh. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) is the statutory and legitimate authority constituted by the Town Improvement Act, 1953 for planning, development and development control activity of greater Dhaka, Narayanganj and surrounding areas (TIA Act, 1953). RAJUK is an autonomous institute headed by its Chairman and five members who are the full time officials deputed by the Government who are responsible for regulating five departments as Land and Administration, Planning, Development, Estate and finance. Plan approval ensures some sort of legitimate ownership of land and estate. RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh) has initiated a pilot project technically assisted by IFC to automate landuse clearance system of one of its eight zones designated for institutional service delivery of 1428 sq km of its functional jurisdictional area. This piloting should be a role model and be replicated in near future in other zones for effective service delivery of sanctioning landuse clearance. This study reveals the problems, prospects, future policy issues for automated landuse clearance for effective development control mechanism in the megacity Dhaka area.
Transparency and effectiveness in Municipal Land Use
NIRAS Finland OY
The paper introduces the current status and challenges in West-Balkan countries related to land-use planning, loss of agricultural land and growing number of illegal constructions. The situation in the last two decades has been characterized by inappropriate rural spatial planning and unsatisfactory transparency and accountability with respect to land use.
Lately region-wide significant efforts made by national and local governments for a change, by initiating the introduction of central spatial planning systems, to control land management in urban and agricultural territories and to ensure, that land use is in compliance with the local laws and subject to public scrutiny.
The success of such approach presented through Kosovo case, where experiences show, that nationwide, modular, central e-planning, based on sound legal grounds can bring about dramatic changes in so far as dealing with sounds land use policies and the everlasting struggle to combat informal settlements. The implementation of such system can ensure effective planning and controlling of national and local land management practices; it can secure zones for agriculture - all of these in transparent and cost effectiveness fashion; thereby ultimately stimulating economic growth.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-05: Can Legal Provisions Help Increase Gender Equality?|
Session Chair: Benedicte Leroy De La Briere, World Bank, United States of America
The Role of Legal Professions in Addressing Gender Equality in Land Ownership, Cases from the Office a Public Notary in Albania
1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Albania; 2Public Notary
This article presents the role of legal professions addressing SDG Goal 5, target 5.a: “undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources, in accordance with national laws”.
Women and girls’ access to economic recourses such as land depends on the legal framework and the way it is implemented. This paper will show that ownership of women and girls of land depends among others and especially upon drafting of the contract by legal professionals (in this case notaries), in order to ensure that their rights as co-owners, owners or heirs (even in cases when they are presumed) does not perish and disappear. For that reason, this paper will illustrate some authentic real life cases from a notary in Albania, to demonstrate how women are excluded from the right to ownership or co-ownership of real estate.
Even when laws and regulations are in place, the case of Albania demonstrates that custom and tradition rule the life of individuals and the work of public officials. In this paper cases from the diary of a notary will be presented, where women lost their property.
Gender Equality and Women's Rights: The Essential Role of the Notaire in Implementing and Diffusing the De Jure Law
1International Union of Notaries; 2Sherbrooke University
Once de jure laws are adopted, the challenge for states lies in ensuring that the people, particularly those targeted by the rules of non-discrimination, can benefit from them. How can the state reach these people, inform them, provide legal services to them and ensure uniform and impartial application of the de jure law on the entire territory and to the entire population? In reaching these goals the civil law notaires can make a huge difference.
As a legal professional, the notaires must apply the de jure law and thereby meet its requirements; they are also subject to the highest standards of impartiality, ethics and professional conduct. The notaire represents all parties to a real estate or other legal transaction.
Among their legal obligations, the notaires must check the status and ability of all parties to the transaction and obtain their free and informed consent. They will not hesitate to meet in private with a party in order to ensure that the expressed consent is not given under duress or due to that person’s ignorance of his or her rights.
Land and Gender in the Western Balkans: Understanding Customs and People’s Lives to Achieve the SDGs
1FAO, Italy; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany
The article presents a joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) (on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)) GmbH initiative to integrate the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security principles on gender equality and help countries develop capacity to collect data, monitor and report progress on the SDG Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. FAO is the custodian institution of the land related indicators under goal 5, including indicator 5.a.2 on gender-equitable legal frameworks.
The article presents the results from testing the methodology for monitoring and reporting on the SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans countries using FAO’s Legal Assessment Tool for gender-equitable land tenure and the cross regional support to countries from other regions to learn from the experience of the Western Balkans countries.
Women’s Rights To Land And Property In Kenya
While the law reforms in Kenya provides for formal equality, there is need for substantive equality for women as a sustainable way of improving women’s enjoyment of their rights. While women’s rights to land and property are protected under the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and various national legislations, in practice, women remain disadvantaged. The main restriction is customary law and practices, which prohibit women from owning or inheriting land and other forms of property. These customary laws and practices are enhanced by stereotypical practices and socialization of women in believing they are not meant to own or inherit land or any other property. Customary practices in Kenya generally grant women secondary rights to land, namely through their relationships to a male relative, and women are rarely able to inherit land in their own right. In addition, women face serious obstacles in claiming their property rights either because they are unaware of their rights or they are unable to lay claim to this right.
In addition there are legal gaps that exist, for example, the Government of Kenya should clearly demonstrate good will to: support women rights and repeal any sections of enabling laws that do not comply with the Constitution
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Multi-Faceted Impacts of Secure Tenure Rights|
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Does Strengthening Local Tenure Rights Help Fulfill Conservation Goals?
1McGill University; 2Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 3The Nature Conservancy; 4University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Secure land tenure has been positively associated with human well-being as well as nature conservation. Conservation organizations have implicitly recognized this association from the beginnings of the conservation movement, (see, e.g., creation of community land conservancies in Africa and the creation of the conservation easement tool in the US). These organizations are beginning to think about whether and how to better incorporate land tenure strategies directly into their work and to more soundly ground that work based on evidence of both conservation and human benefits. By reviewing the literature on land tenure and land tenure security as it relates to conservation practice, we aim to clarify why conservation practitioners should incorporate land tenure security interventions directly into conservation strategies. We present a framework that links tenure security, land management decisions, and resulting outcomes related to human wellbeing and natural resource conservation. We identify three common pathways through which land tenure security impacts conservation interventions. We review existing practical approaches to assessing land tenure security in practice, and common methods for strengthening land tenure security as it they relate to conservation programs. We conclude with research frontiers.
Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting for Land
1Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda; 2University of Rwanda; 3Statistics Netherlands, Department of National Accounts, Environmental Accounts team; 4Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences; 5Natural Capital Accounting, Rwanda Natural Resources Authority; 6Ministry in Charge of Natural Resources
In Rwanda, land is the basis for agriculture which accounts for 34 percent of GDP and 90 percent of jobs. The high rate of population growth and inheritance practices led to land fragmentation. The small plots reduce productivity while increased productivity is needed to achieve food security and to boost rural incomes. Beyond agriculture, Rwanda’s rapid urbanization and plans for development of secondary cities will require additional land, as well as policies to limit sprawl and promote zoning for green areas that improve quality of life.The Rwandan Government, found it necessary to develop the Land Accounts as tool to support the implementation of the national land policy on a rational use of land. We analyzed the land uses change for the period of 2014-2015 via so-called land use change matrices. The land cover and use accounting for the period of 1990-2010 was used to monitor and analyze changes in land cover and land use. Preliminary findings show that fragmentation increased slowly during 2014 and 2015 given ongoing policies aimed at combating land fragmentation. The average size of plots allocated to livestock declined by almost 10%, and residential land use is the fastest growing category, increasing by almost 14% throughout 2014.
Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience for cashew growers in Khong district of Champasack province
Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement Project, Lao People's Democratic Republic
Even with the abundance of natural resources and land for agriculture, Lao PDR remains on the list of the 20 least developed countries in the world. More than 70% of the population in Laos depends on agriculture as their main source of income. Rural farmers are engaged in subsistence farming practices, but most of those farmers are lacking Land Use Certificates. The Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement (SNRMPE) Project has identified key lessons learnt for Land Use Certification, piloting certification in a cashew nut production project.
The mobilization of land authorities to issue land certificates to farmers helped cutting short the time and eliminated unnecessary steps in the process. Policy dialogue contributed to the adoption of new policies and benefitted the farmers. To address the lack of education and language barriers for women and ethnic minorities, the project targeted government staff and production groups. Key lesson learnt are that before any intervention, the trust of ethnic people needs to be earned, women need to be provided with land ownership, women farmers need to be educated on land use rights and staff of land authorities need to be trained on the issuance of Land Use Certificates.
The potential for homestead microplots to contribute to food security in rural West Bengal
Landesa, United States of America
Landesa’s partnership with the Government of West Bengal on state land allocation and titling programs provides an extraordinary learning opportunity. This paper uses survey data gathered through a recent study of households across West Bengal to explore the relationship between newly gained tenure security and the potential for improving the food security of the household. It finds no titling effect on food security, nor does it find an effect when women’s names have been included on the title. However, it does find a positive effect on food security when households engage in such livelihood activities as homestead kitchen gardening and animal husbandry. It concludes by exploring ways to improve the uptake of such activities at scale.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-07: Putting Fit for Purpose Land Administration in Practice|
Session Chair: Cornelis de Zeeuw, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Establishing a Legal Cadastre for Good Governance in Ethiopia: Identifying Bottlenecks and Steps Toward Scale-Up
1Land Equity International, Australia; 2World Bank; 3Consultant; 4Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, Ethiopia
The Government of Ethiopia’s Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTP II) establishes an ambitious goal of reaching middle-income status by 2025, envisioning industrial development for growth and job creation through effective urban development. The targets identified to reach this goal will, however, require substantial amounts of land. Local government’s ability to deliver this land - by establishing and implementing urban plans, enforcing regulations and identifying under-utilized land for infill - is undermined by the absence of a comprehensive legal cadastre. This paper presents the core findings of a project to review the status of current pilots being undertaken to create the urban legal cadastre, and presents policy recommendations for the way forward. The work provides an important understanding of the governance, project management and public awareness challenges of registering urban land in Ethiopia. It builds on other recent efforts in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and elsewhere to register urban land, notably Rwanda, and supports the Land Policy Initiative goal of “ten member states putting in place transparent, efficient and cost-effective land administration systems which are reflective of Africa’s unique realities by 2020.” The learning will prove instrumental for other countries in sub-Saharan Africa in similar endeavours.
A Fit For Purpose Land Cadaster in Mozambique
1EXI LDA, Mozambique; 2DINAT - National Directorate of Lands; 3Dutch Kadaster; 4Verde Azul/ DINAT
Mozambique is an african country that is engaged in building its National Land Cadaster. It has enacted several legal instruments. However, most land, in excess of 90%, is still used under unregistered good-faith occupations and customary tenure arrangements.
Recently a Land Tenure Regularization program aiming at registering 4 thousand communities and 5 million parcels under good faith or customary practice occupations, was defined. This massive program is a starting point to implement the National Land Cadaster.
To ensure that this first registration exercise runs smoothly and that targets and goals for the program are met, several activities were executed, namely:
1. A Fit For Purpose methodology
2. Adjustments to the existent LAS system - SiGIT, including the implementation of a mobile application for community based crowdsourcing and a Cloud Platform for managing field data;
3. Capacity Building both for cadaster technicians but as well as for community members for this first registration.
4. Continuous support for keeping the cadaster up-to-date within the community, through appropriate training and tools.
Results from the pilot are positive and allowed for tunning and adjustments to the developed methodology, tools and materials.
Fit-For-Purpose land Administration - Developing Country Specific Strategies for Implementation
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2Know Edge Ltd, United Kingdom
This paper looks at implementing Fit-For-Purpose land administration solutions at county level. This will require a country specific strategy drawing from the recent GLTN publication on “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – Guiding Principles for Country Implementation”.
The Fit-For-Purpose concept is about applying the spatial, legal and institutional methodologies that are most fit for the purpose of providing secure tenure for all by addressing the current constraints and allowing for incremental improvement over time.
This paper aims to present the first step of implementation by unfolding the contents of this kind of country specific strategies. Arguably, they should include the following steps: 1) Analysis of country context; 2) Analysis of existing spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 3) Developing a country specific FFP strategy for land administration; 4) Designing the country specific FFP spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 5) Capacity Development; 6) Country Specific Instruction Manuals; and 7) Economic Benefits Analysis.
Finally, the paper presents some experiences and reflections from a case study on implementing the FFP approach for land registration in the Gresik District, Indonesia.
Implementation Of National Land Administration System - Fit-For-Purpose IT-Leap Approach
Innola Solutions, Inc., US
Decades of land administration (LA) projects worldwide have led to the development of a series of guidelines for the implementation of LA systems. Facing the complexity of the domain a more practical fit-for-purpose (FFP) concept evolved. Unfortunately, even with that breadth of information and guidelines, it still leaves many land administration practitioners with scopes of work that are too broad and lack a clear roadmap of key activities. The time is ripe for accepting the digital era reality and modernize FFP LA with a more specific modality – the IT-Leap concept. ICT has become not just an important or even critical component of the LA system but has been proven as a business driver and processes integrator. The paper presents the implementation planning aspects of an ICT solution, including details of a “how to make it work” approach. It extends the guiding principles with the FFP IT-Leap implementation roadmap, and provides a detailed set of value chain activities. It is time to use ICT as the mean to unify regulations, re-engineer processes, manage changes and drive capacity building. The FFP IT-Leap approach results in an ICT solution that fits the short-term needs and will scale up for the future ones.
Fit-for-Purpose and Fit-for-Future Technology for Cadastral Systems
1Esri, United States of America; 2Kadaster International, Netherlands
Configurable off-the-shelf spatial technologies are now available for cadastral systems. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.
This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This master class will discuss spatial platform and app technologies for collecting data with Androids, processing, producing, managing and sharing cadastral data. We will present how to configure and maintain a sustainable land system. This master class will present all the technology necessary and to get started.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: Strengthening Land Administration Management|
Session Chair: Charisse Griffith-Charles, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Delivering Land Administration Services at Scale The Experience of Development and Implementation of a Nationwide Agricultural Land Management Information System Case Study of Directorate for Agricultural Land, Republic of Serbia
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Serbia
It was a challenge to develop a nationwide information system for land management that will serve varying topographies, parcel sizes and administrative systems, in a way which is also sustainable after the donor support ends. Regional disparities between municipalities in Serbia are large: economic development, demographic structure, administrative organisation, geography of the terrain, size of land parcels, and availability of data, and had to be taken into consideration during the development of an Agricultural Land Management Information System that all 145 Local Self-Government Units of Serbia and their Directorate for Agricultural Land could use. Sustainability is important, to ensure the project’s benefits continue after the project ends, and to justify donors’ resources invested into building the system. Thus, sustainability of the information system is a key focus of this paper.
This paper reviews all stages of the project, and how GIZ was able to overcome the challenges as they arose. A close examination of the planning and development phases of the project sheds light on organizational change over the long term. A modern, user-friendly land management information system, combined with a state administration fully brought into the procedural reforms, can serve as a model for other projects around the world.
From Cloth Bags to Land Record Service Centers – Experiences from a Project In Punjab, Pakistan
World Bank, United States of America
This paper assesses the factors that enabled the transition from a system based on local civil servants (Patwari) carrying land records in a cloth bag to a modern Land Record Management Information System in Punjab Province, Pakistan. The Land Records Management and Information Systems Project is being implemented by the Pakistani Board of Revenue in Punjab Province since ten years with support from the World Bank. The paper will draw conclusions from a methodological mix of a desk review of project documents and field visits. The project was able to digitize more than 50 million paper-based land records, benefitting more than 20 million land owners. More than 150 Land Record Service Centers were established. The aim of this paper is to extract lessons learned about the transformation process from the Patwari to the Land Record Service Centers.
How a Global-to-Local Technology Partner Approach in Nigeria Contributed to Sustained results for State-level Land Administration Projects
1Thomson Reuters, South Africa; 2Teqbridge Limited
This paper shares a partnering example of how a local Nigerian firm (Teqbridge Ltd.) jointly partnered with a global technology firm (Thomson Reuters) to serve Nigerian state-governments; moreover, to jointly build stronger professional capacity in Nigeria.
The Role Of Electronic Cadastre In Development Of The Buissnes Community - The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia
Agency for real estate cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
The business community in the Republic of Macedonia is continuously searching for opportunities for opening new business, development and improvement of their existing facilities and services, or is simply seeking for information on future investments. Thus, they are seeking for a fast way of getting transparent, reliable and up to date data about the possibilities for new investments or new ways for development of their business. The Agency of Real Estate Cadastre with the introduction of the electronic cadastre called e-kat has become a valuable partner to the business community and a huge provider of relevant and up to date data. By listing the needs of the business community the Agency of Real Estate Cadastre has created a services that cut the time of the company needed for obtaining a construction permits, property certificates, has found new ways for getting credits for building in construction and has secure the mortgage market. Also this tool has help of raising the bullishness of the private valuers and notaries as well as helping the municipalities in their taxing operations.The paper researches how the business community deals with geospatial information before e-kat and after e-kat and how their business changes with its use.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-09: Standards for Land Administration: Ensuring Interoperability|
Session Chair: Nicola Heathcote, HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
Further standardisation in Land Administration
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The; 3The University of Melbourne, Australia; 4UN Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The paper describes the ongoing developments and standardisation in land administration. Standards are relevant in relation to building as well as maintenance and development of a land administration.
Standards like the ISO 19152 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) are helping to jump-start new initiatives and are connecting top-down and bottom-up projects together. The LADM facilitates the efficient set-up of land administration and can function as the core of any land administration system. LADM is flexible, widely applicable and functions as a central source of state-of-the-art international knowledge on this topic. Some future trends in the domain and the maintenance of the standard are presented and being discussed in the paper. These trends may be relevant for the development of a second edition of the LADM over the coming years.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has set up a domain group on land administration. The OGC members drafted a charter for a working group for the land administration domain. The charter describes how to improve the interoperability, effectiveness and efficiency of land administration systems by optimising the use of OGC and complementary open standards. Land administration activities in all countries can benefit from improved interoperability.
Land Transfer Standards – Bringing Fit For Purpose Concepts To The Land Transaction Process
RICS, United Kingdom
90% of residential and commercial property in Africa is untitled and land and property transactions are high on the global corruption index. Responsible governance of land is also at the core of resource management and sustainable extractive industries. Much of the headline challenges are well known to land professionals, from land grabbing, to tenure vulnerability, to ineffective land administration and corrupt governance and to a lack of professional capacity. At the very core of these multiple land issues is the lack of a consistent, global and easily understood standard on land transaction and a common understanding of the essential elements needed within that process. ‘Fit for Purpose’ is a key concept not just for spatial measurement, it is also important that it is used for valuation/appraisal and land reporting. The object is to aid and de-risk the process of land investment and real property transfer. This presentation will highlight some of the issues involved, the process of collaboration and current status of the initiative (ILMS).
Practical Application Of IAAO Standards For Land Administration And Property Tax Systems
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
This presentation will describe the 14 Standards developed by the International Association of Assessing Officers defining the objective and purpose of IAAO Standards. The purpose of the standards are two-fold; to guide the creation of the most efficient and effective property tax systems possible and to and to provide professional training and standards for industry and government officials who are directly responsible for implementing and advancing property tax and land valuation systems. Highlighted will be how IAAO standards can be utilized by various government agencies within the context of what stage of property tax system development the government has been able to achieve. It will examine some of the challenges valuation offices will face in the future and focus on emerging technologies that will assist in reaching IAAO standards in a cost effective manner. This will suggest a roadmap in utilizing IAAO standards to assist in project conception. The IAAO’s Guidance on International Mass Appraisal and Related Tax Policy will be summarized and the IAAO’s upcoming Body of Knowledge will also be briefly introduced.
Standards and interoperability in the Nigerian Land Sector
In every economy, land represents a factor of production, without which production that will be able to facilitate entrepreneurship, poverty reduction and social cohesion is achieved. However, inefficiencies of the institutional and administrative components of the land sector which include the poor recordation of land information and transactions, lack of data and information about available land stock, lack of structures and non availability of fit-for-purpose systems to facilitate interoperability of the land data and poorly implemented or non implementation of standards to guide how data and information about land is used.
The nature of land suggests geography via the cadaster, which acts as a repository for land information. In order for the cadaster to be useful, it has to be shared and used by relevant stakeholders in the private and public sector. However, the legal and regulatory provisions that govern the use of the cadastral information, which will facilitate interoperability, are poorly implemented in Nigeria. The implementation of the standards to achieve interoperability has a dual purpose; it strengthens inter-ministerial collaboration and supports a functional platform for land information sharing and dissemination about land and its associated economic resources for end-users.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-10: Development Partners Support to Tenure Security|
Session Chair: Suzuka Sugawara-Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
Improvement Of Community Tenure Security Through Access To Land Data: Evidences From GLTN Tools Application In Uganda And Kenya
1UN-Habitat, Kenya; 2University of Wisconsin-Madison
Access to land information is key in ensuring community protection against eviction promoting efficient mechanisms that guarantee tenure security. Administrative data through the formal cadaster may exist, but it may not be enough in terms of coverage and access for the community. In such cases, innovative approaches are required to bridge the gap between formal and informal land rights and to empower communities living in the second rank, protect their rights and establish a manageable land information system.
The Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) was launched in 2006 to find balance among practical tools and land policies and to help resolve the problems of land access for the poor and disadvantaged. This initial orientation has informed the subsequent evolution of the GLTN as it tries to reconcile these two challenges while ensuring it remains pro-poor and gender sensitive.
This paper explores how the GLTN vision has worked out in practice, as illustrated in eight case studies done in Kenya and Uganda. The cases show how GLTN and partners have adapted three land tools: 1) participatory enumeration; 2) STDM) and 3) GEC-in urban and rural contexts and how land policy evolution has proven more productive at the local level.
Establishing An Intra-Oganizational Fit For Purpose Land Rights Policy. Comparison Of Successes, Lessons Learned And Best Practices Across Projects.
ZOA, Netherlands, The
The paper compares the successes and lessons from land rights related projects, which are implemented by ZOA, a Dutch Humanitarian organization in Uganda and Burundi. The projects are evaluated with regard to how best practices might be applied in other contexts as well as how they might be integrated into an internal and fit for purpose land rights policy. The formulation of specific intra-organizational frameworks for coherent approaches to land rights related projects is valuable for organizations working in complex and fragile contexts. While the broadly appliedFit For Purpose Land Administration framework (FFP) developed by the World Bank and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) provides valuable guidelines for organizations working on land tenure related issues in developing countries it is necessary for an organization like ZOA with a very particular profile and target group to develop its own internal guidelines, which provide a more specific framework. Furthermore, the ongoing discourse concerned with practical ways of integrating land tenure administration into broader development frameworks and linking the issue with other aspects of sustainable development can strongly profit from linking on-the-ground experiences of specific projects with the broader existing frameworks and guidelines. The paper gives initial, practical recommendations in this regard.
Updating Land Records, Resolving Land Problems and Securing Clear Land Titles through the Community-driven Process Involving Local Youth
Up-to-date land records and clear land titles are the pre-requisite for economic development and optimum utilization of the land by its owners. Government of India is making efforts to modernize management of land records in the country through Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP). Lack of requisite community involvement was identified as a major challenge during the recent review of the NLRMP. Landesa made efforts to address this gap through a four-step process to verify and update the land records – 1) Household Survey; 2) Collecting Information from Land Records; 3) Field Verification; and 4) Data Analysis. This four-step process was done manually and later a technological application was designed and tested. About four thousand land problems were identified in the pilot villages and 60% - 90% entries in land records do not reflect the filed reality. This pilot offers a low cost community-driven model which can be scaled through the Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme. This paper discusses the learning from the six village pilot and the ways to make the large scale land records updation initiatives in India more effective and with the increased community participation.
District Multi-stakeholder Forums: Unexhausted Opportunity For Securing Land Rights, Tanzania Experience
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
Administration of land in Tanzania is more decentralized from the president to the village level. The law gives power to village councils and village assemblies to administer village land. The District authorities are given advisory and supervisory mandates over villages and represent the commissioner who takes overall administrative powers. Despite decentralization, institutions responsible for land administration, land have continued to be cause of many conflicts for years. Conflicts have been escalating and lead loss of lives and property. Lack of coordination among land administrative institutions has been the main route cause of land conflicts and ineffective systems of handling land conflicts administratively.
Civil society organisations, government institutions and development partners have been working to address and enhance coordination and communication among responsible institutions responsible for tenure security. The presents platforms which aim at multi-stakeholder policy dialogue on sustainable land-based businesses and investment solutions in ways that build upon active citizen participation. Therefore this paper presents multi-stakeholders forums as best model to address institutional coordination for land tenure security.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Land Rental Markets and Structural Transformation|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land rental markets participation and its impact on fixed investment and household Welfare: Evidence from China Apple Production Sites
1Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, People's Republic of China; 2Michigan State University,United States of American
To identify the determinants of affecting farmers’ land rental decision and quantify the effect from renting in land on households’ investment and economy welfare, original data from two specialized apple production sits of China are applied. By analyzing the access of land, labor, credit and insurance markets together, results indicate that economy of scale, efficient credit and insurance supply, laborsaving cultivation technology adoption and the motivation of reducing land fragmentation are the main forces to encourage households renting in land. Fixed investment improves with farm scales expanding and more access to credit and insurance. Renting in land from market will produce obvious welfare gains, including household agricultural income, total income and family expenditure.
How do land rental markets affect household income? Evidence from Rural Jiangsu, P.R. China
1Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 2Nanjing Agricultural University, P.R. China
The development of land rental markets in developing countries attracts much attention, but little is known about its impact on household incomes. This study empirically examines the effects of land rental decisions of farm households on their income and income components, i.e. farm, off-farm and transfer income, taking into account potential endogeneity of land rental decisions. Rural household survey data for 1,080 households in 128 villages in Jiangsu Province, China are used to estimate these effects. Quantile regressions are used to examine to what extent effects differ between income groups. Results indicate that lessee households generate higher total income as compared to autarkic households, in particular in the lower income groups, although they earn higher farm income throughout the entire farm income distribution. No significant differences in off-farm income between transacting households (i.e. lessee households or lessor households) and autarkic households are found. Transfer income of lessor households is significantly lower than those of autarkic households, especially those in the low-income quantiles.
Inheritance System, Tenure Security And The Functioning Of Land Rental Markets in Rural Pakistan
1University of Guelph, Canada; 2International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
This paper provides empirical insights into the manner by which rural farmers in Pakistan access farmland. Our results suggest that approximately 86% of owned land is inherited, 13% is purchased and the remaining 1% is acquired through other means (e.g., gifts, illegal settlements). Moreover, we review the different ways ownership is documented. We find that variation in formal documentation is not associated with variation in perceptions of tenure security in the case of inherited land. An important component of our paper is an exploration of rental arrangements. We use the Pakistan Rural Household Panel Survey round 3.5 conducted during 2014-2015. Forty percent of the survey respondents rent-in farmland. Of these households, forty-eight percent are landless Hence, rental arrangements are an important pathway by which land is redistributed to enable agricultural production. Using regression analysis, we examine the influence of key endowments – e.g., land ownership – on the redistribution of land for production purposes. Our findings generate a better understanding of the relationships between formalization and perceptions of land tenure security as well as land ownership and participation in rental arrangements. Our findings are relevant to ongoing efforts to improve land governance and agricultural production in rural areas of Pakistan.
Effects of Land Rights Certification on Rural Credit Market and the Market for Land Transfers ---- Evidence from China
1Nanjing Agricultural University, China; 2Monash University, Australia; 3Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, China
This paper investigates empirically the effects of land rights certification reforms on the rural market for credit and the market for rural land transfer in China. We isolate the effect on land rights certification by comparing rural households from land rights certification pilot villages and non-pilot villages. A Difference-in-differnces approach using yearly panel surveys data from Ministry of Agriculture’s Fixed Rural Observation Point System suggest that land rights certification significantly improved rural households’ access to formal credit and reduced their reliance on informal loans. At the same time, land rights certification substantially increased households’ demand for credit. However, our DID approach seems to suggest that the increased land rental market activities in rural China were not attributable to the land rights certification reforming.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-12: Helping Communities Document and Exercise their Rights|
Session Chair: Joachim Knoth, European Commission, Belgium
Participative Cartography in Benin
1VNG International The Netherlands; 2VNG International Benin
Cartography is the realm of specialists, land surveyor and mapmakers? Participatory Cartography says otherwise! Using the experience from Benin, we show how citizens can play the main role in demarcating their community’s borders. The process of Participatory Cartography places the community’s perception of its own boundaries at the centre and offers an inclusive and feasible method of settling internal border disputes which inhibit countless government policies. The result is a widely supported demarcation based on a community’s perception and identities rather than straight lines drawn by a ruler or nonsensical borders due to gerrymandering. Finally, maybe the best thing about Participatory Cartography: it is cheap.
Registration and Release of Customary-land for Private Enterprise: Lessons from Papua New Guinea
University of New South Wales, Australia
Land held under customary tenure has proven difficult to register and release for private enterprise globally. This is because the costs of developing secure rights to land held under communal ownership is high given that such ownership rules out a ‘pay-to-use-the-property’ system while punitive negotiation and policing costs make a ‘pay-him-not-to-use-the-property’ system ineffective (Demsetz, 1967, p. 355). Here I document reforms to institutions governing access to land held under customary title in Papua New Guinea that has imbedded collective ownership whilst allowing for a ‘pay-to-use-the-land’ for private enterprise. Reforms put in place over the past decade have allowed for voluntary incorporation of landowning clans, the registration of their land, and the leasing of this land for up to 99 years. The ongoing reforms provide lessons both for Papua New Guinea and for others wrestling with the challenges of making available land held by customary groups for individual enterprise.
Supporting Greater Tenure Security For Community And Customary Land Rights – Lessons Learned From The Field And How Community Led Participatory Mapping Empowers Small Holder Farmers In Myanmar.
Tetra Tech, United States of America
The democratic transition of power in Myanmar, following the handover of power to the National League for Democracy (NLD) administration, is still in its infancy and yet faces serious challenges. The absence of land tenure security is a significant issue facing rural communities throughout the country, a situation that has led to weak agricultural development, heightened rates of rural poverty and in the worse cases, the dispossession of land resources previously accessed by entire communities.
The USAID funded Land Tenure Project has supported the development of a National Land Use Policy (NLUP) and has been evaluating the implementation of articles of the NLUP at a series of pilot sites throughout the country. Community led participatory mapping of different land resources have been undertaken in coordination with local authorities, local civil society and the communities themselves. The technical approaches developed as part of this work will be shared as will the outputs and lessons learnt from these activities that will inform the development of a new National Land Law that will recognize the land rights of communities, ethnic minorities and women.
Norwegian Support To The Land Sector In Kyrgyzstan
1Statens kartverk - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway; 2Department of Cadastre and Registration, Kyrgyzstan
Norway - one of the few countries donating over 1% of its gross national income in official development assistance, supported the land sector in Kyrgyzstan from 2013 to 2016. With a grant of 1,4 million USD, the project “Securing Ownership to Land” implemented by the Norwegian Mapping Authority and the State Registration Service of Kyrgyzstan, was aimed at improvement of registration and information services to all groups of users requesting property registration and information. The project was built upon important achievements of the First and the Second Cadastre Projects funded by the World Bank. The Norwegian project was focused on specification of improvements to property registration system; technical and professional capacity building; knowledge transfer and training; surveying and mapping the remaining 20 % of privatized properties; and extension of KYRPOS - the network of permanent reference stations. Using of UAV technology for "mapping on demand" was tested and proven relevant for smaller areas and mapping corridors. The project contributed to improvements in servicing clients by reducing the average time needed for cadastral surveying and property registration. The project is now completed, delivering satisfactory results to all involved parties and meeting its development goal in improving security of ownership to land in Kyrgyzstan.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-13: Challenges of Land Acquisition for Infrastructure|
Session Chair: Harris Selod, World Bank, United States of America
Land for Food or Power? The Interface between Hydropower Production and Family Farming in Southwest Ethiopia
1Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Environmental and Climate Research Center for Ethiopia; 3University of Alberta
Gilgel Gibe-I hydroelectricity dam is one of the mega hydropower projects of Ethiopia found in the southwestern part of the country. This project was designed to produce 183 MW energy for 70 years, but is currently at risk of being silted up within 24 years. This study identifies the prospects and challenges to find a long-term balance between hydropower production, livelihoods of family farmers and sustainable land use. We used mixed methods approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data and applied a ‘riskscapes’ framework. The project displaced about 2,476 households out of which 560 moved to resettlement sites. The remaining households became landless, food insecure and are living in the surroundings of the project area farming inside the buffer zone. The community is also energy insecure because of lost access to source of biomass energy as a result of destruction of the riparian forest. In order to achieve a balance between the riskscapes of siltation, food and energy insecurity and national hydropower production, we recommend holistic approaches to community needs and project sustainability. In particular we recommend proper land use and buffer zone management, provision of electricity to the local communities and compensation for lost properties in the project area.
Using Participative G.I.S. For Infrastructure Corridor Planning Around Mining Projects: A Case Study From Indonesia
University of Delaware, United States of America
Regional planning approaches for mining aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as cumulative impacts that occur offsite. Achieving a balanced approach to mining infrastructure planning requires that stakeholder preferences for land uses from local communities, government, and mining companies be included in infrastructure planning. In this paper we describe a method for conducting Geographic Information Systems (GIS) least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure such as roads and power lines. Least-cost path analysis identifies optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we demonstrate the method using potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap. We found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors generated from local and national government perspectives. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can potentially reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.
Growing Demand, Shrinking Supply of Industrial Lands in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Can Improving Urban Land Administration and Governance be a Solution?
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
While Addis Ababa is rapidly urbanizing, job creation remains a challenge. The root cause of this has been the lack of structural transformation towards industries with higher potential for growth and job creation. In response, the government of Ethiopia through its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) targets the industry and manufacturing sectors to enhance structural transformation and create more productive jobs in Ethiopia’s cities. However, in the process of industrial promotion, industrial land has emerged as a key bottleneck. Currently, it is estimated that about 6000 investors are in the waiting list requesting land for investment in Addis Ababa. This has created distortions in the land and rental market and consequent price hike; and this threatens the job and economic growth potential of the city by discouraging businesses from entering or expanding in the city. Since Addis Ababa is one of the least industrialized cities in Africa, industrial land exhaustion cannot be the major explanation. We argue that given the city’s developable land size, there is significant scope to improve the supply of industrial land by solving some of the inefficiencies and market failures with the current arrangement of land allocation and management.
|9:00am - 5:00pm||Improving Housing Policies in Latin America to Increase Affordability and Mitigate Climate and Disaster Risks - I-|
By i nvitation only: please contact email@example.com
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-01: Implementing the AU Declaration on Land at Country Level|
Session Chair: Mamta Murthi, World Bank, United States of America
Translation French, Streaming.
How Land Issues Will be Addressed in AUC’s 4-year Business Plan
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
To be completed
NEPAD’s Contribution to Implementing Evidence-driven Land Policy at Country Level
NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, South Africa
The last decade has seen an increase in the competing use and demand of land due to rapid urbanization; infrastructure development; commercial agriculture; mining and even large scale land based investments (‘land grabbing’). Again, the impact of climate change has led to degraded and eroded lands. The increase in demand for land, necessitates a paradigm shift in addressing land issues from a sectoral to a systematic approach. Policies and investment decisions should promote an equitable, sustainable and inclusive growth, development of cities and rural areas.
Encouraged by the adoption the framework and guidelines on land policy and the principles for large-scale land based investments by the African Union in 2014, the NEPAD Planning and Coordination Agency (NPCA) in 2015, established an integrated land governance program, for advancing rural development and structural transformation. The programme is aimed at making available data and produce evidence to raise understanding at the country and continental level of the role of land governance in Africa’s structural transformation and sustainable development. This paper will share NEPAD‘s strategic intervention on land policy in Africa.
(Keywords: Land governance, equity, social and economic transformation)
Harnessing the Potential of Land Policy for Madagascar's Development
Ministry of State for Presidential Projects, Country Planning and Equipment, Madagascar
To be completed
Using Land Policy as an Engine for Rural Growth: Opportunities and Challenges for Implementing Malawi's Land Acts
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
To be completed
AFDB's contribution to addressing land issues in support of agricultural development
African Development Bank
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-02: New Ways of Low-Cost Parcel Demarcation?|
Session Chair: Emmanuel Nkurunziza, Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
Parcel boundary adjustment of old cadastral maps with UAV images for efficient cadastral resurveying project in Rep. of Korea
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Currently, high quality images taken by unmanned aerial vehicle have attracted great attention because of fast and low-cost acquirement of geo-spatial data. One of important applications is quality assessment of old maps by comparing the maps and images. Then, out-of-dated geo-spatial objects in the maps can be removed or new real-world entities which do not reflected in the maps can be updated. Moreover, low positional accuracy of objects in the map can be improved by means of finding corresponding features between the maps and images. In Rep. of Korea, the cadastral resurveying project is a national-wide government project to revise and update old graphic cadastral map into accurate digital cadastral data. Previous field surveying methods such as total station or GPS surveys require significant time and cost so that a new method with fast and low-cost acquirement of geo-spatial data needs to be developed. In this study, a map conflation technique to obtain corresponding geometries between an old cadastral map and a UAV image and adjust the map into the image is proposed and experimented.
Mass Registration of Land Parcels Using Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration: Procedures and Methods
Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany
In many countries land parcels have not yet been demarcated and registered. With no complete and accurate land register a country cannot effectively manage its land and resources. It will need to carry out mass registration and establish the land administration system necessary to ensure secure land tenure, which in turn can attract national and international investors. The fit-for-purpose land administration approach has been applied in many countries in Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa. When mass registration is necessary there are two main procedures / methods which may be followed. For the purposes of this paper the two procedures will be labelled respectively the Carta and Terra procedures: (1) the Carta procedure because community participation commences with marking up boundaries on an orthophoto map and (2) the Terra procedure because community participation commences with marking up boundaries on the ground before producing the orthophoto maps. Both these procedures adhere to the fit-for-purpose land administration approach principle, in that they are flexible, inclusive, participatory, affordable, reliable, attainable, and upgradable. Countries which plan to implement mass land registration can choose which of the two procedures fits them best or choose the procedure that combines the advantages of both methods.
Low Cost, Post Conflict Cadastre with Modern Technology
1Esri, United States of America; 2Kadaster International, Netherlands
As Colombia continues the long road to peace, they recognize a key component to sustained peace and economic growth will be their cadastre. Choosing not to implement a system with traditional approaches, Colombia is embracing new technology, innovative approaches and recognized standards. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used and the status of progress in Colombia.
The e migration
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning Kenya, Kenya
Automating Land Services in Kenya has presented a unique challenge due to the various transitions in land legislation and administration.
The transformation has required deliberate action in a country accustomed to the specific tools commonly used in mobile phone platforms rather than online and e registers and transactions.
A multi dimensional approach to resolve, land Governance, land administration and sustainable land management in Kenya.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-03: Is there Scope for Inclusive Agribusiness Models?|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Landesa, United States of America
Legal Empowerment in Agribusiness Investments
IIED, United Kingdom
A recent wave of private sector investments in tropical agriculture has raised both hopes and fears for rural livelihoods and development prospects in low and middle-income countries. Evidence shows that, while investment in agriculture can be a force for good, ill-designed or implemented investments can undermine local livelihoods.
Interactions between governments, companies and affected people play an important role in shaping the terms and the outcomes of the deals. Yet these interactions often involve major asymmetries in capacity, resources, influence and negotiating power.
Legal empowerment interventions seek to strengthen the rights and voices of affected people, and their ability to get a fair deal. The spectrum of possible actions is broad, ranging from grassroots-level legal advice and representation through to linking local voices to international processes.
This paper distils insights from experiences with legal empowerment in agricultural investments. Drawing on selected examples, it conceptualises the spectrum of actors, actions and entry points, and explores the conditions affecting the effectiveness of the interventions. The paper also provide pointers for the design and implementation of legal empowerment interventions in the context of agricultural investments.
Land and Landscape Governance in Responsible Agri-supply chains in Africa
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
This paper explores the propositions that sound land governance is a fundamental to responsible investment in agri-food chains, and to foster sustainable and inclusive, local economies, land governance must be operationalised at a landscape or meso-territorial scale. We present findings of preliminary, literature-based research on current understandings and outcomes of market based, and hybrid governance approaches to both land and global value chains in the landscape or territorial context. Whereas land governance has taken a vertical, “flow-based” turn (Sikor et al 2014), emphasizing adoption of voluntary private standards aligned with global principles of the VGGT, landscape approaches at the forest frontier have begun to focus on cross-scalar interaction of governance instruments, and the potential of hybrid approaches combining voluntary private standards and stronger regulation. Although some authors promote jurisdictional landscape approaches, and territorially embedded value chain collaboration, discussion has privileged environmental issues, with little attention to land governance or distributional outcomes of land-use decisions and business models adopted. To help address policy knowledge gaps we propose research on the extension of hybrid land governance arrangements to the landscape scale, linked to a set of business-civil society agri-investment partnerships in African countries, and establishment of a broader coalition of research initiatives.
Ensuring Sustainable Agriculture Investment Through A Regional Model Contract
The best guarantee to achieve positive benefits from foreign investment is a solid foundation of domestic laws that are properly enforced. In many developing countries, however, the necessary domestic laws may not be in place or may not be sufficiently detailed. To its efforts to improve the legal framework for responsible investment in agriculture, the East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) perceive regional model contract as a innovative and sound instrument that represents a vehicle for the modernization and harmonisation of national laws and practices related to sustainable investment in the agriculture sector.
This instrument is flexible enough to allow States to adjust the text of the model contract to accommodate local requirements that vary from system to system and deals.
This paper presents key findings of a review of the legal and policy framework related to agricultural investment in the five East African Community partners States undertook by IISD. It presents the East african regional model contract for agriculture.
Palm Oil Financial Risks and Mitigation Tools
Climate Advisers, United States of America
Palm oil is an inexpensive and highly versatile oil derived from the fruit of the oil palm tree, a native of West Africa's tropical forests. It is found in half of all consumer goods on the shelves today in Western grocery stores. Palm kernel oil is also used as a bioeful to power vehicles, heat homes, and manufacture plastics. Due to its high yields and many uses, palm oil is the most actively traded edible oil in the world, with annual sales of $50 billion.
Indonesia and Malaysia have expanded their plantations and tripled production over the past 15 years, and today they account for 85 percent of global production. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, large-scale palm oil production is growing rapidly. For decades, however, the palm oil business has been criticized for its links to corruption, extinction, social injustice, and deforestation.
The paper will present financial case studies on:
• Supply and demand trends
• Corporate No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation commitments
• Corporations losing buyers for not achieving supply chain commitments
• Producers’ revenue-at-risk for poor supply chain management
• Approaches to ESG screening by asset owners / managers
• Joint venture expansions into Latin America and Africa
• Government procurement policies
• Biofuel mandates
• Proxy voting|
Delivering Transformation: The Status and Prospects of Emerging Tools to Leverage Commodity Supply Chains to Support Community Land Tenure
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
The world is better equipped than ever to leverage the power of the private sector to support secure local land tenure. But the complexities of addressing land tenure issues at the operational and investment level have largely limited private sector and CSO efforts to shift operations and investments to respect local rights and implement high level commitments.
Some individual companies and investors have demonstrated progress, but one-off examples and case studies will not provide sufficient basis to support collective action by a critical mass of private sector organizations to transform supply-chains and sectors. Unless the development world is able to demonstrate rapid, concrete results, companies and investors may revert to the ‘status quo’ of land acquisition and operations.
This presentation will provide an update on the status, progress, and next steps of the Interlaken Group and the IAN Risk Platform, two of the leading efforts to create ‘pre-competitive’ networks and practical tools to transform the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-04: Progress with VGGT Implementation|
Session Chair: Fritz Jung, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
Towards a culture of good governance: Implementing the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land (VGGT) have proven to be a very effective mechanism for participatory policy processes in many countries. By creating a multi-stakeholder platform where all relevant actors have a voice and can participate in the decisions that will affect their lives, the implementation of the VGGTs has proven to be a model of good governance that may well have strong spillover effects in areas beyond land, fisheries and forestry. The article will describe the successful experience of implementation in Sierra Leone, where the new land policy was developed through the multi-stakeholder process and the actual text of the policy draws language from the VGGTs. Using data and experience from other countries, the article performs an analysis of the factors for successful implementation of the VGGTs, including political will, an institutional framework with clear roles and responsibilities, an inclusive steering committee, a well-functioning multi-stakeholder platform that guarantees voice to all relevant stakeholders at central as well as decentralized levels, capacity developed among the actors to participate effectively in it, and strong accountability mechanisms. The article also analyses, with examples of several countries, the factors that hinder implementation.
The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VG): Core attributes of Successful Implementation by Countries
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy
On 11 May 2012, the VG were endorsed by CFS. FAO’s work started with awareness raising on how people could use the VG, whether they work in government, CSOs, the private sector and academia. And this work is ongoing – it never stops. Awareness raising provides a platform for other activities.
Drawing on FAO’s extensive experience at country level over the past five years in supporting countries in implementing the VG, the paper highlights on major axes of successful interventions across the whole set of countries of various regions and continents. Those are in four of the key areas where specific core approaches have been found to be successful in moving the responsible tenure governance agenda forward and illustrates these approaches with detailed country examples. The four key areas are as follows:
1. National multi-stakeholder platforms and processes; how they are constituted, how they work and what support is needed
2. Institutional frameworks, ministerial commitment and secretariat support
3. Capacity development
4. National policies and laws.
These elements should not be seen as being separate because the greatest benefits come when they are interlinked and mutually reinforcing. This paper will cover FAO’s experience on all these element one by one.
UN-REDD’s Progress in Supporting Partner Countries to Address Land Tenure
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
This paper presents what has been learned from the past 2.5 years of the UN-REDD Programme’s support to its partner countries to address tenure issues within the framework of REDD+. Following the request in the Cancun Agreements for country parties to address land tenure issues, and based on the conviction that tenure security is an important enabling condition for reducing deforestation and degradation, the UN-REDD Programme has provided financial and technical support to a number of its partner countries in Africa and Asia. The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure serve as the basis for informing and guiding work on tenure in the context of REDD+. Countries receiving support include Malawi, Tunisia, Benin, Madagascar, Zambia, Uganda, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.
The paper provides a summary of the type of support provided to each country and the main results and findings from the work undertaken. Common issues seen across countries and regions are highlighted in an effort to better understand how REDD+ programs may influence tenure security. Based on the experience to date, the author discusses some of the challenges to be overcome in order for efforts related to REDD+ and land tenure to be mutually reinforcing.
FAO Moving into a New Phase of VGGT Implementation
The momentum created by the endorsement of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the subsequent uptake by numerous global and regional governmental and non-governmental actors provides an opportunity to chart a new era of sustainable development through the responsible governance of tenure. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is making a significant contribution to this momentum. This study provides an insight into FAO’s VGGT Implementation Programme, reflecting upon the lessons learned to date from a broad range of initiatives and country projects. It captures the dynamic nature of global and national developments in the governance of tenure and sets out key strategies to meet these emerging challenges which are included in the next phase of FAO’s Implementation Programme.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-05: Ensuring Land Policy's Contribution to Gender Equality|
Session Chair: Vinodh Jaichand, Independent, South Africa
The Policy Response to Women’s Entitlement to Land: Implementation Gradualism in the Limits of Social Norms
Landesa, India, India
An analysis of land reforms policies in India shows that the state agencies speak simultaneously to two groups: the political elite nurtured with gendered forms of power who exercise power through access to political and economic institutions, and the political constituency of organized rural women and men who wield influence through the voting right. The contradictory power base of these two groups tends to result in implementation gradualism wrapped in the limits of social norms. The objective of this study is to locate the process of gender-responsive land reform policies in India. Secondary sources provide a background and explanation of observations in the fieldwork conducted in states Karnataka, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh.
The research findings suggest that, as a consequence of the continued demand for women’s entitlement to land, there have been some partial and fitful changes in policies and enactment of laws in India. Those women who had acquired entitlement to land had gained greater social status, increased bargaining power over household assets, experienced a reduction in gender-based violence. A broad conclusion is that the power of gendered norms diminishes in response to women’s claims for an independent access to ownership rights to land and productive assets.
Gender Equality - Goal or Tool?
1Lantmäteriet, Sweden (The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority); 2Kartverket, Norway (The Norwegian Mapping Authority)
Efficient management of land, forests and natural resources is recognized as being a vital ingredient in combatting poverty, climate change and improve sustainable economic and environmental development in a country. In addition, it is an extremely powerful tool that can be used to secure rights, ownership and access for indigenous people, poor and other vulnerable people. This powerful tool can if misused be a severe hinder for sustainable development, democracy and gender equality.
In some land administration projects, gender equality is being used as a goal in itself, something that can be easily measured; resulting in inadequate activates and measures. In many cases switching perspective and using gender equality as a tool to achieve results, e.g. increased capacity within a government land administration organization enabling more transparent, efficient and reliable service to the citizens is a more appropriate way. In the global challenge, striving towards the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, gender equity has the potential of being the most powerful tool of them all.
Political Economy of Land Governance and Women’s Empowerment – The Case of Meghalaya
The World Bank, India
This paper delves into the complex dynamics between traditional and formal institutions affecting land rights in the tribal state of Meghalaya and its repercussions on gender equity. The state is unique in its long established matrilineal background where traditional customs defines property rights. In terms of inheritance tradition, it is the daughter of the family who is responsible for “management” of family land for productive purpose. She, however, has no decision making rights over the same. With the state government bringing in modern instruments of land governance, significant social changes are being felt in the changing nature of land relations. The modern instruments are enabling increased commodification of community land with increased incidences of sale of community land to private individuals. Moreover, since women are traditionally excluded from any representation in local governance – this absence of decision making power is increasingly being reinforced at the wake of the changing land dynamics. This is leading to more women not just not owning land any more, but also becoming bereft of any power to have control over the same. This paper looks into the evolution of the nature of land ownership and governance and its implication on women’s status, in the state.
Claiming And Realizing Right To Land: Can Development Organizations Address The Gender Disparities In Bangladesh?
1University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Ohio University, USA
Right to own property is an important component of the social contract upon which a modern state is established. The laws of inheritance vary from religion to religion in Bangladesh context. Principles of distributing the property of inheritance are deeply connected with patriarchal belief, cultural pattern, history and traditions. Consequently, women in Bangladesh, in most instances are the victims of unequal distribution of land as property. BRAC, as the largest NGO of the world has been addressing multiple human-rights based issues through development programs for more than four decades. BRAC’s Human Right and Legal Aid Service (HRLS) program under the ‘Property Rights Initiative (PRI)’ aims to address the right to land problem by ensuring access to property rights for poor and vulnerable people, particularly women. This paper aims to respond: How effective is development organization's targeted intervention for women in claiming and realizing their 'right to land? This paper presents the findings of an impact assessment carried out on the project. The paper concludes although the project is addressing the practical needs of women by raising awareness, the strategic gender need has yet to be achieved.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: Creating the Data to Support Urban Land Management|
Session Chair: Peter Baumann, Jacobs U | rasdaman, Germany
Can We Talk About Smart Cities Without a Proper Land Management System In Place?
Can we talk about Smart Cities without a proper Land Management System in place?
“Today, 54 per cent of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050. Projections show that urbanization combined with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa, according to a new United Nations report launched today.” (2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA)
“Managing urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century. Our success or failure in building sustainable cities will be a major factor in the success of the post-2015 UN development agenda,” (John Wilmoth, Director of UN DESA’s Population Division)
For me it´s very simple, we can´t talk about “Smart Cities” without talk about “Smart Cadastre” and “Smart Public Registry” or “Smart Land Management Systems”.
Spatial Information for Developed and Developing Smart Cities
The Open Geospatial Consortium
Urban population accounts for more than half of the world’s population (World Health Organization). By 2030, this is expected to rise to 60%, with 95% of growth occurring in the developing world (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), 2015, Goal 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable), with a substantial proportion living in poverty in Megacities. High density cities can realize efficiency gains by making better use of spatial information. Geospatial information is often difficult to find, share, fuse, analyse and publish. Open standards are critical to enabling cities to ensure the data is made available to produce information that is actionable and fit for purpose and will work well with existing and emerging technologies. Maximizing the use of the data, selecting an appropriate level of openness and building an enabling infrastructure, supports improved governance.
The OGC has developed a Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework to provide guidance on how ICT location standards for City Models, Sensors, and Mobile enable efficient information management to support informed decisions for such scenarios as coastal flooding, 3D city modelling and Public Security. This talk will present the framework using examples from Dhaka, Bangladesh, the City of Berlin and other cities.
A New Spatial Indicator To Identify Ghettos
1Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; 2World Bank
From a statistical point of view, there are many reports that portrait similarities or differences between areas inside a city. This paper tries to highlight the importance of spatial correlation between observations in order to have a confidence interval of any assertion related to characteristics of a city. In particular, with information available from a standard population and housing census associated to block cartography, we present an attempt to locate ghettos based on characteristics extracted from census data. We believe this methodology will allow governments or NGOs to focus in city areas where needs are more acute.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-07: Methodologies to Evaluate Land Program Impact|
Session Chair: Heath Cosgrove, USAID, United States of America
A Land Evidence Framework
Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Following global agreement around the Voluntary Guidelines and Responsible Agricultural Investments, increasing investments are being made to improve land tenure and governance. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recently highlighted the importance of land in alleviating poverty, incorporating land tenure indicator 1.4.2 under Goal 1. As interventions and global monitoring of land increases, donors and governments are requesting better evidence on the impacts of land interventions and a comparable understanding of the status of land governance across the globe. As we look to improve our monitoring and evaluation frameworks, establishing global land indicators and data collection, what does the existing literature on land tell us and can we see consistent patterns emerging? How does the evidence to date compare to land's theory of change and what are the key gaps in the land evidence that would benefit from further analysis? Based on land evidence, this presentation offers an approach to modeling the economic benefits from improvements in property rights and land policy and suggests key areas for further research and understanding of the impacts from land.
Investigating the Causal Channels for Increasing Land Tenure Security: An Organisation-Specific Systematic Review
Improved land tenure security has become increasingly adopted as a means of reducing rural poverty. And accordingly, it is imperative that efforts are made to ensure practitioners have a strong understanding of its causal dynamics. In a bid to address a perceived lack of such understanding, and to identify gaps in the literature, this piece of research has conducted a comprehensive review of the existing evidence around the impact of secured land tenure, using the Systematic Review methodology. This review is unique in that it is specifically tailored to the land tenure-related activities of a single organisation, the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The research finds a total of 60 quantitative and qualitative papers that fit the inclusion criteria, which offer varying levels of support for the different causal mechanisms within the Theory of Change of IFAD's land tenure intervention portfolio.
Contextual Factors, Property Regimes, and Environmental Outcomes: Applying a Realist Synthesis Approach to a Systematic Review of Marine Protected Areas
1Portland State University, United States of America; 2CIFOR, Indonesia; 3CIFOR, Finland
Given the complex nature of common pool resource systems, evidence review approaches that help clarify when, how, where, and why property regime interventions are likely to result in positive environmental (or other) outcomes are needed. Realist synthesis has emerged as a promising approach in public health for identifying the mechanisms that condition policy intervention outcomes when complex systems are involved. Our paper describes the results of applying a realist approach to synthesizing data from 31 articles on marine resource governance. Owing to space limitations, we focus on an in-depth context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) analysis of five of the customary tenure regimes described in the sample dataset. Use of this approach allowed us to reach a better understanding of three key social mechanisms — perceptions of legitimacy, perceptions of the likelihood of benefits, and perceptions of enforcement capacity — that condition behaviors vis-à-vis marine and terrestrial resources. Our study contributes to the field of natural resources governance by demonstrating the utility of a systematic review method which has received little attention by property scholars but which has great promise to clarify understanding of how complex systems work.
Using innovative research methodologies to uncover nuance and diversity: The results of household diaries in Odisha, India
Landesa, United States of America
In this paper we discuss a methodology called household diaries (hereafter Diaries). The method brings together quantitative and qualitative research collected in nine visits to 150 households in Odisha between November 2015 and November 2016. Our findings highlight that 1) The number of parcels of land that households relied on with varying tenurial arrangements was higher than expected; 2) Conceptualizations of ownership are ambiguous and subjective; 3) Households consistently relied on undocumented plots; 4) The number of plots relied on by each household fluctuated over time; 5) Diversification was crucial for poor households who often struggled to meet basic needs and had to rely on land and non-land based activities; 6) The Diaries improved accuracy of data on plots of land.
The findings help our programming in two ways. It would help inform programming on what would be needed if beneficiaries of land programs are to experience increased food security and agricultural production and therefore reduce poverty, key outcomes of interest to development practitioners. Second, it will help us to improve our evaluation approach going forward. Our past efforts at evaluation focused mainly on homestead plots and to some extent the other plots that households owned.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: How to Ensure Public Trust in Land Records?|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Land and Property Rights Guaranteed and Protected
HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
Secure land tenure rights are widely accepted to be beneficial in a number of ways, in particular as important elements to support economic development, social justice and safe environments.
The presentation explores how that security, or the perception of that security, can be delivered at scale and is based on experience at HM Land Registry. It will describe how HM Land Registry delivers guaranteed and protected property rights in England and Wales and the aspects of its model which are capable of providing confidence in the market, inspiring trust in the land authority and could be applied in service delivery models in other countries to provide a fit for purpose land administration system, tailored to local conditions.
Overselling the Mirror and Curtain Principles of Land Titling
University of Twente, Netherlands, The
Two forms of the land registration component of land administration systems are normally distinguished: deeds registration and title registration. In the latter the register is supposed to reflect the correct legal situation (“mirror-principle”), and there is no need for further (historic) investigation beyond the register (“curtain principle”). In reality, as shown in recent student work, both these principles do not work out as simple as this sounds. The mirror is either very incomplete (allowing for overriding interests) or tends to put the title before reality, even if the title has been acquired through manipulation. The curtain is lifted, and buyers want easy (on-line) access to earlier transaction documents to verity themselves how the current right holder on the title came into that position. With the proclaimed advantages of title registration not real, and some disadvantages still there, also the legal framework of fit-for-purpose land administration needs to be rethought.
Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Administration Systems
Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Information Systems:
Verification and integration of land data from external sources
Why would a manager of authentic land data (like a national land agency) trust data that comes from external or ‘informal’ sources? How can we create conditions whereby integration of data from ‘informal’ sources may enrich and complement ‘formal’ sources as authentic data? How can we make sure society will benefit from the value created by ‘informal’ land data sets? How can these data sets be used successfully for a wider range of purposes than the original ones? The authors research the answers to these questions using experiences and evidence from practice in Benin, Namibia, Togo, Indonesia Suriname, Aruba and the Netherlands.
Land Registry, Mortgage Markets and Consumer Protection
IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
The modern systems of land Registration appeared during the XVIII and XIX Centuries linked to the mortgage market and cross border investment. The Registries originally organized as offices of mortgages evolved into property registries. As stated in the Prussian Mortgage Law the main aim of the Registry was to make easier the land credit and this was a model for many european countries. In order to achieve this goal the Land Registry no t only provides information about the encumbrances on a plot of Land but is an important tool to bring to an end the usurary credits, which links the Land Registry with the programs to fight poverty. In 2013 the European Union approved a Directive 93/13 CEE on unfair terms in consumer contracts. The Key question of this paper is to see if the Land Registry can play a decisive role in the enforcement of the Directive. This poses the problem of the organization of the Land Registries and the background of the people who perform function as registrars. Recent Sentences from the European Court of Justice have taken into account the problem of mortgage foreclosures, unfair clauses in mortgage contracts and unfair interests rates against consumers.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Applying Land Administration Domain Models|
Session Chair: Christiaan Lemmen, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Development and Employment of a LADM Implementing Toolkit in Colombia
1BSF Swissphoto AG, Switzerland; 2Cadastre Subdirectorate, Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi, Colombia; 3Office for Geoinformation, Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland
The Swiss Government is currently financing a project which provides technical assistance to the Colombian institutions in order to establish the conceptual and technical bases of a modernized land administration.
This paper explains the data modelling process and methodology applied by the project for adopting the ISO19152 (Land Administration Domain Model) in Colombia and for describing the LADM country profile using the Conceptual Schema Language INTERLIS, as well as the development of specific Free and Open Source Software tools that support the countrywide implementation of the standard.
The project’s Model-Driven Approach responds to the conceptual framework of the Multipurpose Cadastre defined by the Colombian Government, where the operation of the cadastre will be delegated to third-party operators by applying a “Freedom of Methods” principle. Because of this principle, a system independent data exchange mechanism is needed, a requirement that INTERLIS meets. With the developed Data Validation Tool and its integration with a web service, data delivered by the cadastre operators is checked against the LADM-COL model.
With the defined, well-documented and successfully applied modelling process, methodology and deployed tools, a LADM Implementing Toolkit is at the disposal of countries that face similar challenges as Colombia in modernizing their land administration.
Improving Land Administration in Brazil: re-engineering Cadastre using LADM
Brazilian recent advances in rural cadastre are noticeable. However, there are important issues that must be addressed to support land rights recognition, conciliate conflicts and control land use. To support this, it is being developed a National Cadastre project, considering: (i) the legislation; (ii) organizational framework: roles of the government agencies, including the existence of one rural cadastre and more than five thousand urban ones, under municipalities responsibility; (iii) the Land Administration Domain Model - LADM, ISO 19152:2012; (iv) Fit-for-purpose for Land Administration concepts: different classes for data in cadastre, allowing that the less precise evolves to more precise, in time; (v) Socio-cultural issues: potential tenure conflicts arising from the need of definition of boundaries; (vi) technical context of cadastre. Partial achievements are: modeling of the occupational situation and the basic land rights in levels, according to Brazilian Civil Code and based on LADM classes; object diagrams of several tenure situations, including traditional communities, land reform settlements and land conveyancing; Business Process Maps of part of the data inclusion and update. It is expected that with this project, it should be possible to improve Land Administration in Brazil with an integrated concept of cadastre provided by LADM, enabling the multipurpose applications.
Models Of Interaction Between Land Registries, Cadasters, and Land Tenure Systems
Habitat for Humanity International LAC Region, Peru
There are remarkable gaps of information (as incoherencies, fragmentation, inconsistency) between registries, cadasters and land systems which relates to negative consequences related to poverty and inequity that impact economic growth, public finances, public participation, urban planning, and access to housing, environmental and social conflicts.
Legal institutions in Latin American countries commonly prioritize the private property as the core of property rights, which are widespread in the various legislations, but the difference is that they become more effective compared to others, based on: i) the regulatory frameworks how they are applied in practice to deal with informality, security of tenure, and housing for the neediest; ii) the institutional capacities and practices on land administration including the use of geo-reference data; and, iii) the needs of the population to access land tenure protection mechanisms.
Based in the cases of Peru, Bolivia, and Guatemala this paper argues that the use of technology, specifically the use of geo reference information interlinking land registry, cadaster, and land tenure systems will positively impact responsible land governance.
Land Registration Data Standards, Interoperability and Data Access in Kenya
1Ministry of Lands - Kenya, Kenya (MoL); 2Technical University of Kenya (TUK); 3The University of Nairobi (UoN)
Land Registration and Administration in Kenya operates on a multi-legal platform [UN 2013]. The Land Registration Act No. 3 of 2012 (LRA) was enacted to consolidate, harmonize and rationalize land registration goals which are yet to be achieved. This is majorly because in as much as the 2012 statute repealed five out of the seven major lands registration laws they all remain in force under LRA’s transitional clauses.
The Government of Kenya is making efforts to avail land registration information online via the e-citizen platform. This is the official Government portal for e-payments. It is meant to facilitate e-land searches from the point of payment to downloading the land information instantly without the need to go to the lands office physically. The uptake of this search is however slow because it is not fully legally recognized.
Innovative Rural Cadastre Development in Ethiopia
1NIRAS, Responsible and Innovative Land Administration(REILA)Project, Ethiopia; 2Hansa Luftbild, Germany; 3Ministry of Agriculture Natural Source (MoANR),Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate (RLAUD), Ethiopia
This lightning talk presents the development of a fully-functional „National Rural Land Administration Information System” (NRLAIS) for Ethiopia, based on free and open-source software (FOSS).
Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic whose constitution and land legislation gives significant powers to its regional states. Against this background and with the support of the Responsible and Innovative Land Administration Project (REILA) , the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, responsible to manage and administer the rural land, developed an IT strategy to find the most suitable option to harmonise rural land administration in the country.
The development of the pilot system was awarded to Hansa Luftbild, a geoinformation services company from Muenster, Germany. It is based on FOSS components and applies the ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard. With its innovative and cost-effective architecture and modular “tool-kit” approach it is independent of a fully functioning internet infrastructure and can be easily adapted to cater for different legal requirements of the Ethiopian regional states.
The system development commenced in April 2015. A prototype will be delivered by December 2016, and by the end of April 2017 the system is expected to be in full operation after rigorous testing at six different pilot offices.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-10: Agribusiness Investment, Land Tenure, and Land Use|
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource equity, United States of America
Rubber Boom and Land Use Dynamics in Southwest China: Driving Force and Its Impact on Carbon Balances
1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany; 2University of Hohenheim, Germany; 3Peking University, China
The objective of this study is to explore the trajectory of land use change of smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN and empirically examine its driving factors as well as evaluate its implications for local environment regarding carbon balances. The analyses use the household survey data of some 600 smallholder rubber farmers conducted in 2013 in XSBN, and the collected second-hand time series data such as GDP and the prices of rubber and other crops in the past three decades. Follow the Seemingly Unrelated Time Series Equations framework (SUTSE), we develop a structural model to estimate the changes in land use pattern in XSBN. A simple land use allocation model is established to analyze the impacts of farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics and geographical conditions on their decisions of land use for rubber farming. Finally, follow the Rapid Carbon Stock Appraisal (RaCSA) method, we estimate the carbon stocks of land use systems of all sample households in XSBN over the past three decades. The results provide critical information on the trajectory of rubber expansion and land use change in XSBN, and is intended to support discussions on the future of rubber based land use system and its sustainability.
Gender Norms and Gendered Impacts of the Oil Palm 'Land Rush' in Indonesia
1Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia; 2University of Brighton, UK; 3University of Indonesia, UK
Gender issues are relegated to the periphery in current debates and approaches concerning the sustainable governance of oil palm. However, ongoing research by the Center for International Forestry Research in collaboration with University of Brighton, University of Indonesia and the Rights and Resources Initiative in Indonesia points to the critical roles that women play as workers, smallholders and members of affected communities. Oil palm expansion is displacing local women from land on which they cultivate food crops. Women workers’ contributions to production are either less visible, rendering them as shadow workers, or women are over-represented in the ‘casual worker’ category, with limited entitlement. Male community leaders and household heads have a greater voice in decision-making process. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) could be a platform to raise gender awareness, hold producers accountable and offer lessons for other standards in the sector. However, the RSPO principles and criteria, guidance and auditing mechanisms conflate gender with other forms of discrimination and view gender issues as beyond RSPO boundaries. Greater specificity and clarity in the P&C are needed and so is guidance on selection, training and evaluation of social auditors. RSPO must also learn from good practices in other certification schemes.
The Impact Of Large-Scale Land Development Deals That Remain Unimplemented
1Dept of Geoscience, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Faculty of Forestry, National University of Laos, Laos
Many land deals are never implemented or only partially so and more knowledge is needed regarding the ways in which unimplemented or abandoned projects affect local communities. We use empirical interview-based case-study evidence of the first three years of a large-scale biofuel project in northern Laos, examining the negotiation processes of a partially abandoned project and its effect on local people’s land access and their perceived tenure security. The project negatively affected local land use and community members’ land rights. Political pressure on administrative actors to increase economic development in poor provinces and districts, limited consideration of proposals and priorities from villages, combined with officials’ lack of experience of negotiating large contracts and limited attention paid to exit conditions created a strong bargaining-position for investors. However, the investment project helped the government policy to move away from the traditional, subsistence-oriented land use, towards commercially oriented agricultural production. In this way, we argue that the land grab continues after the original investor is gone.
Where Effective Governance is Absent, Ineffective Governance Becomes the Obvious: Interrogating Large Land Acquisition Processes and its Impacts on Investment Projects in South West Cameroon. The Case of Herakles Farms.
University of Melbourne, Australia
This paper will examine how the conventional top-down approach used in large-scale land allocation to foreign investors undermines the effective implementation of land investment projects in Cameroon. Long-held customary land used by communities in the South West Region to sustain rural livelihoods is under ‘grab’ by foreign investors for the development of commercial oil palm plantations without the consent of those on the land. This paper will argue that the approach used to acquire land is elite- dominated, corrupt, and shapes prospects for local resistance, which in turn negatively affects the effective implementation of investment projects despite government’s approval. The study will advocate the need for effective land governance policies – suggesting a re-visitation of the existing politico-administrative and legal instruments governing land use and management in the country, with emphasis on the need to practically engage local communities in land deal negotiation and implementation processes. Without these, I argue that local communities will continue to contest the establishment of commercial agricultural projects on ancestral land despite its promises in enhancing local economic development.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Implications of Evolving Land Markets for Equity|
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Competitiveness of land rental market and productivity growth in Ukrainian agriculture
Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Land market in Ukraine is yet emerging. Despite the establishment of private property for land and 25 years of reforms, it is not fully functional. Its ‘rental’ arm has been the main farmland transaction channel for farmers and landowners. Its ‘sales and purchases’ arm is virtually dysfunctional due to the farmland sales ban or moratorium. The moratorium was introduced in 2001 as a temporary measure, but since then it has been extended 8 times. Yet expectations of lifting the moratorium for farmland sales in Ukraine (expected from the January 1st 2018) escalate a debate on conditions and restrictions of rental and sales market for agricultural land. Some restrictions such as possible caps on the size of land holdings are yet debated, other restrictions such as imposing 7 years floor on duration of rental contracts, payments in cash only and regulations on size of rental payment are already in place. While the scope of debated land market regulations is wide, almost no evidence exists on their economic implications in agricultural sector. In this paper we look at the competitiveness of the local farmland market and the state of the land governance, and how it affects local productivity growth.
Leasehold Rights As A Vehicle For Economic Development: The Case of Small Scale Farmers In The Oshikoto Region
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Secure tenure is believed to be a necessary condition for economic development, increasing the use of credit to invest on the land, increasing land transactions, reducing disputes and raising productivity. Namibia therefore introduced several land reform instruments to address the pre-independence imbalances in land ownership patterns through the use of long-term lease agreements. It was expected that leasehold rights would enable smallholder farmers to be economically productive and bring them into the mainstream economy by using the lease agreements to access capital and investments to support agricultural production. The researchers investigated the impact of long-term leases on the ability of beneficiaries to access financing for improved livelihoods and agricultural production.They analysed the institutional framework for resettlement allocations and the transaction costs in order to analyse the impact of leaseholds on the beneficiaries’ ability to access credit and mobilise investments.It was found that no lessee had used their leasehold rights to access credit or mobilise investments, even though they considered their rights to be generally secure and the transaction costs are within international norms.The researchers concluded that the inability to access credit is due to an information deficit and the economic infeasibility of the parcel/beneficiary relation.
Freedom to Farm: Agricultural Land Use, Crop Selection, Fallowing, and Proposed Changes to the Myanmar Farmland Law Necessary to Strengthen Land Tenure Security
Landesa, United States of America
The freedom to farm one’s land as one chooses, as manifested in overall agricultural land use, crop choice, and fallowing, is an assumed right held by many agriculturalists. In the Myanmar context, government restrictions create a different environment for smallholders. The Farmland Law of 2012 prohibits the growing of alternative crops and the fallowing of land without permission of the government, and the same law, requires applications for permission to grow alternative crops. To better understand what is at stake with these prohibitions in place, this paper produced for USAID explores: first, the basis for general right for agriculturalists to use their farmland as they wish, based in the productivity and food security related to this freedom to farm, and the international norms which support it; second, the right to crop selection, examining the economic issues involved, including the land tenure security benefits of crop choice and the agricultural benefits of crop diversity, as well as legal and ecological issues; third, the basis for the right to fallow, again looking at the economic effects of fallowing, as well as the cultural, legal, and ecological issues involved; and fourth, proposed amendments to the Farmland Law to strengthen the freedom to farm.
Land Fragmentation and Land Services Delivery Ratios on Mailo Tenure in Uganda: Evidence from LIS Data
Associates Research Uganda
Land fragmentation is a phenomenon which constitutes one of the biggest obstacles to profitable agricultural production. It is further exacerbated by skewed ownership of land, with women and youth having limited access to productive land. This paper shows the extent of land fragmentation on mailo tenure, the oldest forms of registered tenure in most of central and western Uganda. Fragmentation is measured by analyzing administrative data from Uganda’s modern Land Information System (LIS) set up in 2013 to 2016. Taking into account the complexes of plots aggregation, results on occurrence and intensity are presented, with additional qualitative analysis on land sector services ratios and the impact of fragmentation on women registered as owners or co-owners, to represent the real situation on the ground in selected follow-up parcels. Whereas publically accessible land information underpins tenure security especially where development pressures create an ever increasing demand for land, it is important to enhance capacity and quality of data captured in LIS to reflect the process that a particular transaction or land parcel goes through and treat transactions as stages at which data must be captured so as to yield completeness.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-12: New Approaches to Large Scale Land Acquisition|
Session Chair: Hafiz Mirza, UNCTAD, Switzerland
The intricacies of large scale agricultural investment in Gambella Region, Ethiopia
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
Ethiopian government use agricultural investment as the most important and effective strategies for economic growth, food security and poverty reduction in the country. Since the mid-2000s, government has awarded millions hectares of fertile land to rich countries. This study explores the impact of large scale agriculture investment and its consequences to local livelihoods in Gambella region, Ethiopia. Gambella people’s survival and their identity are strongly tied to the land and the rivers that run through it. However, currently foreign and local investors grab the farm area on an industrial scale and that deprives their livelihoods and increasing food insecurity. Moreover, large land acquisition has been tremendous environmental devastation in region like forest has been cleared and burnt, wetland drained and people are largely dependent on international food aid and financial assistance. Further, it leads to displacement of smallholder farmers, loss of grazing land for pastoralists, loss of incomes and livelihoods for the peoples. Lastly, due to lack of good governance and transparency in the region, the natural resources are depleted and societies became food insecure. Therefore, Ethiopian government strategies are on the verge of falling unless integrated approach is not implemented.
Key words: agricultural investment, livelihoods, food insecurity, integrated approach
Understanding the Implication of Macroeconomic Growth on Smallholder Farmer, Landless, Landpoor and Women's livelihood and Land Rights in Lower Mekong Basin Region
1Oxfam America, Cambodia; 2Rapid Asia Co.,Ltd
Rapid economic expansion has led to an increase in demand for agricultural land, creating land tenure insecurity for the small-scale farmers. It also leads to negatively affected, as key industrial sector and other development project. Land grabbing, or the acquisition of land by the individual and cooperate investors or government is become a major threat to small scale famer and put their food security at risk “Why have smallholders been ignored or regularly stigmatized as old-fashioned, resistant of innovation, inefficient, and a barrier to modernization?” They contribute to the production of about 50% of the world’s food, which quells hunger in developing countries. In addition small-scale farmers in Lower Mekong Basin Countries also face challenges on several other fronts. In rural areas, involuntarily imposed landlessness is one of the main drivers of poverty. Considering this context, this paper aims to identify the characteristic and implications of economic growth’s effect on small-scale farmers, women farmers and landless in access to land and other resources in order to help understand and investigate the underlying issues of growth and its distribution in those LMB countries and analyzes How to minimize the negative impact of current policies and practices on smallholders ‘wellbeing and livelihood.
Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: The Yala Swamp Case Study of Kenya’s Land Governance System and Actual Practices
KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya
This paper examines large-scale land acquisitions in Kenya by looking at the case of the Dominion Farms Limited takeover of Yala Swamp. The case study illustrates actual practices of Kenya’s land governance system in terms of how large-scale land acquisitions take shape and their results on the ground. The phenomenon in Kenya as elsewhere in Africa is not new except the scale and scope has been exacerbated by the increased demand for large-scale land acquisitions for production of food, bio-fuels and extractive industry raw materials since 2008 (Alden Wily, 2011; Anseeuw et al, 2012; Deininger, 2011; World Bank, 2010; Amanor, 2012). This paper seeks to use Dominion Farms Ltd, a project of an American investor to show how it forms the continuation of past practices. It explores whether or not the new land governance frameworks are able to regulate such investments to ensure that they address the implications such as loss of access by local communities to agricultural land and commons for grazing and fishing. The paper further explores changes that have taken place at Yala Swamp from 2003 to 2013 and assesses them against the backdrop of recent and emerging land governance regulatory frameworks at national, regional and global levels.
Smallholders and large –scale land acquisition in west Africa: the case of the management committees of customary land in Benin
LADYD, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin
Rather than to defend that land investments is top-down phenomenon that facilitates African states, this article question the role of smallholders in land investments. The results show that many young illiterate or/scholars villagers sharing family relationships form some land management committees of their lineages. These committees functions as boards. They promote the land deals leasing whose areas range from 20 to 1,500 hectares in investors. The proliferation of large-scale land deals in the villages studied is motivated by the will of the family property management committees to control customary land. Three objectives underlying this desire to control: firstly, counter fraudulent land sales; secondly, create opportunities for rural development through land investments; and thirdly, to formalize boundaries of ‘stool land’ to avert potential future land litigations. In the villages, it exists connivance relationships between management organizations of "clans’ lands" and the other institutions involved in land regulation. From these complicities, offices of these management committees are able to easily circumvent the government measures of large-scale land investments restrictions in order to formalize the land deals for the benefit of investors.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-13: Land Value Capture Experiences|
Session Chair: William Mccluskey, African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, United Kingdom
A Century of Unsuccessful Attempts at Value Capture? An Analysis of the UK’s Track Record
Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
The UK has used a variety of devices to try to capture the increase in land value resulting from demographic or economic growth or consent for a change land use to a more valuable one. The Finance Act 1909 was strongly influenced by the ideas of Henry George. It proved difficult to implement but was abolished when the government lost power. Subsequently town planning acts in 1947, 1967 and 1975 and 1976 brought in betterment levies and powers for local authorities to acquire land. In each case the legislation was brought in by Labour governments and abolished by Conservative ones with evidence of development being held back in the expectation that the measure would be short-lived. Implementation in each case was complex. The 1990 Planning Act allowed the imposing of planning obligations and contributions from developers and a community infrastructure levy has sought to make this more systematic and predictable. Against the problems of these measures revaluations of business rates, stamp duty land tax payable by buyers and capital gains tax on sellers have encountered much less political opposition or implementation problems. These measures suggest that although betterment levies can be difficult to collect other taxes can perform similar functions.
Transformation Of Land To Land Lot, Value Gain, Land Speculation, And Opportunities For Sharing Value Increment: An Evaluation Of The Turkey Example
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 3ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 4ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey
Income from taxes constitutes the main revenue source of local and central governments in emerging economies. Urban services envisaged in development plans for rapidly growing urban populations are provided by local governments; however, available financial resources remain inadequate for effective, efficient and high quality service delivery. Especially in urban centers, the transformation of land to land lots and increasing residential density in the urban periphery place additional economic burden on local governments. In this context, a model proposal has been made towards controlling by taxation, which is an application tool of land lot policy, of urban sprawl process, increasing local government revenues and reducing revenue loss to a minimum in the Ankara Metropolitan area, of which scale is gradually growing and governance efficiency is declining. The results of the evaluation carried out in a 59.7 hectare study area in the Çukurambar Region in the Çankaya District of Ankara Province have shown that local governments’ tax revenues will increase by a factor of four by value increment financing. Using practices such as controlling the process of transformation of land to land lot, property tax, taxation of value increment, and reducing economic rent seekers’ tendencies of acquiring unearned increment will be possible.
Capturing Land Value after the Collapse of the Oil Economy to Finance Luanda's New Urbanisation
Development Workshop, Angola
With the collapse of oil prices through 2014 and 2015 the Angolan state budget has been drastically reduced, and the government will not be able to provide investment and subsidies to continue building new housing and urban infrastructure.
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum-based guarantees to build prestige urban projects. The private sector, both international and local has been a major beneficiary of construction subsidies from the state. The private sector, however, has been reluctant to provide their own financing and invest in real-estate due to weak land tenure and the lack of legislative reforms to make a functional land market. Solving the problems around land may be a way to stimulate the engagement of private sector participation in providing financing for the housing sector.
The author argues that "land-value capture”, a method that provided financing for the growth of Chinese cities, should to be studied and could be adapted in Angolan cities. It could provide an opportunity to finance the large backlog in urban upgrading of basic service infrastructure and housing for the poor for cities like Luanda.
Does Ethical And Participative Land Based Financing Support Better Land Governance
1University of East london, United Kingdom; 2UN-Habitat; 3Arab Urban Development Institute; 4Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
The use of land to generate resources for its development and the reverse process of external investments into land development are well known. Not sufficiently explored is how or whether choices of financial arrangements affect individual relationship with land, and land governance. The essay explores examples of facilitating alternative, ethical and Islamic finance and outcomes for land governance.
The objective of the paper is to consider the possible correlation between participative/ethical finance models and improved land governance prospects. Ethical finance features of such closer reliance on land (asset based), profit and loss models and value imperatives promoting real or abstract notions that contribute to land governance are studied. The paper interrogates the construction of land financing as a limited question of availability without exploring the possible benefits of participative finance for land governance.
|12:00pm - 12:30pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-02: Caucus on Women and Land|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-14: Plenary: Harnessing the Potential of New Data|
Session Chair: Steven Ramage, Group on Earth Observations (GEO), France
New Opportunities to Access High Resolution Imagery for Affordable Cadastral Mapping
DigitalGlobe, United States of America
Space offer s a unique vantage point to map the changing planet at its finest detail. Vast libraries of imagery collected over time give you a look into the past, present, and with satellite life designed for 12+ years, continuity to 2028 and beyond. As we collect imagery more and more imagery, it is now possible to create accurate 3D models that can be used for urban cadaster. Detailed mosaics of countries allow for rapid mapping of land cadaster economically, especially with changing business models in the commercial remote sensing industry.
How the Microsatellite Revolution can Help Developing Countries Achieve the SDGs
Planet, Inc., United States of America
To be completed
Supporting the EO r/evolution at scale - shifting the focus from data to services
1European Space Agency (ESA-ESRIN), Italy; 2The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
How the Bank can help its clients to better access and use spatial data
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
What is Google Earth Engine?
Google, United States of America
To be c