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10-09: Analyzing Land Policy Making in Africa
Scope for Decentralization of Land Administration in Africa: Evidence from Local Administrative Data in Mozambique
Michigan State University, United States of America
This study uses administrative records from the land administration system accessed through the provincial land administration offices at the Ministry of Agriculture aiming at assessing the scope of decentralization by testing the fragmentation or competition hypothesis arguing that decentralization is likely to improve the performance of land administration system in Mozambique. In a way, this paper assesses the relationship between the structures and performance by identifying the correlations or the effect of the structure on the performance to have a better understanding of other factors that are likely to improve its performance.
This study uses an application of the Structure, Conduct, and Performance (SCP) paradigm to test the “structure performance hypothesis” to testing research hypothesis that fragmentation or competition hypothesis which posits that an increased fragmentation should lead to greater choice of the clientele of land administration services (landholders) and thus increased competition among the local administrative government units, reducing the size of the central government public services. Results of the study allow to supports the decentralization hypothesis provided that investment support is provided.
The Challenges of Using Spatial and Demographic Data for Development in Nigeria
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
Nigeria is suffering from high unemployment, increasing poverty and an over-dependence on oil. Increased foreign and domestic investment in strategic industries would diversify the economy, and encourage growth and employment. Traditionally, it has been difficult for investors to access critical for strategic commercial decisions. This is the case for a number of reasons including minimal existing data, a lack of infrastructure and standards to allow this data to be shared, and a lack of capacity in both the State and the private sector to analyse the data. In order to overcome these issues, the Growth and Employment in States 3 programme (GEMS3) has developed a fit-for-purpose land registration system which allows the collation of large amounts of data, spatial and socio-economic. GEMS3 is looking at ways to ‘package’ this data in order to allow investors and the State to easily interpret and then utilise it in a meaningful way. The programme has also recommended the development of spatial data infrastructure to ensure that this data and data from various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and private sector actors can be shared and accessed freely.
A Programme for Improving Land Governance Transparency in Ethiopia
1MOKORO Ltd., United Kingdom; 2Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
A recent study identifies positive elements in Government thinking on land governance, despite criticisms over recent years. The smallholder titling program and new Rural Land Administration System are one example, while 2005 land legislation improved tenure security and provided rights holders with more flexibility and choices over using their land, including renting and contracting out. A revision will consolidate these gains and address pastoralist and communal rights. The Government is considering Voluntary Guidelines and Responsible Agricultural Investment approaches to private sector land allocations, and is engaging with stakeholders over new land use policy. A new commercial agricultural investment strategy shifts focus from land acquisitions to a value-chain inclusive business approach. However, recent land-related conflicts underline the need for improved land governance. A new Plan for Improved Transparency in Land Governance sets land governance within an inclusive rural development strategy, which will foster greater transparency. The Plan forms part of the DIFD-funded Land Investment for Transformation (LIFT) programme being implemented by a DAI-led consortium. It underlines potential synergies between smallholders, pastoralist communities and private investors, and supports policy dialogue; it also aligns with the recent LGAF to develop new land activities for the 2020-2025 Growth and Transformation Plan.
The Ambiguous State-Traditional Relationship in Land Governance in Uganda and Malawi: Repercussions on Poverty Reduction?
University of Konstanz, Germany
Today, in sub-Saharan Africa, the legal and the political system reflects a mélange of traditional and state institutions, practices, and policies. Traditional leaders, for instance, are indispensable in their function as land administrators. They oversee large shares of customary land and are an important authority to reckon with. Traditional institutions are not a separate entity that exits in isolation from the state. Particularly in the area of land governance, the jurisdiction and mandates of elected politicians and chiefs overlap, compete, substitute or complement each other.
In this paper, I address the relation between the state-traditional interface and good land governance. I present an analytical framework that distinguishes between the de jure state-traditional relationship and its de facto interface. This analytical framework is explored in a comparative case study of Malawi and Uganda. I scrutinize the legal framework on land and traditional governance, detecting potential legal inconsistencies. Thereafter, acknowledging the fact that legal provisions are often not translated into reality, I assess the de facto state-traditional relationship, drawing on a wide variety of sources such as newspaper articles, confidential and public documents as well as 125 interviews which I conducted between November 2015 and March 2016 in both countries.