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07-09: Improving Urban Land Governance
Land governance in the context of the New Urban Agenda: Experiences from Harare (Zimbabwe) and Johannesburg (South Africa)
1Transparency International Zimbabwe; 2Chinhoyi University; 3Corruption Watch South Africa
This discussion provides a nuanced analysis of how land governance systems influence the New Urban Agenda in the context of two different African cities, Harare and Johannesburg. Responsible land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of this Agenda and thus Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11. One of the key components of the Agenda’s vision and that of SDG 11 is the concept of cities for all, meaning “equal use and enjoyment of cities, towns, and villages and seeking to promote inclusivity and ensure that all inhabitants, of present and future generations, without discrimination of any kind, are able to inhabit and produce just, safe, healthy, accessible, resilient, and sustainable cities and human settlements, as a common good. It is within this context that land governance variables such as land corruption, land access, and land planning have become important in achieving the vision of the New Urban Agenda. The paper which is informed by an extensive review of literature argues that land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of the New Urban Agenda. The paper seeks to propose policy recommendations on how the New Urban Agenda can be more responsive to challenges in land governance.
Towards An Urban Land Resource Curse? A Fresh Perspective On A Long-Standing Issue
Transparency International - Secretariat, Germany
The governance of urban land and real estate development is one of the central challenges not just for urban but also more broadly for global development in times of rapid urbanisation. This paper advances a fresh perspective to look at urban land by exploring to what extent it could be characterised as a resource curse problem. The conclusion is a qualified yes: urban land issues exhibit a number of characteristics and dynamics that compellingly suggest that we are facing a resource curse type of situation when it comes to urban land not only in a small number of global mega-cities in the global North but increasingly also in rapidly urbanising areas in developing countries. What’s more, the particular configuration of drivers and characteristics points to a resource curse that rivals and in some aspects even dwarfs the risks, complexities and acuity associated with the phenomenon in other sectors. Drawing on the experience with tackling resource curse challenges this paper concludes by discussion a number of practical remedies that offer promise in the context of urban land with a particular focus on targeted transparency and education initiatives
A Critical Assessment of Urban Land Leasehold System in Ethiopia
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
The land management and governance system can be the underlying cause for materializing the opportunity or face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The urban land lease policy of Ethiopia is considered the most influential factor that determine whether there exists unhealthy, haphazard and unbalanced investment environment in the cities. The paper critically reviews the policy and its institutional arrangement. It quantitatively analyzed the fundamental factors that drive the value of land developers place on urban land for investment using the land auctions data obtained from Addis Ababa City. Base price, plot size, location and grade and auction period have significant effect on land value. Investment type and capital have mixed effect. Our findings suggest that the implementation of the land lease policy still requires reexamination of constraints and opportunities with the aim of devising appropriate measures towards sustainable urbanization. The institutional mechanism does not provide ‘appropriate’ incentive for developers and accountability for bureaucrats. It should help to facilitate cities’ transition from dependence on land sale revenue to modern taxation, and consider the capability of the rural citizens, who are expected to displace as urbanization progresses, to access the opportunities and their entitlements for integration into cities throughout the urbanization process.
Holding Land in Common within Cities, Commoning for Land Rights– What Can We Learn from Collective Tenure in Urban Context?
1Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; 2French Development Agency
In cities of developing countries, access to decent housing and secure land tenure remains a great challenge for most of urban dwellers; yet secure land tenure is a key component of urban resilience. The aim of this paper is to present and synthetize an exploratory study on collective tenure in developing countries’ cities that was conducted in 2016. This study is part of a wider reflection on the possible contribution of the analytical framework of the commons for renewing the approach of development aid, conducted by the AFD, and seeks to explore to what extent Collective Tenure in Urban Context can contribute to inclusive and sustainable cities.
First, we will demonstrate how the debate on securing land rights for the urban poor can be enriched by the analytical framework of the commons. Second, we will draw lessons from three of the six case studies developed in the study, namely housing cooperatives, collective land titling, and Community Land Trust.