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05-13: Challenges of Land Acquisition for Infrastructure
Land for Food or Power? The Interface between Hydropower Production and Family Farming in Southwest Ethiopia
1Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Environmental and Climate Research Center for Ethiopia; 3University of Alberta
Gilgel Gibe-I hydroelectricity dam is one of the mega hydropower projects of Ethiopia found in the southwestern part of the country. This project was designed to produce 183 MW energy for 70 years, but is currently at risk of being silted up within 24 years. This study identifies the prospects and challenges to find a long-term balance between hydropower production, livelihoods of family farmers and sustainable land use. We used mixed methods approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data and applied a ‘riskscapes’ framework. The project displaced about 2,476 households out of which 560 moved to resettlement sites. The remaining households became landless, food insecure and are living in the surroundings of the project area farming inside the buffer zone. The community is also energy insecure because of lost access to source of biomass energy as a result of destruction of the riparian forest. In order to achieve a balance between the riskscapes of siltation, food and energy insecurity and national hydropower production, we recommend holistic approaches to community needs and project sustainability. In particular we recommend proper land use and buffer zone management, provision of electricity to the local communities and compensation for lost properties in the project area.
Using Participative G.I.S. For Infrastructure Corridor Planning Around Mining Projects: A Case Study From Indonesia
University of Delaware, United States of America
Regional planning approaches for mining aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as cumulative impacts that occur offsite. Achieving a balanced approach to mining infrastructure planning requires that stakeholder preferences for land uses from local communities, government, and mining companies be included in infrastructure planning. In this paper we describe a method for conducting Geographic Information Systems (GIS) least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure such as roads and power lines. Least-cost path analysis identifies optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we demonstrate the method using potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap. We found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors generated from local and national government perspectives. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can potentially reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.
Growing Demand, Shrinking Supply of Industrial Lands in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Can Improving Urban Land Administration and Governance be a Solution?
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
While Addis Ababa is rapidly urbanizing, job creation remains a challenge. The root cause of this has been the lack of structural transformation towards industries with higher potential for growth and job creation. In response, the government of Ethiopia through its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) targets the industry and manufacturing sectors to enhance structural transformation and create more productive jobs in Ethiopia’s cities. However, in the process of industrial promotion, industrial land has emerged as a key bottleneck. Currently, it is estimated that about 6000 investors are in the waiting list requesting land for investment in Addis Ababa. This has created distortions in the land and rental market and consequent price hike; and this threatens the job and economic growth potential of the city by discouraging businesses from entering or expanding in the city. Since Addis Ababa is one of the least industrialized cities in Africa, industrial land exhaustion cannot be the major explanation. We argue that given the city’s developable land size, there is significant scope to improve the supply of industrial land by solving some of the inefficiencies and market failures with the current arrangement of land allocation and management.