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12-09: Household Survey Data Collection and New Evidence
Could the debate be over? Errors in farmer-reported production and their implications for inverse scale-productivity relationship in Uganda
1World Bank; 2Stanford University
Our analysis based on the Round 1 of MAPS: Methodological Experiment on Measuring Maize Productivity, Soil Fertility and Variety that was implemented in Eastern Uganda by Uganda Bureau of Statistics in the first agricultural season of 2015 provide unambiguous support for the sensitivity of the plot-level inverse scale-productivity relationship to the choice of the method by which crop production and productivity is computed. While farmer-reported production based maize yield regressions consistently imply decreasing returns to cultivated plot area, crop cutting and high-resolution, multi spectral satellite imagery, remote sensing based maize yield analyses point to constant returns to scale. The core finding is driven by persistent over-reporting of the plot-level farmer-reported production (and productivity) vis-à-vis its crop cutting based counterpart across the entire distribution of plot areas, and particularly in the lower half of the sample in terms of plot area. Our production functions, which control for GPS-based plot areas, infrared spectroscopy-based soil fertility and DNA fingerprinting-based maize genetic heterogeneity, among a rich set of plot, household and manager attributes, yield results that are robust to alternative sample specifications that are aimed at increasing the reliability of the benchmark maize yield estimates.
Individual-level Approach to Data Collection on Land Ownership and Rights
While asset ownership data continues to be collected largely at the household-level in developing countries, most assets are owned solely or jointly by individuals. Are we, however, doing enough to capture individual asset ownership by only interviewing the self-identified most knowledgeable household member in typical household surveys? How do reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to residential and agricultural land among men and women vary when multiple individuals are interviewed simultaneously vis-à-vis the traditional approach to data collection? Does tenure insecurity mediate discrepancies in land ownership and rights-related constructs among multiple interview targets in the same household regarding the same residential and agricultural parcels of land? This paper investigates these questions using data from Malawi's Fourth Integrated Household Survey (IHS4) 20/16/17. In parallel with a cross-sectional sample of 12,480 households within which data on asset ownership and control are solicited per usual survey protocol and often from a single respondent, the IHS4 includes a separate, long-term panel sample of 2,000 households in which comparable information on asset ownership and control are solicited from individual-specific interviews of all adults within the same household.
Beyond ownership: Tracking progress on women’s land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa
1The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy; 2University of Oxford, CGIAR Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets
Advancing women’s land rights is a priority for the international development agenda as highlighted in at least two targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is limited practical guidance on how to measure progress on land rights especially in contexts where individual property rights and customary tenure regimes coexist and where much of the land remains unregistered as in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study empirically examines the gender gaps in land rights, including not only ownership but also management and control of the outputs. In addition, we assess the extent to which different rights over land overlap using data from six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study confirms substantial gender gaps not only in land ownership but also in land management. In addition, reported ownership does not always correspond with the right to sell or use as collateral. The sizes of the gender gaps vary across land rights and across countries with Niger and Nigeria exhibiting consistently large gender gaps in all rights. Moreover, the various land rights do not consistently overlap, indicating that concepts of ownership, management and economic rights should not be used interchangeably.