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01-10: Socio-Economic Aspects of Land Admin. Service Delivery
The Importance of Ostrom’s Design Principles: Youth Group Performance in Northern Ethiopia
Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway
Youth unemployment and migration is a growing challenge that needs more political attention in many countries in the world, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting with its new youth employment strategy allocating rehabilitated communal lands to youth groups. The youth groups organize as primary cooperatives, establish their own bylaw, develop a business plan and are audited. This study investigates the extent of compliance with Ostrom’s Design Principles by the youth groups and their relationship with the early performance of youth groups in terms of their level of internal cooperation, trust and overall performance in their land management and development of a joint business and livelihood. The study builds on a census of 741 youth groups in five districts in Tigray region with an average group size of 20 members and close to 15000 youth. The groups established in the period 2011-2015. The study shows that most groups adhere to the Design Principles and that adherence with some of the Design Principles is correlated with the various performance indicators.
Land policy and the youth ‘bulge’ in Ethiopia: How social and economic transformations are scrutinizing the status qou
International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
This study explores how youth land access affect their occupational (employment) and spatial mobility (migration) in the context of dynamic social and economic setups using panel data from 2011 and 2013 from the four major regions in the country (total of 7500 households). We estimate household fixed effects model to also evaluate differential impact access to land markets have on the youth. We find that land scarcity significantly dictates youth’s likelihood of long-distance permanent migration and overall welfare status. We also find that smooth functioning of land markets serve as a crucial mediating factor in weakening the push-effect of land scarcity in influencing youth’s occupational and spatial mobility decisions. As a result, land scarcity plays a much more pronounced role in dictating rural-to-urban permanent migration and non-agricultural sector employment in areas with less-vibrant land markets. Therefore, recent restrictive land policy reforms (both size and durational restrictions) in Ethiopia may undermine the potential role land rental markets play in avoiding unrewarding employment and migration decisions. For the youth, this is mainly so both on the demand side (using land markets for access to more land) and supply side (using the market as exit strategy to pursue livelihood in the non-farm sector).
Land Distribution in Northern Ethiopia From 1998 to 2016:Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation
1School of Economics and Business/Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life; 2Mekelle University, Department of Economics
Tigray Region in Ethiopia was the first region to implement low-cost land registration and certification in 1998 (FSLR) when land was registered in the name of household heads. From 2015 the region started scaling up Second Stage land registration (SSLR) and this results in issuing parcel-level land certificates and availability of data on all holders of parcels by name and gender. We utilized the SSLR data for detailed gender-disaggregated analysis. The Data from 11 communities in four districts covers more than 78000 parcels (30000ha) in the SSLR to 31500 households. Various statistical measures are used to assess the gender-disaggregated, spatial and intertemporal variation in land distribution. The comparison of FSLR data with SSLR data facilitates critical assessment of the quality of FSLR data and changes in farm size distribution. We find that females’ land ownership share is as high as 48.8% and indicates a considerably lower skewness than we expected. The Gini-coefficient for land distribution among women is lower than that among men (0.45 versus 0.57). The share of male-headed households with no female landowners varied from 25 to 60% across communities. There is a clear trend towards smaller farm sizes from the FSLR in 1998 to SSLR in 2016.
Land As Matrimonial Property In Kenya: Demystifying The Concept Of Contribution To Acquisition Of Land As Matrimonial Property
Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya(FIDA-Kenya), Kenya
In Kenya,equality in marriage is underscored in law by the Constitution which stipulates that parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of marriage, during marriage and at the dissolution of marriage. This paper undertakes a critique of the various laws and policies governing land access and ownership in Kenya. It further undertakes an audit of the recently enacted Matrimonial Property Act(MPA) that governs division of matrimonial property especially section 7 of the Matrimonial Property Act which requires any spouse to prove contribution to the acquisition of the said matrimonial property. It undertakes this audit to determine the impact Section 7 of the MPA has on women land and property rights. It also undertakes a further audit of the repealed section in the Land Act that required any spouse to obtain spousal consent before disposing of matrimonial land. It espouses that these highlighted sections are unconstitutional and should be amended to accommodate equality in marriage as stipulated in article 45 of the Constitution. It further provides that the concept of spousal consent to the disposal of land should be anchored in law to safeguard women land and property rights.