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11-13: How Changing Tenure Relations Affect Rural Production
Modelling Agricultural Land Market Distortions the Size Distribution of Farms
1World Bank; 2IFPRI, United States of America; 3Universidad de Buenos Aires
Farm size and land allocation are important factors in explaining lagging agricultural productivity in developing countries. This paper formally examines the effect of land market distortions on the allocation of land across farmers and overall agricultural productivity. We first develop a theoretical framework to model the optimal size distribution of farms and
to determine to what extent market distortions can explain the non-optimal allocation of land. We then calibrate the model to the case of Guatemala and evaluate potential drivers of the distortions across regions. Preliminary results find that the aggregate agricultural productivity is 75-80% of the efficient output. We discuss alternative policy implications to
improve land markets efficiency.
Land Tenure Systems, Food Security and Poverty: Evidence from Africa
Land and land tenure systems are central in promoting livelihoods in developing countries since access to land and security of tenure are the main means through which food security and sustainable development can be achieved. This paper is explores land tenure systems, the nature of these systems and the role they play in the defining or affecting the welfare of individuals particularly in developing countries. It aims at improve the understanding of the linkages between land tenure systems, poverty, food security and sustainable natural resource management. Land tenure systems are significant in defining agricultural productivity, food security and poverty rates in households. Land tenure systems affect access to technological inputs and to extension services as well as membership to cooperatives. Gender differences in land tenure systems exist and these in turn affect farm productivity, food security and the household welfare.
Herbicides Induce Territorialization and Are Weapons in Farmer–Pastoralist Interactions in Northern Benin
1Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Parakou, Parakou, Benin; 3Prolinnova / Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, Netherlands
Science and technology studies have shown that technologies acquire varied meanings and uses in different socio-economic and political settings. Moreover, political ecologists have demonstrated that pastoralists’ restricted access to grazing land results from various territorialization processes coming from above or from below, embedded in unequal power relations between actors. Combining these two perspectives, our ethnographic study based on long-term fieldwork revealed that herbicides are technologies that have significantly transformed land-use practices and induced more conflict between landusers. Pastoralists are losers in herbicide-based territorialization processes, leading to greater marginalization and exclusion. The paper highlights the role of herbicides in generating practices of land control and in degrading relations between rural neighbors.
Land tenure differences and adoption of agri-environmental practices: Evidence from Benin (West Africa)
1Laval University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Consumer Science , Canada; 2Laval University, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE),Canada
This article uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model in combination with propensity score matching techniques to evaluate the impact of land tenure on the adoption of agri-environmental practices by smallholder farmers in Benin (West Africa). We rely on a unique and detailed cross-sectional plot-level dataset that covers a random sample of 2,800 smallholder farmers and 4,233 plots. The dataset was gathered from a household survey conducted in Benin by the World Bank between March and April 2011 covering all agro-ecological zones of the country. The results indicate that land tenure arrangement significantly influences farmers’ decision to invest in agri-environmental practices. The intensity of the adoption of agri-environmental practices is consistently higher on owned plots than borrowed, rented or sharecropped plots. We found strong evidence that the hypothesis of selectivity bias cannot be rejected. The adoption gap between plot owners and borrowers increases when implementing the matching techniques. The sample selection framework increases that gap further.