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02-11: Experiences with Land Tax And Valuation
Fiscal Instruments For Sustainable Development: The Case Of Land Taxes
Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) Berlin, Germany
Economists argue that land rent taxation is an ideal form of taxation as it causes no deadweight losses and has therefore no adverse effects on growth. We first provide a comprehensive overview of direct and indirect welfare and development effects of land rent taxation. Barriers and constraints of implementing land taxes are also discussed, particularly the existence of a land registry, the role of administrative costs, compliance, evasion and political economy aspects. We extend this review with an in-depth analysis of current land tax systems and reform options in six case study countries. Our main finding is that land taxes provide a large and untapped potential for financing governments. Formalizing and securing land tenure by establishing a land registry is a pre-condition that further provides substantial co-benefits for various sustainable development objectives. Widespread concerns regarding the feasibility and costs of implementing land taxes are rarely valid, as land taxes are in these aspects comparable to other taxes. Political will and investment in the quality of administration are, however, decisive. Considering some key principles in designing the land tax can help reduce administrative costs, avoid adverse distributional effects and increase compliance.
Leveraging the Land: Creating Sustainable Internally-Generated Revenue
Trimble Navigation, Ltd, United States of America
In many regions, governments have relied primarily — or in some cases exclusively—on a single source for their revenue. Business activities related to natural resources are often the dominant component in this singular dimension revenue stream. Natural resource industries such as mining and petroleum production can provide significant income through leases and production fees as well as income taxes on workers’ wages. In this paper, we will examine the benefits and challenges of diversified IGR that includes land in the financial portfolio. One of the best approaches to mitigating the risk of excessive or unexpected changes in revenue is to establish a diversified stream of internally-generated revenue tied to repeatable and sustainable activities. Common sources of IGR include government fees, port entry charges and taxes on sales, income and property. But many countries have yet to generate IGR from land and land rights within their borders. We will also consider strategies to implement land-based IGR. In doing so, we must take into account that land is the source of livelihood, cultural identity and continuity for individuals and the country. These components play a role in defining how the assets of land and land rights are defined, identified, defended and leveraged.
The Principles Of Land Acquisition, Expropriation, And Compensation Calculation For Infrastructure Projects In Turkey
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey
Land acquisition and expropriation processes for public investments are observed to be dealt with differently almost in each country and there is a lack of international standards and best practice guidelines in this field. Property ownership and use, interfere with ownership, realization of infrastructure investments, and regulation of settlements are comprehensively regulated by the Constitution, Law of Expropriation, and various laws on public and private law in Turkey. For the acquisition of real estate in large quantities required for the realization of development projects, methods such as expropriation, purchase, establishment of easement rights, and lease are used. Each real property acquisition method is regulated by different laws and the implementation stages, procedures, valuations, and payment of the determined amount of each of the methods differ.In this study, the basic principles and basic problems in land acquisition and expropriation practices for public investments have been defined and in the second stage, principles of valuation of the expropriated real estate based on their types and methods for calculation of compensations have been examined.