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08-02: Using Land Policy for Sustainable Value Chains: the case of Brazil
Implementation of the CAR in the Amazon and Cerrado: Lessons learned and ways ahead
Ministry of Environment, Brazil
Protection And Sustainable Use Of Tropical Forests Need Land Tenure Regularization - Evidence From Brazil
1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Brazil; 2Superintendencia Nacional de Regularicacao Fundiaria da Amazonia - SRFA; 3Secretaria Extraordinária da Regularização Fundiária da Amazônia Legal - Serfal; 4Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia – IPAM
The protection and socially and economically just development of the Amazon rainforest highly depends on responsible land governance and land tenure security. Going back in Brazilian history, land regularization has often led to deforestation, putting productive exploitation of land as a condition for obtaining a land title. This paradigm shifted with the creation of the Brazilian program "Terra Legal" in 2009 to regularize 57 million hectares of public federal lands in the Amazon as one of the main strategies to combat deforestation. Despite its progress in land tenure regularization, Terra Legal is challenged to demonstrate its contribution in combating illegal deforestation.
This paper discusses the environmental impact of land tenure regularization in the Amazon with the Terra Legal program. The article is based on a data analysis of rural land parcels situated on federal public lands, comparing the extent of deforestation over a period of 5 years (between 2009 and 2014) along two data sets: one before and another after having initiated a land regularization process. Preliminary results indicate that deforestation rates on lands that have not been addressed by Terra Legal are higher than of those benefitted by the program.
Using the CAR for accessing credit: The ABC experience
Ministry of Agriculture, Brazil
Policy Findings from Evaluating Landholders' Responses to CAR in Pará
1Middlebury College, United States of America; 2University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America
This study presents an evaluation of deforestation and registration behavior in response to the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) in the Amazonian state of Pará. From late 2007 to 2013, approximately 100,000 properties covering 30 million hectares of self-declared claims were entered in this digital registry. We used fixed effects regression models and property level data to assess how registration influenced likelihood of deforestation on different sizes of properties. Registration had little initial impact on deforestation behavior, with the exception of a significant reduction on “smallholder” properties in the size range of 100–300 ha. We link this reduction to interacting incentives and suggest that desire to strengthen land claims motivates these landholders’ response to the environmental registry. We also present evidence that some landholders may be registering incomplete or inaccurate parcels to strategically benefit from policy incentives. Our results for smallholder properties indicate that environmental registries have potential to facilitate reductions in deforestation if combined with a favorable combination of incentives. However, in places where land tenure is still being negotiated, the utility of environmental registries for forest policy enforcement may be limited without ongoing investment to resolve uncertainty around land claims.
Deforestation on the Rise Again: the Role of the Private Sector Toward Zero Deforestation
Amazon Institute of People and the Environment - IMAZON, Brazil
From 2005 to 2012, government, civil society and the private sector helped to reduce deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon by nearly 80%. Nevertheless, after three years of deforestation fluctuating around 5,500 km2, deforestation increased by 75% from 2012 to 2016 (when it reached 8,000 km2). Forest clearing increased because the government weakened environmental policies, the prices of agricultural commodities increased and the zero-deforestation beef commitments did not progress as expected (only half of meatpackers have signed agreements and no full traceability of cattle has been implemented). With the prospect of long political and budget crises in Brazil, reducing deforestation would depend more on private leadership.
World Bank, United States of America