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01-09: Land Use Plans and Pastoral Land Rights
Pastoral Women's Land Rights and Land Use Planning in Tanzania: Experiences of the Sustainable Rangeland Management Project
1Tanzania Women's Lawyers Association; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 3Mokoro; 4International Land Coalition
In pastoral societies women face many challenges. Some describe these as a ‘double burden’ – that is, as pastoralists and as women. However, pastoral women may obtain a significant degree of protection from customary law even if customary institutions are male-dominated. In periods of change (economic, social, political), this protection may be lost, and without protection from statutory laws, women are in danger of “falling between two stools” (Adoko and Levine 2009). A study carried out in four villages in Tanzania, supported by the International Land Coalition, sought to understand the challenges and opportunities facing pastoral women with respect to accessing land and resources, in the context of village land use planning. This research presents empirical data on pastoral women’s land rights, shedding light on some of the detail of these rand their manifestation taking into account the differing contexts, land use patterns, and nature of rights to land. There are some common themes – particularly around the challenges facing women in pastoral communities including lack of space to make their views heard, lack of awareness of their rights, coupled with broader governance challenges. New processes underway such as a government-led review of Tanzania’s land policy provide opportunities to overcome these challenges.
Securing Communal Land Tenure through Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy in Tanzania
UCRT (Ujamaa Community Resource Team), Tanzania
This paper provides a detailed account of how the Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) has worked with local communities and several levels of government in the United Republic of Tanzania in East Africa to secure land-tenure rights for community groups by helping them acquire Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy (CCROs). It shows how vulnerable groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherer that depend on natural resources for their livelihoods could be assisted in using mechanisms and opportunities offered by the legal framework in the country. UCRT accompanied several such groups through the process of securing communal land-tenure rights by means of ‘group CCROs’, building on participatory land-use planning grounded in the national policy and legislation governing land tenure and Local Government Authorities. This process is anchored on the Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) of local government legislation (mainly the Local Government Act of 1982), which enables village governments to pass local by-laws that recognize, protect and respect the developed village land-use plan to its subordinates. The paper describes the procedures to acquire CCROs and points to the effectiveness of this approach to ensuring land-tenure security as an important step toward reducing poverty among rural people in Tanzania.
Rangeland Leasing Practices and Need to Secure the Land Tenure Rights to Herders
Mongolian Association of Land Management NGO, Mongolia
The key challenge in establishing and building climate-resilient, eco-friendly, and green livestock industry in Mongolia depends on the preservation of Mongolia’s pastureland, its quality, and conditions. The securing and protecting of the herder’s rights to pastureland as the foundation of their employment and income sources are often neglected or left as a matter too complicated or sensitive to deal with. This is the main reason I want to discuss the root cause of pastureland degradation, herder community vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and violation of human rights.
Securing of pastureland provides security of employment, income and livelihoods to the herders and motivates the herders to invest in the livestock and pastureland and practice better rangeland management. Mongolia is the 19th largest and the 2nd biggest landlocked country. Multi-disciplinary studies have shown that the degradation and deterioration of pasturelands has significantly worsened with the growth in herd numbers, as well as from human activities and negative changes in climate and the environment.
The reasons outlined above all point to the dire need to establish strong legal system to secure the land rights to herders.
Building Pastoralists’ Resilience: Strengthening Participation in Markets and Local Governance Institutions in West Pokot, Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3University of Nairobi, Kenya
Pastoralist societies derive a considerable share of their food and income from livestock and the livestock is mainly reared on natural forage rather than cultivated fodders or pastures. In Kenya, pastoralism supports nearly a quarter of the national population that resides in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which cover about two-thirds of the land area. It is widely recognized that besides being a cultural aspect among indigenous inhabitants, pastoralism is an adaptive mechanism to harsh ecological systems which can hardly support crop-based agriculture. Indeed, previous studies have shown evidence that pastoralists are astute land managers whose mobility enables them to make productive use of drought-prone rangelands; up to 10 times more than commercial ranching alternatives. However, a major challenge to pastoralism is frequent droughts which reduce the supply of forage resulting in death of livestock and deteriorating quality of existing herds. This makes pastoralists poor and vulnerable. Measures that improve the resilience of pastoralism especially through enhanced participation in markets and local governance institutions are critical towards equitable livelihoods and sustainable development. Targeted diversification into off-farm investments and more hardy livestock such as sheep and goats would also enhance pastoralists’ resilience.
Pastoralism and land tenure security: Lessons from IFAD-supported projects
The use of land by pastoralists and by the other actors is complex: this complexity should be reflected in laws, norms and policies which regulate such use. However, if existing, these laws, norms and policies rarely capture such an intricate situation, leading to conflicts for the access and use of the land. Specific interventions, using conflict resolution mechanisms, need to be put in place to prevent and solve these conflicts. This paper will look into the experiences of selected IFAD-supported projects in dealing with pastoralism and land tenure issues.