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03-08: Addressing Land Tenure Aspects of REDD+
Creating an appropriate tenure foundation for REDD+: The record to date and prospects for the future
1Independent consultant, United States of America; 2Ministry of the Environment, Switzerland; 3North Carolina State University, United States of America; 4CIFOR, Indonesia; 5CIFOR, Peru; 6Independent consultant, Australia; 7Paul-Valéry University, France; 8Independent consultant, Tanzania; 9University of Melbourne, Australia
This paper reports on “before-after/control-intervention” research to assess how proponents have performed in addressing tenure in subnational REDD+. Research was carried out in two phases (2010-2012 and 2013-2014) in five countries (Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia) at 21 subnational initiatives, 141 villages and 3,754 households. Three questions were posed: (1) How has perceived tenure insecurity of village residents changed?; (2) What are the main reasons for that change?; and (3) How do village residents evaluate the impact of tenure-related interventions on wellbeing? The findings are that: (1) tenure insecurity decreases only slightly across the sample; (2) being in a REDD+ intervention area has decreased smallholder tenure insecurity only in Cameroon, and has increased insecurity of smallholder agricultural tenure in Brazil; (3) the main reported reasons for worsening tenure security are outside companies, lack of title, and competition from neighboring villagers; and (4) views on the effect of tenure interventions are overall positive. By and large, proponents have little to show for their efforts. Work on tenure remains an urgent priority for safeguarding livelihoods and for reducing deforestation. This will require increased attention to participatory engagement, improved reward systems, tenure policy reform, integration of national and local efforts, and “business-as-usual” interests.
Community Land Rights Delimitation and Natural Resources Management in Mozambique: Significance and Implications for Sustainable and Inclusive Development
1World Bank, Mozambique; 2World Bank, Mozambique
While Mozambique has come a long way since the signing of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992, which ended the country’s seventeen-year conflict, many structural land and natural resources challenges persist. One key challenge continues to be the reconciliation of rural poverty reduction efforts and environmental sustainability. Two central issues permeate this overarching challenge: community land tenure regularization and natural resources management. Despite the common inspirations and the positive synergies that would arguably be produced by tackling these issues in an integrated fashion, Mozambique’s policies since the late 1990s have dealt with them in a largely disconnected manner. Reintegrating these issues into concerted policies would yield substantial benefits to communities, enabling poverty reduction efforts and more sustainable management of the country’s natural resources base. This would entail more strategic implementation of community land rights delimitation in Mozambique, as part of a wider rural development strategy and program that has sustainable natural resources management at its core.
Gender In Collective Tenure Regimes: Women Rights And Forest Tenure Reforms
1CIFOR, Peru; 2Independant
Based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms by the Center for International Forestry Research, this paper examines results from a research project in Indonesia, Peru and Uganda. This paper uses a gender perspective to analyze how these reforms have resulted in changes in tenure arrangements that have affected men and women in distinct ways and how these may affect tenure security outcomes. In particular, we focus on formal and informal local-level practices, including customary tenure systems, to understand how collective land tenure regimes define institutional arrangements to consider rights of women and other vulnerable groups and the challenges these face to exercise their rights and attain secure tenure and access to resources.
Using a mixed-method approach, research combined different quantitative and qualitative data collecting tools. At the national level, legal and historical analysis of key regulations around reforms illustrated how reforms emerged. At the local level, semi-structured interviews, intra-household surveys, and focus groups generated information and promoted the participation of local stakeholders in the discussion of the origins, and nature of forest tenure reform outcomes. The sample includes 55 villages in ten different tenure regimes and over 1300 households across the three countries.
Securing the Commons in India: A Polycentric Approach
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Foundation for Ecological Security, India
Common pool land and water resources in India play vital, but often overlooked, roles in livelihoods and ecosystem services. However, these resources are often fragmented and fall under different government departments, resulting in uncertain tenure for the people who depend on these resources for fodder, fuel, water, and other products. An Indian NGO, Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), has developed a process for “commoning”—assisting communities to secure the commons by forming inclusive local institutions to manage the resources, and to work with different government departments to gain stronger rights to the commons.
This paper applies polycentricity theory to examine the institutional arrangements that govern the commons in FES sites in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and identify factors for effective commons management. It draws on village-level netmapping exercises and key informant interviews to show the complex flows of resources, information, and influence related to the commons among Forestry, Revenue and Watershed Management agencies, local government, habitation-level organizations, and NGOs, and the MNREGA rural employment guarantee program. The methodology developed here can be used as a diagnostic tool and guide for interventions to help communities to strengthen their tenure on the commons and management of those resources.