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03-06: Land Governance in Latin America & the Caribbean
Comparative Land Governance Research in the Caribbean and Latin America: Recent Findings from Five National Case Studies
Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Strengthening land governance is critically needed in Latin America and the Caribbean to protect the environment, achieve gender equality in land rights, expand the transparency of land records, and facilitate planned urban growth. The region faces major challenges in land tenure informality and overlapping mandates for titling, mapping, and registration.
This research responds to the gaps in land governance information within five Latin American and Caribbean countries—Barbados, Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. The research draws upon a methodological framework inspired by both the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework and USAID’s Blueprint for Strengthening Real Property Rights. Applying this methodology illuminates the interplay between land administration and social housing provision, and the extent to which legislation and regulations affect land tenure rights, especially those of women and ethnic minorities. Findings are also compared to previous land governance assessments conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, and Peru. This research ultimately underscores the continued need for improved inter-agency coordination on land governance.
The methodology discussed in this paper is employed by Diego Erba, Charisse Griffith-Charles, and Robin Rajack in detailed Land and Poverty Conference 2017 papers on land governance in Brazil, Ecuador, and Trinidad & Tobago.
Challenge and Opportunities for the VGGT Implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean
Almost five years after the adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (the Guidelines) by the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), this paper will focus on the challenges faced and the opportunities generated for their implementation in a specific region: Latin America and The Caribbean (LAC). As a first part, the paper will explore some of the regional trends impacting governance of tenure. The paper will then develop a second part on the advances and limitations made and faced for improving the governance of tenure using the Guidelines in LAC at country level (drawing lessons from various countries), at sub regional level (in particular by Reunion Especialisada por la Agricultura Familiar – MERCOSUR), and at stakeholders level (such as civil society, Indigenous People…).The third part of the paper will explore challenges ahead and suggest ways forward to enhance the Guidelines implementation in the region.
The Challenges of Land Governance in a High-Income, High-Potential, Small Island Developing State: the Case of Trinidad and Tobago
1The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Inter-American Development Bank
A recent participatory land governance assessment performed in Trinidad and Tobago with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) examined the land governance through a stakeholder assessment process. Experienced and knowledgeable land professionals were brought together to discuss the various perspectives on the country’s land governance to arrive at grades in different aspects of its performance. The assessment process utilised the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) of the World Bank, and Global Housing Policy Indicators (GHI) to provide standardisation of the methodology. Various dimensions of land governance were assessed inclusive of law and public policy, registry and cadastral information systems and services, land use planning and management, and land tenure regularisation.
This paper presents the perceptions of the country’s land governance held by participants to the study, supported by census and institutional data where possible. These perceptions and the limited data available can help to point toward concrete programmes that can be undertaken to address the land governance gaps to improve equity and sustainability in the country.
It is recommended that transparency and accessibility of the land information would go a long way toward interrupting corrupt practices, where they exist, and also encouraging registration and confidence in the systems.
Applying an Adjusted Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) to Evaluate the Relationships between Land Cadasters and Informality: Lessons from Brazil and Ecuador | Usando el Marco Ajustado de Evaluación de la Gobernanza de la Tierra (LGAF) para evaluar las relaciones entre el Catastro Territorial y la Informalidad: Lecciones desde Brasil y Ecuador
1Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentine Republic; 2Inter-American Development Bank
In Latin America, a territorial cadastre is a public registry that manages information relating to parcels. The majority of cadastres are still structured under the orthodox model, which accounts only for economic (land and building values), physical (form, size, and location of parcels), and legal characteristics (tenure). Much of this information may be out of date and incomplete, particularly because the orthodox cadastre is typically restricted to private properties. Moreover, the orthodox model fails to encompass key parcel level data needed for urban policy decisions, such as information on transportation, infrastructure, and utility networks, as well as environmental attributes and the socioeconomic profiles of occupants. These data are structured under the Multipurpose Cadastre - MPC, which connect institutions and systems.
To evaluate the relationship between Cadastres and Informality, a study supported by the Inter-American Development Bank was developed, following the Case Study Guide provided by Sanjak & Donovan (2016). The case was focused in Brazil and Ecuador using both, qualitative and quantitative information, and permits to conclude that the integration of urban data into a MPC, incorporating the irregular settlements is the first step to know the real face of the cities. It will definitely conduce to the informality reduction.