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|Location: MC 6-100|
|Date: Monday, 20/Mar/2017|
|3:00pm - 4:00pm||Consultation with Universities on opportunities to support the Network of Excellence on Land Governance in Africa (NELGA)|
Session Chair: Marc Nolting, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ, Ethiopia
By invitation only - For more information please contact Luisa Prior (firstname.lastname@example.org).
|Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Land Use Plans and Pastoral Land Rights|
Session Chair: Patricia K. Mbote, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Pastoral Women's Land Rights and Land Use Planning in Tanzania: Experiences of the Sustainable Rangeland Management Project
1Tanzania Women's Lawyers Association; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 3Mokoro; 4International Land Coalition
In pastoral societies women face many challenges. Some describe these as a ‘double burden’ – that is, as pastoralists and as women. However, pastoral women may obtain a significant degree of protection from customary law even if customary institutions are male-dominated. In periods of change (economic, social, political), this protection may be lost, and without protection from statutory laws, women are in danger of “falling between two stools” (Adoko and Levine 2009). A study carried out in four villages in Tanzania, supported by the International Land Coalition, sought to understand the challenges and opportunities facing pastoral women with respect to accessing land and resources, in the context of village land use planning. This research presents empirical data on pastoral women’s land rights, shedding light on some of the detail of these rand their manifestation taking into account the differing contexts, land use patterns, and nature of rights to land. There are some common themes – particularly around the challenges facing women in pastoral communities including lack of space to make their views heard, lack of awareness of their rights, coupled with broader governance challenges. New processes underway such as a government-led review of Tanzania’s land policy provide opportunities to overcome these challenges.
Securing Communal Land Tenure through Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy in Tanzania
UCRT (Ujamaa Community Resource Team), Tanzania
This paper provides a detailed account of how the Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) has worked with local communities and several levels of government in the United Republic of Tanzania in East Africa to secure land-tenure rights for community groups by helping them acquire Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy (CCROs). It shows how vulnerable groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherer that depend on natural resources for their livelihoods could be assisted in using mechanisms and opportunities offered by the legal framework in the country. UCRT accompanied several such groups through the process of securing communal land-tenure rights by means of ‘group CCROs’, building on participatory land-use planning grounded in the national policy and legislation governing land tenure and Local Government Authorities. This process is anchored on the Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) of local government legislation (mainly the Local Government Act of 1982), which enables village governments to pass local by-laws that recognize, protect and respect the developed village land-use plan to its subordinates. The paper describes the procedures to acquire CCROs and points to the effectiveness of this approach to ensuring land-tenure security as an important step toward reducing poverty among rural people in Tanzania.
Rangeland Leasing Practices and Need to Secure the Land Tenure Rights to Herders
Mongolian Association of Land Management NGO, Mongolia
The key challenge in establishing and building climate-resilient, eco-friendly, and green livestock industry in Mongolia depends on the preservation of Mongolia’s pastureland, its quality, and conditions. The securing and protecting of the herder’s rights to pastureland as the foundation of their employment and income sources are often neglected or left as a matter too complicated or sensitive to deal with. This is the main reason I want to discuss the root cause of pastureland degradation, herder community vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and violation of human rights.
Securing of pastureland provides security of employment, income and livelihoods to the herders and motivates the herders to invest in the livestock and pastureland and practice better rangeland management. Mongolia is the 19th largest and the 2nd biggest landlocked country. Multi-disciplinary studies have shown that the degradation and deterioration of pasturelands has significantly worsened with the growth in herd numbers, as well as from human activities and negative changes in climate and the environment.
The reasons outlined above all point to the dire need to establish strong legal system to secure the land rights to herders.
Building Pastoralists’ Resilience: Strengthening Participation in Markets and Local Governance Institutions in West Pokot, Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3University of Nairobi, Kenya
Pastoralist societies derive a considerable share of their food and income from livestock and the livestock is mainly reared on natural forage rather than cultivated fodders or pastures. In Kenya, pastoralism supports nearly a quarter of the national population that resides in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which cover about two-thirds of the land area. It is widely recognized that besides being a cultural aspect among indigenous inhabitants, pastoralism is an adaptive mechanism to harsh ecological systems which can hardly support crop-based agriculture. Indeed, previous studies have shown evidence that pastoralists are astute land managers whose mobility enables them to make productive use of drought-prone rangelands; up to 10 times more than commercial ranching alternatives. However, a major challenge to pastoralism is frequent droughts which reduce the supply of forage resulting in death of livestock and deteriorating quality of existing herds. This makes pastoralists poor and vulnerable. Measures that improve the resilience of pastoralism especially through enhanced participation in markets and local governance institutions are critical towards equitable livelihoods and sustainable development. Targeted diversification into off-farm investments and more hardy livestock such as sheep and goats would also enhance pastoralists’ resilience.
Pastoralism and land tenure security: Lessons from IFAD-supported projects
The use of land by pastoralists and by the other actors is complex: this complexity should be reflected in laws, norms and policies which regulate such use. However, if existing, these laws, norms and policies rarely capture such an intricate situation, leading to conflicts for the access and use of the land. Specific interventions, using conflict resolution mechanisms, need to be put in place to prevent and solve these conflicts. This paper will look into the experiences of selected IFAD-supported projects in dealing with pastoralism and land tenure issues.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: New Approaches to Secure Pastoral Tenure|
Session Chair: Harold Liversage, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
Land Use Change in the Bale Mountains Eco-Region of Ethiopia: Drivers, Impacts and Future Scenarios
1SIT/World Learning Inc; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Livestock has been an integral part of the Bale Mountains Eco-Region landscape for many centuries. This paper describes the results of a research study undertaken in the region comparing land use change and livestock movements over a period of eight years from 2008 to 2016. The study provides some insights into the trends of intensification that have taken place, the challenges of this, and indications of who is benefiting from these processes and who is not. In 2008 the majority of the area was predominantly livestock in terms of production systems, with the traditional godantu movement system still functioning well despite challenges. However by 2016 though livestock numbers have not decreased in all areas, poverty levels have grown and access to resources for livestock production have become increasingly difficult for many. Key causes of this is the allocation of land to investors by local governments, trends in privatisation of resources, and a strengthening of the boundaries of the Bale Mountains National Park. The paper concludes by making recommendations for reconciling some of the conflicts arising, particularly over land use, and how land management in the area can be improved.
Securing Shared Grazing Land and Water Resources in Semi-Arid Pastoral Areas: Application of Social Tenure Domain Model Experience in Rural Kenya
1Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya; 2UN-HABITAT; 3International Fund for Agriculture Development
Development of smallholder dairy farming in Bomet County of Kenya is constrained by among others, lack of proper management of communal grazing lands, resource over-exploitation, low quantity and quality of water and pasture. With the support of IFAD and UN-Habitat, through Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) the Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme(SDCP) in Kenya is piloting the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) to secure tenure on land and other natural resources.The project is implemented jointly by SDCP, Resource Conflict Institute (RECONCILE), Pamoja Trust and Technical University of Kenya. Using a census survey in Sugumera of Bomet County, 498 smallholder farmers were interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaires, and using GPS, coordinates of their homesteads, farms, communal grazing lands and water points were collected. Data entry and analysis and creation of outputs (spatial and non-spatial maps) were done using STDM software.A total of 43 common resources were identified and documented. The database and analysis results were presented, validated and discussed at a community meeting.The results brought to the knowledge of many farmers especially the poor and vulnerable, the diverse resources available and how they could share across seasons including creation of seasonal access corridors and established a local resource management framework for sustainability.
Making Rangelands more Secure in Cameroon: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Policy Makers, Development Actors and Pastoralists
1Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries Yaounde, CAMEROON, Cameroon; 2Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) CAMEROON; 3Community Initiative for Sustainable Development (COMINSUD), Bamenda, Cameroon; 4International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
In Cameroon, rangelands occupy about 20 % of surface area; provide critical habitat to many animal and plant species; offer many vital goods and services to society and are home to pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, crop farmers, fishermen and hunter-gatherers, who for centuries co-existed peacefully. In recent years this harmony is being threatened by changing land use patterns, poor land use planning and poor recognition of ownership rights. Despite efforts by state and non-state actors to improve pastoral tenure security little has been achieved because of poor coordination among actors and a complete absence of opportunities to document and or showcase these good initiatives. This study, supported by the ILC Rangelands Initiative, sought to identify, review and analyse the different initiatives that are contributing/have contributed in making rangelands more secure. A case study approach was used to document initiatives using primary and secondary sources and with choice predicated on the prominence, variety and indicated successes of the initiatives. Ten initiatives were showcased under five thematic areas ranging from: governance/decision making processes; resolving conflicts; land use planning; empowering communities; protecting pastoral resources. The results of this study will contribute to a more targeted development of future initiatives that build on past good practices.
Land Use Planning and Communal Land Tenure Reforms in Pastoral Areas: The Experiences of Kenya
National Land Commission Kenya
This paper analyzes planning and communal land tenure reforms for rangelands in Kenya. It proposes a framework to manage the dichotomy in a manner that yields sustainable livelihoods for the pastoralists. Key considerations are the deficiencies of the land management choices prevailing in Kenya rangelands and the East Africa/Horn of Africa region more generally, and how they impact on the pastoralist’s principle of “the commons”. This study adopts a qualitative, exploratory approach. Three government documents are considered; namely the County Spatial Planning Manual, Community Land Act (2016) and the County Land Management Board development control regulations 2015. The three documents present a paradigm shift in planning and management for community lands and presents tangible benefits for rangeland communities. With the CSP, CLA and CLMB, rangeland communities are now obliged to carry out more systematic planning, and management of rangeland resources, and resources harnessed for national interests, the communities are entitled to benefit sharing. The results of this study is useful to policy makers, planners and development managers in Kenya and East/Horn of Africa and beyond. The experiences described here also show that through a multi-stakeholder process land use planning and land tenure challenges in pastoral areas can be simultaneously addressed.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-09: Increasing the Sustainability of Pastoral Production Systems|
Session Chair: Gunnar Kohlin, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Institutional Innovation and the Protection of Livestock Corridors in Agropastoral Drylands
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America; 2Syracuse University; 3Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricole; 4Pole Pastoralisme et Zones Seches
The need to protect livestock mobility in the Sahel has been demonstrated by researchers and is increasingly acknowledged by national governments. Nonetheless, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Policy tends to be based on an abstract conception of mobility that insufficiently addresses the multiple dimensions of resource use and access. This study used participatory mapping to collect data on the corridors, resting points, and water resources used by pastoralists in eastern Senegal. The GIS database (including 5000 km of corridors, 744 encampments, and 1010 water points) depicts how mobility functions within a network of linked resources. Adopting a network approach can address the “paradox of pastoral tenure” by maintaining flexible resource use within a framework of protected resources. Finally, qualitative data from 14 municipalities along the mapped corridors was used to characterize institutional challenges to corridor protection. Resource users hold two competing perspectives on corridors. The first is control-oriented, focusing on preventing crop damage and reducing conflict; the second is access-oriented emphasizing corridors as a means to maintain access to pastures. Without a clear understanding of the functions of corridors, formalization can result in corridors restricting livestock mobility.
Transformation Of Land Tenure In Semi-Arid Areas And Implications For Climate Resilient Economic Development
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2University College London, United Kingdom; 3Independent consultant, Kenya
The Pathways to Resilience in Semi-arid Economies (PRISE) programme seeks to examine the role of land tenure in reducing climate vulnerability and enhancing climate-resilient economic development in the semi-arid lands of Kenya. These areas face a range of interacting drivers of risk, including climate change, land use change and land tenure reform, which are affecting local people’s ability to adapt and thrive.
Focussing on Kenya’s arid and semi-arid counties, and Kajiado county in particular, this paper documents the recent policies and trends that underlie the transformation of land tenure and implications for land use and governance in a changing climate. It goes on to explore how such transformations affect communities’ abilities to adapt to climate change by comparing the outcomes of different land tenure regimes (private and communal) on livelihoods and disaster risk management.
Finally, the implications for climate-resilient economic development will be explored particularly the impact of land tenure transformation on the potential of climate-smart livestock value chains to strengthen the resilience of pastoralist communities in the semi-arid lands of Kenya.
Public Lands Ranching in the U.S. - Social and Economic Characteristics of Public Lands Ranchers
1Sustainable Rnglands Roundtable University of Wyoming, United States of America; 2Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming, USA; 3Department of Ecosystem Science and Mgmt, University of Wyoming, USA
Federal land management agencies in the United States work with ranchers through grazing permits to facilitate livestock use and management of public lands. Reliable information documenting social and economic characteristics of ranchers who operate on public lands is needed to help land managers and policy makers, responsible for administering the nation’s rangelands, to understand ranchers’ economic and social diversity, as well as the variations among their operations, and their contributions to local communities and organizations. To obtain this information, a national survey was administered in 2015 to gather these data, mirroring in part a previous survey conducted in the late 1990s. Data were collected to be statistically relevant at the national level. Cluster analysis was used to determine different rancher groups in both studies, and the rancher groups were then compared to one and other, and previous survey results, to identify sources of income, type and numbers of livestock, values that keep ranchers ranching, and participation and leadership in community organizations. Data analyses sought to evaluate similarities and differences among the groups of ranchers, and potential responses/reactions to policy changes impacting public land management through grazing permits, upon which many western ranchers rely as part of their overall operations.
Dispossession through Formalization: The Plight of Pastoralists in Tanzania
1University of Michigan, United States of America; 2University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Danish Institute of International Studies (retired)
Advocates of formalization promote it as a means of ensuring tenure security for smallholders and reducing conflict. Yet in Tanzania conflicts are on the rise, especially in areas earmarked for the SAGCOT (Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania) agricultural investment program. Here, formalization is occurring alongside large-scale evictions of pastoralists and, to a lesser degree, of small-scale farmers. In this paper we explore the antecedents and rationales for formalization in Tanzania, and the effects on those who are the intended beneficiaries. We identify the main drivers underlying the up-scaling in formalization efforts since 2009. We furthermore disentangle a series of simultaneous developments to assess their relative weight in the rising levels of conflict: (1) SAGCOT investment activities; (2) the G8-led Land Tenure Support Program formalization initiative; (3) the longstanding Tanzanian government objective to end traditional modes of livestock keeping; and (4) the recent full waiver issued by the World Bank releasing Tanzania from its obligation to adhere to the safeguard policy for indigenous peoples. Rather than enhancing tenure security as is so often touted, formalization, we posit, seems instead to be facilitating the wide-scale dispossession of especially pastoralist lands to support foreign investment and conservation agendas.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-09: Can Agribusiness Investment Enhance Local Welfare?|
Session Chair: Derek Byerlee, Georgetown University, United States of America
Contextualizing International Voluntary Guidelines into Country Specific Land Investment Governance: Experience from Tanzania
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
This preliminary study involved consultation of responsible district government officials and relevant Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) on various issues related to land and investments. Among other areas, the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) was selected as a study site and study used the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) to obtain information. Questionnaire designed reflected land investment governance process thematic areas. This ranged from investment pre-planning and organization stage, negotiation and preparation of investments contracts to implementation of investments.
Throughout this paper, different issues are discussed including but not limited to inadequate awareness and understanding of Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC) mandate and the land allocation process among land based investment stakeholders; Practices that do not adhere to Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) principle; Existing compensation practices that are conducted in an inadequately and vague processes ; Dispute resolution mechanisms that are inadequately culturally sensitive and with a bias against women and evidences of weak land-based investment monitoring and evaluation system. The paper concludes that there is inadequate implementation of land investment governance good practices principles in Tanzania. The study further recommends Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), and government to address highlighted gaps in land investment governance.
Experiences of Agribusiness Investments in Lao PDR
1Village Focus International; 2Ministry of Planning and Investment
Following a decade of rapid economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, Lao PDR (Laos) is transitioning from a policy of “turning land into capital” towards promoting “quality investment”. Underpinning this shift is a growing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Responsible Agricultural Investment (RAI) across public and private sectors. However, understanding and implementation / enforcement of these concepts is limited. At the same time, cross-sector collaboration towards responsible investment remains rare. This paper examines a multi-stakeholder initiative, the RAI Working Group, which represents new territory for cross-sector collaboration and dialogue towards RAI in Laos. Key insights from the multi-stakeholder process reveal that: government plays an important role in setting standards for quality investment; investors need to go beyond compliance with domestic laws to reach international standards; community consultations prior and during investment are essential; and deeper understanding of how to implement socially and environmentally responsible business practices is required by all actors involved. The working group process showed an effective way of identifying ‘common ground’ to work towards deriving mutual benefits from RAI for national growth and sustainable development, profitability, and – most importantly – for communities affected by investments.
Private Sector Responsibilities in Agriculture under the VGGT
Land Tenure Investment Consultant, United States of America
FAO has commissioned a series of technical guides to assist those wishing to adopt and implement the relevant provisions of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT). This paper is an abbreviated version of one of the newest of those guides, one aimed at financial investors in the private sector. Entitled, “Responsible Governance of Tenure: A Technical Guide for Investors,” the guide is intended to help investors act with due diligence to achieve socially responsible and financially sustainable investments in agricultural land. The guide recognizes that, while even the best project may elicit criticism, investors who evaluate, structure, operate and monitor their investments in a way that is consistent with the VGGT are likely to create projects that do no harm, maximize benefit-sharing and yield a reasonable return on the investment. This is part of a broader objective of promoting land-based investments in agriculture that are more likely to benefit all stakeholders – investor, local community and government. The technical guide can be found at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5147e.pdf.
How Behind the Brands companies are implementing their land rights commitments in Brazil
Coca-Cola and PepsiCo committed to ‘zero tolerance’ for land grabs in late 2013 and early 2014, respectively. Since, Oxfam has been monitoring the companies’ progress implementing their commitments and providing advice on how they can improve. Both companies have now taken an important step by assessing risks and impacts of their cane sugar sourcing on land rights in Brazil; Coca-Cola by conducting a baseline study, PepsiCo through audits. Assessment processes, when done well, help companies identify issues and steps to take to address them. Community-based human rights impact assessments are another helpful input. Oxfam commissioned an external evaluation of the companies’ efforts in order to understand their quality and ascertain how they can improve future practice. It found Coca-Cola’s baseline study was comprehensive in scope. Per a recommendation from the evaluation, Coca-Cola published elements of a plan for how it will address findings of its study, including steps to ensure suppliers adhere to its land policy. PepsiCo’s approach requires improvement, particularly around its scope, its stakeholder engagement, and disclosure. Per recommendations from the evaluation, PepsiCo recognized it needs to go further in Brazil and adopted a new approach for all future assessments based on good practice.
Pilot Use of Responsible Agricultural Investment Principles: A Status Update
1UNCTAD, Switzerland; 2World Bank, USA
The pilot testing of principles for responsible agricultural investment by investors and governments is part of a systematic programme of work being undertaken by the inter-agency working group (IAWG) of FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and World Bank. It is intended to generate a body of empirical knowledge on responsible agricultural investment. Through this work the IAWG seeks to distill the lessons from past and current agricultural investment in order to understand “what works and what does not work” in practice for host countries, local communities, investors, and other parties impacted by agricultural investments. Bearing in mind that these findings are contingent on factors such as the scale of an investment, the crop being planted, business models or government policies in place, the lessons can be applied accordingly. This report provides the authors' interim assessment of this work.
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-09: Standards for Land Administration: Ensuring Interoperability|
Session Chair: Nicola Heathcote, HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
Further standardisation in Land Administration
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The; 3The University of Melbourne, Australia; 4UN Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The paper describes the ongoing developments and standardisation in land administration. Standards are relevant in relation to building as well as maintenance and development of a land administration.
Standards like the ISO 19152 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) are helping to jump-start new initiatives and are connecting top-down and bottom-up projects together. The LADM facilitates the efficient set-up of land administration and can function as the core of any land administration system. LADM is flexible, widely applicable and functions as a central source of state-of-the-art international knowledge on this topic. Some future trends in the domain and the maintenance of the standard are presented and being discussed in the paper. These trends may be relevant for the development of a second edition of the LADM over the coming years.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has set up a domain group on land administration. The OGC members drafted a charter for a working group for the land administration domain. The charter describes how to improve the interoperability, effectiveness and efficiency of land administration systems by optimising the use of OGC and complementary open standards. Land administration activities in all countries can benefit from improved interoperability.
Land Transfer Standards – Bringing Fit For Purpose Concepts To The Land Transaction Process
RICS, United Kingdom
90% of residential and commercial property in Africa is untitled and land and property transactions are high on the global corruption index. Responsible governance of land is also at the core of resource management and sustainable extractive industries. Much of the headline challenges are well known to land professionals, from land grabbing, to tenure vulnerability, to ineffective land administration and corrupt governance and to a lack of professional capacity. At the very core of these multiple land issues is the lack of a consistent, global and easily understood standard on land transaction and a common understanding of the essential elements needed within that process. ‘Fit for Purpose’ is a key concept not just for spatial measurement, it is also important that it is used for valuation/appraisal and land reporting. The object is to aid and de-risk the process of land investment and real property transfer. This presentation will highlight some of the issues involved, the process of collaboration and current status of the initiative (ILMS).
Practical Application Of IAAO Standards For Land Administration And Property Tax Systems
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
This presentation will describe the 14 Standards developed by the International Association of Assessing Officers defining the objective and purpose of IAAO Standards. The purpose of the standards are two-fold; to guide the creation of the most efficient and effective property tax systems possible and to and to provide professional training and standards for industry and government officials who are directly responsible for implementing and advancing property tax and land valuation systems. Highlighted will be how IAAO standards can be utilized by various government agencies within the context of what stage of property tax system development the government has been able to achieve. It will examine some of the challenges valuation offices will face in the future and focus on emerging technologies that will assist in reaching IAAO standards in a cost effective manner. This will suggest a roadmap in utilizing IAAO standards to assist in project conception. The IAAO’s Guidance on International Mass Appraisal and Related Tax Policy will be summarized and the IAAO’s upcoming Body of Knowledge will also be briefly introduced.
Standards and interoperability in the Nigerian Land Sector
In every economy, land represents a factor of production, without which production that will be able to facilitate entrepreneurship, poverty reduction and social cohesion is achieved. However, inefficiencies of the institutional and administrative components of the land sector which include the poor recordation of land information and transactions, lack of data and information about available land stock, lack of structures and non availability of fit-for-purpose systems to facilitate interoperability of the land data and poorly implemented or non implementation of standards to guide how data and information about land is used.
The nature of land suggests geography via the cadaster, which acts as a repository for land information. In order for the cadaster to be useful, it has to be shared and used by relevant stakeholders in the private and public sector. However, the legal and regulatory provisions that govern the use of the cadastral information, which will facilitate interoperability, are poorly implemented in Nigeria. The implementation of the standards to achieve interoperability has a dual purpose; it strengthens inter-ministerial collaboration and supports a functional platform for land information sharing and dissemination about land and its associated economic resources for end-users.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Applying Land Administration Domain Models|
Session Chair: Christiaan Lemmen, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Development and Employment of a LADM Implementing Toolkit in Colombia
1BSF Swissphoto AG, Switzerland; 2Cadastre Subdirectorate, Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi, Colombia; 3Office for Geoinformation, Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland
The Swiss Government is currently financing a project which provides technical assistance to the Colombian institutions in order to establish the conceptual and technical bases of a modernized land administration.
This paper explains the data modelling process and methodology applied by the project for adopting the ISO19152 (Land Administration Domain Model) in Colombia and for describing the LADM country profile using the Conceptual Schema Language INTERLIS, as well as the development of specific Free and Open Source Software tools that support the countrywide implementation of the standard.
The project’s Model-Driven Approach responds to the conceptual framework of the Multipurpose Cadastre defined by the Colombian Government, where the operation of the cadastre will be delegated to third-party operators by applying a “Freedom of Methods” principle. Because of this principle, a system independent data exchange mechanism is needed, a requirement that INTERLIS meets. With the developed Data Validation Tool and its integration with a web service, data delivered by the cadastre operators is checked against the LADM-COL model.
With the defined, well-documented and successfully applied modelling process, methodology and deployed tools, a LADM Implementing Toolkit is at the disposal of countries that face similar challenges as Colombia in modernizing their land administration.
Improving Land Administration in Brazil: re-engineering Cadastre using LADM
Brazilian recent advances in rural cadastre are noticeable. However, there are important issues that must be addressed to support land rights recognition, conciliate conflicts and control land use. To support this, it is being developed a National Cadastre project, considering: (i) the legislation; (ii) organizational framework: roles of the government agencies, including the existence of one rural cadastre and more than five thousand urban ones, under municipalities responsibility; (iii) the Land Administration Domain Model - LADM, ISO 19152:2012; (iv) Fit-for-purpose for Land Administration concepts: different classes for data in cadastre, allowing that the less precise evolves to more precise, in time; (v) Socio-cultural issues: potential tenure conflicts arising from the need of definition of boundaries; (vi) technical context of cadastre. Partial achievements are: modeling of the occupational situation and the basic land rights in levels, according to Brazilian Civil Code and based on LADM classes; object diagrams of several tenure situations, including traditional communities, land reform settlements and land conveyancing; Business Process Maps of part of the data inclusion and update. It is expected that with this project, it should be possible to improve Land Administration in Brazil with an integrated concept of cadastre provided by LADM, enabling the multipurpose applications.
Models Of Interaction Between Land Registries, Cadasters, and Land Tenure Systems
Habitat for Humanity International LAC Region, Peru
There are remarkable gaps of information (as incoherencies, fragmentation, inconsistency) between registries, cadasters and land systems which relates to negative consequences related to poverty and inequity that impact economic growth, public finances, public participation, urban planning, and access to housing, environmental and social conflicts.
Legal institutions in Latin American countries commonly prioritize the private property as the core of property rights, which are widespread in the various legislations, but the difference is that they become more effective compared to others, based on: i) the regulatory frameworks how they are applied in practice to deal with informality, security of tenure, and housing for the neediest; ii) the institutional capacities and practices on land administration including the use of geo-reference data; and, iii) the needs of the population to access land tenure protection mechanisms.
Based in the cases of Peru, Bolivia, and Guatemala this paper argues that the use of technology, specifically the use of geo reference information interlinking land registry, cadaster, and land tenure systems will positively impact responsible land governance.
Land Registration Data Standards, Interoperability and Data Access in Kenya
1Ministry of Lands - Kenya, Kenya (MoL); 2Technical University of Kenya (TUK); 3The University of Nairobi (UoN)
Land Registration and Administration in Kenya operates on a multi-legal platform [UN 2013]. The Land Registration Act No. 3 of 2012 (LRA) was enacted to consolidate, harmonize and rationalize land registration goals which are yet to be achieved. This is majorly because in as much as the 2012 statute repealed five out of the seven major lands registration laws they all remain in force under LRA’s transitional clauses.
The Government of Kenya is making efforts to avail land registration information online via the e-citizen platform. This is the official Government portal for e-payments. It is meant to facilitate e-land searches from the point of payment to downloading the land information instantly without the need to go to the lands office physically. The uptake of this search is however slow because it is not fully legally recognized.
Innovative Rural Cadastre Development in Ethiopia
1NIRAS, Responsible and Innovative Land Administration(REILA)Project, Ethiopia; 2Hansa Luftbild, Germany; 3Ministry of Agriculture Natural Source (MoANR),Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate (RLAUD), Ethiopia
This lightning talk presents the development of a fully-functional „National Rural Land Administration Information System” (NRLAIS) for Ethiopia, based on free and open-source software (FOSS).
Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic whose constitution and land legislation gives significant powers to its regional states. Against this background and with the support of the Responsible and Innovative Land Administration Project (REILA) , the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, responsible to manage and administer the rural land, developed an IT strategy to find the most suitable option to harmonise rural land administration in the country.
The development of the pilot system was awarded to Hansa Luftbild, a geoinformation services company from Muenster, Germany. It is based on FOSS components and applies the ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard. With its innovative and cost-effective architecture and modular “tool-kit” approach it is independent of a fully functioning internet infrastructure and can be easily adapted to cater for different legal requirements of the Ethiopian regional states.
The system development commenced in April 2015. A prototype will be delivered by December 2016, and by the end of April 2017 the system is expected to be in full operation after rigorous testing at six different pilot offices.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-09: Improving Urban Land Governance|
Session Chair: Robert Buckley, New York University Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Land governance in the context of the New Urban Agenda: Experiences from Harare (Zimbabwe) and Johannesburg (South Africa)
1Transparency International Zimbabwe; 2Chinhoyi University; 3Corruption Watch South Africa
This discussion provides a nuanced analysis of how land governance systems influence the New Urban Agenda in the context of two different African cities, Harare and Johannesburg. Responsible land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of this Agenda and thus Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11. One of the key components of the Agenda’s vision and that of SDG 11 is the concept of cities for all, meaning “equal use and enjoyment of cities, towns, and villages and seeking to promote inclusivity and ensure that all inhabitants, of present and future generations, without discrimination of any kind, are able to inhabit and produce just, safe, healthy, accessible, resilient, and sustainable cities and human settlements, as a common good. It is within this context that land governance variables such as land corruption, land access, and land planning have become important in achieving the vision of the New Urban Agenda. The paper which is informed by an extensive review of literature argues that land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of the New Urban Agenda. The paper seeks to propose policy recommendations on how the New Urban Agenda can be more responsive to challenges in land governance.
Towards An Urban Land Resource Curse? A Fresh Perspective On A Long-Standing Issue
Transparency International - Secretariat, Germany
The governance of urban land and real estate development is one of the central challenges not just for urban but also more broadly for global development in times of rapid urbanisation. This paper advances a fresh perspective to look at urban land by exploring to what extent it could be characterised as a resource curse problem. The conclusion is a qualified yes: urban land issues exhibit a number of characteristics and dynamics that compellingly suggest that we are facing a resource curse type of situation when it comes to urban land not only in a small number of global mega-cities in the global North but increasingly also in rapidly urbanising areas in developing countries. What’s more, the particular configuration of drivers and characteristics points to a resource curse that rivals and in some aspects even dwarfs the risks, complexities and acuity associated with the phenomenon in other sectors. Drawing on the experience with tackling resource curse challenges this paper concludes by discussion a number of practical remedies that offer promise in the context of urban land with a particular focus on targeted transparency and education initiatives
A Critical Assessment of Urban Land Leasehold System in Ethiopia
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
The land management and governance system can be the underlying cause for materializing the opportunity or face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The urban land lease policy of Ethiopia is considered the most influential factor that determine whether there exists unhealthy, haphazard and unbalanced investment environment in the cities. The paper critically reviews the policy and its institutional arrangement. It quantitatively analyzed the fundamental factors that drive the value of land developers place on urban land for investment using the land auctions data obtained from Addis Ababa City. Base price, plot size, location and grade and auction period have significant effect on land value. Investment type and capital have mixed effect. Our findings suggest that the implementation of the land lease policy still requires reexamination of constraints and opportunities with the aim of devising appropriate measures towards sustainable urbanization. The institutional mechanism does not provide ‘appropriate’ incentive for developers and accountability for bureaucrats. It should help to facilitate cities’ transition from dependence on land sale revenue to modern taxation, and consider the capability of the rural citizens, who are expected to displace as urbanization progresses, to access the opportunities and their entitlements for integration into cities throughout the urbanization process.
Holding Land in Common within Cities, Commoning for Land Rights– What Can We Learn from Collective Tenure in Urban Context?
1Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; 2French Development Agency
In cities of developing countries, access to decent housing and secure land tenure remains a great challenge for most of urban dwellers; yet secure land tenure is a key component of urban resilience. The aim of this paper is to present and synthetize an exploratory study on collective tenure in developing countries’ cities that was conducted in 2016. This study is part of a wider reflection on the possible contribution of the analytical framework of the commons for renewing the approach of development aid, conducted by the AFD, and seeks to explore to what extent Collective Tenure in Urban Context can contribute to inclusive and sustainable cities.
First, we will demonstrate how the debate on securing land rights for the urban poor can be enriched by the analytical framework of the commons. Second, we will draw lessons from three of the six case studies developed in the study, namely housing cooperatives, collective land titling, and Community Land Trust.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-09: Can New Data Sources Help Protect Indigenous Rights?|
Session Chair: Frank Pichel, Cadasta Foundation, United States of America
The New Safeguard Standards for Indigenous People: Where do we start?
Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP, Canada
On August 4, 2016 the World Bank's Board of Directors approved new environmental and social framework, modernizing a decades-old set of policies aimed at preventing Bank funded development projects from harming the environment and people. Standard 7 on indigenous peoples is the policy that sets up standards that borrowing countries are expected to follow to protect indigenous rights The paper examines models for development on lands where competing assertions of State authority and indigenous land rights show no likelihood of foreseeable resolution. It analyzes the international legal instruments intended to address this friction, including the new safeguards, and then reports on the Grand Bend Wind Project in Canadian province of Ontario, and the policies on which it relies, as a case study for successfully implementing the objectives of these legal interests, and allowing a project to proceed notwithstanding claim uncertainty.
Contribution of Open Data to Protect Indigenous People’s Livelihood, Land Security and Natural Resources Sustainability
1Heinrich Boell Foundation Cambodia; 2Cambodia Indigenous Peoples Organization; 3Open Development Cambodia
Cambodia remains a country in which the large majority of the people still lives in the countryside. It is therefore more complicated to assess the diversity of people’s livelihood, and to make clear census on population, in comparison to more urban countries. The need for information is crucial in Cambodia, in order to facilitate decision-making, to preserve indigenous people way of living, and to conserve one of the country’s greater asset: its natural resources.
The lack of transparency regarding Cambodian development highlights the potential benefits of open data for the country, which serves both Cambodian people, official authorities, as well as anyone interested in the country’s evolution. The knowledge spreads by open data initiatives also contribute in enforcing the rule of law in Cambodia, for it provides people a better understanding of their rights and duties, while underlining the potential flaws of the existing policies. Land titling, land concessions, and land disputes including the territory of indigenous peoples are among the hottest current issues in Cambodia. Group of NGOs in Cambodia believe that open data helps clarifying these types of conflicts, and could be useful both for indigenous people, but also to representative authorities into their legal enforcement duty.
Using open data and digital mapping to aggregate evidence for identifying and protecting indigenous people’s lands and resources in Cambodia
Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia
Cambodia’s 24 indigenous communities have traditionally managed nearly 4 million hectares of remote forests. Their wellbeing is tied to land security.
Today they face threats from fast economic growth. It is common for indigenous communities to find agricultural or mining concessions encroaching on their land, logging companies clearing their forests or dam builders forcing them to relocate. Land alienation means loss of livelihood and tradition, poorer health and education.
Agencies addressing the problems can find it difficult to source reliable independent data to inform and underpin their work. Data is often dated, incomplete or slanted to an agenda.
Data aggregation and digital mapping in an open data environment provide one solution. Open Development Cambodia (ODC) an independent, politically-neutral body, aggregates data and develops interactive maps and datasets accessible in English and Khmer.
Users synthesize data to their needs, for example matching indigenous lands with economic land concessions to find overlaps and support the alteration or revoking of concessions, or locating indigenous communities in mineral exploration areas, guiding on who should be consulted and compensated.
ODC’s development-focused open data initiative offers a model for developing areas globally.
This paper bridges two conference themes, around data technologies and securing land rights.
Itenure- New Tool For Land Claim Registration And Legal Advice On Land Tenure Status
1People in Need, Cambodia; 2Open Institute, Cambodia; 3University Collage London
In Cambodia, thousands of people are affected by land conflicts. Country’s regulations regarding land expropriation, titling and conflict resolution are fairly complex and many people are not aware of their rights.
It has been demonstrated that general i.e. not household specific information and advice provided by CSOs to beneficiaries is not particularly useful. Moreover, it may cause some distrust between CSOs, communities and local authorities, which may consider such actions as inciting.
A household specific assessment of a land claim, legal analysis and advice is considered more effective. The reports documenting the claim including maps, names of claimants, etc. can be used in the court as support documentation. A legal advice referenced to the local legislation makes claimants more confident when in the court or during negotiations with government officials. However, it is time consuming to collect, analyze and provide information to thousands of claimants. Moreover, the legal language used in the advice sheet may not be understandable to the people whose level of education and literacy is low.
This paper explores how new technologies offer number of solutions which can be used to speed up such processes and improve communication.
|Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-09: Rural Land Governance Experiences|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
Land tenure and its impacts on food security in Uganda: Empirical Evidence from Ten Districts
1United Nations Human Settlement Programme, Kenya; 2Makerere Unievrsity, Kampala - Uganda
The need to establish the link between land tenure and food security is increasingly gaining currency as governments and development organizations strive to assist farmers to move away from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture. It is argued that given how land plays a crucial role in the livelihoods of most Africans, food security and poverty reduction cannot be achieved unless issues of access to land, security of tenure and the capacity to use land productively and in a sustainable manner are addressed.
This study was conducted in ten districts of Uganda. The overall objective of the study was to undertake an empirical analysis of the land issues that farmers experience, which could limit efforts to improve agricultural production and hence adversely impact on food security. A multifaceted study approach was used in which various data collection methods including household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and document review were employed. 623 farmers participated, of which 55.7% were females. In addition, key informants from the Local Government as well as CSOs were interviewed. The study recommends fit-for-purpose land administration tools to address area specific land tenure and food security challenges including security of land tenure.
Land Access And Use Under Changing Tenancy Regulations: Governance Challenges In Odisha (India)
While agricultural tenancy is banned in Odisha (India), concealed tenancy is rampant. In an agriculturally dominant economy, the practice was exploitative and had led to operation of a series of intermediaries, between the owner and the actual tiller or the tenant. Land leasing is the reality and a liberalized setting will provide access over land for the landless and land poor.
In 2016, Government of India came up with a model tenancy law following wide ranging consultations. The state of Odisha is in the process of bringing in a new law on agricultural land leasing and in Aug 2016 initiated a process of consultation with landowners and sharecroppers.
The paper will outline current land leasing practices based on experiences related by land owners and share croppers in five districts where Landesa had conducted field assessment during 2015. The broad framework in which land governance will be examined is: (a) institutional mechanisms to identify and record sharecroppers, (b) ensure specific provisions related to women farmers, (c) tenancy arrangements in tribal areas confirming to secure tribal rights, (d) participation mechanism in input subsidy, financial credit and procurement programmes, (e) provisions under land modernization and computerization programme ongoing in the state.
Reducing Conflicts and Enhancing Land Administration: Case of the Customary Boundary Demarcation in Ghana
Ghana Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Ghana’s National Land Policy identifies the indeterminate boundaries of customary lands as a major problem disturbing efficient land administration and management across the country and which continue to deny investors access to land for projects and delays the implementation of programs thereby thwarting development at both urban and rural levels.
To abate the problem, the Government with the assistance of the World Bank and development partners launched the Land Administration Project (LAP) in 2003. Component 2 of the project deals with implementation of Customary Boundary Demarcation (CBD) – i.e. the delineation (identification, demarcation and survey) of allodial lands based on substantial innovation and on strong, fruitful collaborative relationship between different actors: customary land authorities, public land sector agencies, private sector, local and central government, subjects and individuals. Implementation started slowly, building with caution on lessons as they emerged.
This work discusses the innovative steps employed, expands understanding of the Customary Boundary Demarcation exercise as is being implemented in Ghana to highlight the outcome, implementation successes and challenges. The work demonstrates the fact that the Ghanaian example provides useful lessons for other developing countries to improve upon the participatory approaches to land management at the local level.
Reforms for Equity and Efficiency: Exploring Challenges of Malawi's 2016 Customary Land Act in Achieving Equity Goal
University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, Malawi
The Government of Malawi has promulgated Customary Land Act 2016 to replace the 1967 Land Act. This Act seeks to address challenges facing customary land tenure, especially for women and other vulnerable groups of people through creation of private customary estate with private usufructuary rights in perpetuity. Using data from seven districts in the country, this study examines the extent to which the new land law will achieve land use equity goal, especially for the most vulnerable members of the community. The findings from interviews with communities reveal the success of the new Law depends on the existence of efficient land governance institutions and enforcement mechanisms. In particular, while there is a high sense of optimism that the new land law address land security situation, this benefit is tempered down by the unwillingness of local communities to grant land security to divorced and widowed partners. This situation is likely to be worsened by the fact that individual land registration potentially closes up creation of quasi land tenure rights for returning community members as it increases opportunity costs for individuals. These findings, therefore, underscores the need for establishing good land governance at a local and efficient land rights enforcement mechanisms.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-09: Analyzing Land Policy Making in Africa|
Session Chair: Yamungu Kayandabila, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania
Scope for Decentralization of Land Administration in Africa: Evidence from Local Administrative Data in Mozambique
Michigan State University, United States of America
This study uses administrative records from the land administration system accessed through the provincial land administration offices at the Ministry of Agriculture aiming at assessing the scope of decentralization by testing the fragmentation or competition hypothesis arguing that decentralization is likely to improve the performance of land administration system in Mozambique. In a way, this paper assesses the relationship between the structures and performance by identifying the correlations or the effect of the structure on the performance to have a better understanding of other factors that are likely to improve its performance.
This study uses an application of the Structure, Conduct, and Performance (SCP) paradigm to test the “structure performance hypothesis” to testing research hypothesis that fragmentation or competition hypothesis which posits that an increased fragmentation should lead to greater choice of the clientele of land administration services (landholders) and thus increased competition among the local administrative government units, reducing the size of the central government public services. Results of the study allow to supports the decentralization hypothesis provided that investment support is provided.
The Challenges of Using Spatial and Demographic Data for Development in Nigeria
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
Nigeria is suffering from high unemployment, increasing poverty and an over-dependence on oil. Increased foreign and domestic investment in strategic industries would diversify the economy, and encourage growth and employment. Traditionally, it has been difficult for investors to access critical for strategic commercial decisions. This is the case for a number of reasons including minimal existing data, a lack of infrastructure and standards to allow this data to be shared, and a lack of capacity in both the State and the private sector to analyse the data. In order to overcome these issues, the Growth and Employment in States 3 programme (GEMS3) has developed a fit-for-purpose land registration system which allows the collation of large amounts of data, spatial and socio-economic. GEMS3 is looking at ways to ‘package’ this data in order to allow investors and the State to easily interpret and then utilise it in a meaningful way. The programme has also recommended the development of spatial data infrastructure to ensure that this data and data from various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and private sector actors can be shared and accessed freely.
A Programme for Improving Land Governance Transparency in Ethiopia
1MOKORO Ltd., United Kingdom; 2Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
A recent study identifies positive elements in Government thinking on land governance, despite criticisms over recent years. The smallholder titling program and new Rural Land Administration System are one example, while 2005 land legislation improved tenure security and provided rights holders with more flexibility and choices over using their land, including renting and contracting out. A revision will consolidate these gains and address pastoralist and communal rights. The Government is considering Voluntary Guidelines and Responsible Agricultural Investment approaches to private sector land allocations, and is engaging with stakeholders over new land use policy. A new commercial agricultural investment strategy shifts focus from land acquisitions to a value-chain inclusive business approach. However, recent land-related conflicts underline the need for improved land governance. A new Plan for Improved Transparency in Land Governance sets land governance within an inclusive rural development strategy, which will foster greater transparency. The Plan forms part of the DIFD-funded Land Investment for Transformation (LIFT) programme being implemented by a DAI-led consortium. It underlines potential synergies between smallholders, pastoralist communities and private investors, and supports policy dialogue; it also aligns with the recent LGAF to develop new land activities for the 2020-2025 Growth and Transformation Plan.
The Ambiguous State-Traditional Relationship in Land Governance in Uganda and Malawi: Repercussions on Poverty Reduction?
University of Konstanz, Germany
Today, in sub-Saharan Africa, the legal and the political system reflects a mélange of traditional and state institutions, practices, and policies. Traditional leaders, for instance, are indispensable in their function as land administrators. They oversee large shares of customary land and are an important authority to reckon with. Traditional institutions are not a separate entity that exits in isolation from the state. Particularly in the area of land governance, the jurisdiction and mandates of elected politicians and chiefs overlap, compete, substitute or complement each other.
In this paper, I address the relation between the state-traditional interface and good land governance. I present an analytical framework that distinguishes between the de jure state-traditional relationship and its de facto interface. This analytical framework is explored in a comparative case study of Malawi and Uganda. I scrutinize the legal framework on land and traditional governance, detecting potential legal inconsistencies. Thereafter, acknowledging the fact that legal provisions are often not translated into reality, I assess the de facto state-traditional relationship, drawing on a wide variety of sources such as newspaper articles, confidential and public documents as well as 125 interviews which I conducted between November 2015 and March 2016 in both countries.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-09: Piloting Global Land and Property Indices|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
Developing a Land Administration Index
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Since 1996, there has been significant progress in developing performance evaluation frameworks and benchmarks for individual Land Administration System aspects. Ontological and epistemological differences inherent in each Land Administration System (LAS), however, have stymied attempts to cross-compare performance of Land Administration Systems in their entirety. This research has developed a working Land Administration Performance Index concept developed from existing accepted quantitative benchmarks for evaluating land administration systems. This index is effective at determining the overall performance as well as identifying individual weaknesses of a land administration system. In order for this index to work as intended, sufficient quantitative data relevant to the benchmarks must be collected. Additionally, this quantitative data must be accurate, and without intentional or unintentional bias: manipulation, malproduction, and underproduction risks must be identified and rectified. This index is incapable of or judging the quality of data and thus will only ever be as good as the data that is provided.
Developing a Global Land Tenure Security Index for Spatial Analyses
1Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 2The Nature Conservancy; 3University of Maryland, Baltimore County; 4McGill University
Land tenure security is widely regarded as a critical factor for effective and sustainable conservation (Larson et al., 2013) and for improving human well-being (food security, economic development etc.) (Payne, Durand-Lasserve, & Rakodi, 2009). Policymakers often allocate resources first at the national-level, indicating the need for a global understanding of land tenure security. In this paper, we create a global index of the Governance Context for Land Tenure Security (GC-LTS) using existing global datasets. The GC-LTS is important for research on coupled-human-natural systems because land tenure security is directly and indirectly related to human behavior and natural resource management. We find that the index is significantly correlated with human well-being indicators, supporting the long held finding in the literature that securing tenure can improve human well-being. In examining the spatial distribution of the GC-LTS within remaining intact forest areas, we find that large areas of intact forest are located in areas with weaker governance context for land tenure security. We also identify countries with a high number of endemic species and lower GC-LTS scores. This analysis highlights areas that are priorities for further study of the potential for land tenure security interventions to improve both human well-being and conservation outcomes.
What is the relationship between tenure security, good governance and poverty alleviation: What do we know and what can we learn from this evidence
University of Florida, United States of America
The relationship between tenure security, governance and poverty are complex and influenced by numerous external factors. Our initial analysis shows a reasonably strong correlation between governance and poverty. We can theorize that tenure security impacts governance, but in this paper we will test this empirically with existing datasets.
Tenure security has always been difficult to measure, partly because it is shaped by intangible perceptions and actions that may lag behind the interventions designed to promote this security. This paper aims to do a cross-countries comparative analysis on the linkages between governance, land tenure security and poverty alleviation. We will use the World Bank’s data base on worldwide governance indicators (WGI) at the national level as the major source of governance data for the analysis in this paper. We will draw on other available empirical evidence, such as the ‘doing business’ indicators compiled by the World Bank and the international property rights index as a measure of tenure security.
We point out certain problems with this national level evidence and suggest approaches at a more local scale.
Towards a More Open Future: Increasing Accountability and Transparency through Open Land Data
1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Land Portal Foundation, The Netherlands
Transparency in land information data and land laws and policy is a critical element in ensuring equitable, accountable land use and tenure security. The consequences of a lack of transparency are myriad, but most notably include an increased difficulty in unlocking the value of the land as an asset, eroded trust in governance land administration systems, and a general lack of awareness of land policies and legal frameworks - all undermining land tenure security and potentially leading to a misallocation of land rights. The opaque nature of land administration systems and decision-making mechanisms exacerbates corruption by land officials, from petty corruption as citizens undertake transactions, to major political corruption in land management, such as the illegal sale or lease of state land by public officials. Finally, without information on the status and transfer of state-owned lands, intermediaries and communities have no way to advocate for protection of their own rights. Despite this clear need for transparency in land governance, the data needed to connect these links remains closed. This paper will explore the implications of open data for land governance based on extensive consultations with key actors in the land governance community.
Expanding Land Tenure in Women Business and the Law
The World Bank, United States of America
Women, Business and the Law collects data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and employment. Equality of opportunity allows women to make the choices that are best for them, their families and their communities. However, opportunities for women are not equal where legal gender differences are prevalent. Such restrictions constrain women’s ability to make economic decisions in a variety of ways, and can have far-reaching consequences. Moreover, they are associated with real economic outcomes.By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare legal gender differences across economies and over time, WBL offers objective and measurable benchmarks for assessing where reforms have occurred that can also be helpful in measuring global progress toward legal gender equality. WBL informs policy discussions and promotes research on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-09: Household Survey Data Collection and New Evidence|
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
Could the debate be over? Errors in farmer-reported production and their implications for inverse scale-productivity relationship in Uganda
1World Bank; 2Stanford University
Our analysis based on the Round 1 of MAPS: Methodological Experiment on Measuring Maize Productivity, Soil Fertility and Variety that was implemented in Eastern Uganda by Uganda Bureau of Statistics in the first agricultural season of 2015 provide unambiguous support for the sensitivity of the plot-level inverse scale-productivity relationship to the choice of the method by which crop production and productivity is computed. While farmer-reported production based maize yield regressions consistently imply decreasing returns to cultivated plot area, crop cutting and high-resolution, multi spectral satellite imagery, remote sensing based maize yield analyses point to constant returns to scale. The core finding is driven by persistent over-reporting of the plot-level farmer-reported production (and productivity) vis-à-vis its crop cutting based counterpart across the entire distribution of plot areas, and particularly in the lower half of the sample in terms of plot area. Our production functions, which control for GPS-based plot areas, infrared spectroscopy-based soil fertility and DNA fingerprinting-based maize genetic heterogeneity, among a rich set of plot, household and manager attributes, yield results that are robust to alternative sample specifications that are aimed at increasing the reliability of the benchmark maize yield estimates.
Individual-level Approach to Data Collection on Land Ownership and Rights
While asset ownership data continues to be collected largely at the household-level in developing countries, most assets are owned solely or jointly by individuals. Are we, however, doing enough to capture individual asset ownership by only interviewing the self-identified most knowledgeable household member in typical household surveys? How do reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to residential and agricultural land among men and women vary when multiple individuals are interviewed simultaneously vis-à-vis the traditional approach to data collection? Does tenure insecurity mediate discrepancies in land ownership and rights-related constructs among multiple interview targets in the same household regarding the same residential and agricultural parcels of land? This paper investigates these questions using data from Malawi's Fourth Integrated Household Survey (IHS4) 20/16/17. In parallel with a cross-sectional sample of 12,480 households within which data on asset ownership and control are solicited per usual survey protocol and often from a single respondent, the IHS4 includes a separate, long-term panel sample of 2,000 households in which comparable information on asset ownership and control are solicited from individual-specific interviews of all adults within the same household.
Beyond ownership: Tracking progress on women’s land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa
1The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy; 2University of Oxford, CGIAR Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets
Advancing women’s land rights is a priority for the international development agenda as highlighted in at least two targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is limited practical guidance on how to measure progress on land rights especially in contexts where individual property rights and customary tenure regimes coexist and where much of the land remains unregistered as in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study empirically examines the gender gaps in land rights, including not only ownership but also management and control of the outputs. In addition, we assess the extent to which different rights over land overlap using data from six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study confirms substantial gender gaps not only in land ownership but also in land management. In addition, reported ownership does not always correspond with the right to sell or use as collateral. The sizes of the gender gaps vary across land rights and across countries with Niger and Nigeria exhibiting consistently large gender gaps in all rights. Moreover, the various land rights do not consistently overlap, indicating that concepts of ownership, management and economic rights should not be used interchangeably.
|Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017|
|9:00am - 10:30am||13-04: LandAc Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue |
For more information: Lucy Oates email@example.com
Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue In Land Governance: Lessons Learned And Ways Forward
LANDac (Netherlands Academy for Land Governance), Netherlands, The
|11:00am - 12:30pm||14-04: Guide to the Valuation of Unregistered Land|
For more information or signing up, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Introducing a Guide to the Valuation of Unregistered Land
1Global Property Advisory, Australia; 2South Pacific Property Advisors, Fiji; 3UN-HABITAT/GLTN; 4FIG
For years now, authors of this paper have reported in conferences such as this upon the difficulties of valuing property rights over real estate when there is little or no evidence available to support any such valuation. Because no two pieces of land are identical to one another, these difficulties are endemic in the land valuation profession. However, markets differ markedly in terms of degrees of difficulty of reading them. Amongst the most difficult in that respect can be valuations of unregistered land.
A major variable in terms of those degrees of difficulty is the transparency and accountability of the land information infrastructure for that market. But that is by no means the only one, because markets emerge from free relationships between people, not machines. If a transaction is not the result of free and usual engagement by willing, knowledgeable and prudent parties by the standards of the market concerned, then it is not evidence of market value. If it is such a transaction, and meets the other requirements of the IVSC definition of market value, then it is evidence of value.
This paper introduces a guidebook for the valuation of such land.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||15-04: People-Centred Land Monitoring – the Dashboard|
For more information and participation please contact: Anseeuw, Ward <email@example.com>
Contributing to SDGs and VGGTs through people-centred land monitoring – the Dashboard
CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy