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|Location: MC C2-125|
|Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-13: Can Modern Tools Help Protect Tribal Lands?|
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
Indigenous Peoples and Fragmented Landscapes: Empirical Evidence from 22 Tribal Groups in India
Visiting Scholar, Wageningen University
This evidence-based research, as part of the Landing Together* initiative, is about forest and land governance of India’s 22 Indigenous Communities in 10 states. It analyses how recognition through various legislations is fostering and/ or fragmenting traditional land and forest tenure.
Between 2015 and 2016, for 20 months, the author conducted an extensive ethnography study, including audio-visual recording of interviews with 22 marginal tribal groups, pastoralists, government officials, former militants, political leaders and civil societies in 16 tribal districts all over India. Each of the case studies highlights specific issues such as conflicts due to Eco-Sensitive Zone in Assam and Elephant corridors in Tamil Nadu, collective forest resources of pastoralists in Gujarat, opencast mines in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, oil palm plantation replacing shifting cultivation in Mizoram, timber plantations in Odisha under the new CAMPA Bill, the weak functioning of Gram Panchayats, and inappropriate land acquisitions in Rajasthan.
The analytical framework of this paper underlines two aspects of ‘recognition’: (1) traditional forest and land rights, and (2) indigenous self-identity for Forest Citizenship. It shows that national demand for timber and mineral resources influence the policy decision to recognize indigenous peoples’ land rights and forest citizenship.
Impact of land rights and titles on agriculture in tribal villages in India
1Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India; 2National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj (NIRD & PR), India; 3Griffith University, Australia
The paper examined the status of land rights (land title) and its impact on the agricultural productivity and food security in tribal (indigenous people without land rights) villages in India. The study is an outcome of an intensive field survey of 36 tribal villages without land rights and another 24 non-tribal villages adjacent to the tribal villages by interviewing 714 tribal and 479 non-tribal farmers.
Overall, in tribal villages (without land rights and titles by households), farmers mostly follow low-input and low-output cultivation for subsistence purpose. The share of uncultivated land was higher, out migration from the villages was also higher. Agriculture is mostly primitive, with less adoption of improved technology compared to non-tribal villages with proper land rights and titles. Tribals without land rights and titles are not able to benefit from government as well as private institutions in getting credit, farm extension, seed and other inputs.
There is a need for increasing effectiveness of land rights and titles among the tribal villages and indigenous people in India to increase investment, productivity and food security and to reduce poverty among the tribal population in India.
“The Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) - an Opportunity for Integrated Environmental Land Management for Traditional Peoples and Communities in Brazil?"
1GIZ (German Development Cooperation), Brazil; 2Ministry of Environment, Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 3Ministry of Environment, Secretariat for Extractivism and Rural Development, Brazil; 4University of Brasilia, Brazil
Tropical forests in Brazil are not only important for sequestrating carbon, thus reducing net emissions and mitigating global climate change effects, they are also a space for securing livelihoods and preserving the cultural, spiritual and religious practices of traditional peoples and communities. The New Forest Code of 2012 established the obligatory rural environmental registry “CAR – Cadastro Ambiental Rural” for the protection and restoration of forest areas on rural land in Brazil. Traditional peoples and communities require that their cultural and territorial specificities are inclusively considered in the CAR system and in the process of environmental regularization so that their land rights are secured and they can also benefit from public socio-environmental programs. This paper discusses how the CAR can be truly inclusive of diverse traditional communities and how it can best contribute to improving their access to public policies and to promoting Integrated Environmental Land Management.
Avoiding the Worst-Case Scenario: Whether Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Africa and Asia are Vulnerable to Expropriation without Compensation
University of Groningen
This paper examines whether national expropriation and land laws in 30 countries across Asia and Africa put Indigenous Peoples and local communities at risk of expropriation without compensation. In particular, this paper examines whether national laws ensure that communities are eligible for compensation, and whether eligibility requirements effectively close the door on communities seeking compensation. The analysis is based on an assessment of national-level expropriation and compensation procedures, and also draws on research findings from the legal indicator data available on LandMark, a global platform of indigenous and community lands. The analysis measures national expropriation and land laws against a set of "compensation security" indicators. The indicators ask questions about whether laws impose restrictions on the rights of communities to receive compensation upon expropriation. The indicators were developed based on the principles established in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (2012) (VGGTs). By measuring national laws against international standards, and examining whether these 30 countries’ national laws provide potential loopholes through which governments may expropriate community land without compensating affected communities, this paper highlights legal gaps that must be filled in order for the VGGTs to be adopted in these 30 countries.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-13: Traditional Institutions' Role to Document Communal Rights|
Session Chair: Rachael Knight, Namati, United States of America
A Statutory framework for the documentation and codification of customary and informal land rights regimes
1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2GROOTS Kenya
In most African countries, the majority of the population lives in rural areas, and holds land based on undocumented customary arrangements. Conflicting statutory law or corrupt customary leaders can weaken customary systems. As global competition for productive land and valuable natural resources increases, both domestic and foreign investors can too easily ignore or dismiss customary rights, especially when those rights are undocumented. Without urgent action to document customary lands, strengthen equitable land governance by customary institutions, and integrate customary and statutory law, millions of people are at risk of losing their rights to land and resources held under customary tenure. And, today, strong customary institutions that stand on the side of local people are more important than ever. Approximately 65-70% of land in Kenya is estimated to fall under the category of “community land”. The Community (Grassroots)-led land mapping model,developed by GROOTS Kenya & social tenure domain model (STDM) developed by GLTN are examples of community led tools for documenting and securing communal land rights. Both tool offer us key lessons for consideration in development of a statutory framework for documentation of communal lands.
The Tragedy Of Myopic Policy Planning For The Commons: Managing Customary Land And Other Natural Resources In Zimbabwe’s Mberengwa Communal Area
Women's University In Africa, Zimbabwe
The experiences of Mberengwa communal area, with regards to management of customary land, reveal that the traditional systems of land governance promoted at independence were based on myopic land policy planning. They give a façade of equal access to land and grassroots participation, yet threaten the virtue of livelihoods and natural resources sustainability. The communal natural resources in this area are collectively owned and managed by traditional systems of authority through a system of land centralisation which was adopted during the colonial era. In this study, I expressly focus on the nature of existing traditional land tenure system, interrogating how it works, how it benefits individuals, households and the entire community. I inevitable explore the traditional institutions that are central in the management of land and related natural resources. Using Key Informants, Transect walks and Observations, I established that the management of natural resources of the commons in post-colonial Zimbabwe is very problematic and results in unsustainable utilization. The traditional institutions are rendered weak to manage these resources in the face of increasing population pressure. Certain harmful land and natural resource use patterns deemed harmful to the environment, are difficult to halt as the community switches into a survival mode.
The Evolution of Collective Land Access Regimes in Pastoralist Societies: Lessons from East African Countries
Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Kenya
This study examines the evolution of collective land tenure regimes in East Africa including how they affect pastoral communities. Specifically, the drivers and impacts of changes in collective land access across time are identified. First, the study synthesises regional evidence on East Africa’s pastoral communities before examining changes among collective land tenure regime in Kenya using existing literature, secondary data and primary data. Second, using theory testing process tracing method to analyse the key drivers on changes in collective land tenure. Land individualisation and privatisation policies implemented during the colonial period and maintained by post-independence governments did not yield the desired outcomes of increasing investments on land and improving productivity and incomes, especially in areas where land is accessed collectively. The growing trend towards individualisation of land in pastoral areas is triggered by a combination of factors including the potential for change in land use, proximity to urban cities large-scale infrastructural developments and the nature of community mechanisms for accessing and managing collectively owned land and other resources. To sustain pastoral productive systems, the maintenance of collective access to land especially where extensive livestock production systems are likely to be practiced, will provide economic and social benefits to communities.
Mapping as Empowerment: Lessons from a Year of Participatory Community Mapping
1Namati, United States of America; 2Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 3Kenya Land Alliance, Kenya
Participatory mapping is often presented as an approach that empowers people to create their own maps. Unfortunately, complex tools and inappropriate recommendations have too often led to ineffective or unsustainable mapping programs that do not achieve the targeted empowerment outcomes or even disempower communities. This is particularly concerning for efforts aimed at strengthening land rights and governance process for indigenous and customary communities. The nexus between participatory mapping and legal empowerment as it relates to formal recognition of land rights warrants further attention and is central to the work of Namati, Cadasta, and our partner organizations. This paper synthesizes lessons from seven participatory mapping exercises undertaken by Namati and Cadasta with partner organizations in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, and Myanmar over the past two years. These exercises informed the development of a suite of tools, methods, and training supports that can be tailored to particular goals and context of an organization and community. This paper analyzes lessons from the pilots and shares suggestions for how to leverage mapping for empowerment – for communities, civil society, and governments.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-13: Institutional Arrangements to Manage Communal Rights|
Session Chair: Sandra Joireman, University of Richmond, United States of America
Managing Customary Land in Fiji
I Taukei Land Trust Board, Fiji Islands
The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate an existing institution in Fiji, the I Taukei Land Trust Board (TLTB) solely deals in Indigenous Customary Land and specifically the management of that land through leases i.e. over 40,000 leases of all types of uses from residential, industrial, agricultural to that of conservation or licensing for felling and gravel extractions in partnership with other stakeholders in Fiji; the paper illustrating functions and processes that has successfully protected and progressed Indigenous Landowners in the context of contributing to the country’s whole economy through their land/asset holdings.
Fiji is a small island nation located in the South Pacific having 300+ islands only with only 900,000 in population; the above stated platforms is a stepping stone for the indigenous people of Fiji and for the South Pacific. As such Fiji feels the need to share the progresses made thus far as a bench mark to the Pacific Region or the world, where the results in Fiji would be one to display, encourage and educate the Pacific of a positive depiction of indigenous people working together with support of Government and other stakeholders to progress for the betterment of their future generations.
Complications in land allocations: appraisal of the Community Land Act 2016, Kenya
National Land Commission, Kenya
Land use, management and ownership in Kenya has over the years been an emotive issue. Being the most valuable resource, it was a key driver for the new constitution. The manner in which this resource is allocated, accessed, and managed is central to the country’s efforts to promote socio-economic development by alleviating poverty and creating wealth. However, this has not been the case since independence with increased land historical injustices. Njonjo and Ndungu Commissions were formed to bring land reforms. The land reforms failed to confront the materials consequences of unequal access. New laws either were not redistributive or transformative save for the new Constitution of Kenya (2010). The purpose of the Act is to provide for the recognition, protection, and registration of community land rights, management and administration of community land and the role of County Governments in relation to unregistered community land.The Constitution vests community land and its ownership in communities identified on the basis ethnicity and culture or similar community of interest. In view of this, community land ownership in Kenya, if unregistered would be held by county Governments on behalf of the communities. However, these is set to change once the communities secure collective titles.
Territorial planning at community level in Mozambique: opportunities and challenges in a context of community land delimitation
1Community Land initiative (iTC), Mozambique; 2Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development, National Directorate of Land
This paper highlights the potential methodological approaches that can be integrated in a fit-to-purpose administration system, specifically with community land delimitation process, to improve land use and territorial planning at community level. The intention is to bring importance to the development practitioners to look at rural communities as dynamic settlements that gradually are becoming urban settlements. Land dynamic in Mozambique is complex, as it is directly linked to economic, social and environment aspects. Most of the challenges we face in the land sector are caused by population growth; increased land-based investments, infrastructure development (roads, bridges, electricity, etc.), climate change, poorly led resettlement processes and limitations in institutional capacity. The 40% growth of Mozambican population, since 1997, will leads to similar world’s unprecedented demand for food, water and energy, as mentioned by Kring (2012). These factors increase challenges to the land administration system, and some, as stated by Monteiro (2016), include: (i) need of territorial planning, with a balanced and sustainable use of land and natural resources; (ii) Community accountability, recognizing the role of rural communities in land administration and management systems; and (iii) information management, to ensure accessible, reliable and efficient information for land use planning, management and economic growth.
Has Devolution of Forest Rights in Nepal Enabled Investment in Locally Controlled Forest Enterprises?
1Tribhuvan University, Nepal; 2Center for International Forestry Research; 3Forest Action, Nepal
Nepal embarked in the 1970s on an ambitious national initiative to devolve forest rights to local communities. Historically, forest rights were largely vested in the state, and most uses of forested land and products were subject to strict direct regulation by district-level forest agencies. Recent reforms grant a significant range of forest use and management rights to Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs). Anecdotal evidence suggests that CFUGs are using their new proprietary rights to spawn or attract a variety of forest-based enterprises, including timber harvesting and milling companies, tourism activities, and small firms that process and market NTFPs. This paper reports on the first systematic study that evaluates the investment effects attributable to Nepal’s forest rights reform program. In addition to assessing the affects of tenure reforms on investment activity, it considers the performance of CFUGs in fostering and managing investment, how regulatory roles of forest authorities have changed in light of the greater rights exercised by community institutions, and the patterns of local participation and benefit-sharing in new forest-based enterprises.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-13: Land Dispute Resolution Mechanisms|
Session Chair: Tim Hanstad, Landesa, United States of America
Analyzing the enabling environment for transforming forest landscape conflicts: the example of Lao PDR
1RECOFTC, Thailand; 2Independent Consultant
Forest landscape conflicts can be devastating on many levels – economic, environmental and social, from individual, to subnational, national and global levels. They are symptomatic of many issues revolving around weak governance. The problem is that seldom are they effectively addressed.
The aim of the paper is to better understand how and why forest landscape conflicts are happening, who is addressing them, and what can be done to prevent conflict or improve conflict outcomes. Using Lao PDR as a country case study the work also aims to develop an analytical framework for understanding conflict dynamics and capacity gaps that can be applied in similar countries around the world. Lao PDR was chosen due to the high prevalence of forest landscape conflicts, the multiplicity of causes and types of conflicts, and the relative paucity of relevant research and data.
Using literature reviews as well as interviews and focus group discussions, the research found that there is no effective system in the country for transforming conflicts. This is reflected in the low capacity of government staff to address conflicts effectively. To address these challenges, the work puts forward an integrated policy and capacity development program to systematize conflict transformation.
ADR as a viable tool in land conflicts: a Kenyan Perspective
National Land Commission, Kenya
Land is a popular asset among a diverse array of citizens and organizations in Kenya. It is a key driver of socio-economic development in the society and the country at large. This is in view of the fact that land has a great potential for economic growth of a country. Individuals, communities and organizations have over the years embarked on investing in land. Currently there are increased trends on the levels of investments and or grabbing of lands for the same purposes. In Kenya, the land sector has been a key driver of the social economic development and as such heavily invested in. This practice on one hand, has allowed genuine investment. On the other hand, this practice has witnessed a high rate of land grabbing by individuals and even organizations. As a result, conflicts have been increasingly acknowledged, a critical factor to the attainment of secure land tenure rights, development, peace-keeping and peace building. In addition, cases resulting from these conflicts have been dragging in courts for years. People are now tired of going to courts to seek redress and justice. The study would highlight group ranches, resources available, ADR applications and challenges encountered while trying to seek justice.
Managing Challenges And Security Threats From Conflicting Judgements On Land In Ghana
Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources, Ghana
Land ownership in Ghana has multiple hierarchies of interests and rights.Customary land boundaries remain indeterminate and quantum of rights and interests unclear. With rapid urbanisation and growth of cities especially the capital, Accra, contestation over land ownership among reputed land owners has been on the increase. High demand has raised land values and the propensity to appropriate lands in this hazy environment engenders several disputes which which end up in the courts for adjudication.
Unfortunately, many cases that are adjudged by the courts tend to conflict with or overlap each other thereby creating further uncertainty as to the ownership of the lands. This study examined some key judgements in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area with the view to ascertaining the incidence and extent of such judicial conflicts over land and explore measures to ameliorate the trend.
The findings reveal many conflicts and overlaps in court judgements which accentuate the confusion over land rights, freeze land for development, lead to frustration and use of self-help to protect lands among other ills. To achieve Ghana's development agenda and ensure peace, vigorous interventions have led to improving court processes, infrastructure and enhanced capacity of court actors. It is good beginning for the nation.
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-13: Challenges of Land Acquisition for Infrastructure|
Session Chair: Harris Selod, World Bank, United States of America
Land for Food or Power? The Interface between Hydropower Production and Family Farming in Southwest Ethiopia
1Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Environmental and Climate Research Center for Ethiopia; 3University of Alberta
Gilgel Gibe-I hydroelectricity dam is one of the mega hydropower projects of Ethiopia found in the southwestern part of the country. This project was designed to produce 183 MW energy for 70 years, but is currently at risk of being silted up within 24 years. This study identifies the prospects and challenges to find a long-term balance between hydropower production, livelihoods of family farmers and sustainable land use. We used mixed methods approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data and applied a ‘riskscapes’ framework. The project displaced about 2,476 households out of which 560 moved to resettlement sites. The remaining households became landless, food insecure and are living in the surroundings of the project area farming inside the buffer zone. The community is also energy insecure because of lost access to source of biomass energy as a result of destruction of the riparian forest. In order to achieve a balance between the riskscapes of siltation, food and energy insecurity and national hydropower production, we recommend holistic approaches to community needs and project sustainability. In particular we recommend proper land use and buffer zone management, provision of electricity to the local communities and compensation for lost properties in the project area.
Using Participative G.I.S. For Infrastructure Corridor Planning Around Mining Projects: A Case Study From Indonesia
University of Delaware, United States of America
Regional planning approaches for mining aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as cumulative impacts that occur offsite. Achieving a balanced approach to mining infrastructure planning requires that stakeholder preferences for land uses from local communities, government, and mining companies be included in infrastructure planning. In this paper we describe a method for conducting Geographic Information Systems (GIS) least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure such as roads and power lines. Least-cost path analysis identifies optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we demonstrate the method using potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap. We found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors generated from local and national government perspectives. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can potentially reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.
Growing Demand, Shrinking Supply of Industrial Lands in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Can Improving Urban Land Administration and Governance be a Solution?
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
While Addis Ababa is rapidly urbanizing, job creation remains a challenge. The root cause of this has been the lack of structural transformation towards industries with higher potential for growth and job creation. In response, the government of Ethiopia through its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) targets the industry and manufacturing sectors to enhance structural transformation and create more productive jobs in Ethiopia’s cities. However, in the process of industrial promotion, industrial land has emerged as a key bottleneck. Currently, it is estimated that about 6000 investors are in the waiting list requesting land for investment in Addis Ababa. This has created distortions in the land and rental market and consequent price hike; and this threatens the job and economic growth potential of the city by discouraging businesses from entering or expanding in the city. Since Addis Ababa is one of the least industrialized cities in Africa, industrial land exhaustion cannot be the major explanation. We argue that given the city’s developable land size, there is significant scope to improve the supply of industrial land by solving some of the inefficiencies and market failures with the current arrangement of land allocation and management.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-13: Land Value Capture Experiences|
Session Chair: William Mccluskey, African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, United Kingdom
A Century of Unsuccessful Attempts at Value Capture? An Analysis of the UK’s Track Record
Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
The UK has used a variety of devices to try to capture the increase in land value resulting from demographic or economic growth or consent for a change land use to a more valuable one. The Finance Act 1909 was strongly influenced by the ideas of Henry George. It proved difficult to implement but was abolished when the government lost power. Subsequently town planning acts in 1947, 1967 and 1975 and 1976 brought in betterment levies and powers for local authorities to acquire land. In each case the legislation was brought in by Labour governments and abolished by Conservative ones with evidence of development being held back in the expectation that the measure would be short-lived. Implementation in each case was complex. The 1990 Planning Act allowed the imposing of planning obligations and contributions from developers and a community infrastructure levy has sought to make this more systematic and predictable. Against the problems of these measures revaluations of business rates, stamp duty land tax payable by buyers and capital gains tax on sellers have encountered much less political opposition or implementation problems. These measures suggest that although betterment levies can be difficult to collect other taxes can perform similar functions.
Transformation Of Land To Land Lot, Value Gain, Land Speculation, And Opportunities For Sharing Value Increment: An Evaluation Of The Turkey Example
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 3ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 4ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey
Income from taxes constitutes the main revenue source of local and central governments in emerging economies. Urban services envisaged in development plans for rapidly growing urban populations are provided by local governments; however, available financial resources remain inadequate for effective, efficient and high quality service delivery. Especially in urban centers, the transformation of land to land lots and increasing residential density in the urban periphery place additional economic burden on local governments. In this context, a model proposal has been made towards controlling by taxation, which is an application tool of land lot policy, of urban sprawl process, increasing local government revenues and reducing revenue loss to a minimum in the Ankara Metropolitan area, of which scale is gradually growing and governance efficiency is declining. The results of the evaluation carried out in a 59.7 hectare study area in the Çukurambar Region in the Çankaya District of Ankara Province have shown that local governments’ tax revenues will increase by a factor of four by value increment financing. Using practices such as controlling the process of transformation of land to land lot, property tax, taxation of value increment, and reducing economic rent seekers’ tendencies of acquiring unearned increment will be possible.
Capturing Land Value after the Collapse of the Oil Economy to Finance Luanda's New Urbanisation
Development Workshop, Angola
With the collapse of oil prices through 2014 and 2015 the Angolan state budget has been drastically reduced, and the government will not be able to provide investment and subsidies to continue building new housing and urban infrastructure.
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum-based guarantees to build prestige urban projects. The private sector, both international and local has been a major beneficiary of construction subsidies from the state. The private sector, however, has been reluctant to provide their own financing and invest in real-estate due to weak land tenure and the lack of legislative reforms to make a functional land market. Solving the problems around land may be a way to stimulate the engagement of private sector participation in providing financing for the housing sector.
The author argues that "land-value capture”, a method that provided financing for the growth of Chinese cities, should to be studied and could be adapted in Angolan cities. It could provide an opportunity to finance the large backlog in urban upgrading of basic service infrastructure and housing for the poor for cities like Luanda.
Does Ethical And Participative Land Based Financing Support Better Land Governance
1University of East london, United Kingdom; 2UN-Habitat; 3Arab Urban Development Institute; 4Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
The use of land to generate resources for its development and the reverse process of external investments into land development are well known. Not sufficiently explored is how or whether choices of financial arrangements affect individual relationship with land, and land governance. The essay explores examples of facilitating alternative, ethical and Islamic finance and outcomes for land governance.
The objective of the paper is to consider the possible correlation between participative/ethical finance models and improved land governance prospects. Ethical finance features of such closer reliance on land (asset based), profit and loss models and value imperatives promoting real or abstract notions that contribute to land governance are studied. The paper interrogates the construction of land financing as a limited question of availability without exploring the possible benefits of participative finance for land governance.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-13: Marshalling Grassroots Support to Strengthen Local Rights|
Session Chair: Fridah Githuku, GROOTS Kenya, Kenya
Toolkit for the Gender-Sensitive Implementation and Monitoring of the Tenure Guidelines (VGGTs) and the African Union's Framework and Guidelines for Land Policy: Preliminary Scorecard Results from Several Countries.
1ActionAid International, Kenya; 2ActionAid USA, United States of America; 3Equator Group
The livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people, particularly the rural poor, are based on secure and equitable access to and control over land and natural resources which are in turn the source of food and shelter, the basis for social, cultural and religious practices, and a central factor in economic growth. While each country’s unique tenure system and challenges require tailored responses, there is a need common across most countries for substantial investments in land management and administration, as well as more focused work to address those sections of society whose tenure rights are the weakest.
With a focus on marginalized communities, women, small-scale food producers and local communities, this paper presents preliminary results from a gender-sensitive toolkit/scorecard that is being piloted by CSOs in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, the Gambia, the Netherlands, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Australia to assess each country’s current legal framework and tenure governance arrangements, and foreign relations policies, against six key principles drawn from the VGGTs and the AU-F&G. The six principles are: Inclusive multi-stakeholder platforms, Recognition of customary rights and informal tenure, Gender equality, Protection from land grabs, Effective land administration, and Conflict resolution mechanisms.
Building Evidence on Rural Women Struggles for Land Rights in Tanzania: The Quest for Knowledge, Recognition and Participation in Decision Making Processes
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
Land is one of the terrains of struggle for most rural women in Africa because of its importance in sustaining rural livelihoods, and social-cultural and geopolitical factors that hinder women from enjoying land rights. Even when there are progressive land laws, as it is for Tanzania, women have not really enjoyed their rights. However, this has not stopped women to keep fighting for their land rights. They have sought their own approaches by leveraging opportunities within traditional, religious, and formal systems standing for their rights.
Using three examples of interventions implemented by civil society organizations in Tanzania, this paper shows how rural women have been helped to overcome their straggles over land. Through their agencies, the paper argues that women have used both formal and informal systems to negotiate and mediate their claims on land. Although to the great extent the interventions chosen in this paper have been shaped and influenced by the work of civil society organizations, they have equally been influenced by rural women movements and rural women themselves. The cases selected in this paper provide lessons on the security of women land rights in both privately and communally held property/land.
Promoting women land rights in Vietnam
International Center for Research on Women, United States of America
This presentation discussed the findings of a mix methods assessment of the LAW program in Vietnam. This program conducted by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the Institute for Social Development Studies (ISDS) in two provinces in Vietnam aims to strengthen women’s access to land rights. Through this program, 60 CVGEA in Hung Yen and Long An were selected and trained on land rights and gender barriers and how to exercise these rights. The training also included instruction on how to collect data to monitor their progress and to provide solid evidence to support advocacy for more user- friendly solutions at the province level. The CVGEAs have provided counseling on gender and land rights issues to 5,476 people, of whom 3,139 are women. As of June 30, 2016, they had resolved 1,229 cases, conducted land rights awareness events, worked with local authorities to advocate for land law implementation, and connected with civil society organizations (CSOs) to advocate for more gender equitable policies.
How Can Informal Settlement Communities Leverage Global Networks? The Case Of Yogyakarta, Indonesia
University of California, Los Angeles
Recent literature has shed light on the role of global networks such as the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) in helping informal settlement communities address their own land and housing issues. However, little is known about the ways in which local communities leverage such global networks to lead to far-reaching changes in local governments’ attitudes and policies. Hence, this paper focuses on two communities in Yogyakarta, a mid-sized city in Central Java, Indonesia, that have benefitted from the ACHR support. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews and field observations are employed. The findings are twofold: the informal settlers, by breaking the long-standing deadlock over the local government’s support, have become active agents for change by restoring their pride and motivation; second, by internalizing the external support, the communities have established more people-oriented collaborative platforms, and partnerships with the local government, and are promoting further upgrading activities even after the termination of the external support. These findings provide implications for better ways to form and deliver this global support to local communities in the Indonesian decentralized and bureaucratic setting. However, these improvements also exhibit limitations in that they do not lead to fundamental changes in the local government’s land tenure policies.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-13: Mechanisms to Formalize Community Rights|
Session Chair: Katia Araujo, Huairou Commission, United States of America
Breaking the Mould:Lessons for Implementing Community Land Rights in Kenya
University of Naiorbi, Kenya
The adoption of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 ushered in the legal recognition of community land rights in Kenya. Translating these provisions into actual practice is fundamental to the realization of the rights of communities in Kenya. This will catapult communal arrangements for land holding and management from the shadows of the law to the forefront of legal regulation of land rights. The presentation is based on a book edited and launched just a few weeks before the enactment of Kenya’s Community Land Act in 2016. The book, based on lessons from South Africa and Brazil, demonstrates that constitutional provisions on their own are insufficient to deliver real security of tenure and access to land-based resources to citizens. They require detailed supportive legislative enactments, administrative arrangements and complementary community of practice on the ground.
The presentation makes the case that both the text of the Community Land Act and its implementation has to take into account the reality that while tenure in traditional and communitarian settings differs from modern conceptions both have undergone transformation over the years hence the need for innovation and adaptation.
Investigating Community Knowledge Of Rural Land Resources In The Yway Gone Village Tract,Bago Region, Myanmar
Tetra Tech, United States of America
In Myanmar, seventy percent (70%) of the population live in rural areas and rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. It is essential for these citizens, particularly the most vulnerable i.e. women and ethnic minorities, that use and tenure rights are recognized thereby supporting more equitable economic growth for all.
The agricultural sector of Myanmar has long suffered due to poor national level policies, weak land use planning, and a lack of enforcement of land related laws and regulations, a situation exacerbated by the absence of formal tenure security for many individuals and communities. The new era of political transparency beginning in 2011 which ultimately led to the new, democratically elected administration in 2016 has heralded an era of rapid political and economic transition, something that is clearly evident in the formulation of policies that impact rural populations as well as foreign investment. A National Land Use Policy (NLUP) now exists that will form the basis for the future development of a new National Land Law.
This paper explores the degree to which a rural community in Myanmar understands existing land resource management practices with a view to documenting what future actions would necessary to safeguard presently informal tenure arrangements.
Development of Pro-poor and Gender Responsive System (ProGResS) of Land Governance in Nepal
1Ministry of Land Reform and Management, Nepal; 2UNHABITAT Nepal; 3Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University; 4Project Engineering and Environmental Studies [PEES] Consultant (P) Ltd., Nepal; 5Department of Land Information and Archive, Ministry of Land Reform and Management
The Land Administration System (LAS) of Nepal experiences two major lacking from pro-poor and gender responsive perspective of governance; 1) It lacks pro-poor and gender responsive socio-economic data of the land owners 2) It lacks information on informal land tenure under which a large number of people are leaving with unsecured tenure and without formal spatial recognition.
Most of the people suffering from these two major pitfall of Nepalese LAS are poor, marginalized and Socio-Economically Disadvantaged (SED) people, especially the women and children. Because of the absence of pro-poor and gender responsive information in the LAS, it is difficult to formulate evidence based policies and make informed decision to ensure equitable access and meaningful control over land for the target group.
This study investigates development of Pro-poor and Gender Responsive System (ProGResS) of land governance. Existing LAS in Nepal is extended with the development of three new modules for Data Acquisition, Data Analysis and Data Dissemination. Identification, Verification and Recording (IVR) process was carried out in participatory approach in the selected study area to collect primary data on informality and socio-economic status of land owners. The ProGresS was tested and validated widely among the stakeholders and results are found encouraging.
Responsible Governance To Secure Land Rights Of Single-Women – An Example From Odisha (India)
Landesa (Rural Development Institute), India
The state’s land and welfare programs in Odisha (India) leave behind a group that remains “invisible” to policymakers: rural single women. In strongly patriarchal societies, these women end up being “absorbed” by a larger household which denies them exclusive rights to access land and other public entitlements. Landesa, in partnership with the state government, designed an approach to identify women in this category of risk by establishing a Women Support Centre (WSC) that operates from the sub-district level land administration office and facilitating their entitlements. Initially, the program was piloted in one sub-district and subsequently scaled to seven districts with 88 WSCs.
Using field data and qualitative information from four districts, this paper (i) describes the enumeration mechanism introduced to count the women who previously remained invisible to the system and how they are then assisted to be included in both land and social security programs; (ii) presents the successes and challenges in implementing this approach to date; (iii) discusses how an effective management information system (MIS) developed is helping to improve governance by allowing easy access to information about beneficiaries across programs;(iv) describes what it would take to scale it to other settings; and (v) makes policy recommendations.
|Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-13: Strengthening Customary Rights: Options and Impacts|
Session Chair: Esther Obaikol, Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Djibouti
Securing Land In Butana For Rural Poor
Butana Development Agency, Sudan
The abolition of the native administration and the declaration of all unregistered land as state land in the 1970s in Sudan led to shrinkage of pastoral land and growth of cultivated land specially, in Butana region. Butana Integrated Rural Development Project which IFAD funded project has supported local communities to register their own pastoral land and establishing communities’ networks in form of clusters for advocacy and lobby to impede such agricultural expansion. Besides, participatory policy review had been implemented to create coherence between policies that originate from a wide range of ministries and rules and norms that exercise by local community groups to ensure the voices of different stakeholders, to be heard at both local and national levels. These key instruments assisted local communities in managing their own natural resources on sustainable basis. In turn governance framework for natural resources for the whole Butana region developed. The outcome of this support is indicated by identification of 55 000 ha to be improved for the benefits of local communities; registration of 77 pastoral land with geographic coordinates under the name of recognized communities and their own rules enforced and; communities capabilities in managing natural resources increased apparently.
Institution For Managing The Commons And Customary Land
Uganda Land Alliance, UCOBAC
ENHANCING TENURE SECURITY, ACCESS & UTILIZATION OF THE COMMONS AND CUSTOMARY LAND IN THE GREATER NORTHERN REGION OF UGANDA THROUGH STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITIES OF CLAN STAKEHOLDERS, AND BUILDING NETWORKS OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY MEMBERS.
Rights-Based Approach to Land: The Case of Seaweed Farmers in Caluya, Antique, Philippines
Rights and access to land is an important matter for people’s livelihood, especially for the rural poor who are still depending on agriculture for their livelihood and whose income comes largely from small scale farming and artisanal fishing. Landlessness is one of the roots of rural poverty. Hence, democratizing access to and control over land and water resources is crucial for ending poverty.
Securing land rights and access to natural resources is an important foundation for the realization of human rights and for poverty reduction; it is a fundamental basis for economic, social and cultural rights. Land is not a mere commodity, but an essential element for the realization of many human rights. Land rights is significant to respect, protect and fulfill human rights.
Seaweed farmers in Caluya, Antique in the Philippines have been evicted from their homelots have filed a complaint at the Commission on Human Rights to sustain their livelihoods and environment against the threats of open pit mining and aggressive commercial tourism. The CHR decision will have far-reaching implications not only on their land and human rights situation, but also on rural communities nationwide who are or will be affected by the operations of mining corporations.
Women’s Access to Irrigated Land in a Patrilineal Customary Area: Baare Community Irrigation Project.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Customary land administration is a flexible way of managing land relations for its owners based on custom and prevailing traditions. It is dynamic and therefore able to adjust to prevailing needs. Baare is a small patrilineal community in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Small scale irrigation was developed in Baare to help alleviate poverty. The study data was collected through direct observation, interviews, focus group discussions and review of secondary data. Customary land owners within the irrigated area, release their farmlands for community use during the dry season. The land is then reallocated to individual community members to farm by the Water Users Association. Access to the irrigated land at Baare is granted to deserving farmers without discrimination. The study shows that out of 185 farmers who farmed the irrigated land during the period under discussion, 104 were women, representing 56.2% of the total farmers. It was observed that women played active part in all aspects of the management of the project. The study indicates that women can have access to irrigated land in patrilineal customary areas. It is recommended that the model be replicated in other areas to alleviate poverty.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-13: Marine Cadastre for Coastal Management|
Session Chair: Hendrikus Johannes (Rik) Wouters, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Marine Cadastre in Europe: State of Play
1National Cadastre and Mapping Agency S.A. (EKXA), Greece; 2Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Throughout human history considerable efforts and resources have been directed at effectively managing land whereas the marine environment has been given a lower priority. However over 70 percent of the planet's surface is covered by water, the majority of which is in the world's seas and oceans which are vital for supporting human well-being by contributing to poverty eradication, food security, creation of sustainable livelihoods and jobs, and protection from natural disasters . Oceans and seas are also a valuable asset for the European Union (EU). The EU’s maritime economy alone employs more than 5.4 million people, creates a gross added value of just under €500 billion per year, with a high potential for further growth.
The paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the status of Marine Cadastre across Europe, which was conducted in 2016 for the five leading European organizations on Cadastre, Land Registry, Mapping and Surveying (CLGE, ELRA, Eurogeographics, EULIS, PCC). It aspires to motivate the discussion in the European continent about the benefits of a sound registry system in the marine environment as a basis for legal certainty with multiple benefits in the sector of the Blue Economy and in marine spatial planning as well.
Marine Cadasters...The Final Frontier
ESRI, United States of America
Coastal and marine environments have always been important as a source of food and livelihoods for people around the world. However, these areas are coming under increasing pressure due to growing off-shore oil and gas exploration, alternative energy generation, the laying of cables for communication, the creation of marine protected areas, and traditional and commercial fishing. These activities involve a wide variety of rights and encumbrances that frequently come into conflict with each other, including navigation rights, fishing rights, public access rights, riparian rights, development rights, mineral resource rights and seabed use rights. In order to properly manage and plan marine environments, governments are increasingly turning to the idea of marine cadasters. Over the past decade, a number of countries have begun to extend cadasters into the marine space, including the USA, Canada, Australia and Israel. These governments are naturally turning to geographic information systems (GIS) as the core technology for managing and planning the marine environment due to their ability to easily and authoritatively manage large sets of spatial data. This paper will discuss trends driving the emergence of marine cadasters, unique properties associated with them, and GIS tools that can be deployed in order to effectively manage these important natural environments.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-13: How Changing Tenure Relations Affect Rural Production|
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of
Modelling Agricultural Land Market Distortions the Size Distribution of Farms
1World Bank; 2IFPRI, United States of America; 3Universidad de Buenos Aires
Farm size and land allocation are important factors in explaining lagging agricultural productivity in developing countries. This paper formally examines the effect of land market distortions on the allocation of land across farmers and overall agricultural productivity. We first develop a theoretical framework to model the optimal size distribution of farms and
to determine to what extent market distortions can explain the non-optimal allocation of land. We then calibrate the model to the case of Guatemala and evaluate potential drivers of the distortions across regions. Preliminary results find that the aggregate agricultural productivity is 75-80% of the efficient output. We discuss alternative policy implications to
improve land markets efficiency.
Land Tenure Systems, Food Security and Poverty: Evidence from Africa
Land and land tenure systems are central in promoting livelihoods in developing countries since access to land and security of tenure are the main means through which food security and sustainable development can be achieved. This paper is explores land tenure systems, the nature of these systems and the role they play in the defining or affecting the welfare of individuals particularly in developing countries. It aims at improve the understanding of the linkages between land tenure systems, poverty, food security and sustainable natural resource management. Land tenure systems are significant in defining agricultural productivity, food security and poverty rates in households. Land tenure systems affect access to technological inputs and to extension services as well as membership to cooperatives. Gender differences in land tenure systems exist and these in turn affect farm productivity, food security and the household welfare.
Herbicides Induce Territorialization and Are Weapons in Farmer–Pastoralist Interactions in Northern Benin
1Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Parakou, Parakou, Benin; 3Prolinnova / Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, Netherlands
Science and technology studies have shown that technologies acquire varied meanings and uses in different socio-economic and political settings. Moreover, political ecologists have demonstrated that pastoralists’ restricted access to grazing land results from various territorialization processes coming from above or from below, embedded in unequal power relations between actors. Combining these two perspectives, our ethnographic study based on long-term fieldwork revealed that herbicides are technologies that have significantly transformed land-use practices and induced more conflict between landusers. Pastoralists are losers in herbicide-based territorialization processes, leading to greater marginalization and exclusion. The paper highlights the role of herbicides in generating practices of land control and in degrading relations between rural neighbors.
Land tenure differences and adoption of agri-environmental practices: Evidence from Benin (West Africa)
1Laval University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Consumer Science , Canada; 2Laval University, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE),Canada
This article uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model in combination with propensity score matching techniques to evaluate the impact of land tenure on the adoption of agri-environmental practices by smallholder farmers in Benin (West Africa). We rely on a unique and detailed cross-sectional plot-level dataset that covers a random sample of 2,800 smallholder farmers and 4,233 plots. The dataset was gathered from a household survey conducted in Benin by the World Bank between March and April 2011 covering all agro-ecological zones of the country. The results indicate that land tenure arrangement significantly influences farmers’ decision to invest in agri-environmental practices. The intensity of the adoption of agri-environmental practices is consistently higher on owned plots than borrowed, rented or sharecropped plots. We found strong evidence that the hypothesis of selectivity bias cannot be rejected. The adoption gap between plot owners and borrowers increases when implementing the matching techniques. The sample selection framework increases that gap further.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-13: Building on Customary Tenure Security |
Session Chair: Alexandra Hartman, UCL, United Kingdom
‘Koudemain’: Collaborative land strategies in the Kalinago Territory
1Leiden University, Netherlands, The; 2Salybia Heritage and Restoration Project; 3Ministry of Gender Affairs; 4Ministry of Kalinago Affairs
Working together with community stakeholders from the one of the few remaining indigenous communities in the Caribbean, Kalinago Territory, Dominica, this research seeks to better understand the impacts of land use land change on cultural ecosystem services. The landscape of the Kalinago Territory has changed rapidly over the past ten years, impacting not only the natural ecology but also the cultural practices and traditions that play an integral part in the community fabric. Therefore, this collaborative research seeks to better understand the interaction between society and ecology in a mixed methods approach. To do this, the methodology combines community GIS, remote sensing, and ethnographic analysis. By using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods, this analysis seeks to provide sustainable and lasting solutions, addressing not only the impacts of landscape change on the natural ecology but also the customary practices and traditions, social practices, access to amenities, communal heritage; in sum, perceived well-being.
Interface Between Customary And Formal Land Management Systems: Mizoram, India
World Bank, India
This paper analyzes the interface between formal and customary forms of land management, in the Indian state of Mizoram. Mizoram is inhabited by a tribal population, which traditionally followed a communal-based village-centric form of land management aligned with their unique form of shifting cultivation. Traditionally, land was held communally at the village level with individual rights being limited to temporary usufruct rights. Since India got independence from British rule in 1947, Mizoram has enacted various legislations to formalize their landholding systems. These laws attempt to reconcile the reality of Mizoram’s traditional systems with the requirements of a modern land administration. However, the process of convergence of such protected areas with modern state-oriented land management and administrative structures has not been smooth and raises many questions. This paper analyzes the gaps that are arising in the process of formalizing and privatizing traditional communal land rights. This analysis specially looks at these rights in the context of land acquisition. Mizoram faces a severe infrastructural deficit, dealing with which requires vast tracts of land on an urgent basis. This is inevitably creating a flashpoint for potential disenfranchisement of traditional landholders in Mizoram, which necessitates such an analysis.
Land Governance, Land Policy and Indigenous People Land Use and Access Rights in the Brazilian Amazon and Matopiba after the Constitution of 1988
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2Federal University of Tocantins, Brazil
Internationally there are an alarming number of violations of indigenous peoples’ land and human rights. Brazil is currently under the spotlight as the heightening of the political crisis that led to the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff brings national and international concerns over the uncertainty related to changes in policy that may be adopted by the interim Government in relation to indigenous peoples land rights. With a focus on land governance, our study aims to assess if the policies for indigenous land in the Legal Amazon and Matopiba since the Constitution of 1988 represented an improvement or regress to the indigenous population’s land use and access rights. We structured this study in the following way: 1) Background on Brazilian weak land governance and its relation with indigenous land rights, 2) Indigenous territories’ laws and improvements after 1988, 3) Sources of pressure on indigenous territories – Agribusiness, 4) Sources of pressure on indigenous territories – Large-scale infrastructure projects, 5) Discussion and policy proposals.
They Will Need Land! The current land tenure situation and future land allocation needs of smallholder farmers in Cambodia
Mekong Region Land Governance, Cambodia
In this paper, I discuss the needs smallholder farmers have for land, projected up to the year 2030. The main problem it examines lies at the intersection between the demographic increase in the rural smallholder population and the possibility offered by the different land tenure regimes to meet this demand.
By looking at how much land is needed for family farmers in the future, the paper anticipates the land requirements of smallholder farmers by 2030 based on the projected demographic increase in the economically active population in rural Cambodia and on two sets of scenarios i) the transfer of unskilled labour from the agricultural to the secondary and tertiary sectors (industries and services) and ii) the provision of land for smallholder farmers.
The analysis suggests that by the year 2030, the transfer of unskilled labour from agriculture to the secondary and tertiary sectors will lag behind the demographic increase in the active rural population. With 2015 as a baseline, the scenarios suggests that by 2030 smallholder farmers will need an additional land area ranging from 320,600 ha to 1,962,400.
The paper discusses different options, which are not mutually exclusive, to allocate this land without further impact on the forest cover.
|Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017|
|9:00am - 10:30am||13-09: The Root of the Measure: Methodological Experiment |
For more information or signing up, please contact email@example.com
The Root of the Measure: Methodological Experiment on Cassava Production and Variety Identification
1World Bank; 2Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources
This paper reports results from a randomized methodological experiment conducted across 5 top-cassava districts and 45 enumeration areas in Malawi from July 2015 - August 2016. In each EA, sampled cassava households were randomly assigned to harvest diaries or two 6-month recall surveys or a single 12-month recall survey for collecting information on cassava production. The diary sample was further randomized into equal halves that received either in-person visits by enumerators or mobile phone calls to monitor diary completion. Multivariate analyses will estimate the impact on annual household cassava production estimates stemming from 3 treatment arms in comparison to what is often touted as the gold standard: diary with in-person visits. Inter-arm relative accuracy and cost estimates will be provided, with a focus on exploring the feasibility of conducting mobile phone surveys. On objective cassava variety identification, similar analyses will be undertaken for the use of (i) farmer-reported variety name, and (ii) photo library of morphological descriptors, vis-à-vis DNA fingerprinting of cassava leaf samples obtained from one randomly-selected plot for all 1,260 households across the treatment arms, in which crop cutting was also conducted to provide an upper-bound benchmark for production and productivity measurement.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||14-09: Development of a Global Land Index|
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Demonstrating Development of First Global Land Index
Techno Consult, India
Land, climate & human are the major critical actors of world history & development. “Buy land, they're not making it anymore", said Mark Twain. Land is a precious resource, the bedstead in which seeds of development are sown. Every activity on the earth requires land as founding support. This research is to develop Global Land index based on a brain storming session conducted in 2016 Land Poverty Conference held in World Bank. The objective of developing Land Index is to improve the lives of people around the world, particularly the bottom of pyramid, by helping government, the private sector and the civil society to collaborate more effectively and make better access and use of the scarce but constant resources to solve economic, social and environmental problems
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||15-09: Women's Claim Making Strategies|
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The Culture Of Land Ownership: Women's Claim Making Strategies
The structural causes of gender-based discrimination result in high inequalities for women in social, political and economic spheres. In Agricultural Census of India 2011, approximately 13 percent of operational holders are women, while 79 percent of women workforce is engaged in agriculture. The fact that women do not have rights to land is largely due to the interaction between the state institutions and the socio-cultural norms which usually have their origins in patriarchal values and practices.
The state institutions, which are responsible for policy making, grapple between equality-based discussions and their own cultural beliefs that are supported by the political elite (who themselves are nurtured with gendered norms of power). As a result the policies turn ineffective in ensuring land rights to women.
Landesa’s work shows that attaining gender equality in land rights is as much dependent on overcoming social and cultural constraints as on legal recognition of the rights.
The proposed masterclass would address:
• The socio-cultural norms and practices in the developing world that define patriarchal dominance in the state and community institutions.
• Various ways in which women, nonetheless, have claimed their rights to land and assets
• Positive outcomes coming up as a consequence of various interventions by Landesa