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|Location: MC 8-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Multiple Uses and Benefits from Spatial Data|
Session Chair: Gregory Scott, United Nations Statistics Division, United States of America
A Study of Utilization of NSDI for the Sustainable Development
NTT DATA VIETNAM, Vietnam
In the field of NSDI, various situations exist where the implementation of the system has been completed but the utilization of the system is not going well. The problem seems to lie in the fact that NSDI is not only the deployment of technology but also the establishment of cooperation among the participating institutes. It depends on the situations of the country. However, the situations are always changing in organizations, technologies, finance, and so on. It is important that how NSDI can be utilized through changing situations of the country is discussed. In this paper, the utilization of NSDI for the sustainable development is discussed. The author proposed NSDI Master Framework which consists of three components based on the experience of developing the NSDI networking system in Indonesia. Reviewing NSDI cases and Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations according to the NSDI Master Framework, two solutions are suggested for the utilization of NSDI for the sustainable development. One is making use of global solutions and the other is adopting best practices of applications with business models. NSDI is expected to be implemented and utilized to achieve SDGs in the less developed countries by global partnership. Case studies are provided.
Republic of Moldova: Geospatial Data for Land Governance
Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of MOldova, Moldova
The Republic of Moldova is engaged in a far-reaching economic reform program, more particularly with EU. In line with the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the Republic of Moldova and the EU, the mapping system appears to be an indispensable tool for implementing the Agreement.
Moldova has initiated the establishment of its NSDI with the support of the Norwegian Government and Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority. The project aims to support the development of e-Governance by providing access to reliable and up-to-date geographical information for governmental institutions at all levels, the private sector, and the public.
Moldova is currently undertaking a two years project with the objective of implementing INSPIRE based NSDI through EU funded twinning project in cooperation with Sweden and Croatia. The beneficiary is mainly the Agency of Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova (ALRC).
The purpose of the project is an improved mapping system in line with EU standards and best international practices of management of geographical data. Managing doing so presupposes a good knowledge and implementation of the INSPIRE vision.
Upstream to downstream: Jurisdictional Sub-Landscape approach towards sustainable land use planning
USAID LESTARI, Indonesia
Landscape approach is increasingly implemented aimed to improved land-use governance. It is seen as a promising approach addressing the ideal goal in conservation, and environment protection while supporting development. Nonetheless, the implementation is challenging. There are cases of programs were dis-continued when a project was withdrawn, due to large coverage area, trans-boundary, high cost or poor co-ordination with formal agencies. Aimed to have a long-term impact on land-use improvement, we develop a framework implemented at the sub-landscape as part of a bigger landscape. The framework then adopted into three tiers of processes, conducted in parallel. The tiers include a community participation on a spatial planning process through zoning to recognize and redefined conflicted land use zones. Correlate the pro-gram with existing government planning instruments is also key. The goals are to improve stakeholders coordination between the communities, private, government, and establish a social cohesion on the same environmental services. We study the implementation at two sub landscapes in Indonesia with two specific focus, a watershed in Aceh Province and mitigation for fire-prone peatland in Central Kalimantan. Regard-less the context specificity, these landscapes are representing Indonesia and other similar countries with common land-use issues.
Exploring Hidden Dimensions: Environmental and Natural Resource Aspects of Poverty
World Bank Group, United States of America
Environment-related dimensions of poverty are “hidden” for many reasons, including externalities, remoteness, and lack of awareness. Twenty years ago, two-thirds of the world’s extreme poor lived in rural areas. Today, rural areas are home to over 80% of this population, highlighting the increasingly critical role of natural resources on the well-being of the world’s poorest people. This study illustrates and quantifies the links between the environment and the world’s extreme poor using the Hidden Dimensions Database, a unique geospatial dataset linking environment and natural resource measures to poverty and other human development indicators at the subnational level. This database is used to overlay more than 50 geo-referenced environmental datasets related to natural resources and pollution with approximately 50 monetary poverty and poverty proxy indicators at the district and provincial levels for over 80 countries. These overlays, consisting of both maps and scorecards, illustrate areas of high concurrence between environmental degradation and extreme poverty, and reveal hotspots where poverty alleviation interventions must necessarily address environmental concerns. The study concludes that the WBG goal of eliminating extreme poverty worldwide by 2030 can be better achieved by incorporating spatially explicit findings related to environmental and natural resource trends where the poor currently live.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Experiences with Land Tax And Valuation|
Session Chair: Randy Ripperger, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Fiscal Instruments For Sustainable Development: The Case Of Land Taxes
Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) Berlin, Germany
Economists argue that land rent taxation is an ideal form of taxation as it causes no deadweight losses and has therefore no adverse effects on growth. We first provide a comprehensive overview of direct and indirect welfare and development effects of land rent taxation. Barriers and constraints of implementing land taxes are also discussed, particularly the existence of a land registry, the role of administrative costs, compliance, evasion and political economy aspects. We extend this review with an in-depth analysis of current land tax systems and reform options in six case study countries. Our main finding is that land taxes provide a large and untapped potential for financing governments. Formalizing and securing land tenure by establishing a land registry is a pre-condition that further provides substantial co-benefits for various sustainable development objectives. Widespread concerns regarding the feasibility and costs of implementing land taxes are rarely valid, as land taxes are in these aspects comparable to other taxes. Political will and investment in the quality of administration are, however, decisive. Considering some key principles in designing the land tax can help reduce administrative costs, avoid adverse distributional effects and increase compliance.
Leveraging the Land: Creating Sustainable Internally-Generated Revenue
Trimble Navigation, Ltd, United States of America
In many regions, governments have relied primarily — or in some cases exclusively—on a single source for their revenue. Business activities related to natural resources are often the dominant component in this singular dimension revenue stream. Natural resource industries such as mining and petroleum production can provide significant income through leases and production fees as well as income taxes on workers’ wages. In this paper, we will examine the benefits and challenges of diversified IGR that includes land in the financial portfolio. One of the best approaches to mitigating the risk of excessive or unexpected changes in revenue is to establish a diversified stream of internally-generated revenue tied to repeatable and sustainable activities. Common sources of IGR include government fees, port entry charges and taxes on sales, income and property. But many countries have yet to generate IGR from land and land rights within their borders. We will also consider strategies to implement land-based IGR. In doing so, we must take into account that land is the source of livelihood, cultural identity and continuity for individuals and the country. These components play a role in defining how the assets of land and land rights are defined, identified, defended and leveraged.
The Principles Of Land Acquisition, Expropriation, And Compensation Calculation For Infrastructure Projects In Turkey
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and management, turkey
Land acquisition and expropriation processes for public investments are observed to be dealt with differently almost in each country and there is a lack of international standards and best practice guidelines in this field. Property ownership and use, interfere with ownership, realization of infrastructure investments, and regulation of settlements are comprehensively regulated by the Constitution, Law of Expropriation, and various laws on public and private law in Turkey. For the acquisition of real estate in large quantities required for the realization of development projects, methods such as expropriation, purchase, establishment of easement rights, and lease are used. Each real property acquisition method is regulated by different laws and the implementation stages, procedures, valuations, and payment of the determined amount of each of the methods differ.In this study, the basic principles and basic problems in land acquisition and expropriation practices for public investments have been defined and in the second stage, principles of valuation of the expropriated real estate based on their types and methods for calculation of compensations have been examined.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-11: Establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)|
Session Chair: Luis Bermudez, OGC, United States of America
Assessing The Maturity Of National And Regional Geospatial Infrastructures: Providing The Evidence To Assist Economies And Improve Strategic Decision-Making
1Location International; 22market2market; 3New Frontiers; 4Mercury Project Solutions
Location information is fundamental to providing a consistent, authoritative evidence-base for policy development, enhancing decision-making, facilitating implementation and longer-term monitoring and for reducing the cost of regional and national government operations.
When assessing, planning, and implementing geospatial infrastructures, governments benefit from a strategic approach that is evidence-based, consistent, repeatable, measurable, and allows comparison with other nations and regions.
This paper will give a strategic understanding of the rapidly changing global geospatial landscape. It will include a tested methodology for assessing the maturity of regional or national geospatial infrastructures currently in place, enabling the establishment of a sustainable geospatial infrastructure strategy that is consistent, repeatable, comparable and measurable, and an associated implementation plan. This paper will show how that process can assist the economy and improve overall strategic decision-making.
Creating a Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Diagnostic Tool
1World Bank, United States of America; 2FAO of the UN, Rome Italy; 3Consultant
Geospatial data have played an increasingly important role over the last two decades in supporting effective decision making to address social, environmental and economic issues. Being able to access up to date, definitive and reliable geospatial data allows decision makers to see where resources, infrastructure and people are located, and the environment they are in.
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is a framework of policies, institutional arrangements, technologies, data and people that enables sharing and effective usage of geographic information.
A joint World Bank-FAO team is working to create a Diagnostic tool and related Scorecard to assess the level to which a country’s national SDI has developed, and therefore its capacity to address its development needs with geospatial data.
The objective in producing an SDI Diagnostic and Scorecard for a country is to be able to conduct a quick assessment that provides a clear picture of the current status of NSDI development in order to identify missing components, or components that might require strengthening or further development. The results would help to identify areas for support intervention that would directly impact a country’s ability to realize the 2030 the Sustainable Development agenda.
Governance in Support of Global Agenda. Good Practices from Serbia
1Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN, Italy; 2Republic Geodetic Authority, Republic of Serbia
We live in a world of tremendous changes: unpredictable climate change, enormous demand for land and other natural resources, huge migrations of people to new megacities, millions of migrants have made their way across the Mediterranean to Europe, and all this in a world where the population is still growing.
In response to these challenges, on September 27, 2015 the UN’s 193 Member States have adopted new global goals for the next 15 years at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in New York. “Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets). Monitoring the progress will become obligatory for all countries.
Action on climate change is essential to meeting development aims. At the Paris summit in December 2015, 196 countries negotiated new climate change agreement. Climate change is expected to lead to reductions in agricultural productivity, and threatens the availability of natural resources, livelihoods and food security of small farmers and the rural poor.
Many of these challenges have a clear land dimension: unequal access to land; insecurity of tenure; unsustainable land use; and weak institutions for land administration, etc. Responding to these challenges is particularly difficult when the governance of land is weak.
Potential of Spatial Data Infrastructure in Poland
Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland
Through this paper I would like to tell you a Polish story on building Spatial Data Infrastructure. Before 2007, spatial data was difficult to find online at national and also at EU level, and were often poorly identified/documented. They were often kept in incompatible formats, making it difficult to combine different spatial datasets. Many public authorities did not have online services in place enabling people to discover, access, use and share their spatial data (within countries and across borders). This situation was also in Poland where together with the implementation of INSPIRE principles was a major milestone in building Polish Spatial Data Infrastructure. Poland transposed INSPIRE directive in 2010, since that time legal mechanisms for coordination of spatial information, data sharing between public authorities or interoperability for spatial data sets and services exist. Paper depicts national coordination structures‚ impact of INSPIRE directive as catalyst, solutions introduced in SII act and their results in practice, success stories – through use cases on spatial information. Also it is worth to mention last activities on removing barrier to access to spatial data - beginnings of open data policy in Poland.
Boosting the registration of land rights in step with the SDG’s
Kadaster, The Netherlands
Registration of land rights (both formal and informal) is a starting point for different goals, as formulated by the United Nations in the so called Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) for 2030.
Likewise the development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), being successful in land registration demands for the development of hard components as well as soft components. The hard components are the data, standards, infrastructure and technology relevant to the administration of land rights and the management of land. The soft components are the institutions, processes, financing, organisation and leadership. Both hard and soft components need to be in place to achieve successful implementations at national and local level of land administration systems.
It is believed that with the present state of technology, knowledge, level of ambition and commitment as defined in the SDG’s, the momentum is there to boost the registration of land rights worldwide. This registration will increase the opportunities for sustainable development and the avoidance of future conflicts. However, it requires joint activities focused on concrete results in land registration that match with the SDG’s. Advocacy, leadership and financing need our full attention. It is up to large international organisations to take the lead in this.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-11: Towards Quantifying the Economic Benefits of NSDI|
Session Chair: Timothy Trainor, UN-GGIM, United States of America
Digital Globe for Sustainable Development to the Developing Countries: Case Study in Sri Lanka
Scientific Research Development Institute of Technology Australia, Australia
Availability of Spatial Data is abundant but the lack of conversion of data to interpretable knowledge is one of the biggest issues in developing countries. There are various approaches currently being tested to overcome this situation. This study investigated the real issues related to conversion of spatial data and suggested an affordable solution, which can be applied in Sri Lanka. Further the study can be used in other developing countries to create a geospatial framework catalogue to maximize their usage of spatial investment for a sustainable development. The Sri Lanka Globe(S-Globe) plays a critical role in sustainable development in key areas: development design, project management, land administration and monitoring, town planning, water sensitive urban design, solar access, transportation, ecosystems protection, energy and water efficiency. This study has identified major eleven themes which are crucial for development of S-Globe, are briefly discussed in this paper. Further, currently available consumer and professional grade base maps and their advantages and disadvantages are further investigated in this research. The study revealed that Sri Lanka could use consumer-grade base map at phase I, but finally it should go with professional-grade base map at phase II, for the maximum benefit of sustainable development of the country.
Geospatial Information drives benefits beyond Land Administration – why aren’t we taking them?
Ordnance Survey International, United Kingdom
Low-income nations may in part still use mapping from the last century, perhaps 1:50,000 scale, but neither maintained nor digital. High-Income nations maintain large scale, attributed and accurate data from addressing to topography, imagery to networks. This geospatial data contributes towards GDP increase of between 0.2% and 0.6% and wide-ranging non-quantifiable benefits. Improved availability of this underpinning geospatial data, the digital version of the national infrastructure, leads to opportunities for better government, more transparency, effective urban planning, improved resilience, increased resource/asset and environmental management, and new business opportunities.
Low-income nations are often investing heavily into land administration supported by the global community. A sustainable land administration system can bring economic and social benefits. However, geospatial data collected to underpin land administration is not well used for wider benefit to the nation. Nor is the opportunity taken to collect other features concurrently to cost-effectively improve the national geospatial database and support wider socio-economic benefit.
Economic and societal benefits of geospatial enablement are well documented in high-income nations but not in low and middle-income nations. This paper will examine the benefits of geospatial enablement globally and conclude by offering thoughts on building geospatial capacity in nations.
Economic and Financial Analysis of National Spatial Data Infrastructure: A Case Study
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Consultingwhere, United Kingdom
The importance of geospatial data is emerging as a key enabler of the global development agenda. It is recognized that many of the challenges to be tackled under the Sustainable Development require location-based information. At the national and local level spatial data for both the public and private sectors is gaining importance- for better decision making and management of public sector assets and for the economic potential that geospatial data triggers for private sector business development and start-ups that stem from access to up-to-date geospatial data. However, the business case and economic rationale for governments to invest in the spatial data infrastructure and geospatial data have not been rigorously assessed or accepted.
A team at the World Bank is currently developing a global National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Diagnostic Scorecard to be used as a standard assessment tool. As part of the diagnostic tool, the team aims to develop a methodology to assess the benefits of investments in NSDI with a focus on low and middle income countries. This paper will attempt to develop the business case in a specific developing country in conjunction with a World Bank portfolio and project context.
Best Practice in Business Case Preparation: Valuing Social and Economic Benefits of Investment in Geospatial projects
Consultingwhere Ltd, United Kingdom
Moves towards standardisation of the procedures by which bids for funding are evaluated in both public and private sectors are emerging. It is critically important that those working in the field of land governance, particularly on geospatial projects, are exposed to best practice to increase the chances of successful funding.
Illustrated with examples drawn from extensive practical experience in this field, the presentation will, using a simple methodology:
• Explain the concepts and language of business case development;
• Introduce value chain mapping techniques used by economists to identify the key actors and processes that add socio-economic value.
• Assess the principles of cost and benefit measurement for both “tangible” and non-market factors;
• Offer advice on how to communicate business cases to senior decision makers to maximise impact;
This presentation is part of the outreach initiative of the GeoValue community of practice, With sponsorship from organisations such as NASA, USGS, JRC and EuroSDR, it holds regular events to promote multi-disciplinary understanding of how to value investment in all types of geospatial systems including earth observation, SDI and GIS.
This presentation and those linked to it, on economic value assessment, will present material from the forthcoming book “Data to Decisions”.
Economic and Financial Modelling of the Impact of Geospatial Information - Techniques and Results for land administration in developing Nations.
1ACIL Allen Consulting, Australia; 2Consultingwhere, UK
Geospatial systems and infrastructure can play an important role in improving productivity, supporting sustainable development and mitigating and managing the impact of natural disasters in both developed and developing countries. A key challenge for policy makers and program managers has been in evaluation the net benefits of policy change or investment with respect to these systems.
This paper discusses the approaches to evaluating the net impact of policy change or investment in geospatial systems. It sets out the economic theory underpinning the approaches including economic welfare analysis, value added approaches and real options concepts. It discusses application of these concepts to socio economic impact assessment including benefit cost analysis, value added analysis, input-output analysis and computerised general equilibrium modelling.
The paper also discusses problems and challenges in applying these techniques including dealing with the impact of resource transfer, valuing intangibles, risk and uncertainty and valuing social impacts and non-market benefits, such as safety, amenity and quality of life within the overall context of socio-economic assessments.
Approaches to dealing with uncertainty including sensitivity testing, discount rate adjustments and real options analysis are also discussed.
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Land Rental Markets and Structural Transformation|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land rental markets participation and its impact on fixed investment and household Welfare: Evidence from China Apple Production Sites
1Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, People's Republic of China; 2Michigan State University,United States of American
To identify the determinants of affecting farmers’ land rental decision and quantify the effect from renting in land on households’ investment and economy welfare, original data from two specialized apple production sits of China are applied. By analyzing the access of land, labor, credit and insurance markets together, results indicate that economy of scale, efficient credit and insurance supply, laborsaving cultivation technology adoption and the motivation of reducing land fragmentation are the main forces to encourage households renting in land. Fixed investment improves with farm scales expanding and more access to credit and insurance. Renting in land from market will produce obvious welfare gains, including household agricultural income, total income and family expenditure.
How do land rental markets affect household income? Evidence from Rural Jiangsu, P.R. China
1Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 2Nanjing Agricultural University, P.R. China
The development of land rental markets in developing countries attracts much attention, but little is known about its impact on household incomes. This study empirically examines the effects of land rental decisions of farm households on their income and income components, i.e. farm, off-farm and transfer income, taking into account potential endogeneity of land rental decisions. Rural household survey data for 1,080 households in 128 villages in Jiangsu Province, China are used to estimate these effects. Quantile regressions are used to examine to what extent effects differ between income groups. Results indicate that lessee households generate higher total income as compared to autarkic households, in particular in the lower income groups, although they earn higher farm income throughout the entire farm income distribution. No significant differences in off-farm income between transacting households (i.e. lessee households or lessor households) and autarkic households are found. Transfer income of lessor households is significantly lower than those of autarkic households, especially those in the low-income quantiles.
Inheritance System, Tenure Security And The Functioning Of Land Rental Markets in Rural Pakistan
1University of Guelph, Canada; 2International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
This paper provides empirical insights into the manner by which rural farmers in Pakistan access farmland. Our results suggest that approximately 86% of owned land is inherited, 13% is purchased and the remaining 1% is acquired through other means (e.g., gifts, illegal settlements). Moreover, we review the different ways ownership is documented. We find that variation in formal documentation is not associated with variation in perceptions of tenure security in the case of inherited land. An important component of our paper is an exploration of rental arrangements. We use the Pakistan Rural Household Panel Survey round 3.5 conducted during 2014-2015. Forty percent of the survey respondents rent-in farmland. Of these households, forty-eight percent are landless Hence, rental arrangements are an important pathway by which land is redistributed to enable agricultural production. Using regression analysis, we examine the influence of key endowments – e.g., land ownership – on the redistribution of land for production purposes. Our findings generate a better understanding of the relationships between formalization and perceptions of land tenure security as well as land ownership and participation in rental arrangements. Our findings are relevant to ongoing efforts to improve land governance and agricultural production in rural areas of Pakistan.
Effects of Land Rights Certification on Rural Credit Market and the Market for Land Transfers ---- Evidence from China
1Nanjing Agricultural University, China; 2Monash University, Australia; 3Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, China
This paper investigates empirically the effects of land rights certification reforms on the rural market for credit and the market for rural land transfer in China. We isolate the effect on land rights certification by comparing rural households from land rights certification pilot villages and non-pilot villages. A Difference-in-differnces approach using yearly panel surveys data from Ministry of Agriculture’s Fixed Rural Observation Point System suggest that land rights certification significantly improved rural households’ access to formal credit and reduced their reliance on informal loans. At the same time, land rights certification substantially increased households’ demand for credit. However, our DID approach seems to suggest that the increased land rental market activities in rural China were not attributable to the land rights certification reforming.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Implications of Evolving Land Markets for Equity|
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Competitiveness of land rental market and productivity growth in Ukrainian agriculture
Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Land market in Ukraine is yet emerging. Despite the establishment of private property for land and 25 years of reforms, it is not fully functional. Its ‘rental’ arm has been the main farmland transaction channel for farmers and landowners. Its ‘sales and purchases’ arm is virtually dysfunctional due to the farmland sales ban or moratorium. The moratorium was introduced in 2001 as a temporary measure, but since then it has been extended 8 times. Yet expectations of lifting the moratorium for farmland sales in Ukraine (expected from the January 1st 2018) escalate a debate on conditions and restrictions of rental and sales market for agricultural land. Some restrictions such as possible caps on the size of land holdings are yet debated, other restrictions such as imposing 7 years floor on duration of rental contracts, payments in cash only and regulations on size of rental payment are already in place. While the scope of debated land market regulations is wide, almost no evidence exists on their economic implications in agricultural sector. In this paper we look at the competitiveness of the local farmland market and the state of the land governance, and how it affects local productivity growth.
Leasehold Rights As A Vehicle For Economic Development: The Case of Small Scale Farmers In The Oshikoto Region
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Secure tenure is believed to be a necessary condition for economic development, increasing the use of credit to invest on the land, increasing land transactions, reducing disputes and raising productivity. Namibia therefore introduced several land reform instruments to address the pre-independence imbalances in land ownership patterns through the use of long-term lease agreements. It was expected that leasehold rights would enable smallholder farmers to be economically productive and bring them into the mainstream economy by using the lease agreements to access capital and investments to support agricultural production. The researchers investigated the impact of long-term leases on the ability of beneficiaries to access financing for improved livelihoods and agricultural production.They analysed the institutional framework for resettlement allocations and the transaction costs in order to analyse the impact of leaseholds on the beneficiaries’ ability to access credit and mobilise investments.It was found that no lessee had used their leasehold rights to access credit or mobilise investments, even though they considered their rights to be generally secure and the transaction costs are within international norms.The researchers concluded that the inability to access credit is due to an information deficit and the economic infeasibility of the parcel/beneficiary relation.
Freedom to Farm: Agricultural Land Use, Crop Selection, Fallowing, and Proposed Changes to the Myanmar Farmland Law Necessary to Strengthen Land Tenure Security
Landesa, United States of America
The freedom to farm one’s land as one chooses, as manifested in overall agricultural land use, crop choice, and fallowing, is an assumed right held by many agriculturalists. In the Myanmar context, government restrictions create a different environment for smallholders. The Farmland Law of 2012 prohibits the growing of alternative crops and the fallowing of land without permission of the government, and the same law, requires applications for permission to grow alternative crops. To better understand what is at stake with these prohibitions in place, this paper produced for USAID explores: first, the basis for general right for agriculturalists to use their farmland as they wish, based in the productivity and food security related to this freedom to farm, and the international norms which support it; second, the right to crop selection, examining the economic issues involved, including the land tenure security benefits of crop choice and the agricultural benefits of crop diversity, as well as legal and ecological issues; third, the basis for the right to fallow, again looking at the economic effects of fallowing, as well as the cultural, legal, and ecological issues involved; and fourth, proposed amendments to the Farmland Law to strengthen the freedom to farm.
Land Fragmentation and Land Services Delivery Ratios on Mailo Tenure in Uganda: Evidence from LIS Data
Associates Research Uganda
Land fragmentation is a phenomenon which constitutes one of the biggest obstacles to profitable agricultural production. It is further exacerbated by skewed ownership of land, with women and youth having limited access to productive land. This paper shows the extent of land fragmentation on mailo tenure, the oldest forms of registered tenure in most of central and western Uganda. Fragmentation is measured by analyzing administrative data from Uganda’s modern Land Information System (LIS) set up in 2013 to 2016. Taking into account the complexes of plots aggregation, results on occurrence and intensity are presented, with additional qualitative analysis on land sector services ratios and the impact of fragmentation on women registered as owners or co-owners, to represent the real situation on the ground in selected follow-up parcels. Whereas publically accessible land information underpins tenure security especially where development pressures create an ever increasing demand for land, it is important to enhance capacity and quality of data captured in LIS to reflect the process that a particular transaction or land parcel goes through and treat transactions as stages at which data must be captured so as to yield completeness.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-11: Policies for Land Consolidation|
Session Chair: Denys Nizalov, University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom
Options for Legislative and Institutional Reform of Land Consolidation in Serbia: Choosing the Right Approach and Building Regional Expert Networks
GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Serbia
Agricultural land fragmentation constrains agricultural development in Southeast Serbia, where average land parcel sizes amount to 0.1 to 0.3 hectares, parcels are often left abandoned and are not accessible by roads or field tracks. Investments into land consolidation (LC) in Serbia can have high mid and long term returns, in particular as Serbia is on its way to become a competitive agricultural producer on the way to EU membership. Land consolidation programs contribute towards updated land cadasters, better infrastructure, better rural living and working environment, increased property market values resulting in increased investments, employment and increased direct and indirect tax revenues. This paper analyses the findings from piloting land consolidation within the past 4 years of pilot implementation in seven pilot municipalities in southeastern Serbia and discusses the advantages and limitations of different land consolidation approaches or models, their requirements and key principles. It further outlines options for practical legal and institutional reform for effective implementation of land consolidation projects in Serbia as well as the establishment and strengthening of regional land consolidation expert networks.
Property Rights and Private Investment: Evidence from a Planned Settlement in Rural Tanzania
Oklahoma State University, United States of America
We investigate the mass resettlement of rural population in Tanzania that occurred in early 1970s. The policy was implemented to strengthen the role of the state in establishing villages for communal production and development. The villagisation process that followed was implemented with unclear goals, haste and at some point coercion that it was unlikely to bring any short-term improvement in the rural economy. We exploit a recent survey data to examine the impact of the ujamaa operation on farming activities. Our findings show that areas affected by the villagisation in which proprietary rights in land were given to households had significantly better transferability rights and had made significant investments in land. We detect improvement in access to rural credit market and a closing gender gap in land ownership.
New trends in development of Land Consolidation in Russia
State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation
Land Consolidation is a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural production via rational use of scare resources: land, labor and capital based on reduction of transaction costs. The specific objectives of Land Consolidation are the following: increasing the efficiency of agricultural production; providing of sustainable development of agrarian sector; rational use of land, labor and capital in agriculture; optimization of agricultural production structures both in territorial and production aspects; increasing the competitiveness of agricultural producers in domestic as well as foreign markets; environmental protection; development of production as well as social infrastructure in agriculture. Land Consolidation should be carried out based on the following principles: voluntariness; openness and transparency; financial and economic feasibility; taking into account the interests of the population groups involved including women and youth as well as indigenous people; step by step implementation; consideration of local conditions; state and NGO support. In Russia now there is a trend of development of Land Consolidation at both the federal and regional level, for example, in Orel Region where land is consolidated by private farms and parastatals
The Turkish Experience in Consolidation of Irrigated Land: Productivity and Efficiency Implications
1Independent Consultant, Turkey; 2State Hydraulic Works, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkey
Land consolidation is more than a simple reallocation of parcels to remove effects of fragmentation. It enables and facilitates broader social and economic reforms. Within the context of irrigated agriculture in Turkey, efforts for consolidation of parcels have sought to enlarge individual land holdings to assist with the building and operation of more efficient irrigation and drainage infrastructure. Land consolidation leads to significant cost savings during the investment phase of the infrastructure (both irrigation systems and roads), and in later stages, results in reduced O&M and cost of production, enhanced crop productivity and improved water management.
Value of agricultural land in Turkey largely depends upon its productivity, location and proximity to various sites of interest, where productivity is the dominant parameter. Land consolidation is a process whereby farmers voluntarily agree to swap fragmented pieces of land with larger pieces of land of equivalent productivity, and not necessarily of equivalent size. Land consolidation creates additional value and generates economic benefits. It is a synergic process whereby the outcome can be characterized as a case where “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-11: Is Land Tenure Formalization Increasing Investments?|
Session Chair: Benito Arrunada, Pompeu Fabra University, Spain
Market Exposure Makes Smallholders More Competitive and Closes the Gender Gap
Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Germany
Our investigation concentrates on the encounter of two economic and farming systems which are at the extremes along the dimension of market exposure: peasant, communal subsistence farming on the one hand and large-scale, capital-intense and profit-oriented farming by the global agricultural industry on the other hand. To this end, we conduct our investigation in Zambia – a popular destination for large-scale agricultural investors. Our investigation takes advantage of spatial differences in market exposure of rural and remote villages. Based on competition decisions of 935 adults and 401 children, we find that living in the proximity of large-scale agricultural investment sites makes smallholders more competitive. This effect is particularly strong for females and achieves closing of the gender gap in competitiveness in the villages with market exposure. A second driver of competitiveness is market integration of smallholders by selling their produce at markets. We regard our findings as highly important for the understanding of what societal arrangements influence individuals’ preferences. As policy makers in developing countries are able to steer market exposure through the settlement of large-scale investments, our findings hold important policy implications
Do the land poor gain from agricultural investments? Empirical evidence from Zambia using panel data
gothenburg university sweden, Sweden
In the context of the global land rush, some portray large-scale land acquisitions as a potent threat to the livelihoods of already marginalized rural farming households in Africa. In order to avoid the potential pitfall of studying a particular project that may well have atypical effects, this paper systematically investigates the impact of all pledged investments in the agricultural sector on commercial farm wage incomes for rural smallholder households in Zambia 1994–2007. The results, which are robust to both placebo tests and a variety of different specifications and time frames, show that agricultural investments are associated with a moderately positive effect, but only for households with a relative shortage of land.
Land Property Rights and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Panama
Tohoku University, Japan
This paper estimates the effects of land property rights on agricultural productivity in Panama. Using district level panel data to investigate the impact of privately owned land on agricultural productivity from 1990 to 2010, I find that land privatization increases rice yield in agriculture labor intensive districts, but it does not have any significant impact in non agriculture intensive districts. Then, using household level data I find that households with registered land titles are more likely to obtain an agriculture loan and undertake land-attached and land mobile investments.
Agricultural Intensification and Market Participation under Learning Externality: Impact Evaluation on Small-scale Agriculture
UNU-MERIT, Netherlands, The
This study provides empirical evidence regarding the impact of agricultural technologies (high-yielding varieties and inorganic fertilizer) on smallholders’ output market participation. The analysis is based on Farmer Innovation Fund impact evaluation survey collected by the World Bank in 2010-2013 covering 2,675 households in Ethiopia. Endogenous treatment effect and sample selection models are employed to account for the self-selection bias in technology adoption and market participation decision. Regressions based on matching techniques are employed for robustness check. The estimation results show that the use of improved agricultural technologies significantly affect farm households marketable surplus production. We found evidence that application of high-yielding varieties increases surplus crop production by 7.6 percent per year, whereas chemical fertilizer use increases surplus by 2.8 percent. When farmers apply the two technologies jointly, marketed surplus increases by 6.4 percent, which establishes the complementarity of the two technologies. Marketable surplus crop production and market participation of farmers are determined by access to modern inputs, crop price, farm size, availability of labor, and infrastructure. Access to credit and training fosters technology adoption, however, we are unable to witness learning externality from neighbors on smallholders marketed surplus. Therefore, agriculture and rural development policy needs to focus on supporting agricultural technology adoption.
|Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-11: From Documenting Rights to Creating Jobs |
Session Chair: Stein T. Holden, Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway
Land Registration, Agricultural Production and Food Security in Mozambique
Observatório do Meio Rural, Mozambique
Like in many other countries, the land debates in Mozambique have been varying, following the national and foreign political and economical conjuncture. In fact, due to its relation to food production and security, land registration has been considered together with land taxing constitutes a major element in the efforts different actors have been making in order to ensure land access and security by local communities, depending mainly on agriculture for their subsistence.
This study aims to understand what characterizes the requests, processing of requests and the grant of land titles in Mozambique, looking at different regions, gender and type of producers. Interviews, focal groups and non-participatory observation undertaken in Nampula and Zambézia provinces reveal the existence of many advantages in registering land use rights, such as a more responsible management of the natural resources by the locals, the mapping and creation of associations composed by members of the communities, including women, easy access to financing, better knowledge of one’s limits and avoiding conflicts. But on the other hand, due to weak administrative, technological and human resource capacity, more than 95% of the national small holder producers still produce without a written property right’s document.
Mainstreaming Securing Land Rights in Value Chain Development Programmes: The Case of the Pro-poor Value Chain Development Project in Maputo and Limpopo Corridors in Mozambique
1Centre for the Promotion of Agriculture (CEPAGRI)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique; 2International Fund for Agricultural Development
The Pro-Poor Value Chain Development Project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) is a Government of Mozambique project co-financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development with total project cost of USD44.95 million. The project goal is to establish improved and climate-resilient livelihoods for smallholder farmers in selected districts of the Maputo and Limpopo corridors. The Project supports the development of three value chains: horticulture, cassava and red meat. PROSUL expects to target 20350 beneficiaries mainly smallholders, across 19 districts of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. The Project is coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, through the Centre for the Promotion of Agriculture (CEPAGRI).
The PROSUL project is expected to contribute to the effective implementation of the Mozambican Government’s initiative to systematically secure and register land denominated Terra Segura (Secure Land - SL), designed and implemented by the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development.
The paper will describe the implementation of interventions aiming at facilitating land tenure security for smallholder famers, and has the overall objective of sharing PROSUL’s experience related to mainstreaming land tenure security interventions in a value chain development project, analysing two interventions: (i) the DUAT’s and (ii) the delimitation of communities.
Forging The Link Between Land Registration & Job Creation
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
The expectation of land registration projects is the creation of a database of ownership and use that secures tenure. Additional benefits such as employment and improved planning capacity are presumed to follow but generally do not materialise.
Many land registration projects have been implemented globally. The primary goal of delivering land title has generally been achieved but little evidence is available to demonstrate that the expected economic impacts have been catalysed through registration of land as predicated by de Soto etc.
The Systematic Land Title Registration (SLTR) project in Kano State in Nigeria has taken steps to gather additional data gathering in addition to that required to prove title. That data incorporates information on local skills, education and provision of services such as electricity and water. By having such information geo-referenced at household level it becomes possible to project local demands in healthcare, education, transport and sanitation and to also identify local trade clusters suitable for development. The various reports culminate in a strategic master plan that facilitates private sector led growth in pursuit of the SDGs. By appreciating the local value chains and market opportunities investment can be more focused with greater likelihood of success.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-11: Challenges of Implementing Redistributive Land Reform|
Session Chair: Guo Li, The World Bank, China, People's Republic of
Based on recent studies on land tenure and their recommendations: Policy, program, and institutional recommendations
1Stanford School of Law (LLM student); 2Rotterdam School of Management (Professor); 3Symvoulos Consulting Firm (Partner)
Numerous studies were undertaken in the last ten years concerning land tenure in the Philippines: status, effects, conditions for success, challenges, and recommendations. This paper summarizes these studies and organizes these to provide a coherent outline. This paper likewise culls the recommendations for addressing the issues. Beyond that, this paper organized the recommendations and offered new ones to improve the resolution of the issues.
Land reform in Bolivia – from economic occupation to sustainable land occupation
National Institute of Land reform, Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Nowdays Bolivia is the only country in Latin America that carries out an agrarian reform. The actual Government has already regularized the land property rights in 75% of the rural area in the country. The result of this work has defined a new structure of democratic, inclusive and equitable land tenure in its Access. In addition, the country has reduced extreme rural poverty significantly. However, external factors such as globalization of the economy, climate change and worldwide commitments to preserve the environment, are defining new scenarios for managing rural development. From this perspective, the Bolivian land reform is insufficient and requires renovations.
National Institute of Land Reform is the institution that defines property land rights, administrates rural land in Bolivia, and it is responsible for controlling the sustainable land use. In this sense, it is actually executing prospective studies to evaluate the changes of forest and the actors of deforestation.
The Results of this research will guide the definition of public policies to regulate the expansion of the agricultural frontier, and will generate recommendations for short and medium term to adjust the regulatory and institutional roles of government agencies involved in environmental management.
Land Governance And Redistributive Reform – For The Sake Of Accelerating The National Resettlement Programme Of Namibia
1Chair of Land Management, Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2Ministry of Land Reform, Windhoek, Namibia; 3Independent Development practitioner, Germany
Several studies on land reform in Namibia have focused on analysing the country’s land reform programmes with a focus on its general progress. Many of them have not assessed the issue of improving the National Resettlement Programme from the perspective of acceleration. This study closes this gap. It is based on in-depth understanding of the land acquisition and resettlement processes in Namibia’s National Resettlement Programme. The study explores the possible ways of speeding up the implementation of the National Resettlement Programme without undermining its effectiveness and efficiency. It uses case-oriented methods to draw conclusions and provide answers to critical research questions bothering on laxities in the procedures of the National Resettlement Programme. The major outcome of the study is that it identifies major causes for the slow implementation of the National Resettlement Programme. It also provides recommendations for speeding up the process without compromising good governance principles.
100 Years of Land Reform: Delivery and Governance of Agricultural Land in South Africa
1University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2Land Bank; 3Standard Bank; 4SOECA; 5Tracy Potgieter & Associates
The paper provides a comprehensive perspective on the issues of land, and land for agriculture in particular. These perspectives are used to draw lessons for future direction of the land question and governance. The suggestions are also meant to contribute to public policy and a general discourse in land reform. Land reform process in South Africa is of concern to all including farmers, agricultural stakeholders, development institutions, political organisations as well as the government. As of 2013, the land question reached 100 years since The Natives Land Act of 1913 was enacted. The different perspectives explored show that many and fresh lessons can be drawn simply by taking a certain view of the land question. While many of the angles have been presented in the past, this paper presents a comprehensive compendium of different perspectives to bring an integrated view of lessons to govern the land issues for the next century. To enhance the delivery and governance of agricultural land, more programmatic approach is required. This includes mortgaging land under restitution, promoting land rental for agricultural purpose, considering land for financial investments, land tax and land warehousing. There is a need to monitor land price trends through land price index.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-11: Formalizing Indigenous Rights in Developed Economies|
Session Chair: Luis Felipe Duchicela, World Bank, United States of America
Management of Native Title - Australia's Next "Wicked" Problem
National Native Title Tribunal, Australia
The legal recognition of Indigenous rights in land and waters in Australia came late. Since 1992 there has been extensive debate around the attainment of native title, focussing largely on proving the existence of native title under processes set up by the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth). More than two decades on, Australia is now faced with an entirely different problem; the management of native title and responsible governance of the corporate institutions entrusted with that task by statute.
This new Indigenous corporate sector is underwritten by traditional laws and customs, but operates in a network of Anglo-Australian rules and regulations, Indigenous perspectives and internal and external stakeholder expectations. In addressing this complex and "wicked" problem, Australia would be well served by looking to the evidence based approaches to responsible land governance developed over several decades in the world of international aid and banking, and the developing world.
Drawing on these international learnings suggests that the way forward for Australia in managing native title to its fullest potential is to develop a unified framework which is both integrated and interactive, embodying partnerships between governments at all levels, native title holders, industry and the Australian community.
The Australian Northern Territory Land Rights Act – a model for the legal recognition of customary tenure, which provides a certain and fungible legal framework, facilitates economic development and local decision-making and establishes appropriate governance institutions.
Northern Land Council, Australia
This paper will examine the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976.
It establishes a unique form of property interest coupled with a range of institutions designed to recognize and protect Indigenous customary tenure in Australian law. It bridges the gap between customary tenure and the western tenure system.
Significantly it does this in a manner that recognizes customary tenure through the grant and registration under the Torrens system of an inalienable freehold title and provides for the grant of subsidiary interests such as leases.
This engages a long-standing international discourse concerning the role of land tenure and security of title in the relief of poverty.
The tenure has formed the basis for the creation of large protected areas (IUCN Category VI) known as Indigenous Protected Areas in Australia. This is consistent with multiple economic uses.
This paper will explore how a range of public and private indigenous controlled institutions or corporate entities have emerged to manage the traditional customary estate and will cover recent developments in national government policy concerning township leasing on Aboriginal land, the Intervention and the White Paper on Developing the North released in 2015.
Reconciling Indigenous Lands With The Honour Of The Crown: Evidence Of Boundary Certainty & Parcel Security
Surveyor General Branch, Natural Resources Canada, Canada
Circumstances are coalescing in Canada to reconcile Indigenous peoples and the Crown. The courts have set out that Indigenous lands can only be minimally impaired; that Indigenous peoples must be consulted over resource projects on abutting Crown lands; that the Honour of the Crown pervades all dealings with Indigenous lands. This is reflected in the resolution of specific land claims regarding the spatial extent, location and boundaries of parcels of Indigenous lands. Three case studies of First Nation Reserves (Mississauga First Nation, Kitselas First Nation, and Williams Lake First Nation) are evidence of successful institutional resolution - of incorrect boundaries; of incorrect location; of unauthorized encroachment. Resolution by way of acknowledgement of past grievances and recognition of land rights, as illustrated in the case studies is necessary to create equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities.
Measuring Informality & Its Socio-Economic Outcomes: First Nation Reserves in Canada
1Surveyor General Branch, Natural Resources Canada, Canada; 2Kitsilano Institute for Informality Metrics
Informality and its socio-economic outcomes were measured on Indigenous lands in Canada (169 First Nation Reserves). Some 55% of 23,614 houses are informal. Informality has a significant negative effect on community well-being in general (t = -3.7); and on income and labour force activity in particular.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-11: Round Table: Regular Land Governance Monitoring through Administrative Data Sources|
Session Chair: Sultan Alakraf, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Latin America: Findings and Next Steps
IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Arab Countries: Findings, Lessons and Next Steps
Arab Union of Surveyors, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Francophone Countries: First Findings and Next Steps
Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France
First results for compiling country and city data on legally documented rights and transactions for francophone Africa.
How to set up routine reporting for a decentralised system: the case of Egypt (tbc)
National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt
The land administration system in Egypt is decentralized. Land data are produced and held by 27 provinces and 1,500 towns and villages. This case study is a reflection on what would be required for a country like Egypt to develop a routine reporting system for administrative data produced by the land sector and what are the benefits of doing so.
How to present and communicate country level data at a global scale: first steps for an Atlas
1KU Leuven, Belgium; 2Kadaster, Netherlands
|Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017|
|9:00am - 10:30am||13-06: Its4land - 7 Innovations, 7 Lessons, 70 Minutes|
For more information or signing up, please contact email@example.com
Its4land - 7 Innovations, 7 lessons, 70 minutes
1University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands; 2Hansa Luftbild, Germany; 3KU Leuven, Belgium
In this masterclass we'll unpack the 7 new tools 'its4land' for land is creating, the lessons we've learned in trying to build them, and also seek to get you involved in the development process. All this in 70 minutes (+20).
|11:00am - 12:30pm||14-06: Mobile Field Data Collection |
For more information or signing up, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Mobile and Disconnected Field Data Collection
PIXIA Corp, United States of America
The Mobile and Disconnected Field Data Collection Master Class will demonstrate the use of OGC services and standards to deliver rich data collected in the field to the enterprise. The demonstration will take into account that collectors in the field will require the ability to collect geospatial data on a mobile device in disconnected or network disadvantaged environments, deliver that data back to an established enterprise, and conduct analysis on the collected data. The Master Class will cover:
• Using OGC services to enable map and imagery data
• Converting map and imagery data from the enterprise server to mobile data suited for phones and tablets
• Collecting quantitative and qualitative data in the field with mobile applications
• Updating the enterprise with field data for analysis
There will be time allocated for questions on use cases and operating the software and mobile applications at the end.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||15-06: Handbook of Geospatial Best Practices|
For more information or signing up, please contact Cartonomic@gmail.com
Handbook of Geospatial Best Practices for Land Governance
Adam Smith International, Ltd., United States of America
As one of the inalienable elements of land governance, anyone who works within the discipline is working within the geospatial dimension, literally and figuratively. Therefore, land administration professionals should be conversant in it properties; capable in the collection, storage and manipulation, and proper application of geospatial information.
This paper serves to introduce a handbook for land administration professionals, especially those involved in intervention work in developing nations. There are many textbooks on mapping and surveying and geospatial analysis, but this writing is specifically for land administrators and international development professionals.
The intention of the handbook is to impart competence and professionalism in the geospatial aspect of land governance; to provide the knowledge and tools necessary to carry out spatial positioning and the reporting of and handling of geographic data.