The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-01: Making Housing More Affordable and Resilient|
Session Chair: Anna Wellenstein, World Bank, United States of America
Translation Spanish, Streaming.
From Supply-side to Demand-side Housing Subsidies in Argentina
Ministry of the Interior, Public Works and Housing, Argentine Republic
To be completed
From Conflict to Peace: Land and Housing Policies to Accompany the Peace Process in Colombia
Ministry of Housing / National Housing Fund, Colombia
To be completed
From Opacity to Transparency: Rebuilding Trust in Housing Policies in Guatemala
Ministry of Communications, Infrastructure and Housing, Guatemala
To be completed
From Land Formalization to Affordable Housing: Redesigning Housing Policies in Peru
Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation, Peru
To be completed
Land and Resilient Housing Challenges in Paraguay
National Secretariat of Housing and Habitat, Paraguay
To be completed
Vivienda Adecuada y Asequible - Aprendizajes de la Política Habitacional Chilena
Housing and Urbanization Services
to be filled
Housing Challenges in Mexico
To be filled
Building Resilience: One House at a Time
Ministry for Economic Development, Housing, Urban Renewal, Transport and Civil Aviation, Saint Lucia
To be filled
The World Bank, United States of America
Te be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-02: Doing Business: Quality of Land Administration|
Session Chair: Sylvia Solf, World Bank, United States of America
Innovating Land Administration in Finland
National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
To be added
Strengthening the Reliability of the Land Management System in Indonesia
National Land Agency of Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia
To be completed
Improving Quality and Reliability of Land Records: Germany’s Experience
Federal Chamber of German Civil Law Notaries, Germany
abstract follows soon.
Realizing Land Administration Reforms in Punjab
Punjab Land Records Authority, Pakistan
To be completed
Improving Belarus’ Ranking in Doing Business’ ‘Registering Property’ Section: Experience and Broader Implications
National Cadastral Agency, Belarus
Belarus joining Doing business ranking in 2005 has been a powerful boost for the rapid upgrading of the registration system. Now Belarus is placed 5th on the Doing business “Property Registration” indicator. It has became possible thanks to the following achievements:
- Time for a usual procedure has been reduced from 14 to 5 working days, average process time time is now around 2,5 days;
- Electronic archives have been created;
- Registered territory percentage has been increased from 5 to 81;
- System transparency has been improved - now the information on legal background, procedure details, registered objects and property rights to them is available to any interested party;
National Cadastral Agency sees more ways to improve the registration system, such as:
- The procedure time could potentially be reduced to 1 day and transition to online procedures;
- 100% of Belarus’s territory is to be registered;
- All documents necessary for property registration are to be processed through the electronic document management;
- Real estate register is to be integrated with the State basic information resources.
Today Belarus aims for the first place on the Doing business “Property Registration” indicator.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-03: Innovation Fair: Analyzing Land Data & Data Processing|
Session Chair: Christoph Aubrecht, European Space Agency (ESA) & The World Bank, United States of America
Better demographic data for improved planning and problem solving in South African cities
1Open Data Durban, South Africa; 2South African Cities Network; 3South African Cities Network; 4Open Data Durban, South Africa; 5Open Data Durban, South Africa
With unprecedented population growth predictions in cities, urban functions as we know them will be challenged and pushed beyond their current threshold (UN SDGs, 2015). This reality is driving the global urban narrative with concepts such as “sustainability”,“responsiveness” “resilience” and “inclusiveness”. Now more than ever, the use of evidence-based planning by local government and other urban role-planners is at a critical point in been able to shape future cities.
The proposed Lightning Talk presents an innovative tool developed by South African Cities Network by Open Data Durban to provide an evidence based approach to predict demographic trends at the ward level (the smallest South African administrative unit) of South African cities, and overcome limitations in current demographic data. In conjunction with demographic projections an open data planning tool and portal (SCODA) will be used to store the projections, and allow for government and a range of community stakeholders to store and combine other data sets for intensive analysis and modeling. SCODA is a user-designed tool, co-created with and for government and civil society, underpinned by the overarching theme of impacting on spatial transformation.
OpenLandContracts.org: A Tool for Facilitating Land Contract Disclosure
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
A critical lack of transparency permeates the contracting processes that govern large-scale land investments. Despite widespread consensus that greater transparency of contractual terms constitutes best practice, few governments or investors have been willing or able to proactively disclose their land contracts. In the rare contexts in which contracts are disclosed, they are often difficult to find or comprehend. As the world’s first global repository of land contracts, OpenLandContracts.org helps address these challenges, offering a solution that combines technology with substantive technical expertise to make investor-state land contracts easier to disclose, access, and understand. Crucially, the platform also provides governments with the opportunity to develop country-specific repositories for contract disclosure, thereby providing an innovative and cost-effective solution for host governments and policy-makers seeking to improve their transparency and good governance efforts.
This Lightning Talk will include an interactive demonstration of the key features of OpenLandContracts.org, including its tools to help users search, compare, and understand documents, as well as its links to relevant data standards and complementary initiatives. The Talk will provide further information regarding the opportunity to develop country-specific repositories in partnership with the OpenLandContracts.org team, and will highlight examples of how information disclosed through OpenLandContracts.org has been used by a range of stakeholders.
Big Data Approaches to Market Analysis: SE Asian Palm Oil
Climate Advisers, United States of America
Palm oil is an inexpensive and highly versatile oil derived from the fruit of the oil palm tree, a native of West Africa's tropical forests. It is found in half of all consumer goods on the shelves today in Western grocery stores. Palm kernel oil is also used as a bioeful to power vehicles, heat homes, and manufacture plastics. Due to its high yields and many uses, palm oil is the most actively traded edible oil in the world, with annual sales of $50 billion. For decades, however, the palm oil business has been criticized for its links to corruption, extinction, social injustice, and deforestation.
This presentation will show how big data tools can be applied to investigate the SE Asian palm oil industry. Based on a previously funded 4-month pilot project in 2016, analysis will show how Bloomberg Terminal data and independent research can be combined to show governance trends using two separate big data tools – Gephi (macro level) and LittleSis (micro-level).
The pilot will demonstrate what are the key investors and executive and board-level interlocks demonstrating industry-wide conflicts of interest – and at times even potentially illegal behavior.
Mapping Economic Indicators Using Commercial Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Poverty Analysis of Sri Lanka to Explore Best Practices for Feature Extraction and Classification
LAND INFO Worldwide Mapping, LLC, United States of America
Typical sources of economic indicators such as household surveys and census data are time-consuming and expensive, some areas also have security concerns or access constraints. Lack of current information complicates the efforts of policy makers and aid organizations. This talk will use an extensive Sri Lanka poverty mapping project completed for the World Bank to examine the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, which has a relatively low cost and the potential for frequent updates, as a source to generate economic indicators. We will identify indicators such as building footprints, roof material type, transportation vectors and cultivation that can be extracted. We will highlight how to perform feature extraction and classification with a comparison of manual methods (hand digitizing) and automated classification techniques, including OBIA (Object Based Image Analysis) computer vision and cloud-processing. Output of custom mapping, including statistics, will be compared to open-source mapping (OpenStreetMap), and applications of map data layers extracted from imagery will be discussed.
Software Comes and Goes, Data Stays Forever!
Software developers complain about wrong data. It just does not comply to the specs. It is a complete mess. The owners of the data do not understand the agitation because they have worked with some odd, old software for ages and it sort of always worked out. Why change now? The metadata sits in the mind of so many people but has never been organized and fixed (to fit into your software). The data manager on the other hand has the same problems but the other way round. The data does not download, the encoding is wrong, the coordinate system is screwed and at the end all the decimals are cut off. Who is right? It is always the data owner! Because software comes and goes, the data stays. This talk is a plea to mind the data. Remember this: Never use software that does not work on open formats. Really open. Like in Open Source but even better.
Combining GIS And Remote Sensing Data Using Open Source Software To Assess Natural Factors That Influence Poverty
mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
Worldwide livelihoods are at risk from a multitude of factors like drought, agricultural pests, pandemics, fluctuating commodity prices, or political instability. Monitoring vast areas is only possible with new Earth observation (EO) data including the European Copernicus Sentinel as well as the US Landsat-8 satellite data being available in almost real-time under an Open Data license. Yet there is a vast discrepancy between raw data availability and the uptake by policy makers due to lack of knowledge in processing satellite data, of computational power and fundamentally not knowing what type of information can be extracted to address societal challenges.
The company mundialis is a remote sensing and big geodata analyst startup from 2015, providing EO products through standardized web mapping services. Mundialis leverages the power of geospatial open source software brought, providing insights into time dependent events or gradual changes, hidden correlations and short term risk to support data driven decisions. The presentation will focus on temperature, a main driver for most ecological processes as well as human welfare. It is a key indicator for a multitude of applications from growing crops, assessing the potential spread of emerging disease vectors or agro-pests, to the detailed identification of urban heat islands.
Walking Spatio-Temporal Datacubes - Seamlessly from Laptop to Cloud to Federations
Jacobs University, Germany
rasdaman (“raster data manager”) enables agile analytics on massive spatio-temporal datacubes, including sensor, imagery, image timeseries, simulation, and statistics data. For land & poverty tasks rasdaman provides simple, integrated access and mix&match of satellite, weather, and further data dynamically. Working equally well in networked and standalone (e.g., rural) settings rasdaman supports intelligent farming, land use and environmental monitoring, disaster management, etc.
Flexibility, performance, scalability, and open standards set multi-award winning rasdaman apart, together with its adaptive mass data ingest. A plethora of open clients attaches itself to rasdaman, including OpenLayers, QGIS, NASA WorldWind, python, etc. Innovative enablers such as adaptive distributed storage, cloud parallelization/distribution, and use of heterogeneous hardware make rasdaman excel over, e.g., Spark in independent benchmarks. Laptops, clouds, and datacenters federate easily through their rasdaman installations offering a common single information space to users.
Open-source rasdaman is Reference Implementation for OGC & INSPIRE WCS and the blueprint for ISO Array SQL and OGC WCPS. Installed at leading data centers, such as NASA/US, ECMWF/Europe, and NCI/Australia, datacubes are exceeding 250 TB, growing towards PB. Hitechs utilize rasdaman for value-adding geo services.
Demos will include realtime federation, TB datacube queries, and on-the-fly addition of new datasets.
Innovative application of machine learning and AI using earth observation to provide dynamic data and actionable intelligence.
IMGeospatial.com/Intelligent Modelling Ltd, United Kingdom
As are an innovative company with a strong societal change ethos. We create AUTOMATICALLY SMARTER™ products based on machine learning and artificial intelligence. Our patented processing algorithms allow for automatic feature identification and extraction from earth observation and multi-scopic data without manual intervention and with the principal advantage of being able to provide near real-time topographic feature change detection, auto-map updates and feature classification and related information which are crucial in a range applications such as real-time monitoring, land-use change monitoring, disaster risk reduction and dynamic mapping of urban and other developments among many other end applications.
Our capability is more than just overcoming data gaps, we aim to provide actionable intelligence to assist our users, clients and partner organisations resolve many of their significant challenges whether immediate or strategic in nature. Our solutions to the many global and societal challenges are facilitated through our ability to:
• Create new insights and business intelligence
• Create sustainable profitability
• Resolve problems in near real-time
• Enhance planning and risk mitigation
• Integrate into existing geospatial platforms
• Facilitate positive societal change
High Accuracy, Low Cost Cadastral Mapping
Esri, United States of America
Technology continues to evolve in all areas – ease of use, access to data, lower cost, and high accuracy. This presentation will explain how new GIS technology leverages survey accurate GPS using Android phones/tablets, satellite imagery and ArcGIS Online, all in a simple, accessible, low cost platform. This technology is secure, sustainable and enables organizations to get started and scale for the future.
Mapbox for Land
Mapbox, United States of America
Learn where Mapbox is pushing the edges of the possible with geospatial visualization, and where we can go together for the land sector
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-04: Protecting Land and Associated Natural Resources|
Session Chair: Virgilio delos Reyes, Stanford Law School, United States of America
Mangrove Governance and Tenure: Insights for Policy and Practice from Selected Sites in Indonesia, Tanzania and a Global Review
1Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya; 2Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
Mangrove forest ecosystems are highly productive, rich in biodiversity and adapted to the harsh and variable interface between land and sea. Despite their crucial ecological and socioeconomic roles the world’s mangrove are on the decline. This paper presents results of a study on mangrove governance and tenure in Indonesia and Tanzania and a review of the global literature.
There is a mismatch between the attributes of the mangrove resource (i.e. being both on land and sea) and the legal and institutional frameworks designed and adopted for their governance. Most mangroves are managed by single, mandated authorities such as forestry agencies which for the most part are under resourced. Where institutional design takes into account the biophysical complexity of mangroves, a coherent coordination framework is lacking. Paradoxically, mangrove governance does not demonstrate the diverse management regimes that are characteristic of terrestrial forests even though the systems and rules underpinning their management are drawn heavily from terrestrial settings. Where community rights to mangroves are expanded and formally recognized (such as in parts of Asia and Latin America) positive outcomes for resource condition and rehabilitation efforts are increasingly evident. Gender equity is not considered in any meaningful way in mangrove management.
Governance of the Land-Water Interface in Southeast Asia: A Policy Reform Agenda for 21st Century Challenges
1Independent researcher specializing on land and social development issues in Southeast Asia; 2Co-Executive Director of Land Alliance.; 3Ph D Scholar at the International Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, The Netherlands.
This paper sets out a policy and research agenda for addressing the unique governance problems of land-water interface in Southeast Asia. It traces the evolution of separate water and land policies and administrative regimes through colonial and post-colonial developments and current institutional configurations that caused the proliferation of simplistic policies and programs which ignore customary practices. It highlights how legal regimes meant for individual and commercial users fail to account for the reality of communal use. Consequently, large-scale investments in land have consistently breached customary water entitlements and vested ownership, management, and control of water in the State, thereby decoupling water rights from land-use rights. Such investments are also responsible for frequent land grabs that go hand-in-hand with water grabs, environmental degradation and resulting livelihood uncertainties. The paper recommends an enabling environment for rural smallholders and local communities so they can engage in land and water issues for better resource use. Public investments must be promoted to achieve an equitable distribution of benefits and sustainable management of natural resources. This is possible only if the multiple sources of land and water rights are taken into consideration and an integrated and coherent approach for reforming land and water governance is pursued
Understanding the change of regional cultivated land pressure in China: 2000-2012
1huazhong university of science and tecnhongy; 2huazhong university of science and tecnhongy; 3Queensland University of Technology
The fast development of industrialization and urbanization has resulted in a great loss of farmland in China. As a result, the development of cultivated land resource faces enormous pressure. This paper applies the modified model of cultivated land pressure index and the Theil index to analyze the provincial cultivated land pressure and regional characters in China. The research shows that although the cultivated land pressure increased slightly from 2000 to 2012, the overall cultivated land pressure was under control and the cultivated land resource maintain the balance of supply and demand. The central of gravity of the cultivated land pressure has moved into the southeast and the safe cultivated land pressure has moved into northeast. Geographically, the cultivated land pressure of the southeastern coastal area has been transformed from safe pressure to mild pressure and showing a distinct tendency into high pressure. The cultivated land pressure of the most areas in the northeastern and the northern areas has been transformed from moderate, slight to no pressure. At the same time, the difference of cultivated land pressure is mainly caused by intra-regional difference within the eastern, central and western area in China, with the average contribution rate as high as 76.85%.
Tenure Integrity, Security and Forestland Transfer: Evidence from Jiangxi Province, China
1Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu, China; 2Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi, China; 3The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra, Australia
Forest is recognized as an important resource which not only contributes to combating rural poverty and ensuring food security, but also bears the responsibility of maintaining a friendly ecological environment. The new round of collective forest tenure reform in China since 2003 provides farmers with more integrate and secure forestland rights. Based on household data collected in Jiangxi province in 2011 and 2013, this paper examines the impacts of households’ recognition of tenure integrity and security on forestland transfer activities. Our empirical results show that households with higher perception of use rights and mortgage right would reduce the probability and intensity of renting-in land, while households with lower anticipation of forestland redistribution or expropriation are more likely to rent in more forestland. In order to promote the development of forestland transfer market and stimulate a sustainable utilization of forest resource, the government may further facilitate the enforcement mechanism of the forest tenure reform and improve such supplementary measures as establishment of a well-functioning transfer platform, and a well-performed rural social security system.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-05: Dealing with the Far-Reaching Impacts of Land Access|
Session Chair: Alda Salomao, CENTRO TERRA VIVA, Mozambique
Land, Inequality and Power in Latin America
1Oxfam America, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant
Latin America is the most unequal region of the world in land distribution. The largest one percent of farms concentrate over half of agricultural land. Huge plantations, extensive livestock farming, mining and oil extraction have expanded rapidly at the expense of land to produce food for domestic consumption, sustain rural livelihoods and ensure the planet’s future. High dependency on the ‘extractivist’ model of production, based on large-scale exploitation of natural resources, drives inequality and leads to greater concentration of land, wealth, and economic and political power. This path to land concentration is facilitated by tax breaks and other public policies, failure to protect collective rights and dismantling support services for family farming. It has also generated more violence against those who defend the land, water, forests, and the rights of women, indigenous peoples and small farmer communities. Combating inequality in Latin America requires addressing the extreme concentration in access to and control over land, as well as in the distribution of benefits from its use. The practices that foster inequality must end and a new redistribution of land is needed, which requires eliminating the privileges of elites and strengthening the rights of all people and communities.
Land Markets in FARC Territory: Access to Land in Post-conflict Colombia
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2World Bank
Post-conflict contexts open up the possibility for wide institutional strengthening. In these situations, governments can again exercise full control over traditionally disputed regions, and are now able to stretch the rule of law into their entire territory, implementing policies in areas where this did not happened during the confrontations. In the particular case of land, it is the opportunity to lay down the foundations for well functioning institutions that can achieve desired levels of efficiency and equity.
Due to the absence of land administration agencies in war-affected regions during long periods of time, there is a serious lack of information about the details of the dynamics of land transactions in such disputed areas; this impedes the accurate design of public policy.
In order to address this issue, this research provides an in-depth characterization of the dynamics of land markets in the 212 municipalities where FARC has exercised ample historical influence.
A qualitative section provides an overview of the tenure structure in areas under analysis, it describes the level of public goods provision and dwells on the functioning of land markets analyzing size, composition and dynamism.
A final quantitative analysis examines the determinants of market thinness in the municipalities under study.
The Determinants of Land-Grabbing in the Colombian Civil War: A Preliminary Analysis
George Mason University, United States of America
Conflicts over land issues have been a constant all throughout the republican history of Colombia. During the nineteenth century, the story of land-related conflicts could be told in chapters describing the failure of three agrarian reforms, all defeated through various means, politically and physically, by the weight of large landowners.
However, the last thirty years have witnessed what can be cataloged as the most recent chapter in the history of conflict over land in the country- land-grabbing.
The dramatic escalation of the internal conflict caused a humanitarian crisis of dramatic proportions, which had as its most salient result, millions of people fleeing their homes in order to protect their lives. This massive forced displacement resulted in important extensions of land being abandoned, a situation that was taken advantage of by unscrupulous parties to seize those lands. In short, property rights were massively affected –land was stolen- while internally displaced population was running to save their lives. In the Colombian context, this has been labeled as land-grabbing.
This paper explores the factors that explain the degree of intensity of land-grabbing in the country at a municipal level with a special interest in cattle ranching as the major economic activity of rural elites in the country.
Land Inequality in Brazil
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Role of Property Rights in Realizing Environmental Services|
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
Land-use change and forestry programmes: Evidence on the effects on greenhouse gas emissions and food security
3ie Impact, United States of America
Governing payments for ecosystem services: What can be learned from comparing Chinese and American experiences of restoring degraded cropland?
Michigan State University, United States of America
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) have attracted broad attention as an incentive-based approach to ecosystem service provision. However, there have been inadequate efforts tackling their design and implementation at the program level. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of restoring degraded cropland in China and the U.S., this paper aims to derive some valuable and timely policy insights that can be used by China and other countries in improving the performances of their PES programs in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Building on a well-defined concept of environmental governance and the framework for studying social-ecological systems, our analysis will unfold through addressing several specific questions. They include: What are the socioeconomic and environmental backgrounds for one country to launch a large PES program? How was it designed initially and has evolved over time? How has its performance been evaluated and what are the main outcomes? What are the primary challenges to its long-term success? Finally, this study calls for a more practical approach to PES design, implementation, and evaluation that will lead to improved outcomes of ecosystem restoration and biodiversity conservation.
A Comparison of Land Use and Socioeconomic Outcomes from Payment for Watershed Services Programs in Mexico
Colorado State University, United States of America
Payments for watershed services programs (PWS) provide direct financial incentives to landowners with the aim of increasing hydrological benefits. Evidence of the impacts of PWS on conservation and livelihood outcomes remains limited, and even less is known about how specific program design features or contexts influence outcomes. We surveyed over 290 smallholders in three versions of Mexico’s PWS program to test the impacts on conservation and livelihood outcomes. The three programs included: the national PWS program, a local “matching” version of the PWS program, and the latter PWS program combined with integrated water resources management (IWRM). We used matching statistics to control for observable household characteristics and bias-adjusted regression to estimate treatment effects. Households in PWS programs had higher environmental knowledge, received more information, and implemented more conservation actions than households not enrolled. There were small increases in assets owned by households in PWS compared to those not enrolled. Comparing the three PWS programs we found few differences in conservation or livelihood outcomes but significant differences in perceptions of equity in benefit distribution. Overall, our results suggest that PWS is leading to positive to neutral outcomes and that there are important differences in how the programs are perceived by smallholders.
Avoided Deforestation Linked to Environmental Registration in the Brazilian Amazon
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America; 2Middlebury College, Vermont, United States of America
We quantified the avoided deforestation impacts of environmental land registration in the Brazils Amazonian states of Mato Grosso and Par´a between 2005 and 2014. We find that the program reduced deforestation on registered lands by 62.5%, which generated a total avoided deforestation of 10% across the two states. The impacts of registration varied over time, likely due to multiple policies that use registered boundaries for deforestation monitoring. Our results also reveal that more agriculturally productive lands were more likely to register. We conclude that environmental registration is an important first step to implement avoided deforestation policies targeted towards individual land use decisions.
Conserving the Amazon by Titling Indigenous Communities: Evidence from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador
1Resources for the Future, United States of America; 2World Resources Institute,United States of America
Over the past two decades, indigenous communities (ICs) have emerged as important players in efforts to reduce forest carbon emissions, in part because recent research has shown that their forests contain considerable carbon and are cleared at rates far lower than forests managed by the state or private sector. Yet ICs tend to be located in remote areas where rates of forest cover change would be quite low regardless of the management regime. Therefore, to determine whether IC management actually contributes to additional avoided carbon emissions, it is important to control for such confounding factors. We analyze the effects on deforestation and forest carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012 of legally recognized IC management in the Amazon regions of Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Colombia. We use fine-scale data derived from satellite images to measure deforestation and forest carbon along with propensity score matching and regression to control for pre-existing land characteristics. We find that even controlling for confounding factors, IC management is correlated with substantially lower rates of deforestation and forest carbon emissions in three of our four study countries: Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia. These findings suggest that IC management can, in fact, help combat climate change.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-07: Evolution of Land Policy in Asia|
Session Chair: Willi Ernst Zimmermann, Consultant, Germany
Finding Evidence For Land Policymaking In Timor-Leste – Successes And Limitations
Van Volenhoven Institute - Leiden University, Netherlands, The
Land-related conflict and lack of tenure security are two ‘dormant giants’ threatening security and stability in Timor-Leste. The history of Portuguese colonialism, Indonesian occupation, and the related waves of dispossession preceding the nation’s independence in 2002, bequeathed a system of conflicting land claims and unclear land rights to the new state that has not yet been addressed. The question often asked by land professionals, civil society organizations, and the Timorese populace is: why is it so difficult to approve legislation to address these land-related problems? Many factors have been suggested, but a crucial one has been overlooked: the lack of reliable, consistent, and independently collected data about land to inform government policies, civil society advocacy, and donor community interventions. To address this issue, the Van Vollenhoven Institute of Leiden University (The Netherlands) and The Asia Foundation have developed and piloted a survey to provide relevant data for evidence-based land policymaking in Timor-Leste. This paper uses the case study of this survey to explore the possibilities but also the limits of evidence-based policymaking.
Experiences Implementing Land Reform in Vanuatu
Land Equity International, Australia
This paper presents a reflective account of ongoing efforts to implement land reform in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu.
It is written from the perspective of a practitioner involved in supporting the implementation of the reforms and as such presents first hand evidence from the reform process.
The paper provides a context for the reforms; describes the support provided through the Vanuatu Land Program; examines issues and challenges faced during the implementation phase; considers if the reforms can be considered ‘innovative’ and concludes with a consideration of whether the reforms create the necessary policy and legal framework that provides for the protection and preservation of customary land while allowing for sustainable development.
Implications of the Vestiges of Crown Land for Reconstruction and Development in Sri Lanka
1Abt Associates; 2University of Colombo
The total land area of Sri Lanka is 65,610 square kilometers including an inland water area of around 2905 square kilometers. Of this land area, 82% is State land, i.e., belonging to the State, and only 18%, the balance, is privately owned land. Before Sri Lanka [then Ceylon] gained independence from the United Kingdom, it was known as “Crown Land” and supposed to have belonged to the Crown in UK. In this respect, the land reform laws of 1972 and 1975 gave private land to the State, implementing a ceiling of 20 hectares private ownership of land by individuals. Disputes over use and possession of land have plagued Sri Lanka since independence and through out the 25 year civil conflict. Seven years after the end of the conflict land disputes are still rampant throughout Sri Lanka. The government of Sri Lanka needs to take steps to make a viable and desirable national land use policy through a consultative process, based on the 13th Amendment to the Constitution which requires a National Land Commission to be established by the Government.
Land Titling in the Philippines:: Addressing Challenges Through Reform-Oriented Framework
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines
The paper discusses the present system of land titling system in the Philippines and how the system contributes to the weakness in land administration and management. It tackles the various agencies/ bodies that provide titling services and the concomittant issues thereon such as tedious requirements and procedures, overlapping surveys, and double titling. There is a need for the acceleration of the issuance of titles over all untitled agricultural lands so that all the benefits to be gained from secure land rights can be achieved.
The Philippine Government recognizes the defects in this system.There are many issues that had been plaguing the land titling system resulting to slow title issuance and lack of confidence by the clients. Thus, the tendency is to go out of the formal land market which results to land becoming a dead capital.
The defective system necessitates the implementation of reforms such as the computerization of land records for easier access to land information and adopting a legislative reform agenda to merge land titling functions. These reforms shall facilitate land titling and bring forth economic growth. But the country faces a big challenge in effectively implementing these reforms particularly in terms of support and acceptance.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-08: Using Land Data as a Basis for Local Administration |
Session Chair: Vanessa Lawrence CB, Location International, United Kingdom
Thinking Local: Can Local Land Administration Systems Avoid the Pitfalls of National Land Systems?
1Kartverket, Norway; 2Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 3Cadasta
An ongoing challenge in land administration, particularly in emerging economies, relates to the difficulty in implementing modern, enterprise level nationwide land registration and cadastral systems.
The collaboration involving Kartverket, Lantmäteriet and Cadasta Foundation to pilot an approach for implementing a local land information system that can be used both for managing property rights and to allow for more effective property tax collection at the local level. The key to success is involving the local community and visible hands on results, tangible improvements for the vulnerable person, which will be achieved focusing on local commitment, and a combination of low cost and fit for purpose tools, including drones for imagery, open source software for data management, mobile applications and paper based tools for data collection. This localized system does not require the same complexity in terms of workflows, IT-infrastructure and historical data integration. All to demonstrate that localized land information systems can be sustainable, equitable and cost effective, particularly when managed by trained local community members.
Integrating Low Cost/Open Source Gis And Remote Sensing In Urban Planning In Developing Countries – Case Of Blantyre City, Malawi
BLANTYRE CITY COUNCIL, Malawi
The manual method to manage urban planning and development control has always been the traditional way. In the late 1990s, thanks to the advent of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, the process of urban planning in Malawi received a new impetus. Capturing the spatial details by remote sensing either by satellite images and organising the data under GIS offered tremendous ease in undertaking urban planning activities. Unfortunately among other problems, the practical use of GIS has always been hampered by the lack of adequate resources to procure GIS software and satellite images . Use of low cost/ open source GIS software and online free satellite images can be a solution to spatial and non spatial data management for urban planning management and development control. This can help many municipal councils in developing countries reduce urban planning challenges. In this paper, various examples have been used to show how low cost/open source GIS software and free satellite image integration in urban planning management and development control can solve planning problems.
Redressing the Municipal Affairs with Digital Spatial Data toward Responsible Land Governance
YCPPL, York University, Canada
This research offers a basis for spatial data management case in point that the land governance strategy denoting as a routine of digital spatial data legacy development is a major stipulation to the “land resources” and the “community services”. Until 2015, Ontario’s municipalities cover just 17 percent of its landmass where the municipal affairs pace complications in land use reckoned to the seven provincial plans. The Greater Golden Horseshoe Growth Plan often cloaks the multi-jurisdictional constraints, for example, the amendment of the municipal zoning ordinance, land registry and surveys, land claims and conciliation, and housing options and taxation. The emphasis is to contour: first, identification of the key attributes and entity-sets; second, structuring of the geo-relational database connecting the local activities at the dissemination areas; and finally, the thematic features of each municipality and their contiguity. On the contrary, responsible land governance in municipal affairs is obviously substance at least to the three central obligations such as approach in integrated land management, shared periphery negotiation for economic and environmental growth moratoria, and digital data automation properties and protocols. The suggestion is that a massive development of digital spatial data is necessary to readdress the municipal affairs toward responsible land governance.
Capturing Property Boundaries from Ortho-photos to Support Systematic Registration
University of Zambia, Zambia
According to a 2015 report from the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (MLNREP) which is responsible for land administration, there are only a paltry 142,000 titles in the land registers for the whole Zambia. This is not justified for a country with a population of 16 million (2016 estimates), a territorial area of 753,000 square kilometres, and yearning for accelerated economic development. The MLNREP, therefore, initiated two pilot studies in Lusaka to capture property boundaries and other features from 10 cm or 20 cm ortho-photos. The aim of the pilot studies was to test the use of ortho photos in capturing property boundaries as a basis for systematic titling and registration. Over a two week period, two officers were assigned to do the mapping and produced over a thousand properties in the Kalingalinga pilot area. For the other study site, Mtendere, eleven students from the University of Zambia were engaged. In two months they captured one thousand nine hundred and six (1906) property boundaries and four thousand and nine (4009) building structures. The target for the MLNREP is to issue 30 million titles over a ten year period for the whole country.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-09: Rural Land Governance Experiences|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
Land tenure and its impacts on food security in Uganda: Empirical Evidence from Ten Districts
1United Nations Human Settlement Programme, Kenya; 2Makerere Unievrsity, Kampala - Uganda
The need to establish the link between land tenure and food security is increasingly gaining currency as governments and development organizations strive to assist farmers to move away from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture. It is argued that given how land plays a crucial role in the livelihoods of most Africans, food security and poverty reduction cannot be achieved unless issues of access to land, security of tenure and the capacity to use land productively and in a sustainable manner are addressed.
This study was conducted in ten districts of Uganda. The overall objective of the study was to undertake an empirical analysis of the land issues that farmers experience, which could limit efforts to improve agricultural production and hence adversely impact on food security. A multifaceted study approach was used in which various data collection methods including household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and document review were employed. 623 farmers participated, of which 55.7% were females. In addition, key informants from the Local Government as well as CSOs were interviewed. The study recommends fit-for-purpose land administration tools to address area specific land tenure and food security challenges including security of land tenure.
Land Access And Use Under Changing Tenancy Regulations: Governance Challenges In Odisha (India)
While agricultural tenancy is banned in Odisha (India), concealed tenancy is rampant. In an agriculturally dominant economy, the practice was exploitative and had led to operation of a series of intermediaries, between the owner and the actual tiller or the tenant. Land leasing is the reality and a liberalized setting will provide access over land for the landless and land poor.
In 2016, Government of India came up with a model tenancy law following wide ranging consultations. The state of Odisha is in the process of bringing in a new law on agricultural land leasing and in Aug 2016 initiated a process of consultation with landowners and sharecroppers.
The paper will outline current land leasing practices based on experiences related by land owners and share croppers in five districts where Landesa had conducted field assessment during 2015. The broad framework in which land governance will be examined is: (a) institutional mechanisms to identify and record sharecroppers, (b) ensure specific provisions related to women farmers, (c) tenancy arrangements in tribal areas confirming to secure tribal rights, (d) participation mechanism in input subsidy, financial credit and procurement programmes, (e) provisions under land modernization and computerization programme ongoing in the state.
Reducing Conflicts and Enhancing Land Administration: Case of the Customary Boundary Demarcation in Ghana
Ghana Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Ghana’s National Land Policy identifies the indeterminate boundaries of customary lands as a major problem disturbing efficient land administration and management across the country and which continue to deny investors access to land for projects and delays the implementation of programs thereby thwarting development at both urban and rural levels.
To abate the problem, the Government with the assistance of the World Bank and development partners launched the Land Administration Project (LAP) in 2003. Component 2 of the project deals with implementation of Customary Boundary Demarcation (CBD) – i.e. the delineation (identification, demarcation and survey) of allodial lands based on substantial innovation and on strong, fruitful collaborative relationship between different actors: customary land authorities, public land sector agencies, private sector, local and central government, subjects and individuals. Implementation started slowly, building with caution on lessons as they emerged.
This work discusses the innovative steps employed, expands understanding of the Customary Boundary Demarcation exercise as is being implemented in Ghana to highlight the outcome, implementation successes and challenges. The work demonstrates the fact that the Ghanaian example provides useful lessons for other developing countries to improve upon the participatory approaches to land management at the local level.
Reforms for Equity and Efficiency: Exploring Challenges of Malawi's 2016 Customary Land Act in Achieving Equity Goal
University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, Malawi
The Government of Malawi has promulgated Customary Land Act 2016 to replace the 1967 Land Act. This Act seeks to address challenges facing customary land tenure, especially for women and other vulnerable groups of people through creation of private customary estate with private usufructuary rights in perpetuity. Using data from seven districts in the country, this study examines the extent to which the new land law will achieve land use equity goal, especially for the most vulnerable members of the community. The findings from interviews with communities reveal the success of the new Law depends on the existence of efficient land governance institutions and enforcement mechanisms. In particular, while there is a high sense of optimism that the new land law address land security situation, this benefit is tempered down by the unwillingness of local communities to grant land security to divorced and widowed partners. This situation is likely to be worsened by the fact that individual land registration potentially closes up creation of quasi land tenure rights for returning community members as it increases opportunity costs for individuals. These findings, therefore, underscores the need for establishing good land governance at a local and efficient land rights enforcement mechanisms.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-10: Addressing Land Tenure in Irrigation Schemes in West Africa|
Session Chair: Caroline Plançon, world bank, United States of America
Building Resilience By Strengthening Women's Land Rights In The Senegal River Valley
University of Arizona, United States of America
Empirical data shows that gender-related inequalities are pervasive in the Sahel. Although women account for most of the agricultural sector in the Sahel, they represent less than 10 percent of registered landholders and continue to face barriers in access to land, especially in rural areas where social exclusion and patriarchal traditions are very strong. Although the current land law recognizes the right of women to own land, in practice, women have not acquired the same rights and duties as men in Senegal River Valley land tenure system. Positive discrimination is required to counter the longstanding negative discrimination against women in accessing and owning land. This paper based on data collected in the field highlights the urgent need to significantly improve women’s control and ownership of land as a prerequisite for building resilience in the Senegal River Valley communities. It concludes by providing concrete and prioritized recommendations on how to promote and strengthen women’s land rights in the context of climate change, land grabbing and new policies on land governance.
Securing land rights in irrigated scheme in Mali. Cas study of Sélingué.
CIRAD, France / University of Gaston Berger, Sénégal
Land tenure security is key to improving productivity and to promote rural development. In the Sahelian irrigation, a recurrent problem is the farmers ‘lack of tenure security. A new land tenure law is currently under discussion in Mali, which is an opportunity to address some of the current gaps in how land is allocated and registered – both for the State and for local communities. Approximately 2,200,000 hectares are deemed to be suitable for the development of irrigated agriculture in Mali, only 20% of this land is currently developed. Sélingué is the second most important national irrigated scheme. This paper , based on empirical investigations, is explores land tenure systems in Selingue and Maninkoura irrigation scheme, the nature of these systems (formal and informal), and analyses the roles of different actors. He is explores the gap between the official land tenure system, and the practice developed by irrigated farmers. Studying current arrangements between stakeholders, being spontaneous or institutionalized, allows picturing issues in terms of decision-making, management schemes and territories to consider.
Inclusive land and water governance: Experiences from Mauritania and Senegal
This paper will look at two experiences where inclusive land and water governance has been promoted in West Africa: one in Mauritania and another in Senegal. IFAD-supported projects in Mauritania have been facilitating the use of «Ententes foncières» or land distribution agreements between landowners and the landless, as pre-condition for water infrastructure. The approach is based on three principles: (i) justice; (ii) solidarity; (iii) efficiency and includes three steps: (i) land tenure assessment; (ii) negotiations; (iii) written agreement (endorsed by local authorities, prefect, land owners and village chief). In Senegal, the AFD-funded Rural Communities Support Programme has introduced land use plans These participatory plans have been used to decide where water infrastructure will be built and to decide access rights of farmers and pastoralists.
Ideologies, Development Models and Irrigated Land Tenure: The Bagré Irrigation Project in Burkina Faso
1IRD, URA, Wageningen University; 2CIRAD; 3Bagrépôle; 4Agence de l'Eau du Nakambé; 5INSUCO
This paper discusses the history of irrigation development and related land allocation in the Bagré area in the South of Burkina Faso. It specifically analyses current processes at play as part of the recent Bagré Growth Pole Project implemented by the government of Burkina Faso with support of the World Bank. The paper stresses the efforts made to put in place a fair and equitable compensation mechanism for the people being affected by the extension of the irrigated area downstream of the Bagré dam. The practicalities and thresholds considered in the compensation scheme are partly driven by the need to free some rainfed land to allow agro-entrepreneurs to settle in the area, financially contribute to the infrastructural costs of developing irrigation, and develop intensive and profitable irrigated production systems. This leads to socially constructing land scarcity, and threatens the future viability of smallholder farming. This happens even though the expressions of interests received to date by Bagrepole from agro-entrepreneurs appear little likely to trigger the virtuous development circle hoped for.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-11: From Documenting Rights to Creating Jobs |
Session Chair: Stein T. Holden, Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway
Land Registration, Agricultural Production and Food Security in Mozambique
Observatório do Meio Rural, Mozambique
Like in many other countries, the land debates in Mozambique have been varying, following the national and foreign political and economical conjuncture. In fact, due to its relation to food production and security, land registration has been considered together with land taxing constitutes a major element in the efforts different actors have been making in order to ensure land access and security by local communities, depending mainly on agriculture for their subsistence.
This study aims to understand what characterizes the requests, processing of requests and the grant of land titles in Mozambique, looking at different regions, gender and type of producers. Interviews, focal groups and non-participatory observation undertaken in Nampula and Zambézia provinces reveal the existence of many advantages in registering land use rights, such as a more responsible management of the natural resources by the locals, the mapping and creation of associations composed by members of the communities, including women, easy access to financing, better knowledge of one’s limits and avoiding conflicts. But on the other hand, due to weak administrative, technological and human resource capacity, more than 95% of the national small holder producers still produce without a written property right’s document.
Mainstreaming Securing Land Rights in Value Chain Development Programmes: The Case of the Pro-poor Value Chain Development Project in Maputo and Limpopo Corridors in Mozambique
1Centre for the Promotion of Agriculture (CEPAGRI)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique; 2International Fund for Agricultural Development
The Pro-Poor Value Chain Development Project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) is a Government of Mozambique project co-financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development with total project cost of USD44.95 million. The project goal is to establish improved and climate-resilient livelihoods for smallholder farmers in selected districts of the Maputo and Limpopo corridors. The Project supports the development of three value chains: horticulture, cassava and red meat. PROSUL expects to target 20350 beneficiaries mainly smallholders, across 19 districts of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. The Project is coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, through the Centre for the Promotion of Agriculture (CEPAGRI).
The PROSUL project is expected to contribute to the effective implementation of the Mozambican Government’s initiative to systematically secure and register land denominated Terra Segura (Secure Land - SL), designed and implemented by the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development.
The paper will describe the implementation of interventions aiming at facilitating land tenure security for smallholder famers, and has the overall objective of sharing PROSUL’s experience related to mainstreaming land tenure security interventions in a value chain development project, analysing two interventions: (i) the DUAT’s and (ii) the delimitation of communities.
Forging The Link Between Land Registration & Job Creation
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
The expectation of land registration projects is the creation of a database of ownership and use that secures tenure. Additional benefits such as employment and improved planning capacity are presumed to follow but generally do not materialise.
Many land registration projects have been implemented globally. The primary goal of delivering land title has generally been achieved but little evidence is available to demonstrate that the expected economic impacts have been catalysed through registration of land as predicated by de Soto etc.
The Systematic Land Title Registration (SLTR) project in Kano State in Nigeria has taken steps to gather additional data gathering in addition to that required to prove title. That data incorporates information on local skills, education and provision of services such as electricity and water. By having such information geo-referenced at household level it becomes possible to project local demands in healthcare, education, transport and sanitation and to also identify local trade clusters suitable for development. The various reports culminate in a strategic master plan that facilitates private sector led growth in pursuit of the SDGs. By appreciating the local value chains and market opportunities investment can be more focused with greater likelihood of success.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-12: Impact of Land-related Regulations|
Session Chair: Mondonga Mokoli, Strayer University and Montgomery College, United States of America
The Impact of Initial Security of Tenure on Smallholder Farmers’ Household Income and Food Security: A Case Study of the Chiradzulu District in Malawi
1Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Malawi; 2Land and Global Land Tool Network- UN Habitat, Kenya; 3International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy
Malawi government with financial assistance from International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is implementing a nine year Sustainable Agriculture Production Programme (SAPP). Since all agricultural systems depend on land, the ownership of, or access to, agricultural land are important determinants of who actually benefits from agricultural investments. The land tenure system affects agricultural land use, prospects for improvement, productivity and food security. Using the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM), this paper examines how the structure of land tenure system among the SAPP beneficiaries influences technology adoption, agricultural productivity, and food security among the beneficiary households. It reveals that despite receiving the same package of extension training and farm inputs, households with less than 0.5 ha land holding size experienced more months of hunger and earned the least agricultural income. Again, those that rented land for agricultural production least adopted the sustainable land and water management that would improve the net value of land. In conclusion, the paper recommends that for effective and sustainable impact, initial analysis of tenure on land and natural resources should be a key component of any design of agricultural development investment programme.
Putting Land Rights into Value
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
One of the main drivers behind the formalization of rural land rights is the assumption that increased tenure security will boost agricultural production, because it incentivizes farmers to make investments. Yet, the results of land formalization programs have partly stayed behind expectations. One reason might be that farmers require additional support systems to put land rights into value. Investments in tenure regularization need to be combined with a vision for enhancing landholders’ ability to access services needed for productivity enhancing investments. Tenure regularization programs also need to pay more attention to better securing the actual producers working the land, and not just the owners. This requires more insight into secondary rights and rental arrangements. The hypothesis of this paper is that a more secure access to land alone may not sufficiently trigger increases in productivity and agricultural production. Depending on the country context and the existing tenure security perception of farmers, additional support instruments may be necessary that help farmers putting their newly acquired land rights into value. The paper will discuss country examples supported by the German bilateral technical assistance focussing on formalizing land rights and providing farmers with additional livelihood support measures.
Land And Poverty Alleviation
Shri Balaji Agrotech Pvt Ltd, India
The Land and poverty alleviation is to remove poverty through implementation of all constituents of land reforms globally. Access to ownership of land and security of tenure can save the landless and the land poor from starvation or hunger. Implementation of land reforms doesn’t involve huge funds but requisite political and administrative will is required to implement measures of land reforms to reduce poverty. If land reforms are not implemented, the stark discrimination in society will cause the land poor in rural areas and the homeless in urban areas to mobilise and overrun the creations of globalisation and symbols of modern civilisation. This is not only a theoretical work on land vis-à-vis poverty, it also provides practical solutions and methodologies based on the best practices around the world in respect of each factor of land reform. It will be an epoch-making benchmark and experience for serious readers, practical administrators, policy-makers, peasants, sharecroppers and their leaders. Also mobile technology can bridge the connection gap in developing communities, can unlock markets and capital for farmers, and address food insecurity.As an effective land reform programme must boost efficiency and promote equity, land ownership should be targeted towards those who use it most productively.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-13: Strengthening Customary Rights: Options and Impacts|
Session Chair: Esther Obaikol, Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Djibouti
Securing Land In Butana For Rural Poor
Butana Development Agency, Sudan
The abolition of the native administration and the declaration of all unregistered land as state land in the 1970s in Sudan led to shrinkage of pastoral land and growth of cultivated land specially, in Butana region. Butana Integrated Rural Development Project which IFAD funded project has supported local communities to register their own pastoral land and establishing communities’ networks in form of clusters for advocacy and lobby to impede such agricultural expansion. Besides, participatory policy review had been implemented to create coherence between policies that originate from a wide range of ministries and rules and norms that exercise by local community groups to ensure the voices of different stakeholders, to be heard at both local and national levels. These key instruments assisted local communities in managing their own natural resources on sustainable basis. In turn governance framework for natural resources for the whole Butana region developed. The outcome of this support is indicated by identification of 55 000 ha to be improved for the benefits of local communities; registration of 77 pastoral land with geographic coordinates under the name of recognized communities and their own rules enforced and; communities capabilities in managing natural resources increased apparently.
Institution For Managing The Commons And Customary Land
Uganda Land Alliance, UCOBAC
ENHANCING TENURE SECURITY, ACCESS & UTILIZATION OF THE COMMONS AND CUSTOMARY LAND IN THE GREATER NORTHERN REGION OF UGANDA THROUGH STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITIES OF CLAN STAKEHOLDERS, AND BUILDING NETWORKS OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY MEMBERS.
Rights-Based Approach to Land: The Case of Seaweed Farmers in Caluya, Antique, Philippines
Rights and access to land is an important matter for people’s livelihood, especially for the rural poor who are still depending on agriculture for their livelihood and whose income comes largely from small scale farming and artisanal fishing. Landlessness is one of the roots of rural poverty. Hence, democratizing access to and control over land and water resources is crucial for ending poverty.
Securing land rights and access to natural resources is an important foundation for the realization of human rights and for poverty reduction; it is a fundamental basis for economic, social and cultural rights. Land is not a mere commodity, but an essential element for the realization of many human rights. Land rights is significant to respect, protect and fulfill human rights.
Seaweed farmers in Caluya, Antique in the Philippines have been evicted from their homelots have filed a complaint at the Commission on Human Rights to sustain their livelihoods and environment against the threats of open pit mining and aggressive commercial tourism. The CHR decision will have far-reaching implications not only on their land and human rights situation, but also on rural communities nationwide who are or will be affected by the operations of mining corporations.
Women’s Access to Irrigated Land in a Patrilineal Customary Area: Baare Community Irrigation Project.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Customary land administration is a flexible way of managing land relations for its owners based on custom and prevailing traditions. It is dynamic and therefore able to adjust to prevailing needs. Baare is a small patrilineal community in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Small scale irrigation was developed in Baare to help alleviate poverty. The study data was collected through direct observation, interviews, focus group discussions and review of secondary data. Customary land owners within the irrigated area, release their farmlands for community use during the dry season. The land is then reallocated to individual community members to farm by the Water Users Association. Access to the irrigated land at Baare is granted to deserving farmers without discrimination. The study shows that out of 185 farmers who farmed the irrigated land during the period under discussion, 104 were women, representing 56.2% of the total farmers. It was observed that women played active part in all aspects of the management of the project. The study indicates that women can have access to irrigated land in patrilineal customary areas. It is recommended that the model be replicated in other areas to alleviate poverty.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-01: Using Administrative Data for Land Governance Monitoring|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Translation Spanish, Streaming.
Fostering Dialogue and Understanding Through the 'Review of Land Administration: Regional and Global Perspectives'
IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
To be completed
Social and Economic Benefits from Integrating Registry and Cadaster: Evidence from Administrative Data
Land Registry, Costa Rica
To be completed
How Administrative Data Can Inform Policy and Research: Evidence from Mexico
Federal Registry of Public Land, Mexico
To be completed
Challenges and Potential for Assessing Progress in Colombia's Land Restitution Challenge: How the Registry Can Help
Land Regularization and Restituttion, Colombia
To be completed
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
To be completed
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-02: Strengthening Land Governance in India|
Session Chair: Dinesh Singh, Department of Land Resources, India
Improving land governance in India: Current status and next steps
Department of Land Resources, India
To be completed
Land Governance in India: Lessons and opportunities in moving forward
The World Bank, United States of America
To be fillled
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-03: Innovation Fair: Interoperability & Land Use Applications|
Session Chair: Alexis Smith, IMGeospatial, United Kingdom
Next Generation Land and Urban Systems are 3D
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2SITO Oy, Finland
The paper discusses land administration investments through the sample of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and questions whether the success stories of the past should be repeated in new countries. The authors suggest that investments designed today should mirror the vision for urban land systems of 2027. For example, the World Bank’s technical land administration support often consists of investments to land and cadastral records, and on automation and digital solutions; sharing and exchanging geospatial data; provision of electronic services; and integrating land and geospatial records to the eGovernment infrastructure of the State. New applied services (such as One Map, Mass Valuation Systems, and State Land Management) are being introduced, and endless number of private sector applications and Start Ups make use of Open Data policies. However, conceptually, the manual era and 2D logics dominate, which scope this paper suggests to be outdated. Private sector Architects, Geospatial providers and Construction companies operate already 3D environments, cities globally invest in 3D models, and 3D processes are starting to emerge. Today’s urban system investments should support 3D infrastructure and services as the rule, and that the 3D land and urban systems will become the norm in cities by 2027.
Combining Geomatics Technology for Successful Land Development Projects
Trimble Inc, United States of America
With the amount of new technology, methodologies, and connectivity available in our profession, it can be a challenging task to select one suite of geomatics technology to support land development projects.
The majority of projects today require several geomatics technologies to work independently on specific tasks, but ultimately must behave together as a cohesive solution through sharing data, communications, interoperability and final deliverable. Combining technologies can be incredibly valuable and efficient, but cumbersome if not coordinated properly on the correct platforms.
Land development projects also involve numerous departments and organizations that have different responsibilities and skills to contribute, resulting in a wide range of ability and interest in technology. Assessing the technology capability of stakeholders, contributors and benefactors to land development projects prior to implementation can affect overall timeline and success. Flexibility and ease of use is key for usability of the final project deliverable.
This presentation examines the key factors towards successful implementations of multiple geomatics technologies in land development projects, including: common data structures and formats, utilizing the Fit for Purpose approach, equipment flexibility, and diverse staff and agency requirements.
Fit For Purpose: Tools Supporting A Decentralized Infrastructure
1SLM Land Management Foundation; 2International Federation of Surveyors; 3SGS Inc; 4Federal Office of Topography, swisstopo
The fit-for-purpose approach is a recognised method for speeding up the mapping and bounding delineation of land administration systems. The participatory approach with grassroots surveyors in remote areas requires the use of decentralised land administration systems. In order to validate the acquired data it is mandatory to export data sets and merge them into a centralized storage. A viable approach for decentralized mapping systems with integrated data validation, data exchange form decentral organisation to a central agency is presented.
The fundament of the solutions is built upon INTERLIS: While INTERLIS was originally designed and used mainly for land administration; it is not restricted to land administration data modelling. The entire range of products are completely in-line with ISO/OGC standards (ISO 19152, GML, WMS etc.) and the process chain for is well established for large amount of data collected by many different organisations. The lightning talk and the session will show design, production and validation tools all based on the implementation of LADM in INTERLIS like:
• the INTERLIS UML editor;
• the INTERLIS compiler and checker;
• data translators convert data sets to and from INTERLIS XML;
• schema tools to generate database;
• web based map server.
Flexible Mobile Land Technology Applications: Demonstrations and Lessons Learned
US Agency for International Development, United States of America
USAID has developed and piloted a suite of low-cost, open-source Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST) in different countries and contexts, providing flexible tools that help people and communities secure land and resource rights. At the Innovation Fair, USAID will demonstrate technology and present lessons from the evaluation of the original MAST pilot, which used an Android-based app to map and record customary land rights in three villages in Tanzania and its follow-on, which has been scaled to 41 villages in Tanzania. USAID will also showcase the latest version of MAST, which was recently launched in Burkina Faso following the initial positive results from Tanzania, and discuss next steps for this technology. USAID will also present two mobile applications for improving conservation and resilience through better land-use planning and land management currently being piloted in Kenya and Namibia. Key to all of these efforts is working closely with local partners to ensure that the tools are context-appropriate, flexible, sustainable, and effective at making improved land management and land tenure administration more transparent, accessible, and affordable for all.
Agile Collaboration as the Way to Build Uganda National Land Information System
InnoLA Solutions Inc, United States of America
Implementing a national scale land information system always poses challenges in keeping the Customer engaged, managing the significant change, and ensuring that all project activities and outcomes provide the most value. InnoLA Solutions is currently taking an agile approach to collaboration with the Customer and our development partners on the design, development and implementation of the Uganda National Land Information System. This project is Phase 2 of a Government of Uganda initiative, awarded to IGN France International (IGN FI) and funded by the World Bank. As subcontractor, we are configuring, customizing and integrating our InnoLA software framework to meet the registry, cadastral management, land valuation, physical planning and public data access data needs of the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD). The InnoLA software framework is based on open source components including: the operational systems (CentOS, Ubuntu), the DBMS system (PostgreSQL/PostGIS), and the GIS Server (GeoServer). The new system, is a fully integrated, web-based solution and is a result of collaborative analysis, business process re-engineering and design with the Customer and Supplier teams (IGN FI and Memoris). Our approach to collaboration has allowed us to establish an open and transparent environment for all phases of the project.
Innovations for Information Integration and Data Sharing in an eGovernment Framework in Support of Integrated Land Governance
1Centre for Development and Environmnet CDE, Lao People's Democratic Republic; 2Department of Planning and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Laos; 3Department of Land Administration, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Laos
In Laos, the government struggles to gain an overview of land investments across the country. Concessions are granted by different institutions and at different administrative levels. However, there is no one institution in charge of keeping track of such developments, and records are heterogeneous and scattered across institutions and administrative levels.
With development challenges becoming increasingly complex, sectoral approaches have become less effective in tackling burning such development challenges, and planners and decision-makers depend on comprehensive and integrated information base for taking adequate actions.
Therefore, innovative tools and approaches have been developed that support key departments of the Lao Government in compiling, harmonizing, integrating and exchanging information on different aspects of land investments from all sectors and administrative levels. The resulting cross-sectoral land investment database system is hosted within its national eGovernment framework.
This initiative is part of a broader multi-stakeholder information integration and sharing initiative, in which institutions partner up and make their sectoral data available to specified user groups in a standardized way facilitating cross-sectoral information exchange, integration and analysis.
Currently, the platform provides one-stop access to highly detailed information, integrated across the following sectors: demography, poverty, education, health, foreigner direct investment in lands, ODA, agriculture and environment.
Fine-scale Land Allocation Tool for Global Land Use Analysis
Purdue University, United States of America
We develop an open access online tool that provides statistical analysis, land use projections, and model comparison at variable grid cell resolutions (grid cell size 1-60 arc-minutes) at a global or sub-global level. The tool predicts patterns in land use at a grid cell level with aggregate land use data and disaggregate land attribute data. The marginal impact of the disaggregated land attribute data on land use can be computed and used for research and policy analysis. Visualization features facilitate comparison across models, and the user has the option of uploading his/her own data and/or estimation procedure.
How To Capture Innovation And Solve The Challenges Of Urbanisation With Hackathons?
1Sito, Finland; 2Aalto University, Finland; 3KIRA-digi project
Developing cities are facing the enormous challenge of urbanization and the digitalization of urban development. The advancements of new technologies and the exponential growth of available data offers numerous new opportunities to innovate and to solve some of the challenges developing cities are facing. However, developing cities often lack the know-how, money, competent workforce, collaboration between different stakeholders to realize this potential. This paper discusses how developing cities can solve these challenges with hackathons. We present through two case examples how hackathons can be utilized to develop and enhance urban development process in developing cities. We describe how hackathons could be used to increase transparency and collaboration in urban development, share knowledge and promote new technologies, produce new urban planning innovations, create new job opportunities in the field of urban development, and learn more agile and cost-effective development methods.
Uncovering City Dynamics through Land Use and Land Cover Spatial Data
The World Bank Group
This paper showcases the use of rapid geospatial analysis such as high resolution satellite imagery, night time lights and spatial data to characterize urban growth patterns and to tease out the issues and gaps related to the effectiveness of institutional coordination and master plans, disaster risks, growth and prosperity, urban livability, land use planning and enforcement, and urban design policy conflicts using: (i) Karachi megacity (largest city in Pakistan); and (ii) Kandy (UNESCO World Heritage secondary city in Sri Lanka) as examples. The paper will also detail how the World Bank has leveraged on these findings and translated them into policy action and investments in ongoing projects and technical assistance.
Improvements in City Modelling by Fusion of Airborne LiDAR and Oblique Imaging
Leica Geosystems, United States of America
Cities are rapidly changing high-financial-value areas. Data is required for many applications, for example; cadastral planning, emergency response, solar energy, city planning, self-driving cars, security, traffic modelling, architecture, virtual travel, even computer gaming. Typical deliverables are DTMs / DSMs, aerial images, point clouds, orthophotos, building footprints, 3D models and meshes. A variety of oblique imaging sensors and software solutions have been developed for this application.
The target of airborne city mapping is fast, reliable delivery of high accuracy data, automatically with minimum manual labor. However, experience shows oblique airborne images alone impose limits on automatic city-modelling workflow, e.g., not being able to see through vegetation, poor image quality in shadows, image occlusions and aerial triangulation mismatch. For end products, this leads to errors in surface representation and lower success rates for automatic 3D city model extraction algorithms and labor-intensive manual editing.
Leica addresses this with a fused airborne LiDAR/oblique image sensor, “CityMapper”, and fused image/LIDAR workflow, “RealCity”. The combination of LiDAR and oblique datasets, collected simultaneously, improves workflow automation, reducing labor required.
This presentation focuses on how data product quality is improved, delivery time reduced and costly manual labor minimized by using co-collected, fused image and LiDAR datasets.
Creating A Base Map Of Zanzibar
senseFly SA, Switzerland
The path to sustainability starts with information collected through local capacity.
In order for society to develop it is crucial to be able to address the issue of land and house titles. The project in Zanzibar was developed not only to create a cost effective base map to start addressing this need, but also to create the local capacity required, in the Government and within the State University of Zanzibar, to collect this data.
The objective of the mission is for the government and local communities to be capable of monitoring land changes, upon request, in order to make better educated and quick decisions regarding land management, urban planning, environment conservation etc.
As a result of this project over 15 people in Zanzibar are now fully trained to operate drones, capture data, and process this data to create the maps they need. This capacity on the ground will mean that for years to come Zanzibar will be able to monitor and collect its own land use data and be able to issue the much needed land and house titles its population requires.
ResilienceDirect Maps - A Common Operating Picture For The United Kingdom
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
ResilienceDirect launched in the United Kingdom in June 2014 and revolutionized the way public agencies share information during emergency planning and response activities. This secure, cloud-based platform is provided by UK Cabinet Office and is free to all Category 1 and 2 emergency responders. This includes police forces, fire and ambulance services, NHS trusts, Local Resilience Forums, Public Health England, the Environment Agency, utility companies and many others. ResilienceDirect enables true multi-agency collaboration via a suite of secure cloud-based tools for sharing information and providing a common operating picture. A key component of the ResilienceDirect Service is the web-based mapping platform developed by Ordnance Survey, Great Britain’s National Mapping Agency. Designed as a map-based visualization tool for the aggregation, presentation and dissemination of multiple information sources, ResilienceDirect Maps provides a set of simple, user-friendly drawing tools and the ability to collaborate and edit maps in real time with other users. Built using open-source software and designed to support easy integration of OGC compliant web mapping services, ResilienceDirect is an exemplar for bringing together geospatial data from a wide range of commercial, open and government sources to more effectively plan and direct emergency response activities.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-04: Key Achievements in the ECA Region and the Road Forward|
Session Chair: Fadia Saadah, The World Bank, United States of America
Unification of Cadastre and Registry
Rosreestr, Russian Federation
This presentation is devoted to unification of cadastre and registry in the Russian Federation. It reviews three main steps towards improvement and unification cadastre and land registry systems such as reformation of administration system, improvement of legislation and creation of a single software product. The unified database nowadays is Unified State Register of Real Property (EGRN). Creating the unified registration system of real property objects consisted of several phases. The implementation of each phase allowed Rosreestr to expand the range of services provided in electronic form. Unification of the Law on cadastre and the Law on registration of real property rights into the Federal Law No. 218-FZ ”On State Registration of Real Property“ of 13.07.2015 was instrumental in unification of cadastre and registry. This Federal Law established a unified procedure combining cadastral and real property rights registration. The presentation also considers development of the infrastructure for registration of rights and cadastre in the Russian Federation, services for citizens and business, public cadastral map and cooperation of Rosreestr with the World Bank in the field of property and land.
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Republic Geodetic Authority (RGA) is a state institution, which was entrusted with the official records of real estate and real estate rights holders, as well as with the obligation to provide reliable and up to date geospatial data on national level. It is a national Spatial Data Infrastructure coordinator and INSPIRE National Contact Point. Republic of Serbia is one of the first countries around the world, where the Global SDI Diagnostic Tool, developed by the World Bank and FAO was tested helping in estimation of weaknesses reflected in making the best use of NSDI. At the beginning of 2017 Government of Serbia adopted RGA Strategy till 2020 that foresees development of Regional Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Management, which would improve the use of the available data and services. Such Center would also accelerate the European integrations of the entire region, improve the cooperation between the institutions and the countries in the region and enable the region to keep up with technological innovations and experiences world-wide. The basic function of the Center would be to develop, find and share the most optimal solutions for the geospatial data management within the spatial data infrastructure through innovation, developing methodologies and training.
Establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure
Kosovo Cadastre Agency, Kosovo
New country with new a approach, Republic of Kosovo is undergoing enormous political, cultural and social transformation, including dealing with geo-spatial data. The Government of Kosovo has recognized the importance of developing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), and acknowledges the geo-information as of high importance on spatial planning, on political decision making or on identifying preventive activity to avoid disasters by taking prudent steps, etc.
NSDI in Kosovo aims to establish a technological, institutional, legal and administrative framework for inter-organizational collaboration that will be in line with INSPIRE Directive. Also it will support e-governance and institutionalization, it will integrate geo-information from different sources into one infrastructure, and it will avoid duplication of spatial data acquisition, storage, and maintenance, it will establish effective business processes which meet the needs of the stakeholders and promote the accessing, sharing and distributing the spatial data.
Pursuant the Law on Cadastre No. 04 L/013, article 23, the Kosovo Cadastral Agency was given responsibility for NSDI coordination, prioritizing data harmonization with the European Directives, including the INSPIRE Directive. Also, the draft Law on NSDI that is proposed to the parliament of Kosovo is strongly aligned in accordance with the European Union Directive 2007/02.
3D Land and Urban Systems
Sito Oy, Finland
The paper discusses today’s land administration and management investments and questions whether the investments mirror correctly urban land systems of 2026 and the era they mean to serve. As a sample, the World Bank’s technical land administration support often consists of investments to land and cadastral records, and in their most advanced scope focuses on automation and digital solutions; sharing and exchanging geospatial data; provision of electronic services; and integrating land and geospatial records to the eGovernment infrastructure of the nation. New applied services (such as One Map, Mass Valuation Systems, and State Land Management) are being introduced, and in parallel endless number of private sector applications and Start Ups make use of Open Data policies. However, conceptually, the manual era and 2D logics still dominate, which scope this paper suggests to be outdated. Private sector professionals including Architects, Geospatial providers and Construction companies operate already 3D environments, cities globally invest in 3D models, and 3D processes are starting to emerge. The paper concludes that today’s land and urban system investments should support 3D infrastructure and services as the rule, and that the 3D land and urban systems will become the norm in cities by 2026.
Blockchain and Land Rights
Lantmäteriet, the Swedish Mapping, Cadaster and Land Registration Authority, Sweden
The blockchain technology is regarded as a “new technology”. It is predicted that the blockchain technology will be the “next Internet” or at least to be one of the top disruptive inventions for businesses and administrations all over the world.
Many organizations and companies in both private business and public sector are looking into the possibilities and advantages with the blockchain. The financial sector with the banks at the front is keen on finding ways to use the technology to develop financial transactions.
An area that is very close to the financial sector is the Land and property sector. National economies normally rely a lot on a working real property market. The information about real properties, boundaries, ownership land and land rights is crucial to the processes of building society, working economy and democracy. National Land Administrations need to be systems of trust.
For this reason it is quite natural; that a technology that promise trust, security, transparency and good use of smart contracts; is of great interest to the development of systems for Land Rights. For nations in transition the blockchain technology offers a fast track to a future state that normally takes decades to reach.
Blockchain: Feasible or Not?
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Blockchain is the technology that underpins the bitcoin cryptocurrency and may be of interest as an application for Land Administration.
Land administration is the process of determining, recording, and disseminating of information about ownership, value and use of land when implementing land management policies.
It consists of two components: Land registration (deeds or titles) and Land recording + cadastral mapping. Land Registration consists of a triple: object, subject and right (in rem).
Being a transparent, decentralised, immutable and distributed technology that is publicly available, blockchain may meet the Land administration requirements, e.g. a continuum of land rights, claimants and spatial units, a geographic reference and, amongst others, history and transparency.
There are several private initiatives and next to that some governmental parties are exploring blockchain technology. Up until now it is uncertain what are the possibilities to create a blockchain-based Land Administration.
Key questions with regard to the concept of trust, the possible use of smart contracts as well as the various services a well functioning land registration can provide (archiving, registration and information) are adressed in this paper. Blockchain can be of use, although it does not seem to be feasible to replace a complete system of Land Administration.
Use of GIS in Mass Valuation
National Cadastral Agency, Belarus
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-05: Policies for Low Density Cities|
Session Chair: Anna Wellenstein, World Bank, United States of America
Urban Land Management for Sustainable Development in Riyadh, KSA
World Bank, United States of America
In Saudi Arabia, 83 percent of the population already lives in urban areas. The growth rate of Riyadh is projected to be high and steady for the next 15 years. The government and public are concerned with Riyadh’s sprawl and its implications on future urban infrastructure investment needs, housing affordability and location, and other aspects of sustainability. The study reflects on these concerns. It demonstrates that Riyadh is, indeed, a sprawling city: within a comparator group of thirteen other international cities, Riyadh has the lowest density and the third worst measure of fragmentation. A complex mix of intertwined factors led to this sprawl, and a key driver is the systematic treatment of urban land as a free public good, without sufficient incentives for development or costs of holding land vacant. This spatial growth pattern is not sustainable financially, economically, or socially. Addressing the will sprawl require a comprehensive package of well-coordinated and targeted regulatory and financial policies, tools, and positive incentives. New spatial strategies need to explicitly promote efficient and sustainable development and be legally binding. The paper suggests specific measures on land regulations, management of government land, and better planning and investment in infrastructure, including location of investments.
Transforming Riyadh from Challenges to Urban Policies Actions: A Planning Perspective
Arriyadh Development Authority, Saudi Arabia
Transforming Riyadh from challenges to urban policies actions
Ibrahim Aleid and Abdurlahman Alsultan
Arriyadh Development Authority, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Main components of the presentation will include:
- Key urban indicators about Riyadh, in terms of urban growth, population growth, white lands & population densities.
- Key urban issues & challenges.
- Key initiatives and actions taken by the city of Riyadh in terms of city level land management, which includes:
o Setting a vision and a planning framework for urban development
o Adopting landuse policies and development guidelines
o Encouraging transit-oriented development
o Setting development incentives, densification & incentivizing developers
o City center urban redevelopment policies
o Fees on white lands
o Urban design guidelines
o Efficiency in provision & implementation of public facilities
And these are still in draft form, hoping they will complement the sessions’ topics.
A Land Administration Perspective
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Saudi Arabia
To be completed
A Municipality Perspective
City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Protecting Pastoral Production Systems|
Session Chair: Fiona Flintan, International Livestock Research Institute, Ethiopia
Evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin in Cameroon
1University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon, Cameroon; 2Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, and Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, USA; 3African Studies Program, College of Liberal Arts, The Pensylvania State University, USA; 4Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Over time immemorial, wetlands have remained the main haven for cattle during unfavorable dry season in the intertropical regions of the World. Transhumance is widely practice in sub Saharan Africa, especially in Cameroon and in the Upper Noun Drainage basin as a traditional practice. Our study objective was aimed at evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin of Cameroon. In the Upper Noun Drainage basin, cattle move in from the immediate surrounding upland areas and other areas of the western high plateau. This usually results in various stages of interaction leading to diverse socio-ecological and tenure systems challenges on wetland management. The floodplain receives about 21,000 cattle during transhumance. Common species of fodder include Pennisetum purpureum, Leersia hexandia, Scirpus jacobi etc. Some of these observed challenges are habitat destruction and retardation of vegetal growth, water pollution, river bank destruction, wetland siltation and acute farmer/grazier conflicts that are the order of the day. Crops are destroyed and there is also animal cruelty which at time leds to blood sheds with a far reaching negative influence on the management and socio-cultural relationship such as jailing of some victims.
Implementation of Responsible Land Governance: Informing the development of policy through a participatory land delimitation experience in Tana River County, Kenya
Overcoming the challenge of policy implementation or policy domestication at decentralized levels is subject to the policy formulation process which must, in turn, be informed by the systematic collection of data. The FAO experience of securing community land tenure by applying its Participatory Land Delimitation (PLD) methodology and the County Government interest to alleviate land conflicts in the county were combined to formulate sound county level policy that addressed land management by establishing the criteria to identify and locally manage the grazing areas in the county through different community groups.
Bottom-up policy formulation woven and aligned to national policy is critical for a smooth transition onto policy implementation.
Evolving a Policy on Pastoralism in the Semi-Arid State of Rajasthan, and India
Foundation for Ecological Security, India
Pastoralism in India, as in many other parts of the world, is a highly under-valued lifestyle and production system, often misconceived as being an archaic and inefficient, environment unfriendly practice. Policies to support such climate adjusted, resource attuned lifestyles are either absent or not pursued. This paper looks at nomadic pastoralism, sifting through available literature on the subject and through the story of a pastoralist group in the semi-arid state of Rajasthan, in northern India. Highlighting the significance of pastoralism to the livelihoods and State economy, food security, and the social and bio-physical infrastructures, the paper attempts to outline the need for notifying State policies on pastoralism considering five main inter-linked components. These include – (a)strengthening and augmenting the contribution of pastoralism to the economy and food security; (b)securing and protecting the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists and ensuring their rights to dignified and honorable living; (c)securing their rights to forests, land and water resources that are central to their existence; (d)recognizing, collaborating and promoting the role of pastoralists in conservation and management of State’s biodiversity and natural resources; and (e)developing collaborative systems for periodic enumeration of pastoralist populations, measuring their economic contributions and supporting mobility.
The Role of Rural Land Registration in Enhancing Communal Holding Tenure Security
1Niras Finland, Ethiopia; 2MANNA Development Management Consulting
Benishangul-Gumuz is a region of Ethiopia. The methods of implementing pro-poor, and innovative land administration including aiming at securing land tenure rights for equity, sustainability and resilience and how it may impact the governance of CPRs like grazing and forest lands, has been at its early stage in Ethiopia in general and in BG in particular. Under customary law communal lands are subject to multiple bundles of tenure rights and have fluid boundaries which makes them liable to be encroached.
In BG competition between cropping and grazing is increasing due to the fact that all sources of livestock feed are increasingly dependent on natural grazing during both dry and wet seasons. Communal holdings are not only threatened by individual farmland encroachers but also by infrastructural developments, and commercial agricultural investment expansions.
The paper argues that though land certification is clearly beneficial to tenure security, it does not necessarily lead to more gains for communal holders, where especially communal grazing lands are under the threat of encroachment form individuals and commercial agricultural investors in some cases.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-07: Challenges of Decentralized Land Service Provision|
Session Chair: Camille Bourguignon, The World Bank, United States of America
Local Government Fragmentation in Peru – The Challenges for Land Governance and Territorial Planning
1Consultant Perú; 2World Bank
A critical issue for inclusive and sustainable development is the overall administration of the national territory and its implications for land governance. Recognizing this issue, the paper’s objective is to outline measures to help promote the merging of sparsely populated, mostly unviable municipal governments at the district level in Peru. This would help make local government more efficient, particularly in districts with population of 3,800 people or less, which is the minimum required by law to establish a local jurisdiction. Currently, the weak capacity of such small jurisdictions negatively affect land governance, and service provision.
Reflecting the above objective, the paper will analyze the factors affecting the lack of administrative capacity and for service provision in small district-level municipalities. Many of these municipalities have been established for political and electoral reasons, seeking to benefit from central government transfers and sectoral investments. Overtime, such proliferation of local jurisdictions have resulted in unclear boundary demarcation, lack of cadastral information and territorial planning tools, inexistent property tax collection, and poor land management and dysfunctional land markets in general.
Brazilian Rural Property Taxation and its recent Structural Change
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2UNICAMP, Brazil; 3UNICAMP, Brazil
Rural property taxation should be treated as a matter of land administration of the territory, beyond its revenue intentions. However, in Brazil, this tax was always overlooked, with a small share of contribution to the federation and known (persistent) irregularities on the part of the tax payers. Looking thorough the perspective of land governance, this study aims to present the unexplored potential of the tribute, its historical aspects that led to its fragility, to analyses the recent changes within its configuration and the possible impacts of the new recommendations from the Federal Revenue of Brazil. For this, the study was structured as: 1) historical background and evolution of the tax, its institutional framework and fundamental objectives, 2) recent changes analysis 3) new propositions and the potential impact on the sector's performance, 4) Discussion and propositions.
Large-Scale Rural Land Certification And Administration In Ethiopia - The Challenges Of A Decentralised Approach
1DAI, United Kingdom; 2LIFT Programme
From 2014 to 2020, the UKAID-funded Ethiopia Land Investment for Transformation (LIFT) programme, implemented by DAI and the Government of Ethiopia, aims to improve the incomes of Ethiopia’s rural poor and to enhance economic growth through the Second Level Land Certification of 14 million land parcels, and through building capacity in rural land administration systems.
LIFT is now into its third year of operation, and is approaching its second year of SLLC implementation. At the end of January 2016 over 3 million parcels have been demarcated. This paper reports on LIFT’s progress to date, and explores some of the challenges involved in replicating and scaling-up systematic land registration methodologies in Ethiopia. It will examine how programmes can work through decentralised government systems, and comment on the difficulties of deploying a programme with a large and diverse geographical coverage.
LIFT’s methodology and approach builds on UKAID and DAI’s previous land reform work under the successful Rwanda Land Tenure Regularisation Support Programme. In the Ethiopian context, new challenges to programme delivery have emerged during implementation. In this paper, veterans of both the Rwanda and Ethiopia programme delivery teams reflect on the technical, logistical and political challenges of implementing this large-scale programme.
Public Policy and Land Records: A “Big Data” Perspective
George Mason University, United States of America
This research looks at how the land records “Big Data” can be used in a wider development context (Big Data for Policy), as well as the policy challenges encountered while creating this “Big Data” (Policy for “Big Data”). This research uses India's Digital India Land Records Modernisation Project as the policy that seeks to create the land “Big Data”.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-08: Using New Data & Platforms for Land Policy Research|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
Government Policy and Natural Resource Sector FDI: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Liberia
1The College of William and Mary; 2UT-Dallas; 3London School of Economics and Political Science; 4TrustAfrica
Governments have used a variety of policies to increase the impact of foreign investment on economic growth. One policy is becoming increasingly popular: instead of providing public goods themselves, host governments require foreign investors to provide public goods as part of concession agreements. This strategy intends to crowd in additional investments and create clusters of interconnected firms. Liberia represents an ideal empirical setting to test the effectiveness of this strategy. We construct a new dataset that measures the precise locations of 557 natural resource concessions. We then merge these data with a measure of nighttime lights at the 1km x 1km grid cell level. Using a difference-in-difference strategy, we find that growth near concession areas is significantly higher than in matched locations faraway from concessions. Differences across sectors (mining versus agriculture) and investor nationalities (U.S. versus Chinese) are consistent with the expected effects of the government's spatial development corridor strategy.
Monitoring of Agricultural Land Conversion with Copernicus Sentinel Sensors: Case Study of Gambella State (Ethiopia)
European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Italy
Agricultural production in Africa needs to expand considerably for food self-sufficiency to keep up with population growth and differentiating dietary needs. Expansion of agricultural cultivation is already ongoing and, in some regions, has led to controversy about the scale, manner and impact of land allotment policies.
The recent introduction of the European Union's Copernicus Sentinel-1 and -2 sensors has added global monitoring capacities in the 10-20 m spatial resolution domain. Sentinel data are available under a "full, free and open" license. Sentinel sensors combine Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, Sentinel 1) and multispectral (Sentinel-2) observation capacities with a 6 day revisit (Sentinel 1A and 1B) and a 5 day revisit (Sentinel 2A and Sentinel 2B (Q2/2017)), respectively.
We will illustrate the use of Sentinel data for the delineation of large land development in Gambella State (Ethiopia), where we have been able to identify a total of 110,000 hectares of recent developments. We will discuss how we use the Google Earth Engine cloud computing environment to continue the monitoring of Gambella state and expand into other areas where land deals have been identified.
Satellite based monitoring of forest resources compliant with REDD+ and Zero Deforestation
GAF AG, Germany
Natural Forests provide valuable ecosystem services and at the same time, direct and indirect human impacts affect these ecosystems. Especially in tropical countries with a high percentage of remaining natural forests, human induced land use change is one of the main drivers for increasing deforestation rates. The drivers, time scale and impact on forests are quite different between countries, but the necessity of a consistent, trustworthy and accurate monitoring of these resources is relevant to manifold stakeholders such as in the domain of land governance. The application of satellite imagery can greatly facilitate this need. The large area coverage and high spatial resolution of newly launched optical and radar satellite systems offer the opportunity to retrieve forest related information on a wall-to-wall basis. Satellite data based forest monitoring systems can provide evidence of most recent forest area and land cover changes with the capability to map historic events by incorporating archived data sets. Mapping forest extent and changes thereof is a crucial information requirement for managing the commons and customary land, forests and natural resources. The paper presents requirements, challenges and a methodological approach to implement National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMS) at country level by incorporating user needs.
How Land Tenure Systems Affect Foreign Investment: Evidence from Liberia
1UCL, United Kingdom; 2NYU, United States of America; 3UCLA, United States of America
Identifying the causal effects of economic institutions, such as private property rights, is a challenge given concerns about reverse causality and omitted variables. We take advantage of a natural experiment in the West Africa state of Liberia to assess the impact of property rights institutions on changes in land investment (proxied by forest loss) before and after the 2007-8 Global Food Crisis. Liberian law divided the state into two zones, which with a distinct system of property rights. Our difference-in-differences design rests on the parallel-trends assumption — investment would have followed the same trend had there been no difference in land tenure. While untestable, we bolster this assumption by showing that investment in each zone follows parallel trends prior to the Crisis. We show that since the Crisis, land investment increased in the County zone where statutory fee simple property rights govern land transactions. Within 20 kilometers of the boundary cumulative forest loss increased approximately eight percent between 2001-2014. In contrast, investment in land increased more slowly on the other side of the boundary (cumulative forest loss is just over five percent for the same period). To explain this finding, we introduce a model of land investment under varying property rights systems.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-09: Analyzing Land Policy Making in Africa|
Session Chair: Yamungu Kayandabila, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania
Scope for Decentralization of Land Administration in Africa: Evidence from Local Administrative Data in Mozambique
Michigan State University, United States of America
This study uses administrative records from the land administration system accessed through the provincial land administration offices at the Ministry of Agriculture aiming at assessing the scope of decentralization by testing the fragmentation or competition hypothesis arguing that decentralization is likely to improve the performance of land administration system in Mozambique. In a way, this paper assesses the relationship between the structures and performance by identifying the correlations or the effect of the structure on the performance to have a better understanding of other factors that are likely to improve its performance.
This study uses an application of the Structure, Conduct, and Performance (SCP) paradigm to test the “structure performance hypothesis” to testing research hypothesis that fragmentation or competition hypothesis which posits that an increased fragmentation should lead to greater choice of the clientele of land administration services (landholders) and thus increased competition among the local administrative government units, reducing the size of the central government public services. Results of the study allow to supports the decentralization hypothesis provided that investment support is provided.
The Challenges of Using Spatial and Demographic Data for Development in Nigeria
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
Nigeria is suffering from high unemployment, increasing poverty and an over-dependence on oil. Increased foreign and domestic investment in strategic industries would diversify the economy, and encourage growth and employment. Traditionally, it has been difficult for investors to access critical for strategic commercial decisions. This is the case for a number of reasons including minimal existing data, a lack of infrastructure and standards to allow this data to be shared, and a lack of capacity in both the State and the private sector to analyse the data. In order to overcome these issues, the Growth and Employment in States 3 programme (GEMS3) has developed a fit-for-purpose land registration system which allows the collation of large amounts of data, spatial and socio-economic. GEMS3 is looking at ways to ‘package’ this data in order to allow investors and the State to easily interpret and then utilise it in a meaningful way. The programme has also recommended the development of spatial data infrastructure to ensure that this data and data from various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and private sector actors can be shared and accessed freely.
A Programme for Improving Land Governance Transparency in Ethiopia
1MOKORO Ltd., United Kingdom; 2Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
A recent study identifies positive elements in Government thinking on land governance, despite criticisms over recent years. The smallholder titling program and new Rural Land Administration System are one example, while 2005 land legislation improved tenure security and provided rights holders with more flexibility and choices over using their land, including renting and contracting out. A revision will consolidate these gains and address pastoralist and communal rights. The Government is considering Voluntary Guidelines and Responsible Agricultural Investment approaches to private sector land allocations, and is engaging with stakeholders over new land use policy. A new commercial agricultural investment strategy shifts focus from land acquisitions to a value-chain inclusive business approach. However, recent land-related conflicts underline the need for improved land governance. A new Plan for Improved Transparency in Land Governance sets land governance within an inclusive rural development strategy, which will foster greater transparency. The Plan forms part of the DIFD-funded Land Investment for Transformation (LIFT) programme being implemented by a DAI-led consortium. It underlines potential synergies between smallholders, pastoralist communities and private investors, and supports policy dialogue; it also aligns with the recent LGAF to develop new land activities for the 2020-2025 Growth and Transformation Plan.
The Ambiguous State-Traditional Relationship in Land Governance in Uganda and Malawi: Repercussions on Poverty Reduction?
University of Konstanz, Germany
Today, in sub-Saharan Africa, the legal and the political system reflects a mélange of traditional and state institutions, practices, and policies. Traditional leaders, for instance, are indispensable in their function as land administrators. They oversee large shares of customary land and are an important authority to reckon with. Traditional institutions are not a separate entity that exits in isolation from the state. Particularly in the area of land governance, the jurisdiction and mandates of elected politicians and chiefs overlap, compete, substitute or complement each other.
In this paper, I address the relation between the state-traditional interface and good land governance. I present an analytical framework that distinguishes between the de jure state-traditional relationship and its de facto interface. This analytical framework is explored in a comparative case study of Malawi and Uganda. I scrutinize the legal framework on land and traditional governance, detecting potential legal inconsistencies. Thereafter, acknowledging the fact that legal provisions are often not translated into reality, I assess the de facto state-traditional relationship, drawing on a wide variety of sources such as newspaper articles, confidential and public documents as well as 125 interviews which I conducted between November 2015 and March 2016 in both countries.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-10: Expanding and Sustaining Land Registration|
Session Chair: Elena Busch, Statens kartverk - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
After 10 Years of Land Reform in Madagascar: Is the Process of Land Certification Massive and Inclusive?
1Madagascar Land Observatory, Madagascar; 2CIRAD, UMR Tetis; 3IRD, UMR Dial
The Malagasy reform on going since 2005 belongs to a new generation of land reforms in Africa. Two major innovations have emerged: decentralized land management through the creation of local land offices at commune level and land certification. The land reform objective is to overcome the pitfalls of the former land titling system and to provide tenure security to a majority of households thanks to a low cost, easy and participatory registration process. However, contrary to similar land reform in other African countries such as Ethiopia or Rwanda, land certification is “on demand” and not based on a systematic demarcation process.
Is the Malagasy certification really massive and inclusive? To explore this issue, the paper analyzes the evolution and the determinants of land certificates demand. It puts a special emphasis on the forms of offer (promotional campaigns) and its impacts on the level and distribution of demand for land certificates. Policy implications to foster inclusivity and local and offices sustainability are debated.
The paper uses first-hand data that were collected through two specially designed survey conducted on a large sample of rural households in 2011 and 2015 (1 834 with 1 551 households in panel) in nine communes of Madagascar
Is Land Tenure "Secure Enough" in Rural Rwanda?
Chemonics International, United States of America
Application of the secure enough tenure framework allows for recognition of formal and informal tenure rights to promote economic development and livelihoods. Tenure may be secure enough when rights to land and natural resources are not arbitrarily contested by the state, private entities, or others. In Rwanda, the government promotes improving agricultural production through land use consolidation and private investment. These programs are founded on the assumption that through the legal framework, Land Tenure Regularization, and ongoing participation in the land administration system, land rights are secure for women and men. However, policies designed to facilitate land use consolidation and agricultural investment have inadvertently led to informal land subdivisions, transfers, and lack of registration, as well as new challenges for women’s access to land. This has catalyzed a reintroduction of informal land tenure arrangements. The attendant risk of this trend is that tenure will eventually regress to not secure enough, and farmers will be unable to participate in government investment programs or reap the benefits of their land. Using original research in Rwanda and literature review, this paper explores the potential for reconsidering what secure enough tenure could look like in Rwanda considering both state and customary objectives.
Land Registration Reform in Georgia
National Agency of Public Registry, Georgia
Land is Georgia’s greatest resource and the registration is a vital precondition for the social and economic development of the country. Despite the land registration reform conducted in 1992-1998, the majority of agricultural land parcels outside the urban areas of Georgia aren’t yet registered and recorded accurately in the national cadaster.
The efforts of the Government of Georgia to introduce a comprehensive solution in order to increase the number of registered land parcels, register land without barriers, ensure cadastral coverage of privately held land parcels and develop the land market.
For this purposes, the law of Georgia "On Special Procedures for Systematic and Sporadic Registration of Land Titles and Improvement of Cadastral Data under the State Project" has been adopted.
The State Project ensures centralization of registration process – “one-stop-shop” principle, time and effort saving, alternative dispute resolution mechanism, free-of-charge services of NAPR and other organizations, secured ownership rights, regulated property market.
The Pilot Project is a component of the State Project, which envisages the systematic registration of land titles and is implemented in 12 settlements selected across Georgia. It aims at identifying additional gaps in regulations, development of policy and procedures to start National Rollout of systematic registration.
The Missing Link: Successes And Lessons Learned From An Integrated Approach To Land Tenure Registration In Burundi.
ZOA, Netherlands, The
The authors review a locally based land tenure registration project in Burundi, which combines tenure registration with conflict resolution. They lay out the program in detail and evaluate the successes and lessons learned. This evaluation also points towards broader issues related to land rights projects, pertaining to the national and international frameworks for such ground-based projects.
While there are established networks and policy frameworks on the international and national level, effectively informing locally based projects, an effective feedback link from the local level back to these higher levels of policymaking needs to be established.
The paper gives recommendations for improving the overall impact of land rights projects and suggests some necessary steps for establishing better and more supportive structures to increase the overall efficiency of land rights programming and policy making. Three aspects are particularly important:
1. Long-term funding by international donors involving strong financial resources for monitoring and evaluation.
2. Targeted research programs with the objective of identifying the necessary conditions of successful land tenure registration programs in various settings.
3. Institutionalized communication structures allowing actors involved in land tenure programs to communicate effectively and efficiently on their experiences – within program countries as well as across different contexts.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-11: Challenges of Implementing Redistributive Land Reform|
Session Chair: Guo Li, The World Bank, China, People's Republic of
Based on recent studies on land tenure and their recommendations: Policy, program, and institutional recommendations
1Stanford School of Law (LLM student); 2Rotterdam School of Management (Professor); 3Symvoulos Consulting Firm (Partner)
Numerous studies were undertaken in the last ten years concerning land tenure in the Philippines: status, effects, conditions for success, challenges, and recommendations. This paper summarizes these studies and organizes these to provide a coherent outline. This paper likewise culls the recommendations for addressing the issues. Beyond that, this paper organized the recommendations and offered new ones to improve the resolution of the issues.
Land reform in Bolivia – from economic occupation to sustainable land occupation
National Institute of Land reform, Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Nowdays Bolivia is the only country in Latin America that carries out an agrarian reform. The actual Government has already regularized the land property rights in 75% of the rural area in the country. The result of this work has defined a new structure of democratic, inclusive and equitable land tenure in its Access. In addition, the country has reduced extreme rural poverty significantly. However, external factors such as globalization of the economy, climate change and worldwide commitments to preserve the environment, are defining new scenarios for managing rural development. From this perspective, the Bolivian land reform is insufficient and requires renovations.
National Institute of Land Reform is the institution that defines property land rights, administrates rural land in Bolivia, and it is responsible for controlling the sustainable land use. In this sense, it is actually executing prospective studies to evaluate the changes of forest and the actors of deforestation.
The Results of this research will guide the definition of public policies to regulate the expansion of the agricultural frontier, and will generate recommendations for short and medium term to adjust the regulatory and institutional roles of government agencies involved in environmental management.
Land Governance And Redistributive Reform – For The Sake Of Accelerating The National Resettlement Programme Of Namibia
1Chair of Land Management, Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2Ministry of Land Reform, Windhoek, Namibia; 3Independent Development practitioner, Germany
Several studies on land reform in Namibia have focused on analysing the country’s land reform programmes with a focus on its general progress. Many of them have not assessed the issue of improving the National Resettlement Programme from the perspective of acceleration. This study closes this gap. It is based on in-depth understanding of the land acquisition and resettlement processes in Namibia’s National Resettlement Programme. The study explores the possible ways of speeding up the implementation of the National Resettlement Programme without undermining its effectiveness and efficiency. It uses case-oriented methods to draw conclusions and provide answers to critical research questions bothering on laxities in the procedures of the National Resettlement Programme. The major outcome of the study is that it identifies major causes for the slow implementation of the National Resettlement Programme. It also provides recommendations for speeding up the process without compromising good governance principles.
100 Years of Land Reform: Delivery and Governance of Agricultural Land in South Africa
1University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2Land Bank; 3Standard Bank; 4SOECA; 5Tracy Potgieter & Associates
The paper provides a comprehensive perspective on the issues of land, and land for agriculture in particular. These perspectives are used to draw lessons for future direction of the land question and governance. The suggestions are also meant to contribute to public policy and a general discourse in land reform. Land reform process in South Africa is of concern to all including farmers, agricultural stakeholders, development institutions, political organisations as well as the government. As of 2013, the land question reached 100 years since The Natives Land Act of 1913 was enacted. The different perspectives explored show that many and fresh lessons can be drawn simply by taking a certain view of the land question. While many of the angles have been presented in the past, this paper presents a comprehensive compendium of different perspectives to bring an integrated view of lessons to govern the land issues for the next century. To enhance the delivery and governance of agricultural land, more programmatic approach is required. This includes mortgaging land under restitution, promoting land rental for agricultural purpose, considering land for financial investments, land tax and land warehousing. There is a need to monitor land price trends through land price index.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-12: Governance of Real Estate|
Session Chair: Arvo Kokkonen, National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
Property Based Information Systems of Turkey
General Directorate of Land Registy and Cadastre, Turkey
Innovative policies following TKGM, also has a modern and integrated system of land registry and cadastre information. Two of the most important of these systems are TAKBIS and MEGSIS.
Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS) is one of the basic e-State projects aiming at uploading all ownership information within the country and allow people to search all kinds of answers in the electronic environment. The purpose is to allow carry out all kinds of transactions online; this would allow effective follow and control of both private and state immoveable properties by computers.
Another significant IT Project is MEGSIS. MEGSIS is a web-based application software; harnessing title deed and cadastral data. It is an open-source application developed by General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadaster, where cadaster data are collected by the center system from local users in the cadaster offices in digital .cad format and are harmonized with land registry data in order to be submitted to stakeholder institution, organization, municipalities and citizens by e-government link. There are about 70 million land parcels in the MEGSIS system. All the 70 million parcels can be queried in conjunction with the ownership data by users.
REGIA: creating new context for better governance
State Enterprise Centre of Registers, Lithuania
REGIA is a free GIS based cloud platform developed by the Lithuania’s Centre of Registers. In its core, REGIA is an interactive map loaded with multiple data layers, combining administrative data, data search and management tools, messaging, as well as other interaction functionalities, and an API providing application development and integration capabilities for third parties.
Principles woven into very fabric of the REGIA are those of voluntary participation, crowdsourcing, and open data. It is noteworthy that within two years after introduction of this platform all 60 municipalities and number of government institutions of Lithuania adopted REGIA.
In terms of technology REGIA is relatively simple, low cost solution that took approx. $100,000 USD to develop. Yet it’s not the technology or data itself that makes REGIA worth replicating in other countries, but rather the whole new contexts for decision making that are being created by combining multiple data layers together.
The impact REGIA has made in Lithuania over the course of past few years transformed the ways in which municipalities as well as government institutions use to disclose information, engage in collaboration with residents and local communities, address decision making, organize problem mapping, manage day-to-day activities, and perform many other tasks.
Formalizing Real Estate Markets Within Europe, Structural Reforms And Challenges
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SURVEYORS FIG
This paper investigates experience in real estate markets, mainly gained from ECA economies in transition, as well as from European countries affected by the economic crisis, identifies major challenges and aims to improve awareness and increase capacity among professionals in the private and public sectors and in academia, on the basic principles of the framework policy for establishing sustainable real estate markets. The research aims to point out the fields where reforms are needed as well as the need for coordination of policies. Results of this research may be useful in other regions as well.
The topics that are addressed include recent examples, lessons-learnt and remaining challenges from various countries, with a particular emphasis on introducing the use of modern technologies and fit-for-purpose land administration, land use framework and spatial planning; alternative land dispute resolution/ mediation; the potential of crowdsourcing in improving the availability of land information and market data; regulating the necessary professional services; the challenge of converting dead capital (unused or underused land and real estate) into productive capital to increase employment and reduce poverty; developing sustainable financing to encourage private investment in real estate; property taxation; developing social housing/affordable housing policy; and improving professional capacity and training.
International Property Market Scorecard – A Tool for Data Collection
1The International Real Property Foundation, United States of America; 2World Citizen Consulting; 3Center for International Private Enterprise
Understanding property rights often remains limited to property titles, without deeper appreciation of the underlying and interconnected institutions that make property rights meaningful and contributing to overall economic development. Though in most countries private property rights are legally protected that protection changes greatly in practice because the implementing rules and data collection that shape property market transparency remain weak. The International Property Markets Scorecard is a tool that collects data from 54 different indicators under six core elements: property rights laws and enforcement, access to credit by small businesses, efficiency of governance, rational dispute resolution, financial transparency, and appropriate regulations. These map the institutional components of property markets and evaluates their effectiveness.
The Scorecard has two levels of study: secondary research and field assessments of current property market conditions. The implementation of the Scorecard has proven successful in a multiregional study in Armenia, China, Kenya and the Philippines by collecting data and identifying underlining obstacles that small businesses face in urban commercial property markets. Therefore, the Scorecard is a mechanism for in-country reformers, international policy advisors, and market analysts as it provides comprehensive snapshots of market conditions, identifying key areas for reform and market risks.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-13: Marine Cadastre for Coastal Management|
Session Chair: Hendrikus Johannes (Rik) Wouters, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Marine Cadastre in Europe: State of Play
1National Cadastre and Mapping Agency S.A. (EKXA), Greece; 2Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Throughout human history considerable efforts and resources have been directed at effectively managing land whereas the marine environment has been given a lower priority. However over 70 percent of the planet's surface is covered by water, the majority of which is in the world's seas and oceans which are vital for supporting human well-being by contributing to poverty eradication, food security, creation of sustainable livelihoods and jobs, and protection from natural disasters . Oceans and seas are also a valuable asset for the European Union (EU). The EU’s maritime economy alone employs more than 5.4 million people, creates a gross added value of just under €500 billion per year, with a high potential for further growth.
The paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the status of Marine Cadastre across Europe, which was conducted in 2016 for the five leading European organizations on Cadastre, Land Registry, Mapping and Surveying (CLGE, ELRA, Eurogeographics, EULIS, PCC). It aspires to motivate the discussion in the European continent about the benefits of a sound registry system in the marine environment as a basis for legal certainty with multiple benefits in the sector of the Blue Economy and in marine spatial planning as well.
Marine Cadasters...The Final Frontier
ESRI, United States of America
Coastal and marine environments have always been important as a source of food and livelihoods for people around the world. However, these areas are coming under increasing pressure due to growing off-shore oil and gas exploration, alternative energy generation, the laying of cables for communication, the creation of marine protected areas, and traditional and commercial fishing. These activities involve a wide variety of rights and encumbrances that frequently come into conflict with each other, including navigation rights, fishing rights, public access rights, riparian rights, development rights, mineral resource rights and seabed use rights. In order to properly manage and plan marine environments, governments are increasingly turning to the idea of marine cadasters. Over the past decade, a number of countries have begun to extend cadasters into the marine space, including the USA, Canada, Australia and Israel. These governments are naturally turning to geographic information systems (GIS) as the core technology for managing and planning the marine environment due to their ability to easily and authoritatively manage large sets of spatial data. This paper will discuss trends driving the emergence of marine cadasters, unique properties associated with them, and GIS tools that can be deployed in order to effectively manage these important natural environments.
|10:30am - 4:00pm||Improving Housing Policies in Latin America to Increase Affordability and Mitigate Climate and Disaster Risks -II-|
By invitation only - Please contact Luis Miguel Triveno: firstname.lastname@example.org
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-03: Caucus on Women and Land|
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-01: Progress with Responsible Investment Pledges|
Session Chair: Mark Constantine, International Finance Corporation, United States of America
Assessing Company Progress with Implementing the New York Declaration on Forests
CDP North America, United States of America
In September 2014, the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF) outlined 10 goals that provide endorsers with ambitious global targets to protect forests and end natural forest loss by 2030. This progress assessment focuses on Goal 2 – eliminating deforestation from agricultural commodity supply chains – and was conducted by the NYDF Assessment Partners, a coalition of civil society and research organizations. It develops a new framework for a comprehensive evaluation of efforts taken by private and public actors. Our findings show that the global supply-chain movement continues to gain momentum. Yet while pledges are increasing, more action is needed from all sectors. The overall impact on forests is currently impossible to assess, as there are no global data sets that link supply chain efforts to an actual reduction in deforestation. Companies interviewed for the assessment have experienced little improvements in public support and stakeholder dialogue, but highlighted specific examples of successful collaboration. It is clear that cross-sectoral cooperation will be necessary to move forward, and the NYDF can provide a platform to facilitate the implementation of such strategies.
Inclusive Business in Agriculture: Questions, Leverage Points and State of the Debate
University of Georgia, United States of America
To be completed
Territorial governance in the era of corporate commitments to sustainability: Are new approaches able to reconcile sustainable commodity supply and fair partnerships in Brazil and Indonesia?
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia
Commercial agriculture is driving significant deforestation associated with oil palm and soy and beef supply. In order to ameliorate the social and environmental negative impacts, public and private policy responses have emerged. On the one hand, governments are implementing stringent land use and environmental policy and, on the other hand, private sector is adopting commodity-specific voluntary standards, and committing to ‘zero deforestation’. Progress was achieved in reducing deforestation in soy/beef production in Brazil, and the governments is regulating oil palm while companies are building deforestation-free supply chains in Indonesia. In both countries, the measures put in place by industry, along with state regulations may effectively reduce pressures on forests and support the uptake of sustainability practices but are limited to trigger the transition to sustainable land uses and fair partnerships, yet new approaches are attempting to reconcile them. These are: 1) supply chain interventions to produce and protect; 2) schemes to lower risks and de-risk investments, and; 3) jurisdictional approaches. This paper will assess the sustainability processes that adopted a commodity-specific perspective, and explore the avenues offered by emerging approaches. Lessons originate from cases in Sao Felix de Xingu and Paragominas in Para, and Central Kalimantan and Riau in Indonesia.
Commercial forest plantations in a landscape approach: The case of the Zambezia Landscape Program, Mozambique
World Bank, Mozambique
This presentation will address how the Zambezia Integrated Landscape Program in Mozambique is promoting territorial land use planning, and as such contributing to the development of small and medium commercial plantation in the region.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-02: Land Value Capture for Urban Revival|
Session Chair: Somik V. Lall, World Bank, United States of America
Translation Japanese, Streaming.
Leveraging Land for Urban Development in Afghanistan
Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of
Government of Afghanistan acknowledges the importance of leveraging land for financing urban development in Afghanistan. City For All is one of the programs launched to register urban properties. For better land management regulatory reform is another area that is more focused. Regulations for the registration of informal houses in urban areas; a land zoning law; and land-related inputs to PPP regulations, special Economic Zones (SEZs), and construction permit streamlining regulations have been prepared. Improve city wide transportation across all major cities to facilitate businesses is another key priority of government businesses. Added by the economic initiatives to change our cities to economic hubs and catalyst for development. Urban land regeneration is another aspect of urban development that the government is undertaking in major cities. Government of Afghanistan has undertaken key steps to increase revenue from the urban land to support urban development in Afghanistan.
In Search for Land in Kenya
1World Bank, Kenya; 2World Bank, United States of America
This paper discusses public land management and the process of compulsory land acquisition and resettlement in Kenya. It explains that public land in Kenya is not readily available due to sub-optimal management in the past. It focuses on policy, legal and institutional framework of land governance that discusses the historical context, post-independence land administration, reforms of the legislative framework for land management and the challenges of the reforms therein. It urges that with the ongoing land reforms in Kenya, both the county and national governments have continued to carry out land administration and management initiatives to address the chronic problems that have impeded efficient functioning of the land markets It explains the variance in land management practices at the county level and national level and adverse impacts arising from the lack of clarity in the national-level policies and institution. It further outlines the process of compulsory land acquisition, describing the convergence of legislation and practice with the international good practices using case study analysis of government and World Bank financed projects. It concludes with a set of proposed recommendations to enhance public land management and resettlement practices in Kenya.
Challenges of Land Issues to Investments in Kenya
Walker Kontos, Kenya
The last decade has witnessed a raft of political and legal reforms in Kenya and the efforts has paid dividends. Kenya is experiencing an unprecedented surge in foreign direct investments in varied infrastructure projects. In most cases the projects are situate in rural areas creating a buzz of excitement and igniting opportunities for poverty reduction initiatives directly or indirectly. Indeed, transformative projects in a developing country should elicit positive stories of growth and poverty reduction with vistas of lit up villages and local initiatives catalysed by the infrastructure and ancillary opportunities.
For a growing number of projects however, what has hogged the limelight are firstly, challenges of setting up and dealing with restrictions imposed on foreign ownership of land in Kenya which often have a negative impact on the structure and funding of investments. Secondly, and certainly more vociferous are challenges of implementation which have witnessed disputes pitting proponents of projects and by extension the private equity funders and financiers against the community or small scale land holders where the projects are situate asserting contrary rights.
Land is at the centre of these challenges. This paper highlights these challenges faced by foreign investors and offers solutions to the problems.
Urban Land Regeneration in the US: Lessons from the Twin Cities
Thomson Reuters, United States of America
Lawsuit filed against the City of Minneapolis led to major urban renewal project that resulted in new safe and affordable housing of low income people and revitalization of an economically distressed area. The lawsuit alleged that federal and local governments operated public housing in a manner that created perpetual pattern of racial segregation. Settlement of the lawsuit resulted in a 100 million dollar award from the U. S. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and partnership with regional planning agency to build more public and affordable housing through metropolitan region.
Case study of integrated railway and housing development (Kohoku New Town and Yokohama City metro development)
City of Yokohama, Japan
The Kohoku New Town project in Yokohama City, Japan achieved the following with the recovery of development profits from TOD (Transit Oriented Development)
- Government and land owners came together to create a new urban area
- Through land adjustment and railroad/subway development, total development and transportation infrastructure was created
- Daily convenience was increased and a green, warm living environment was provided
- Through the concentration of commercial and administrative functions, a city was created that draws any visitors from both inside and out of the city
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-03: Migration and Land Tenure Dynamics |
Session Chair: Mathieu Boche, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
New Drivers for Migration and Implications for Land Governance in the Global South
Columbia University, United States of America
To be completed
Connections between Conflict, Migration and Land: Lessons from the International Organization for Migration (IOM)
International Organization for Migration (IOM), Switzerland
To be completed
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-04: Roundtable on Gender and Community Rights|
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Kenya
Setting the scene
Resource Equity, United States of America
To be completed
Reflections based on Nambia experience
Landesa, United States of America
To be completed
Reflections based on Ghana experience
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
To be completed
Reflections on Gender Issues in Forest Tenure
To be completed
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-05: Reconciliation over Land Rights in Post-Conflict Settings|
Session Chair: Susan Mbaya, Sue Mbaya and Associates, South Africa
The Politics of Institutional Proliferation and the Management of Repatriation-induced Land Disputes in Post-war Burundi
African Studies Centre Leiden, The Netherlands
Though policy makers foresee the restitution of property and land as a primary mechanism for state formation after violent conflicts, and as a sustainable solution to peace building, its implementation unveils critical challenges. In the case of 2000 Arusha Peace Accord to put en end to conflicts in Burundi, the negotiators recommended land restitution and compensation as a key strategy to strengthen an already fragile peace and justice to many former long-term refugees. This paper examines how the management of repatriation-induced land disputes works out in practice and the politics related to it in southern Burundi. Deriving from extensive ethnographic research in the province of Makamba, this paper demonstrates that institutional multiplicity provides choices and opportunities to both returnees and occupants seeking to get their claims validated and settled. Yet, rather than providing a solution to the multiple land disputes between returnees and occupants, institutional multiplicity contributes to intractable land disputes and confusion between local and higher-level government actors about their roles and who has the power to adjudicate local land disputes and to enforce property rights. Ultimately, the resolution of repatriation-induced land disputes resumes to broader political contention about legitimacy, power and control.
Conflict Dynamics of Dual Land Administration in Karen State/Kawthoolei of Myanmar
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University, The Hague, Netherlands
In October 2015, the Government of Myanmar (GoM) signed a partial national ceasefire to end six decades of civil war. Simultaneously, the GoM initiated a package of land-governance reforms, including the issuance of land-use certificates under the 2012 Farmland Law. Many interpret these efforts as part of the state’s attempt to consolidate sovereignty over territory.
This is far from a straightforward process. Joliffe's (2014, 2015) analysis shows that armed groups around the country have established varying degrees of administrative control in their respective areas since the outbreak of war. Ceasefire agreements indicate that administrative systems put in place by ethnic armed organizations will be respected by state authorities. In reality, as the state seeks to extend its rule, the non-state institutions are being eroded as government administration expands. Because property relations require that the laws and norms that regulate them must be sanctioned by “the state or some other form of politico-legal authority” (Sikor and Lund 2009), the uncertainty of shifting authority increases the vulnerability of local communities. This research paper looks at how these dynamics unfold in Karen State (Kawthoolei), where the armed group the KNU has administrated its land since adoption of its land policy in 1974.
Land and Conflict in Myanmar
Palladium , Myanmar
Myanmar (Burma) is living a big dichotomy: while it has opened to the international community and embraced a process of political transformation and peace building, it remains troubled by ethnic conflicts for more than half century. Where ceasefires had taken hold conditions on the ground have improved for civilians. Where the ceasefires did not take place the conflicts are increasing causing more displacement and insecurity. The peace process represents the best opportunity to put an end to half century of conflicts. However, the political, social and economic issues at the heart of the conflict will not be easily resolved. Access to, and control over land and natural resources remain among main causes of conflicts in Myanmar.
This paper aims at analysing the role of the land in the ethnic conflicts in Myanmar, with particular reference to the Kachin and Northern Shan conflicts. It also provides examples of lessons learned from past experiences of conflict mitigation/conflict resolution strategies, which have been successfully implemented in similar situations during the past years.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-06: Roundtable on Valuation of Unregistered Land|
Session Chair: Christopher Barlow, Thomson Reuters, United States of America
A Valeur Perspective
RICS, United Kingdom
To be completed
1Esri, United States of America; 2Indufor North America, United States of America
To be completed
Approaches in US counties
Stafford County, United States of America
To be completed
IAOO approach to valuation of unregistered land
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
To be completed
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-07: Harnessing the Opportunities of Big Data in Land Records|
Session Chair: Maurice Barbieri, CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland
Spatio-Temporal Datacubes - an Enabling Paradigm for Flexible, Standards-Based Infrastructures
Jacobs University, Germany
The data deluge we face does not only overwhelm us with sheer data volume, but also with an increasing variety of spatio-temporal datasets. Combining the millions of datasets into few “datacubes has the potential of getting insights from dissecting datasets and joining them with other datasets, ultimately allowing to "ask any question, any time", enabling to "build your own product on the go". Datacubes refer to spatio-temporal datasets such as 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D satellite imagery, 3-D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geophysical voxel data, as well as 4-D x/y/z/t weather data.
We introduce the OGC/ISO “Big Geo Datacube” paradigm, known as coverages, encompassing regular and irregular grids, point clouds, and general meshes. The corresponding Web Coverage Service (WCS) is an OGC core standards. Modular WCS allows flexible, scalable implementations ranging seamlessly from simple download and extraction to high-end analytics. Conformance is testable down to the level of single pixels, establishing rigorous interoperability. Cloud-based WCS datacubes of 250 TB underline usefulness for operational services.
We present coverage data and services in OGC, ISO, and EU-INSPIRE. The tutorial is supported through real-life examples which participants with an Internet laptop can recapitulate and modify.
The Way of Sharing Open Geospatial Data to Support the Planet’s Biggest Challenges
OGC, United States of America
Geospatial information is the most fundamental tool to support the planet’s joint efforts in resolving global issues. Global issues such as sustainable development and poverty eradication can be effectively managed by interconnecting information on natural disasters, poverty, and the environment through location data.
At a regional level, Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) provide the policy, governance and technology standards that enable the interconnection of information. SDIs also enable easy provision of fundamental authoritative data and information supporting land administration, which can lead to greater resilience at local to national scales.
This MasterClass will present a process for developing the basic components of SDIs based on the latest developments at the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and a recent study of data workflows inside the World Bank. The process includes developing policy, setting up a central catalog, enabling access to data via open standards and providing other supporting services (e.g. semantic mediation and styling).
Building Third Generation Land Tools: Its4land, Smart Sketchmaps, UAVs, Automatic Feature Extraction, and the GeoCloud
1University of Twente, Netherlands, The; 2KU Leuven, Belgium; 3WWU University of Muenster, Germany; 4Hansa Luftbild, Germany; 5INES Ruhengeri, Rwanda; 6Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia; 7Technical University of Kenya, Kenya; 8ESRI Rwanda, Rwanda; 9Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany
A third generation of land tools is emerging: ‘its4land’ is part of the movement. The initiative aims to create seven new tools that further support faster, cheaper, easier, and more responsible land rights mapping. The tools are inspired by the continuum of land rights, fit-for-purpose land administration, and cadastral intelligence. The project is built around an ICT innovation process that incorporates a broad range of stakeholder groups with emergent geospatial technologies, including smart sketchmaps, UAVs, automated feature extraction, and geocloud services. By coupling the technologies, end-user needs and market forces, are better responded to. Backed by the European Commission, the work consists of a 4 year work plan, €3.9M in funding, and 8 consortium partners. The project is working with stakeholders from six case study locations in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Rwanda: tool development, prototyping, and demonstration is intended for local, national, regional, and international interest groups. The case locations include a mix of livelihoods and landscapes: urban, peri-urban, rural smallholder, and (former) pastoralist contexts are all included. This paper reports holistically on the first year of its4land activities: lessons from major achievements and barriers are outlined. Risks and future opportunities are also explored.
Enabling Ecosystem of Opportunity Around Digital Land Records
The root cause of ongoing deficiencies in land administration is a deficit of systemic solutions that directly engage communities in improving processes of land records management. Furthermore, the ultimate objective of land management systems goes beyond the issuance and verification of land titles to encompass the social impact that land assets have the potential to generate. If optimized for economic opportunity creation and community engagement, cadastral updates have the potential to extend digital skills training to a geographically and economically diverse group, providing a foundation for high-value job creation and associated financial enablers.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-08: Adapting Property Tax System|
Session Chair: Lionel Galliez, International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
Pragmatism or Principles? Property Taxation Valuation in Finland
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2Aalto University, Finland
The paper discusses international best practice in mass property valuation and property taxation in comparison to the case of Finland and reveals shortcomings relevant globally. Earlier work by the World Bank, FAO and the Centre of Registers of Lithuania defined pre-conditions for successful value-based recurrent property taxes including access to quality price data, efficient tax administration, and appropriate valuation infrastructure. Finland has reliable land and property records, ample geospatial data, transparent markets and strong valuation infrastructure that adhere to international standards, and all these are applied to property taxation valuation. However, the article raises a number of issues with the equality and accuracy of the property taxes stemming from the ancient split of property taxes to separate land and building taxes, valuation that targets condominium buildings rather than apartments, restricted access to apartment market information, and a number of other factors. The article’s conclusions on the way forward in Finland are relevant globally for countries and cities introducing recurrent property taxes in the era of covering digital records and transparent property markets.
Modernising the Delivery of Statutory Valuation Services: An Irish perspective
1Valuation Office, Ireland; 2World Bank, United States of America
Between 2008 and 2011 the economic and property crash in Ireland witnessed a 50%+ collapse in commercial property rental values. Demand from government and other stakeholders to conduct and accelerate the national revaluation programme placed a huge strain on Valuation Office resources. The aim of the revaluation was to restore Equity and Uniformity to an outdated valuation list and in the medium term to conduct a revaluation every 2 years in order to remove a repeat of the impact that the existing time gap since the last revaluation in 1988 was having on ratepayers. With major financial and capacity constraints, there was pressure to provide efficiency at the lowest cost. In order to achieve this objective the Valuation Office introduced a significant programme of change. The Office was about to enter into a transitional phase, moving from using traditional labour intensive practices to a modern office that will use technology to its optimum effect in order to drive efficiency and reflect international best practice. The purpose of this paper is to outline a number of key developments currently underway with this regard and draw lessons for other countries that are establishing similar systems.
Street addressing - a Global Trend
World Bank, United States of America
Street addressing is not just a numbering system. It is a methodology to map and organize data for urban management. Earlier street addressing systems focusing on city centers have not kept pace with rapid, unplanned urban growth and expansion. With the advent of e-commerce, efforts in disaster resilience and advancements in geo-spatial technologies, street addressing is undergoing a revolution today. More and more cities are embarking on street addressing programs. This paper presents the main findings of a demand-assessment conducted to assess the spread and objectives of street addressing programs globally. The survey established that street addressing has proven to be an accepted tool for improving urban management by municipalities globally. Further: i) although new geo-spatial startups get the most sound-bites these days, public agencies play a strong role in street addressing today, ii) while most street addressing initiatives are part of larger urban programs to improve service delivery, a surge in e-commerce reflects the growing interest from private investors, iii) though trendy approaches include geo-grids and geo-location “apps”, the low-cost World Bank street addressing methodology is used widely. On the horizon, lies the potential for achieving larger impacts at lower costs in urban governance.
Predicting Taxpayer Behaviour and Compliance: An Analysis of Jamaica’s Property Tax System
University of Reading, United Kingdom
Property tax compliance in Jamaica has been described as a national disgrace, yet the reasons why so little tax is collected remain unclear. Tax literature suggests a rational economic trade-off between the benefit of evading tax versus the risk of getting caught and paying a fine, and the tax payer is prepared to take more risk the higher the amount of tax payable. Then there are behavioral reasons, centering on how individual taxpayers think others behave, on the perceived fairness of the tax system and benefits obtained from paying the tax. Property taxation has its own idiosyncrasies, particularly in developing economies. Administration may lack resources to maintain the property tax. Legislation may be unclear regarding who pays, particularly where tenure is customary or informal. Levels of tax may simply be too high. Enforcement action in cases of non-payment may be weak. This paper examines property tax compliance/non-compliance in Jamaica, contextualizing it to provide insights on how the property tax system and land market has been shaping the compliance equilibrium. This investigation focuses on land and property issues; namely the nature of taxable tenure rights and the asymmetry of land and property information between taxpayers and tax administrators.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-09: Piloting Global Land and Property Indices|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
Developing a Land Administration Index
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Since 1996, there has been significant progress in developing performance evaluation frameworks and benchmarks for individual Land Administration System aspects. Ontological and epistemological differences inherent in each Land Administration System (LAS), however, have stymied attempts to cross-compare performance of Land Administration Systems in their entirety. This research has developed a working Land Administration Performance Index concept developed from existing accepted quantitative benchmarks for evaluating land administration systems. This index is effective at determining the overall performance as well as identifying individual weaknesses of a land administration system. In order for this index to work as intended, sufficient quantitative data relevant to the benchmarks must be collected. Additionally, this quantitative data must be accurate, and without intentional or unintentional bias: manipulation, malproduction, and underproduction risks must be identified and rectified. This index is incapable of or judging the quality of data and thus will only ever be as good as the data that is provided.
Developing a Global Land Tenure Security Index for Spatial Analyses
1Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 2The Nature Conservancy; 3University of Maryland, Baltimore County; 4McGill University
Land tenure security is widely regarded as a critical factor for effective and sustainable conservation (Larson et al., 2013) and for improving human well-being (food security, economic development etc.) (Payne, Durand-Lasserve, & Rakodi, 2009). Policymakers often allocate resources first at the national-level, indicating the need for a global understanding of land tenure security. In this paper, we create a global index of the Governance Context for Land Tenure Security (GC-LTS) using existing global datasets. The GC-LTS is important for research on coupled-human-natural systems because land tenure security is directly and indirectly related to human behavior and natural resource management. We find that the index is significantly correlated with human well-being indicators, supporting the long held finding in the literature that securing tenure can improve human well-being. In examining the spatial distribution of the GC-LTS within remaining intact forest areas, we find that large areas of intact forest are located in areas with weaker governance context for land tenure security. We also identify countries with a high number of endemic species and lower GC-LTS scores. This analysis highlights areas that are priorities for further study of the potential for land tenure security interventions to improve both human well-being and conservation outcomes.
What is the relationship between tenure security, good governance and poverty alleviation: What do we know and what can we learn from this evidence
University of Florida, United States of America
The relationship between tenure security, governance and poverty are complex and influenced by numerous external factors. Our initial analysis shows a reasonably strong correlation between governance and poverty. We can theorize that tenure security impacts governance, but in this paper we will test this empirically with existing datasets.
Tenure security has always been difficult to measure, partly because it is shaped by intangible perceptions and actions that may lag behind the interventions designed to promote this security. This paper aims to do a cross-countries comparative analysis on the linkages between governance, land tenure security and poverty alleviation. We will use the World Bank’s data base on worldwide governance indicators (WGI) at the national level as the major source of governance data for the analysis in this paper. We will draw on other available empirical evidence, such as the ‘doing business’ indicators compiled by the World Bank and the international property rights index as a measure of tenure security.
We point out certain problems with this national level evidence and suggest approaches at a more local scale.
Towards a More Open Future: Increasing Accountability and Transparency through Open Land Data
1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Land Portal Foundation, The Netherlands
Transparency in land information data and land laws and policy is a critical element in ensuring equitable, accountable land use and tenure security. The consequences of a lack of transparency are myriad, but most notably include an increased difficulty in unlocking the value of the land as an asset, eroded trust in governance land administration systems, and a general lack of awareness of land policies and legal frameworks - all undermining land tenure security and potentially leading to a misallocation of land rights. The opaque nature of land administration systems and decision-making mechanisms exacerbates corruption by land officials, from petty corruption as citizens undertake transactions, to major political corruption in land management, such as the illegal sale or lease of state land by public officials. Finally, without information on the status and transfer of state-owned lands, intermediaries and communities have no way to advocate for protection of their own rights. Despite this clear need for transparency in land governance, the data needed to connect these links remains closed. This paper will explore the implications of open data for land governance based on extensive consultations with key actors in the land governance community.
Expanding Land Tenure in Women Business and the Law
The World Bank, United States of America
Women, Business and the Law collects data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and employment. Equality of opportunity allows women to make the choices that are best for them, their families and their communities. However, opportunities for women are not equal where legal gender differences are prevalent. Such restrictions constrain women’s ability to make economic decisions in a variety of ways, and can have far-reaching consequences. Moreover, they are associated with real economic outcomes.By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare legal gender differences across economies and over time, WBL offers objective and measurable benchmarks for assessing where reforms have occurred that can also be helpful in measuring global progress toward legal gender equality. WBL informs policy discussions and promotes research on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-10: Scaling Good Practice on Land Administration Delivery|
Session Chair: Michele Oriol, Comité Inter Ministériel d'Aménagement du Territoire, Haiti
Tracking Impacts of Tajikistan Land Reform Across Multiple Projects, Donors and Districts from 2006-2016 Using a Common Core of Survey Questions and Field Methods
1Iowa State University, United States of America; 2The World Bank, Washington D.C.
This paper utilizes a series of four major project survey evaluations undertaken across a 10-year period to track key impacts of country-wide land restructuring in Tajikistan. Each survey of more than 1200 scientifically selected farm households by different donors including the World Bank, USAID and DFID included the same set of core questions and enough of the same regions and districts so that longer-term impacts could be followed over time. Cross-project collaborative leadership, careful planning and cooperation, and care in preserving and maintaining datasets made it possible to examine impacts of land reform in key geographic areas, as well as across the country in general. Key impacts identified over time include: (1) Most of the agricultural farmland has been restructured into plots of less than 5 hectares; (2) Farmers increasingly make their own independent farming decisions (freedom to farm); (3) farmers are investing more money and labor in their farms, and agricultural production and income are increasing; (4) The average number of crops grown has more than doubled over time, with significant increases in fruits and vegetables; (5) Farmers report eating more fruits and vegetables when they are produced on the farm.
Delivering Land Administration Services at Scale
Land Administration Authority, Lesotho
Land is a finite and one of the most valuable resources. Its administration deserves an optimized hence the need for proper land administration. Effective land governance ensures transparent and efficient land administration, equity and access to land by all, food security, land use planning, and natural resources management to name but a few. Land administration services should be business oriented as such adoption of appropriate customer centric models is significant. Balancing demand and delivery of the services should always be part of the game. Although there are always lessons that could be learned from one country to another, there is usually no “one size fits all” hence concepts like “fit for purpose” come to play. One of the core reasons for embarking on land administration reform initiatives is that it is known to promote economic development hence poverty alleviation. Land administration services are part of day to day for public services. These are usually services provided by government offices and it is a common concern in developing countries that public service delivery is sluggish and sometimes contaminated by acts of corruption. Organisations providing land administration services still need to monitor performance and quality of service provided to the public.
The Case for Participatory Fit For Purpose Massive Land Registration as a means for a Sustainable Cadaster in Mozambique
1EXI LDA, Mozambique; 2DINAT - National Directorate of Lands; 3Dutch Kadaster; 4Verde Azul/DINAT
It is now twenty years since a new land law was enacted in Mozambique, after 16 years of civil war. By force of the Constitution, the new law establishes that the state recognizes community and individual rights acquired through customary and good-faith occupation, although no provision was made for the registration of such occupation.
The development in the last two decades has prompted the need to systematically register and map land occupation, to secure the occupants rights, to avoid conflicts and to promote efficient land use, and development.
In the last five years, a more mature LAS/LIS (called SIGiT) is being used. There is, however, no way to circumvent the need to directly involve the citizens and a broad institutional collaboration.
We claim that the best approximation is achieved through a standards-based participatory and all-inclusive bottom-up cadastre and land management.
This paper discusses the main features of several components in view of the experience of the last five years in constructing the national land cadastre and how they can be implemented through participatory and decentralised land administration.
La problématique foncière en Haïti : Comment le Recensement Général Agricole de 2010 questionne les politiques publiques
1CIRAD, France; 2FAO; 3Chibas Foundation / Quiskeya University, Port-au-Prince
Nous posons les hypothèses suivantes : i) les réponses de politique apportées durant les dix dernières années à la problématique foncière sont insuffisamment ancrées sur des données empiriques récentes; ii) en conséquence, l'offre de régulation foncière récente ignore des aspects essentiels; iii) la question foncière aujourd'hui demande une réponse intégrale de politiques. En termes de méthode, i) nous rappelons d'abord l'empreinte de l'histoire; avec précaution, nous exploitons les données du Recensement Général Agricole 2010; iii) nous analysons les caractéristiques de l'offre de politiques foncières des dix dernières années; nous confrontons offre et demande de régulation foncière. Notre constat est que l'écart entre demande et offre de politique foncière reste notable : i) l'offre contient un éventail trop réduit d'outils d'intervention; ii) les formes précaires d'accès au foncier (métayage), ne sont pas régulées; iii) les conflits fréquents, ne sont pas répondus; iv) la pulvérisation des exploitations et le grignotage urbain placent le zonage et l'élaboration de plans locaux d'utilisation des sols comme priorités. La fragmentation extrême pose la question de politiques d'accompagnement de sortie.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-11: Formalizing Indigenous Rights in Developed Economies|
Session Chair: Luis Felipe Duchicela, World Bank, United States of America
Management of Native Title - Australia's Next "Wicked" Problem
National Native Title Tribunal, Australia
The legal recognition of Indigenous rights in land and waters in Australia came late. Since 1992 there has been extensive debate around the attainment of native title, focussing largely on proving the existence of native title under processes set up by the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth). More than two decades on, Australia is now faced with an entirely different problem; the management of native title and responsible governance of the corporate institutions entrusted with that task by statute.
This new Indigenous corporate sector is underwritten by traditional laws and customs, but operates in a network of Anglo-Australian rules and regulations, Indigenous perspectives and internal and external stakeholder expectations. In addressing this complex and "wicked" problem, Australia would be well served by looking to the evidence based approaches to responsible land governance developed over several decades in the world of international aid and banking, and the developing world.
Drawing on these international learnings suggests that the way forward for Australia in managing native title to its fullest potential is to develop a unified framework which is both integrated and interactive, embodying partnerships between governments at all levels, native title holders, industry and the Australian community.
The Australian Northern Territory Land Rights Act – a model for the legal recognition of customary tenure, which provides a certain and fungible legal framework, facilitates economic development and local decision-making and establishes appropriate governance institutions.
Northern Land Council, Australia
This paper will examine the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976.
It establishes a unique form of property interest coupled with a range of institutions designed to recognize and protect Indigenous customary tenure in Australian law. It bridges the gap between customary tenure and the western tenure system.
Significantly it does this in a manner that recognizes customary tenure through the grant and registration under the Torrens system of an inalienable freehold title and provides for the grant of subsidiary interests such as leases.
This engages a long-standing international discourse concerning the role of land tenure and security of title in the relief of poverty.
The tenure has formed the basis for the creation of large protected areas (IUCN Category VI) known as Indigenous Protected Areas in Australia. This is consistent with multiple economic uses.
This paper will explore how a range of public and private indigenous controlled institutions or corporate entities have emerged to manage the traditional customary estate and will cover recent developments in national government policy concerning township leasing on Aboriginal land, the Intervention and the White Paper on Developing the North released in 2015.
Reconciling Indigenous Lands With The Honour Of The Crown: Evidence Of Boundary Certainty & Parcel Security
Surveyor General Branch, Natural Resources Canada, Canada
Circumstances are coalescing in Canada to reconcile Indigenous peoples and the Crown. The courts have set out that Indigenous lands can only be minimally impaired; that Indigenous peoples must be consulted over resource projects on abutting Crown lands; that the Honour of the Crown pervades all dealings with Indigenous lands. This is reflected in the resolution of specific land claims regarding the spatial extent, location and boundaries of parcels of Indigenous lands. Three case studies of First Nation Reserves (Mississauga First Nation, Kitselas First Nation, and Williams Lake First Nation) are evidence of successful institutional resolution - of incorrect boundaries; of incorrect location; of unauthorized encroachment. Resolution by way of acknowledgement of past grievances and recognition of land rights, as illustrated in the case studies is necessary to create equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities.
Measuring Informality & Its Socio-Economic Outcomes: First Nation Reserves in Canada
1Surveyor General Branch, Natural Resources Canada, Canada; 2Kitsilano Institute for Informality Metrics
Informality and its socio-economic outcomes were measured on Indigenous lands in Canada (169 First Nation Reserves). Some 55% of 23,614 houses are informal. Informality has a significant negative effect on community well-being in general (t = -3.7); and on income and labour force activity in particular.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-12: How Landuse & Building Regulations affect Property Markets |
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
Evaluating the Equity and Efficiency Impacts of Land Use Regulations: Theoretical Framework and Empirical Approach
1University of Southern California, United States of America; 2Inter-American Development Bank
This research investigates how land use regulations impact access to housing, with a focus on equity and efficiency outcomes. The initial applications are to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Campinas, Brazil. The conceptual model is elaborated in four successive versions: (i) a base case using a linear expenditure system model, with zero land use regulation as a benchmarking point of reference for future model iterations (ii) a modified base case where a single land use regulation is applied uniformly jurisdiction-wide, (iii) a modified base case with multiple zoning jurisdictions, and (iv) a modified base case incorporating a monocentric urban geography but with a uniform land use regime. Each of these model specifications results in a correspondingly distinct empirical strategy for estimating the impacts of land use regulations. An interesting theoretical result is that specifications (iii) and (iv) above are likely to have lower adverse impacts than specification (ii). The explanation is essentially a Tieboutian one: when there are more jurisdictions, each with its own regulatory regime (specification iii), any household can relocate to the jurisdiction that best suits its circumstances. Interestingly, geography can play a similar role, even where there is a single, uniform regulatory regime throughout the metropolitan region.
Effects of Land Misallocation on Capital Allocations in India
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania; 3Harvard Business School
Growing research and policy interest focuses on the misallocation of output and factors of production in developing economies. We consider in this paper the possible misallocation of financial loans. Using plant-level data on the organized and unorganized sectors, we first describe the temporal, geographic, and industry distributions of financial loans. We focus attention on a hypothesis that land misallocation might be an important determinant of financial misallocation (e.g., due to its role as collateral against loans). Using district-industry variations, we find evidence to support this hypothesis, although we do not observe a total reduction in the intensity of financial loans or for those being given to new entrants. We also consider differences by gender of business owners and workers in firms. While potential early gaps for businesses with substantial female employment have disappeared in the organized sector, a sizeable and persistent gap remains in the unorganized sector.
Factor Missallocation, Firm Entry and Exit, and Productivity in Ukraine's Agricultural Sector
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 3Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
To be filled
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-13: How Changing Tenure Relations Affect Rural Production|
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of
Modelling Agricultural Land Market Distortions the Size Distribution of Farms
1World Bank; 2IFPRI, United States of America; 3Universidad de Buenos Aires
Farm size and land allocation are important factors in explaining lagging agricultural productivity in developing countries. This paper formally examines the effect of land market distortions on the allocation of land across farmers and overall agricultural productivity. We first develop a theoretical framework to model the optimal size distribution of farms and
to determine to what extent market distortions can explain the non-optimal allocation of land. We then calibrate the model to the case of Guatemala and evaluate potential drivers of the distortions across regions. Preliminary results find that the aggregate agricultural productivity is 75-80% of the efficient output. We discuss alternative policy implications to
improve land markets efficiency.
Land Tenure Systems, Food Security and Poverty: Evidence from Africa
Land and land tenure systems are central in promoting livelihoods in developing countries since access to land and security of tenure are the main means through which food security and sustainable development can be achieved. This paper is explores land tenure systems, the nature of these systems and the role they play in the defining or affecting the welfare of individuals particularly in developing countries. It aims at improve the understanding of the linkages between land tenure systems, poverty, food security and sustainable natural resource management. Land tenure systems are significant in defining agricultural productivity, food security and poverty rates in households. Land tenure systems affect access to technological inputs and to extension services as well as membership to cooperatives. Gender differences in land tenure systems exist and these in turn affect farm productivity, food security and the household welfare.
Herbicides Induce Territorialization and Are Weapons in Farmer–Pastoralist Interactions in Northern Benin
1Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Parakou, Parakou, Benin; 3Prolinnova / Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, Netherlands
Science and technology studies have shown that technologies acquire varied meanings and uses in different socio-economic and political settings. Moreover, political ecologists have demonstrated that pastoralists’ restricted access to grazing land results from various territorialization processes coming from above or from below, embedded in unequal power relations between actors. Combining these two perspectives, our ethnographic study based on long-term fieldwork revealed that herbicides are technologies that have significantly transformed land-use practices and induced more conflict between landusers. Pastoralists are losers in herbicide-based territorialization processes, leading to greater marginalization and exclusion. The paper highlights the role of herbicides in generating practices of land control and in degrading relations between rural neighbors.
Land tenure differences and adoption of agri-environmental practices: Evidence from Benin (West Africa)
1Laval University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Consumer Science , Canada; 2Laval University, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE),Canada
This article uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model in combination with propensity score matching techniques to evaluate the impact of land tenure on the adoption of agri-environmental practices by smallholder farmers in Benin (West Africa). We rely on a unique and detailed cross-sectional plot-level dataset that covers a random sample of 2,800 smallholder farmers and 4,233 plots. The dataset was gathered from a household survey conducted in Benin by the World Bank between March and April 2011 covering all agro-ecological zones of the country. The results indicate that land tenure arrangement significantly influences farmers’ decision to invest in agri-environmental practices. The intensity of the adoption of agri-environmental practices is consistently higher on owned plots than borrowed, rented or sharecropped plots. We found strong evidence that the hypothesis of selectivity bias cannot be rejected. The adoption gap between plot owners and borrowers increases when implementing the matching techniques. The sample selection framework increases that gap further.
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-14: Harnessing Blockchain Technology for Land Administration: Next Steps|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
|1:00pm - 3:30pm||Innovation Fair: Innovation Fair|
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-01: Using Remotely Sensed Data to Improve Urban Planning|
Session Chair: Suzanne Hopkins, Thomson Reuters, United States of America
Using Satellite Data for Improved Urban Development
GAF AG, Germany
Satellite Earth Observation (EO) technology has a major potential to inform and facilitate international development work in a globally consistent manner. Since 2008 the European Space Agency (ESA) has worked closely together with Multi-Lateral Development Banks (MDBs) and their client countries to harness the benefits of EO in their operations and resources management. A new initiative of ESA which started in May 2016, the EO for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) Urban project aims to mainstream the application of satellite data for urban development programs being implemented by the MDBs and their counterparts. The project implemented by a European Consortium is providing a variety of geo-spatial products from baseline land use/land cover data, urban green areas and slum mapping for the implementation of urban development projects in about 40 different cities globally. The products from EO4SD will illustrate the utility of EO based data to monitor spatial features and structures on the ground with the frequency needed to assess trends in spatial urban patterns. The project will provide information to the stakeholders on the technologies and methods behind the geo-spatial products for the improved understanding on what satellite data can offer for urban planning as well as associated costs.
Cost Effective Building Capture at Continental Scale Using Satellite Imagery and Automatic Feature Extraction
PSMA Australia, Australia
Many developing countries face land governance issues that are exacerbated by global trends of rapid urbanisation and climate change. The need for an effective and timely response to issues such as population movement can be inhibited by fundamental challenges around the sharing of information, integrating policies and systems, and ensuring data integrity. Yet recent advances in satellite image processing, machine learning technology and cloud computing have opened new opportunities for data capture at a scale, speed, quality and cost not possible before. These technologies and techniques have been employed to generate data products such as Geoscape in Australia, which is capturing the entire continent’s built environment, and linking data about buildings and land cover to a national geospatial base that includes addresses, cadastral fabric and transportation networks. By linking rich attributes and data types, Geoscape provides a better understanding of what exists at every address to suit geospatial analytics for the whole of Australia. This top-down technology-driven approach, when combined with bottom-up approaches such as participatory mapping, can establish comprehensive data to support land governance and help address foundational challenges faced by many developing countries – namely to support good decision-making, planning, and ultimately, sustainable development.
Understanding the Urban Story using Earth Observation
IABG mbH, Germany
Urban planning is strongly related to understanding prior urban development on the basis of an actual insight on urban fragmentation. It is an elementary step for improvement and optimization of the metropoles within the objective of making the cities a better place to live. Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the cities in general as well as within is essential to open-up ideas for initiatives towards providing sustainable urban regions on the overall goal towards contributing the Resilient City. Numerous factors need to be considered and their status mapped in order to feed and enliven the urban model.
It will be discussed, how standardized and well-fitting customizations of Earth Information Services can benefit to the decision making sector, and raise the awareness at supra-regional, regional and local level.
Contributions will be shown based on selected South American cities. (Bogota, Lima and Quito) as representative metropoles within one continent, showing severe differences and homogenities in structure.
Exploiting Deep Learning and Volunteered Geographic Information for Large-Scale Building Mapping
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States of America
Building maps are critical geospatial data for various applications ranging from population estimation to disaster management. However, due to the high cost for large-scale mapping, such data are severely lacked in terms of quality, completeness, and sustainability, especially in the developing world. We introduce a new approach that leverages deep neural networks and volunteered geographic information to reliably and efficiently extract buildings from satellite images. We design a deep convolutional network with a simple structure enabling pixel-wise prediction based on multi-layer information and introduce a special output representation with an enhanced representation power. To train networks, we generate labeled data using building footprints from OpenStreetMap with limited quality and quantity. The approach has reliably mapped buildings in very large areas, where most buildings do not exist in any maps before. This work significantly enhances current capabilities of mapping buildings in resource-constrained settings.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-02: Indigenous Peoples Movement around Tenure Rights|
Session Chair: Ellysar Baroudy, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Experience and results with REDD+ Readiness in Africa
IP Hub Africa, Kenya
The engagement of Indigenous peoples with the REDD+ mechanism is premised on opportunities that would be obtained with meaningful participation at all levels including at international spheres such as clarity on land tenure in Indigenous peoples' territories, push for needed forest policy and governance reforms to put Indigenous peoples at the center of forest governance, implementation of REDD+ safeguard policies to secure a variety of rights for Indigenous peoples and equitable sharing of benefits, diversified livelihood options and protection of Indigenous cultures and inclusion of traditional knowledge systems in REDD+ governance. The engagement was also cognizant of inherent risks to the livelihoods of the very communities that the REDD+ projects are designed to benefit.
Results of REDD+ interventions in regards to tenure rights of Indigenous peoples have made great strides in clarifying and mitigating against risks associated to evictions and loss of land rights for Indigenous peoples, state control over forests reversing gains made by communities in conservation, centralized, top-down forest management leading to the exclusion of Indigenous peoples from decision-making processes, land speculation and dispossession without Indigenous peoples’ free, prior and informed consent and possible violation of Indigenous peoples' livelihoods, cultures and traditional knowledge systems.
Experience and results with REDD+ Readiness in the Latin America and Caribbean
Foundation for Indigenous Knowledge in Panama, Panama
To be completed
Experience and results with REDD+ Readiness in Asia
Global perspective on realizing Indigenous Peoples’ community rights
Center for the Autonomy and Development of Indigenous Peoples (CADPI), Nicaragua
To be completed
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-03: Potential and Limits of VGI|
Session Chair: Beckhee Cho, LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Capitalizing on the Digital Dividend to Secure Land Rights
University of Nairobi, Kenya
Land information is a critical component of land governance and supports many functions of land management and administration. It is difficult to have an efficient land rights system if land information is not well managed. Kenya’s Vision 2030 seeks to transform the country into a middle income economy by 2030. Technology and information are at the core of that quest. The government has embraced e-government and the uptake of mobile telephone technology and Internet penetration is high. The use of technology to improve land rights governance however remains peripheral.
Kenya can do more to deepen and capitalize on its digital dividend to improve land information systems by stepping up its use of technology to collect, collate, store and disseminate land information. Digitization of existing land records has been a key concern. This is important and needs to continue but in a situation where land information is incomplete and inaccurate, there is need to diversify the nature and type of technologies used. The Ministry should deploy unmanned aerial vehicles such as drones to capture information on land rights holding and use. This is more efficient and removes the possibility of inaccuracies and corruption that affect how information is captured and reported.
Repositioning Ghana’s Land Administration in the Context of Emerging Geospatial Technologies for Land Survey- Framework to Scale Existing Legal and Policy Hurdles
1Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana; 2Land Resource Management Centre, Ghana
Emerging flexible geospatial technologies for the recordation of land rights can significantly improve land administration in Ghana. However, existing laws, policies and surveying standards are firmly serving as blockade. This is because surveying in Ghana are largely guided by rigid demands for accuracy standards. This is however expensive and in the process fuels the exclusion of many from the national cadastre. There have been some emerging flexible survey tools in Ghana. Yet various surveying standards mean, these cheaper means of surveying land are faced with uncertainties in terms of being recognised and accepted by appropriate authorities. But what are the existing legal and technical requirements which create uncertainties about the validity of maps and plans which are generated through such approaches? This paper identifies these impediments and offers recommendations. This paper contends that with the emergence of Mobile GIS, new possibilities of data capture and maintenance of geographic information have evolved. There is therefore the need to reposition Ghana’s land administration in response to the emerging dynamics. Achieving this calls for changes in some laws and policies, which among others include the need for graduated accuracy requirements which are responsive to specific needs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas.
VGI as a Starting Point for a Landscape Architecture Competition – a Case Study from the City of Vantaa in Finland
Dimenteq Oy, Finland
This paper describes the use of volunteered geographic information generated by citizens (VGI) or “crowdsourcing” in urban planning context. The paper introduces a case study of a landscape architecture competition which was aimed at providing the best idea for developing a bustling city district in Vantaa, Finland. The paper will share insights on the challenges faced when utilizing VGI in urban planning and introduce some of the innovative solutions that were used to tackle these challenges in this particular case. The focus of the paper will mainly be in the use of online participation methods while examining their use in conjunction with other modes of citizen involvement.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-04: Formalizing Customary Land|
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Kenya
Piloting the Protection of Customary Land Rights in Acholiland: A Research Project of the Joint Acholi Sub-regional Leaders’ Forum (JASLF) and Trόcaire
1University of South Carolina, United States of America; 2Joint Acholi Sub-region Leaders' Forum; 3Trócaire
This presentation, based on evidence-based field research, provides an overview of a project documenting how customary communal land is organised, managed and administered in 46 clan-based land-holding groups in the Acholi sub-region of northern Uganda.
The project was commissioned by the Joint Acholi Sub-regional Leader’s Forum following the return of the Acholi rural population to pre-displacement land after a twenty-year conflict. The main goal has been to obtain information concerning both the core principles and practices of Acholi customary communal land tenure and the complex local-level variations across the sub-region, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the protection and security of customary land rights and land use for both individuals and communities.
This conference presentation provides an overview of some of the main field-research findings and recommendations, including following up on the strong sentiment of those interviewed that their communal land be demarcated and registered. It provides foundations for what could be – if follow-up research can be scaled up and implemented across Acholi – a comprehensive evidence-based exercise that responds directly to a recent World Bank study that identifies “organising and formalising communal groups, demarcating communal land boundaries and registering communal rights” as key to improving land administration in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Assessment Of Impacts Of Pilot Interventions In Customary Land Administration. Evidence From The Ghana Land Administration Project
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Customary land governance in Ghana has over the years been characterized by lack of transparency and accountability and tenure insecurity due to indeterminate boundaries, protracted litigation, poor records keeping and general indiscipline in the land market. Formal laws operates alongside customary laws and practices on land. Whilst about 80 percent of the lands belongs to customary authorities, only 20 percent are state owned. Customary authorities often lack the requisite expertise to administer and manage their lands. The problem required immediate interventions to improve the customary land governance system in Ghana.
The government through the Ghana Land Administration Project has initiated a number of pilot interventions in selected Traditional Areas across the country over the last ten year. They include the establishment of customary land secretariats, demarcation of customary boundaries; ascertainment of customary laws on land and family and demarcation of rural parcels. Whiles some successes have been achieved in terms of numeric targets, assessment of actual impacts on beneficiaries has not been undertaken. This paper presents finding of an independent assessment of the pilot interventions in improving customary land governance and ensuring tenure security and linkages of the outcomes to the overall national development agenda.
Securing Family And Community Land Rights For Equity And Sustainability Through Resilient Traditional Land Management Institutions
1Land and Equity Movement in Uganda - LEMU, Uganda; 2Land and Equity Movement in Uganda - LEMU, United Kingdom
The majority of Ugandans hold land under the customary land tenure system. Whilst customary tenure is recognized in law, the traditional governance system under which it is managed, has not until recently been recognized. This paper sets out that for those communities seeking to use a customary approach, their rights are best managed and protected through traditional management institutions.
Many customary approaches to land management cannot be accommodated in a freehold system. Traditional governance systems are progressive and can respect family traditions, as well as promoting sustainable agricultural methods. To achieve security and certainty over rights, some of the major tribes in Uganda have written down their own land rights and responsibility for land management.
The pursuit of freehold has weakened the traditional system (despite the latter being recognized in law) by promoting it as preferable. The customary system does not require replacement. In failing to accommodate traditional processes in favor of freehold, there is a serious risk of undermining customary methods for managing and protecting the vulnerable and providing them with livelihoods safety nets. This is evidenced in the Uganda example, and applicable in other similar situations.
Customary Leaders Mapping Parcels in Mauritania and Senegal
University of Arizona, United States of America
To be completed
Reconciling Customary and Statutory Resource Rights for Land-Use Planning in Zambia
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Zambia; 2Terra Firma Ltd.; 3Terra Firma Ltd.; 4Petauke District Land Alliance; 5USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Zambia
There is growing momentum in Zambia to provide opportunities for households and communities to document their customary land rights, which USAID has been supporting since 2014. Most of these chiefdoms have pockets of land that is ostensibly state land, but which is de facto under community/customary control, for example game management areas, resettlement camps, forgotten forest reserves, pre-colonial titled farms and game ranches. Additionally, the state has management rights over all forest and wildlife, even on customary land. Given Zambia’s one way transition process for conversion of customary land to state land and the vast areas within limited state presence, many of these statutory rights are latent, and in some cases are unknown to government. The documentation of customary rights in this context will raise these latent claims and has the potential for government to reassert tenure rights over these areas and resources.
This paper will describe the process that USAID’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Project is undertaking across a 200,000+ hectare chiefdom to systematically document customary rights, while navigating relationships and agreements with a variety of Ministries and Departments to clarify customary rights across a range of overlapping customary and statutory tenure systems.
Why Traditional Chiefs Engage in Land Administration and Experiences so far
Her Royal Highness Chieftainess Mkanda, Zambia
Victoria Kalondwe, is Chieftainess Mkanda of the Chewa People of Chipata District under Paramount Chief Gawa Undi, whose area spreads across Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Chieftainess Mkanda is one of 212 Chewa chiefs across these three countries. Chieftainess Mkanda is responsible for allocation and administration of all customary land within her chiefdom. She is also responsible for law enforcement and management of traditional court systems. Since she was installed as Chief in 2010, she has participated in numerous development programs and was the first chief to complete a systematic land documentation process with USAID. Her Chiefdom is predominantly agricultural and borders Malawi. It is just 30 kilometers from Zambia’s Eastern Province Capital of Chipata. The Chewa practice matrilineal inheritance.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-05: Post-Conflict Policies for Land Governance|
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
Inclusive Urbanization through Evidence Based Advocacy & Innovative Approaches to Tenure Security for the Displaced in Afghanistan’s Cities
UN Habitat Afghanistan, Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of
Reintegration of displaced people is one of Afghanistan’s most pervasive issues. Recent returns from neighboring countries since the beginning of 2016 expected to exceed 1 million by mid 2017, whilst conditions internally continue to generate record level internal displacement, with current estimates placing the total caseload at approximately 1.3 million. Concurrently, Afghanistan is facing the prospect of reintegrating potentially in excess of 100,000 unsuccessful asylum seekers, as the first forced deportations from Europe commence. The displaced are predominantly drawn to the relative safety and economic opportunities of urban areas. The traditional response to an influx of the displaced has been one of exclusion to encourage return to place of origin, undermining the self-reliance and potential contributions of these groups to Afghanistan’s cities. The following article details how through an approach of evidence based advocacy, acknowledging the concerns of local decision makers and hosting areas, development actors were able to positively influence the discourse and secure a durable solution for a high profile settlement of more than 19,000 protracted internally displaced people and returnees.
Overcoming Obstacles To Land Registration Reform In Bosnia-Herzegovina Through Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation
Queen Mary University of London, Belgium
The paper traces why and how land registration reform in postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina happened.
It seeks to explain a twenty-year transformation from a dysfunctional land registration system–a legacy of war and socialism–to one where Bosnia-Herzegovina climbed to 97th on the ease of registering property ranking in 2016. The paper uses two competing theories of institutional reform to find out which best explains this phenomenon: one where preconceived solutions are championed by reform leaders, the other where recognized problems drive coalitions to find locally appropriate solutions through trial and error–i.e. problem-driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) (Andrews2015).
It argues this was a PDIA case. The reform began once donors recognised the destabilising effects of land record opacity, and in 2002 legally imposed a new land registry law. There was not one leader or a preconceived implementation plan. Instead, iteratively and incrementally coalitions of domestic actors and donors adapted. Initially intransigent governing elites now supported implementation, seeing economic benefits in systematic clarification of land records as it opened new real estate investment opportunities. Donors accepted a non-comprehensive, piecemeal approach by phasing modernization, leaving in place significant opacity in land ownership and taxation. This case thus demonstrates the possibilities and limits of PDIA-driven land registration reform.
Protecting Future Rights for Future Citizens: Children’s Property Rights in Complex Emergencies
University of Richmond, United States of America
This paper seeks to make two major contributions to existing literature. The first is to draw attention to the problems of protecting children’s property rights during and after complex emergencies. This issue has garnered little notice in the past largely due to our view of children and childhood. In contexts where guardianship is threatened and the likelihood of becoming orphaned increases - war, famine, epidemics and natural disasters - the protection of future rights is a problem that pales in significance to the immediate needs of survival: security, food, water, shelter and medical care. Yet, if efforts are not made to protect records and memories in early days, there is a greater chance of them being lost permanently. The second goal of this paper is to suggest strategies for children’s property protection. Property rights are a legal and an economic concern of states. However, their protection in times of violent conflict and displacement becomes part of the shared responsibility of humanitarian organizations. The paper encourages the legal thinking of humanitarians and the humanitarian thinking of states.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-06: The Role of Tenure in Reducing Land Degradation|
Session Chair: Melchiade Bukuru, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United States of America
Achieving Land Degradation Neutrality For Improved Equity, Sustainability And Resilience
For many developing countries, long-term food security and economic growth is highly dependent on the management of their land resources, including soil, water and biodiversity. To ensure the sustainable use of these essential components into the future, there is no choice but to support a new vision of stewardship based on rights, rewards and responsibilities. This would provide the incentives needed for young people to remain in the rural areas and help foster an enabling environment for more equitable access to markets, investment and infrastructure. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), as part of its mandate to help achieve the SDGs, is advocating and supporting over 100 countries to integrate appropriate land governance systems in their voluntary land degradation neutrality targets. The UNCCD’s new flagship publication, the Global Land Outlook, strongly advocates for national and local governments to play a critical role in developing the necessary governance and incentive frameworks that encourage more sustainable land management decisions at all scales. Otherwise, future scenarios are rife with shortages, conflicts and instability.
Land Management And Policy On Sustainable Use Of Land Resources: The Case Of Burkina Faso
1Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 2Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 3Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey
Agricultural lands cover 44.22% of the surface area of Burkina Faso; the agricultural population constitutes 77% of the total population, the annual population increase rate is 2.91% and the urbanization rate is fairly high with 5.84%. The slow pace of urban infrastructure investments and construction works leads to serious real estate problems; 4/5 of the real estate supply consists of deedless immovables while the land production and real estate construction performance of local governments are deemed insufficient. In 1960-2014, the rate of agricultural lands in total surface area increased significantly. The change in arable land assets is affected by social factors such as population, economic factors such as agricultural exports and environmental and spatial factors such as the rate of forestry lands and lands allocated to other sectors. It is reported that the amount of productive lands per capita has decreased due to reasons such as increased population, constant migration between settlement areas, and limited land rehabilitation and development works. Thus, land disputes have sharpened lately in rural areas. With the Agricultural and Land Reform, which started in 1984, land development policies have continuously been on the agenda; yet, public administrations have had limited success in developing.
The Emerging Tenure Right Fortunes and Its Policy Implications: The Case of The World Bank Financed Sustainable Land Management Project II In Ethiopia
The World Bank Group
In Ethiopia, high unemployment rates combined with a lack of access to arable land among rural youth contributes to greater food insecurity while limiting the youth ability to generate income from agriculture. The current legislation limits the extent to which land rights can be transferred through land rentals. While the number of landless youth is trending upward, an innovative practice under the World Bank-financed SLMP-2, provides youth groups an opportunity to gain access to degraded land in exchange for restoration. Under this approach, youth groups are given secure, legally binding rights to use and manage the restored land. Addressing both the scarcity of land and limitations of the legislation, provides opportunities for income generation and incentivize good land stewardship among the next generation of community leaders, while boosting the climate resilience and carbon storage potential of production landscapes.
Early results suggest that this model is affordable and provides land tenure options that can be scaled-up to unlock new fortunes. Accordingly, it is recommended that the specific restrictive provisions on land rental market be lifted and a natural resource-based youth strategy be developed. We strongly recommend this model for roll-out elsewhere in the country in combination with extension support through SLM and livelihood enhancement related initiatives.
Programmatic Approach to Land Degradation in Burundi
The World Bank, United States of America
Burundi is a country of nearly nine million people, living on approximately 28,000 square kilometers making it the second most densely populated country in sub-Saharan Africa. With a population growth rate of about 3.2% per annum, the density is likely to continue increasing in the future. Burundi is predominantly rural, and scarcity of land and competition for land resources is a continued underlying driver of conflict and fragility. Poor land use planning, bad land management system, and lack of certainty of property rights have exacerbated people’s exposure and vulnerability to erosion and natural hazards, and more specifically drought, flooding and landslides. The country has been facing rapid degradation of the environment resulting in a decline in agricultural productivity, which provides livelihood to about 90% of the population who depend on agriculture. The World Bank is engaged in reversing this trend through a programmatic approach consisting of CEA as analytical foundation and Coffee Landscape Project (IDA & GF), and new Landscape Restoration Project under preparation that looks at opportunities for increasing resilience, productivity and introduction of ecosystem services in Burundi. The paper will present the results of CEA and the World Bank action plan associated with it.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-07: New Technology, Opportunities, Regulations, and Costs|
Session Chair: Fredrik Zetterquist, Swedesurvey, Sweden
Identifying Geospatial Data Requirements for the Goals, Targets and Indicators of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
UN-GGIM, United States of America
Geographic location is a basic precept to understanding the implications of data contributions for attaining the 17 Sustainable Development Goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The role of location relative to available statistics to measure the state and impacts of defined indicators for the 169 targets within the Sustainable Development Goals is vital. Determining the appropriate level of geography to meet, not only the basic indicator framework, but also ultimately the intersection of targets and indicators for more complex relationships is needed. Once useful geographic levels are determined, the existence and/or availability of geospatial data for every nation is required as a next step in this process. From this effort, geospatial data gaps can be determined as well as serve as a guide on the availability of statistical data and gaps. One task is to review the agreed-upon indicators and metadata through a geographic location lens and identify existing geospatial data gaps, methodological and measurements issues. This presentation outlines current efforts within the Expert Group, offers suggestions for consideration by the audience, as well as a path forward to respond to the geospatial requirements for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.
Mega tech trends on the near horizon for the land sector: Where innovation in the land profession innovation converges with technology disruption?
1Thomson Reuters; 2Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors
Technology and innovation ignores boundaries; transforming and disrupting industries at an unprecedented pace. As macro trends in economics, demographics and communications converge with the rapid adoption of emerging technology, the public sector is ripe for an evolution that will radically change the role of the land administrator.
In the presentation we will introduce the trends to watch, the tech to pioneer, and how to prepare for a new era of e-Governance. Conference attendees will be challenged to consider the role of Big Data, ubiquitous connectivity, mobile-first environments, data visualization, and participatory valuation. How will this change impact land professionals and what is the future impact on and opportunities for their communities?
Also explored will be how technology advancement in one field augments progress for other fields. One example is how artificial intelligence is supporting drone technology. Logically in the near future, we may see drones being launched autonomously to survey communities, extracting feature details based on computer-learned traits, such associating color to building material quality.
RICS and Thomson Reuters have teamed up to introduce thoughts on how the 21st Century calls for public sector leaders to be prepared to adopt and utilize emerging technologies.
Legal and Policy Frameworks Governing Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Precision Hawk USA Inc., United States of America
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have the potential for use in a variety of applications including mining, search and rescue, wildlife management, precision agriculture and delivery. However, the promises of UAS also raise legitimate public concerns surrounding safety and privacy. This discussion will explore how such concerns can be effectively mitigated through legal and technical measures that are tailored to address public concerns while promoting innovation.
Open Source Tools for Geospatial
1Metaspatial, Germany; 2OSGeo; 3mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
The goal of the MasterClass is to give participants an overview of geospatial Open Source software tools and libraries and give an insight to the quality assurance process provided by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo). OSGeo is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to support the collaborative development of highest quality open source geospatial software.
The MasterClass will start with a short introduction and explain the funddamentals of Open Source software (10 minutes) and the OSGeo Foundation (10 minutes). The second part (60 minutes) will be interactive. Participants are asked to present simple use cases from their daily work where geospatial software is required. The course instructor will then select from over 70 tools packaged on the geospatial software distribution „OSGeo Live“ and explain how they could be used to help solve the problem.
At the end the cource instructor will summarize the course and highlight the key points and ask participants for feedback and comments (10 minutes).
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-08: Urban Services and Property Tax Collection|
Session Chair: Cynthia Goytia, Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
The Valuation of Unregistered Land: Case Studies from Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru
1University of Technology, Sydney; 2Global Property Advisory, Australia
There is a colossal literature on land registration and its promises. What is relatively little studied is (a) how to value unregistered land and (b) in what ways are unregistered lands currently being valued and (c) based on a and b, what next to do with the valuation of unregistered land.
The years of research on the informal economy has tended to be limited to concerns about how informality arises and in what ways it can be transformed or overcome, centering on debates about dualism, structuralism, and legalism. Based on (1) fieldwork in Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru involving conversations with valuers, analyses of valuation reports, and studying of judicial decisions, this paper shows that the primary concept of value adopted in practice is limited to the neoclassical version. Secondly, accepted market behaviour in this context may substantially undervalue unregistered land, and thirdly the idea of value in practice can facilitate systemic dispossession and inequality. We show that the dominant approach remains regardless because of methodological and ideological reasons not easily disturbed by empirical reality. An alternative valuation approach is feasible, but its wide acceptance is contingent on the articulation and acceptance of a new theory of value grounded in institutions and social structures.
Issues Facing Standardisation of Property Valuation Practices: A case study of Suva, Fiji
1Rolle Associates, Fiji Islands; 2University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Home Finance Company, Suva, Fiji Islands
Property Valuations are a source of information for financial reporting as well as decision making in land governance. Globalization and increasing foreign property investments are compelling nations to adopt international practices for greater transparency and better land governance.
However, a number of smaller countries struggle to implement such international frameworks and practices. Likewise, Fiji has long struggled with finding common ground concerning the standardization of valuation practices. Some challenges facing the valuation industry to date include lack of information sources, guiding principles or standards, the need for automation, as well as legislative support to bring about improvements in land governance measures.
Using a case study of property valuations in Fiji, this paper categorizes key challenges as institutional, informational and technical issues in implementation of the International Valuation Standards (IVS). It is essentially constructed using the pragmatic approach to research known as the mixed methods approach (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). It uses quantitative data collection techniques and qualitative techniques to further understand valuer behavior. A host of behavioral studies were also utilized to understand valuers’ behavior and subjective practices (Diaz, 1990).
Findings from this paper helped build recommendations towards improving land governance procedures targeting institutional, informational and technical issues highlighted within.
Property Tax in Kigali: Using Satellite Imagery to Assess Collection Potential
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-09: Household Survey Data Collection and New Evidence|
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
Could the debate be over? Errors in farmer-reported production and their implications for inverse scale-productivity relationship in Uganda
1World Bank; 2Stanford University
Our analysis based on the Round 1 of MAPS: Methodological Experiment on Measuring Maize Productivity, Soil Fertility and Variety that was implemented in Eastern Uganda by Uganda Bureau of Statistics in the first agricultural season of 2015 provide unambiguous support for the sensitivity of the plot-level inverse scale-productivity relationship to the choice of the method by which crop production and productivity is computed. While farmer-reported production based maize yield regressions consistently imply decreasing returns to cultivated plot area, crop cutting and high-resolution, multi spectral satellite imagery, remote sensing based maize yield analyses point to constant returns to scale. The core finding is driven by persistent over-reporting of the plot-level farmer-reported production (and productivity) vis-à-vis its crop cutting based counterpart across the entire distribution of plot areas, and particularly in the lower half of the sample in terms of plot area. Our production functions, which control for GPS-based plot areas, infrared spectroscopy-based soil fertility and DNA fingerprinting-based maize genetic heterogeneity, among a rich set of plot, household and manager attributes, yield results that are robust to alternative sample specifications that are aimed at increasing the reliability of the benchmark maize yield estimates.
Individual-level Approach to Data Collection on Land Ownership and Rights
While asset ownership data continues to be collected largely at the household-level in developing countries, most assets are owned solely or jointly by individuals. Are we, however, doing enough to capture individual asset ownership by only interviewing the self-identified most knowledgeable household member in typical household surveys? How do reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to residential and agricultural land among men and women vary when multiple individuals are interviewed simultaneously vis-à-vis the traditional approach to data collection? Does tenure insecurity mediate discrepancies in land ownership and rights-related constructs among multiple interview targets in the same household regarding the same residential and agricultural parcels of land? This paper investigates these questions using data from Malawi's Fourth Integrated Household Survey (IHS4) 20/16/17. In parallel with a cross-sectional sample of 12,480 households within which data on asset ownership and control are solicited per usual survey protocol and often from a single respondent, the IHS4 includes a separate, long-term panel sample of 2,000 households in which comparable information on asset ownership and control are solicited from individual-specific interviews of all adults within the same household.
Beyond ownership: Tracking progress on women’s land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa
1The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy; 2University of Oxford, CGIAR Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets
Advancing women’s land rights is a priority for the international development agenda as highlighted in at least two targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is limited practical guidance on how to measure progress on land rights especially in contexts where individual property rights and customary tenure regimes coexist and where much of the land remains unregistered as in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study empirically examines the gender gaps in land rights, including not only ownership but also management and control of the outputs. In addition, we assess the extent to which different rights over land overlap using data from six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study confirms substantial gender gaps not only in land ownership but also in land management. In addition, reported ownership does not always correspond with the right to sell or use as collateral. The sizes of the gender gaps vary across land rights and across countries with Niger and Nigeria exhibiting consistently large gender gaps in all rights. Moreover, the various land rights do not consistently overlap, indicating that concepts of ownership, management and economic rights should not be used interchangeably.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-10: Experiences of Large Scale Land Acquisition|
Session Chair: Issa Faye, African Development Bank, Tunisia
The Impact of Large Scale Foreign Land Acquisitions on Rural Households: Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence From Tanzania
1University of Hamburg; 2Erasmus University Rotterdam
The impact of large-scale foreign land acquisitions on rural households has proven highly contentious question in both public discourse and academic literature. The current paper takes a multi-method approach to analyzing the impacts of large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania. I begin with an overview of leading economic theories which predict alternatively positive or negative effects from the entrance of foreign actors in the agricultural sector of developing countries. I also survey the existing qualitative evidence on these impacts for Tanzania, and find that this literature is highly critical of the repercussions of the so-called ‘land grab’ for the livelihood of rural populations. My original contribution begins with a law-and-economics approach, analyzing three specific foreign acquisition contracts from Tanzania for their likely impacts on rural households. Finally, I provide some rare quantitative evidence on the impacts of large-scale land acquisitions. To do this I combine data on large-scale foreign land acquisitions with newly available, specially designed, World Bank household surveys for rural Tanzania. The quantitative analysis shows mixed effects of land acquisitions on a range of development indicators for rural households.
The Implications of Infrastructure Investments on Land and Livelihoods
DAI, United Kingdom
After more than two decades of exploration activity, commercial quantities of oil and gas were discovered off the coast of Ghana in 2007. The prospects for the sector still remain positive with additional fields coming on stream in the second half of 2016 and 2017. Discovery has led to a high increase in infrastructure projects and investments in the Western Region particularly the six coastal districts. Large tracts of land have been taken over for oil and gas infrastructure, businesses, pipelines, roads and areas for machinery repair. These huge investments obviously have big implications for the communities who live in these areas and for their livelihoods, particularly for those who rely on natural resources. This paper will provide some real life examples of how investments in land (from government and private sector alike) affect the lives of ordinary people; the consequences of resettlement, beyond initial compensation packages; and experiences of bringing to the fore investors, communities, government and CSOs to discuss priority issues and concerns together, and ultimately develop solutions for all parties concerned.
Are Rural Areas Taking Advantage of Proximity to Cities?
RIMISP-LATIN AMERICAN CENTER FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT, Chile
We identify the effects of proximity to cities on the economic development of rural areas in Chile. Following Partridge and Rickman (2003), and Rappaport (2004), this work characterizes the changes in population and employment in rural areas as the partial adjustments on the location of households and firms due to the spatial variations in agglomeration economies, amenities, and public provision of services of nearby cities. In order to observe how rural areas are influenced by the scope and intensity of the linkages with urban areas, we estimate the effect of travel time to cities and market potential variables, over the change of population and employment for 22,241 rural areas in Chile, using the last two Chilean national censuses of 1992 and 2002, rural travel time estimates, and stable satellite light night. We found that rural people are drained by urban areas, especially when the proximate city its large. But if the cities are medium or small in population size, they attract population to work there, but do not cause delocalization. Therefore, small and medium cities in Chile are generating more virtuous dynamics with the rural world, which is where a large share of poor people continue to live.
Review of Land Tenure Systems to Support the Creation of an Enabling Environment for Agricultural Transformation in Africa.
African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Subject to an enabling environment Africa can and should feed the region’s population. The African Development Bank’s Feed Africa- Strategy for Agricultural Transformation recognizes that security of land tenure and good governance remain major challenges across the continent
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-11: Round Table: Regular Land Governance Monitoring through Administrative Data Sources|
Session Chair: Sultan Alakraf, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Latin America: Findings and Next Steps
IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Arab Countries: Findings, Lessons and Next Steps
Arab Union of Surveyors, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)
Reporting Administrative Land Data for Francophone Countries: First Findings and Next Steps
Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France
First results for compiling country and city data on legally documented rights and transactions for francophone Africa.
How to set up routine reporting for a decentralised system: the case of Egypt (tbc)
National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt
The land administration system in Egypt is decentralized. Land data are produced and held by 27 provinces and 1,500 towns and villages. This case study is a reflection on what would be required for a country like Egypt to develop a routine reporting system for administrative data produced by the land sector and what are the benefits of doing so.
How to present and communicate country level data at a global scale: first steps for an Atlas
1KU Leuven, Belgium; 2Kadaster, Netherlands
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-12: Property Rights Aspects of "Vertical Expansion"|
Session Chair: Rohan Bennett, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Apartment owners associations
University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
This paper deals with the results of an empirical study on how apartment owners’ association function in practice in the Netherlands. The background of this question is the hypothesis that with good functioning apartment owners’ associations, it is possible to improve distressed areas in cities, which relatively often have neglected apartment buildings.
This main question is divided in two sub-questions:
1. To what extent is the legal structure of the apartment owners’ association relevant for the well-functioning of the apartment owners’ association?
2. Two what extent is there a relationship between the formal functioning of apartment owners’ association and the substantive functioning (maintenance) of apartment owners’ association?
Before describing the results of this study, we provide a quick overview of apartment ownership in the Netherlands, focusing on the apartment owners’ association and the legal position of its members. After sketching the main results of the research on how well these organisations function in practice, we will outline some of the main recommendations to the legislator and legal practitioners.
Land Ownership in Nigeria: Towards a Legal Framework for Condominium
Adam Smith International, Nigeria
Our population keeps on expanding exponentially but our lands keep on shrinking retrogressively. Sadly, there is no adequate arrangement put in place to address this issue. It is a common thread among the comity of nations that it is an inalienable right of every human being to own an immoveable property anywhere he deems fit provided he has complied with all the necessary legal requirements. Unfortunately, there are landmines all over the place militating against enjoyment of this right. This is more evident especially condominium owners where they have a mirage ownership of their units. In some instances, absence of proper legal framework regulating condominium renders nugatory the existence of such right. So also does the private estate developers hope of investing hugely in real estate sector is also severely undermined. The paper will reflect on mechanisms being developed in Kano State to support improvements in individual land ownership to support a more formal land market as a spur for economic growth. It is against this background that this paper argues for the need to have a legal framework in Nigeria to enable condominium owners enjoy their fundamental human rights to own and acquire property without much fuss.
The World Is Not a Pizza - How Single-Photon LiDAR Shows the World in 3D – Affordably and Reliably
Leica Geosystems, United States of America
Galileo is often credited for declaring the shape of the earth as bowl instead a flat plate or a pizza. Today, land stewardship depends on showing the world in 3D, not just 2D.
Resources and infrastructure are 3-dimensional, with shape and contour, texture and thickness. Such knowledge of our surroundings allows effective land and resource allocation, successful execution of infrastructure projects, better disaster preparedness. 2-dimensional information is expensive to generate and less intuitive. Efficiently managing our environment and access to resources, mandates describing our environment accurately, cheaply and in a readily usable form.
Airborne LiDAR is a leading method to collect 3-dimensional data. It rapidly captures spatial data from objects as small as a television cable and penetrates small openings in tree canopy to yield information about forest biomass and under-canopy topography. Single-Photon LIDAR (SPL) promises to significantly reduce the cost of obtaining topographic data, fueling nation-wide data collection at manageable cost, providing valuable, easily-transmitted, easily-interpreted models of our surroundings. The result: efficient resource management, effective infrastructure planning and better preparation for natural disasters, with all users accessing a consistent information base.
In this Lightning Talk, get an overview of SPL technology and its application in effective land stewardship.
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-13: Building on Customary Tenure Security |
Session Chair: Alexandra Hartman, UCL, United Kingdom
‘Koudemain’: Collaborative land strategies in the Kalinago Territory
1Leiden University, Netherlands, The; 2Salybia Heritage and Restoration Project; 3Ministry of Gender Affairs; 4Ministry of Kalinago Affairs
Working together with community stakeholders from the one of the few remaining indigenous communities in the Caribbean, Kalinago Territory, Dominica, this research seeks to better understand the impacts of land use land change on cultural ecosystem services. The landscape of the Kalinago Territory has changed rapidly over the past ten years, impacting not only the natural ecology but also the cultural practices and traditions that play an integral part in the community fabric. Therefore, this collaborative research seeks to better understand the interaction between society and ecology in a mixed methods approach. To do this, the methodology combines community GIS, remote sensing, and ethnographic analysis. By using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods, this analysis seeks to provide sustainable and lasting solutions, addressing not only the impacts of landscape change on the natural ecology but also the customary practices and traditions, social practices, access to amenities, communal heritage; in sum, perceived well-being.
Interface Between Customary And Formal Land Management Systems: Mizoram, India
World Bank, India
This paper analyzes the interface between formal and customary forms of land management, in the Indian state of Mizoram. Mizoram is inhabited by a tribal population, which traditionally followed a communal-based village-centric form of land management aligned with their unique form of shifting cultivation. Traditionally, land was held communally at the village level with individual rights being limited to temporary usufruct rights. Since India got independence from British rule in 1947, Mizoram has enacted various legislations to formalize their landholding systems. These laws attempt to reconcile the reality of Mizoram’s traditional systems with the requirements of a modern land administration. However, the process of convergence of such protected areas with modern state-oriented land management and administrative structures has not been smooth and raises many questions. This paper analyzes the gaps that are arising in the process of formalizing and privatizing traditional communal land rights. This analysis specially looks at these rights in the context of land acquisition. Mizoram faces a severe infrastructural deficit, dealing with which requires vast tracts of land on an urgent basis. This is inevitably creating a flashpoint for potential disenfranchisement of traditional landholders in Mizoram, which necessitates such an analysis.
Land Governance, Land Policy and Indigenous People Land Use and Access Rights in the Brazilian Amazon and Matopiba after the Constitution of 1988
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2Federal University of Tocantins, Brazil
Internationally there are an alarming number of violations of indigenous peoples’ land and human rights. Brazil is currently under the spotlight as the heightening of the political crisis that led to the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff brings national and international concerns over the uncertainty related to changes in policy that may be adopted by the interim Government in relation to indigenous peoples land rights. With a focus on land governance, our study aims to assess if the policies for indigenous land in the Legal Amazon and Matopiba since the Constitution of 1988 represented an improvement or regress to the indigenous population’s land use and access rights. We structured this study in the following way: 1) Background on Brazilian weak land governance and its relation with indigenous land rights, 2) Indigenous territories’ laws and improvements after 1988, 3) Sources of pressure on indigenous territories – Agribusiness, 4) Sources of pressure on indigenous territories – Large-scale infrastructure projects, 5) Discussion and policy proposals.
They Will Need Land! The current land tenure situation and future land allocation needs of smallholder farmers in Cambodia
Mekong Region Land Governance, Cambodia
In this paper, I discuss the needs smallholder farmers have for land, projected up to the year 2030. The main problem it examines lies at the intersection between the demographic increase in the rural smallholder population and the possibility offered by the different land tenure regimes to meet this demand.
By looking at how much land is needed for family farmers in the future, the paper anticipates the land requirements of smallholder farmers by 2030 based on the projected demographic increase in the economically active population in rural Cambodia and on two sets of scenarios i) the transfer of unskilled labour from the agricultural to the secondary and tertiary sectors (industries and services) and ii) the provision of land for smallholder farmers.
The analysis suggests that by the year 2030, the transfer of unskilled labour from agriculture to the secondary and tertiary sectors will lag behind the demographic increase in the active rural population. With 2015 as a baseline, the scenarios suggests that by 2030 smallholder farmers will need an additional land area ranging from 320,600 ha to 1,962,400.
The paper discusses different options, which are not mutually exclusive, to allocate this land without further impact on the forest cover.
|4:15pm - 4:45pm||Coffee Break|
|4:45pm - 5:30pm||Closing Plenary: Closing Plenary|
Lessons Learned and Next Steps
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|4:50pm - 5:30pm||Overflow Room|
|Overflow rooms: Preston Lounge; MC13-121; MC2-800; MC C2-131|
|5:30pm - 7:30pm||Reception: Reception|