Conference Agenda

The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.

Session Overview
Location: MC 9-100
Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am01-12: Connecting Land Data Systems for Tenure Security
Session Chair: Stefano Ghielmetti, Trimble, United States of America
MC 9-100 

The Ghana Enterprise Land Information System (GELIS) as a Component of National Geospatial Policy

Graham C Deane1, Robert M Owen1, Benjamin Quaye2

1Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources - Land Administration Project

The Government of Ghana, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, is implementing the Land Administration Project 2 (LAP-2) which builds upon the foundations laid under LAP-1. Central to LAP-2 has been the development of a national geospatial policy and the implementation of GELIS, the Ghana Enterprise Land Information System. This paper attempts to summarise these activities and demonstrate how they will help Ghana to achieve its objective of developing a comprehensive land administration system leading ultimately to a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI).

In developing the National Geospatial Policy (NGP), which is currently in the adoption process through Cabinet, there was a thorough review of the current progress and problems. The NGP provides the basis for building the strategy to develop an NSDI implementation plan.

In parallel has been the initial implementation of GELIS which, eventually, will enable all users from the relevant Ministries and Agencies to carry out their day-to-day business processes efficiently in a digital environment, using common databases. Once complete, GELIS will present a One-Stop-Shop for all stakeholders, including the general public, irrespective of where they are. GELIS, therefore, forms a vital component of implementing the geospatial policy and the achievement of an NSDI.


The Cabo Verde Land Management Information and Transaction System (LMITS). Integrating Spatial and Alphanumeric Information on Land and Property, to Improve Access and Reliability and to Strengthen Transparency

Carlos Varela, Sonia Schofield

Millennium Challenge Account - Cabo Verde II, Cape Verde

Cabo Verde is a small island country, with a small domestic market, lacking in natural resources and whose development is unavoidably dependent on the ability to compete in the global marketplace. Considered unfeasible in 1975, when it became independent, the country has achieved important gains, to reach to the middle-income countries group.

The overall strategy for electronic governance is based on the integration of systems and the adoption of a common technological platform, managed by the State, which minimizes the challenges of interoperability. Avoiding this barrier to the sharing and exchanging of data, which has constituted a major problem for many countries, is critical for an island nation like Cape Verde.

The paper will look at the various challenges of the current land management system in Cabo Verde in regards to how land information is organized and managed and how the interventions of the MCC funded Land Management for Investment Project, based on a common, integrated platform for land information and transactions will contribute to better access to information as well as reliability and transparency of that information, as critical factors to providing legal security of land transactions.


A Viable Approach to Establish Conclusive Land Title in India

Satyaprakash Timmiah Lakshmanappa1, Dr.Sultan Singh Sr. Scientist-SG2

1Govt of Haryana, India, India; 2Haryana Space Applications Centre (HARSAC)

The Indian land management system bears strong influence of Mogul-era legacy. It operates on two distinct systems of deeds registration and the land record management as a result of which it is a challenge to completely, comprehensively and definitively establish record of rights. While these systems ensure correct identification of the parties to a deed, it does little to facilitate exact identification of land parcels thereby compromising the simplicity of land based transactions as compared to the well accepted ‘Torrens System’. This has been a major deterrent in the face of development and urbanization, particularly for the city of Gurugram (Gurgaon) located in the Indian National Capital Region of New Delhi.

In an attempt to establish conclusive titles, high-resolution geo-spatial data of Manesar Tehsil (part of the district) has been successfully merged with the legacy data using newly established ground reference points. The principle of geodetic triangulation was used along with a simplified methodology that was developed and implemented using commercially available GIS software. In-built tolerance limit in traditional measurement systems has been a revelation of this project.The results have been very encouraging providing the confidence for scaling it up as a national reference model for land administration and governance.

01-12-Timmiah Lakshmanappa-715_paper.pdf
01-12-Timmiah Lakshmanappa-715_ppt.pdf
10:30am - 12:00pm02-12: Realizing Land Administration Reforms
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
MC 9-100 

Delivering Land Administration Services At Scale

Faiz Faiz-ul-Hassan, Iqbal Muhammad Zafar

Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

Land records system in Punjab province of Pakistan was inherited from the British era and was maintained in the manual/paper form. Recognizing the importance of security of records and compilation of a consolidated database of record of rights Government of Punjab, Pakistan with the financial assistance of World Bank has completed a major governance project titled “Land Records Management and Information Systems”. The services with regards to issuance of computerized Fards (copy of record of right), computerized attestation of mutations, e-passbook for agriculture loan and instant updation of record at website are being rendered through Arazi Record Centers established in all 143 tehsils of the Province. System has been linked with the financial institutions, allied Government departments, courts & agencies. Automation of land records has accomplished its basic objectives by bridging most of the gaps that have been created between the service delivery and the expectations of public due to technological advancements. Introduction of digitized system ensured the better safe gardening of the interest and protection of the rights of the socially disadvantaged groups particularly women & deprived class. Increase in tenure security and positive impact on land markets & property prices are expected in times to come.


How to Implement a Broad Reform Agenda - The role of the Agency for Real Estate Cadastre in development of the property market in Republic of Macedonia

Tatjana Cenova-Mitrevska

Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of

The Government of RM has identified Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, as a significant part in the governmental overall program, as a catalyst to transition to a market economy, and for support private investment and business creation. The establishment of the REC, the development of various e-services, shortening of time for property registration, the digitalization of cadastre maps as well as the advancement of the geographic information system, led to a significant increase of the number of registered transactions, registered mortgages and the value of the mortgage loans.

The number of days to record the purchase or sale of property or mortgages dropped 96 percent from 30 days in 2005 to just one day in 2015. AREC is now widely recognized as a valuable asset for the real estate market growth: the number of property transactions more than tripled, while the number of mortgages more than quintupled). Increased numbers of foreign and domestic investments, such as Greenfield investments, have a direct influence on the Government Development Agenda, improvement of the economic growth and competitiveness on a permanent basis, higher employment, higher living standards and quality of life.


Better Land Management in Botswana Through an Integrated Electronic Land Information System

Niko Zorkin1, Thato Raphaka2, Kent Nilsson3, Moagi Basaakane4

1ENKON Information System, Canada; 2Ministry of Land Management, Water and Sanitation Services, Botswana; 3Lantmäteriet; 4Ministry of Land Management, Water and Sanitation Services, Botswana

The Government of Botswana has a long term commitment to improving land management administration to make it customer-oriented, efficient and effective, and to support the long-term socio-economic development of Botswana. It recognizes the importance of having strong land management policies and practices for its tribal, state and free-hold lands and the long-term commitment is to “achieve a good Land Administration System”.

To further its commitment to good Land Administration, the Government of Botswana has implemented an integrated electronic Land Information System (“LIS”) that will not only meet its needs in the short term, but also has the capacity to grow as new land management policies and procedures are established in the future. The LIS results in better harmonization, standardization and integration of reliable, cost effective and transparent land management processes in Botswana across the many government agencies involved with land management. For example, it provides effective, and easy to use, on-line registration of lots, electronic land title transfers, simpler allocation of lots to its citizens, better dispute and claim management, an efficient registration of survey plans, and incorporation of many other land processes related to administration and registration of Tribal Lands.


Scaling Up a Pilot Land Management Initiative in Uganda to a National Land Information System (NLIS)

Richard Oput1, Aurélie Milledrogues2, Patrick Stimpson2, Sergiy Lizenko3, Carol Roffer3, Christopher Burke2

1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD), Uganda; 2Institut Géographique National-France International (IGN-FI); 3Innola Solutions, Inc.

Land Administration and Management in Uganda faced serious challenges prompting the government to adjust laws and policies and implement a series of innovative initiatives. Following the successful implementation of the pilot Design, Supply, Installation, Implementation of the Land Information System and Securing of Land Records (DeSILISoR) Project 2010 to 2013, in 2015 the Government of Uganda with support from the World Bank commenced the implementation of a five year initiative known as the Design, Supply, Installation and Implementation of National Land Information System Infrastructure (DeSINLISI) Project to scale up the computerization of an integrated land management system nationally. The paper and presentation will describe the experiences scaling up from a pilot programme to a National Land Information System (NLIS) detailing the massive data conversion and integration efforts, including the conversion of historical data and ongoing transactions in addition to valuation and other paper document scanning and indexing along with the scanning and vectorization of cadastral maps.

2:15pm - 3:45pm03-12: Making Land Rights Real
Session Chair: Everlyne Nairesiae Lingoine, GLII/GLTN - UN Habitat, Kenya
MC 9-100 

Land: The Hidden Assets in African Cities

Gora Mboup

Global Observatory linking Research to Action (GORA), United States of America

African Capital cities offer multiple opportunities as a hub of economic activities as well as a link to local, regional and global economies. Today, they have an added advantage associated with their high population density and their youthful population, two important drivers of economic productivity and growth. Cities are built by people; with their concentration offering agglomeration of economies starting from their land and housing assets that constitute more than half of their wealth. With functioning institutions and laws, land and housing assets contribute to the planning, management and provision of services in settlements. However, in absence of functioning institutions and laws providing legal propriety rights, most of these assets remain dead investments sheltering only people. To tap into the potential of high densities, African cities must formalize their land system, which will be the driver of many other components of their foundation such as streets and public spaces, provision of basic infrastructures such as water, sanitation and energy, and management waste. It is urgent that national and local authorities recognize the wealth of their citizens and involve them in the planning, the building and the management of their city.


Community-Led, Citywide Settlement Profiling And Upgrading As Evidence Based Approach To Land Governance: The Case Of Muntinlupa City, Philippines

Qhobela Cyprian Selebalo5, Louie Robert Posadas3, Villa Mae Libutaque4, Ruby Papeleras1, Lunalyn Cagan3, Danilo Antonio5, John Gitau5, Hellen Nyamweru Ndung'u5, Deanne Ayson2

1Homeless People’s Federation Philippines, Inc.; 2Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives, Inc.; 3Technical Assistance Movement for People and Environment, Inc.; 4LinkBuild, Inc.; 5UN-Habitat/GLTN

Difficult living conditions for Informal Settler Families (ISFs) in the Philippines are worsened by the natural hazards and disasters that characterize it, for example, flooding and earthquakes. ISFs are the first and worst affected by these events, as well as man-made and health hazards, such as fires and dengue outbreaks.

Statistics about informal settlements in the country are limited, often because standard data gathering methods involve only counting of structures with little comprehensive studies on what lies within them. Other challenges in securing comprehensive information about settlements include mistrust against government-affiliated data gatherers for fear of eviction, the frequent changes in these settlements, and the lack of data gathering resources.

This scenario makes it difficult for governments to meet ISF needs and strategize hazard prevention measures and responsible land governance. It likewise makes ISFs invisible in government records. Despite these risks and the inability of governments to protect the urban poor, many ISFs consider land-tenure security their greatest need, which the legality of land and their low income, make it seemingly less attainable. This paper presents initiatives to overcome this absence of informal settlements information in Muntinlupa City, Philippines building from the partnership initiative with the Global Land Tool Network.


Making the Community Land Bill Effective: The Case of Mashimoni Settlement in Nairobi County and Kwa Bulo Settlement in Mombasa County of Kenya

Danson Maina1, Rebecca Ochong2, Danilo Antonio1, Steve Ouma2

1Pamoja Trust, Kenya; 2UN-Habitat/GLTN

This paper will highlight the partnership between the Global Land Tool Network and Pamoja Trust in empowering the urban poor communities in select areas with the relevant pro-poor land tools and approaches towards improving their tenure security status and living conditions. It will make a justification why the need to strengthen community organizations towards land claims and occupation in informal settlements as a way of improving their tenure security, access to basic services and infrastructure and inclusion to governments’ planning work. It will also provide critical analyses on how these grassroots-oriented tools implementation and partnerships with local government authorities can enhance the implementation of the newly legislated Community Land Act and ensure inclusive policy dialogues. The urgent call by informal settlers to “count them in” in the urban landscape must be heard and the paper will provide several arguments why authorities need to do so building from the experiences of the two case studies. Finally, the authors will offer key recommendations on how these experiences can be used in similar instances within the country and elsewhere.


The Role Of Gender In Securing Land Rights For Equity, Sustainability, And Resilience

Nangobi Joyce RoseMary1, Pamela Ransom2

1Slum Women's Initiative for Development (SWID), Uganda; 2Metropolitan College New York City

The role of gender in securing land rights for equity, sustainability, and resilience.

The Slum Women’s Initiative for Development (SWID) a non-government organization operating in Jinja District, Uganda has conducted extensive studies in within Jinja district which continue to document the inherent inequality faced by many women. Their unequal status, reflected in a range of social and economic indicators, highlights the specific vulnerabilities they face. In many cases, for example, women could not apply individually for land titles under their names. To avert the challenges, SWID has devised gender sensitive approaches to ensure that women, men, and youth have equal rights to land. We have mobilized women, men and youth, using the power of groups as an organizing tool, trained a team of paralegals made up of men, women, and youth who go around in the community to sensitize people on land rights. There has been significant progress, with increasing percentages of women’s names appearing on the land titles. Advocacy and hard work, has made men change attitudes and allowed women’s names to be put on land documents as owners rather than witnesses as it used to be.

03-12-Joyce RoseMary-492_paper.pdf
03-12-Joyce RoseMary-492_ppt.ppt

Securing Land Rights within the Continuum of Land Rights Approach: Evidence from the Poor Urban Communities in Kenya and Uganda

Danilo Antonio1, Julius Okello2, Nelson Marongwe1, Hellen Nyamweru1

1UN-Habitat; 2African Institute for Strategic Research Governance and Development

Implementation of land tenure security interventions in Kenya and Uganda through the adoption and implementation of pro-poor and gender responsive land tools and approaches within the continuum of land rights approach has contributed to positive outcomes in the lives of the urban dwellers, the community and to a large extent, to the local government affairs. Such impact pathways are multi-dimensional and occurring in many and different forms. The main parameters of change relate to, among other things; perceptions of tenure security; change in local power relations, the organization of communities to engage policy makers at national and local government levels, local economic conditions and the over-all land governance.

Essentially, the paper illustrates that voices from the community confirmed such impacts. The paper further argues that in securing tenure rights within the continuum of land rights framework, a new methodology needs to be put in place where “people” should be at the centre. The paper concludes with a suggested impact pathways for securing land rights with the continuum of land rights approach.

4:00pm - 5:30pm04-12: Policies for Urban Regularization
Session Chair: Manohar Velpuri, FIG, Denmark
MC 9-100 

Between informal and illegal: Noncompliance with Planning and Building Laws

Rachelle Alterman1, Ines Calor2

1Neaman Institute, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel; 2Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Most countries have planning laws on their books, but among developing countries, these are often unsuitable Western imports. All planning laws are predicated on the assumption that the general public will comply. However, in the majority of countries around the globe – including a few OECD countries - this assumption doesn’t hold. In the discussion about developing countries, attention is usually given to informality in land tenure, and almost none to planning and buildings laws.

The reasons underlying noncompliance with planning laws vary most strikingly between the global north and south. In the south, the reasons are often basic human needs for food, shelter or employment. Among the advanced economies, illegal construction usually occurs on one’s legally owned land and the motivations are different.

Why is it so difficult for governments to achieve compliance with planning laws? The discussion usually neglects a key player: the format and contents of planning laws. How do these relate to the socio-cultural and economic structures of different societies? There is no systematic comparative research on these questions. The paper will provide a framework for analysis intended to help policymakers design planning laws and enforcement mechanisms which can engender greater public compliance and thus, relevance.


Honduras Experience with Land Regularization in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

Alain Adalberto Paz Quesada1, Roman Alvarez1, Enrique Pantoja2

1Programa de Administración de Tierras de Honduras (PATH II), Honduras; 2The World Bank

In Honduras, despite the existence of property registries, the country has faced increasing levels of informality and land conflicts. The increase in informal employment is mainly due to the lack of housing projects for low-income families, rural-urban migration and the incidence of natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch. As a result, many Hondurans, particularly poor communities, have been unable to regularize their land tenure, which excludes them from the formal land market while restricting their access to the financial system.

It is estimated that about 60% of the parcels in the country lack a title of ownership or possessing a situation of irregularity. In this sense, it is very relevant to analyze the results that have been achieved so far, under the property regularization based on public need, through which some 46,000 titles have been issued in informal settlements of the country.

Despite all the challenges faced during 11 years of implementation, the results are satisfactory. In addition to having integrated these new owners in the formal land market, a very important result is that approximately 97,000 beneficiaries now enjoy social peace, since they cannot be evicted from their land, even though some of them are still in the process of obtaining their property title.

04-12-Paz Quesada-824_paper.pdf
04-12-Paz Quesada-824_ppt.pptx

(Formalizing) Informal Housing: Addressing the Elephant in the Room

Victor Endo1, Luis Triveno2, Abel Alarco3

1Land Alliance; 2World Bank; 3NG Quality

In the next 20 years, the world would need to build as much urban housing as was built in the past 6,000 years. Incremental and self-construction of homes, which normally are not registered and do not comply with building codes, will continue to be the de-facto most important housing solution around the developing world. The existence of a fast, low-cost and transparent process for the regularization of informal constructions could play a key role in (i) incentivizing homeowners to invest their resources in upgrading their properties; (ii) increasing the property tax base for local governments; (iii) growing the demand for credit for home improvement; (iv) creating an attractive market base of housing units that comply with minimum standards for insurance companies; and (iv) granting legal security and giving families the opportunity to make the best possible use of their most important—and sometimes only—asset. In this paper we show the technical, legal and economic viability for the introduction of a program for the formalization of self-built homes in Lima, Peru and provide guidelines for how it could be replicated in other Latin American countries.


Invasion of vacant lands in the realm of urban development: a case study of the Kenya coast

Prof. Muhammad Swazuri, Mr. Geoffrey Nyamasege, Mr. Tom Chavangi, Ms Esterina Dokhe

National Land Commission, Kenya

Kenya has witnessed a massive growth in its major towns/ cities from the recent past. Populations have also increased both in the urban and county with a total estimate of 26.4% urban population in the year 2016 as compared to 10.3% in 1970s. While this is a great urban development milestone achieved, it has brought new challenges to the cities – congestion, escalating costs of living and high crimes are just but a few problems encountered. It is estimated that more than 250,000 Kenyans move into the cities every year. One of the World Bank’s fourth Economic Update titles “Turning Tide in Turbulent Times” argues that East Africa’s largest economy can benefit from demographic change and rapid urbanization, despite the pains it entails. One of those pains Kenya entails and the most critical issues is the invasion of public land and private land. This is resulting from problems of urban squatters, increasing populations and land grabbers. As such, the problem presented is far complex. majority of these people have invaded public and private properties without having any lawful right to be on the land they occupy.


Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am05-12: Helping Communities Document and Exercise their Rights
Session Chair: Joachim Knoth, European Commission, Belgium
MC 9-100 

Participative Cartography in Benin

Felix Braeckman1, Hervé Dossoumou2, Egy Sossou2, Anouk Lodder1

1VNG International The Netherlands; 2VNG International Benin

Cartography is the realm of specialists, land surveyor and mapmakers? Participatory Cartography says otherwise! Using the experience from Benin, we show how citizens can play the main role in demarcating their community’s borders. The process of Participatory Cartography places the community’s perception of its own boundaries at the centre and offers an inclusive and feasible method of settling internal border disputes which inhibit countless government policies. The result is a widely supported demarcation based on a community’s perception and identities rather than straight lines drawn by a ruler or nonsensical borders due to gerrymandering. Finally, maybe the best thing about Participatory Cartography: it is cheap.


Registration and Release of Customary-land for Private Enterprise: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

Satish Chand

University of New South Wales, Australia

Land held under customary tenure has proven difficult to register and release for private enterprise globally. This is because the costs of developing secure rights to land held under communal ownership is high given that such ownership rules out a ‘pay-to-use-the-property’ system while punitive negotiation and policing costs make a ‘pay-him-not-to-use-the-property’ system ineffective (Demsetz, 1967, p. 355). Here I document reforms to institutions governing access to land held under customary title in Papua New Guinea that has imbedded collective ownership whilst allowing for a ‘pay-to-use-the-land’ for private enterprise. Reforms put in place over the past decade have allowed for voluntary incorporation of landowning clans, the registration of their land, and the leasing of this land for up to 99 years. The ongoing reforms provide lessons both for Papua New Guinea and for others wrestling with the challenges of making available land held by customary groups for individual enterprise.


Supporting Greater Tenure Security For Community And Customary Land Rights – Lessons Learned From The Field And How Community Led Participatory Mapping Empowers Small Holder Farmers In Myanmar.

Nicholas Thomas, Thiengi May Soe, Myat Thu Aung

Tetra Tech, United States of America

The democratic transition of power in Myanmar, following the handover of power to the National League for Democracy (NLD) administration, is still in its infancy and yet faces serious challenges. The absence of land tenure security is a significant issue facing rural communities throughout the country, a situation that has led to weak agricultural development, heightened rates of rural poverty and in the worse cases, the dispossession of land resources previously accessed by entire communities.

The USAID funded Land Tenure Project has supported the development of a National Land Use Policy (NLUP) and has been evaluating the implementation of articles of the NLUP at a series of pilot sites throughout the country. Community led participatory mapping of different land resources have been undertaken in coordination with local authorities, local civil society and the communities themselves. The technical approaches developed as part of this work will be shared as will the outputs and lessons learnt from these activities that will inform the development of a new National Land Law that will recognize the land rights of communities, ethnic minorities and women.


Norwegian Support To The Land Sector In Kyrgyzstan

Elena Busch1, Helge Onsrud1, Bakytbek Djusupbekov2

1Statens kartverk - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway; 2Department of Cadastre and Registration, Kyrgyzstan

Norway - one of the few countries donating over 1% of its gross national income in official development assistance, supported the land sector in Kyrgyzstan from 2013 to 2016. With a grant of 1,4 million USD, the project “Securing Ownership to Land” implemented by the Norwegian Mapping Authority and the State Registration Service of Kyrgyzstan, was aimed at improvement of registration and information services to all groups of users requesting property registration and information. The project was built upon important achievements of the First and the Second Cadastre Projects funded by the World Bank. The Norwegian project was focused on specification of improvements to property registration system; technical and professional capacity building; knowledge transfer and training; surveying and mapping the remaining 20 % of privatized properties; and extension of KYRPOS - the network of permanent reference stations. Using of UAV technology for "mapping on demand" was tested and proven relevant for smaller areas and mapping corridors. The project contributed to improvements in servicing clients by reducing the average time needed for cadastral surveying and property registration. The project is now completed, delivering satisfactory results to all involved parties and meeting its development goal in improving security of ownership to land in Kyrgyzstan.

10:30am - 12:00pm06-12: New Approaches to Large Scale Land Acquisition
Session Chair: Hafiz Mirza, UNCTAD, Switzerland
MC 9-100 

The intricacies of large scale agricultural investment in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

Azeb Degife

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany

Ethiopian government use agricultural investment as the most important and effective strategies for economic growth, food security and poverty reduction in the country. Since the mid-2000s, government has awarded millions hectares of fertile land to rich countries. This study explores the impact of large scale agriculture investment and its consequences to local livelihoods in Gambella region, Ethiopia. Gambella people’s survival and their identity are strongly tied to the land and the rivers that run through it. However, currently foreign and local investors grab the farm area on an industrial scale and that deprives their livelihoods and increasing food insecurity. Moreover, large land acquisition has been tremendous environmental devastation in region like forest has been cleared and burnt, wetland drained and people are largely dependent on international food aid and financial assistance. Further, it leads to displacement of smallholder farmers, loss of grazing land for pastoralists, loss of incomes and livelihoods for the peoples. Lastly, due to lack of good governance and transparency in the region, the natural resources are depleted and societies became food insecure. Therefore, Ethiopian government strategies are on the verge of falling unless integrated approach is not implemented.

Key words: agricultural investment, livelihoods, food insecurity, integrated approach


Understanding the Implication of Macroeconomic Growth on Smallholder Farmer, Landless, Landpoor and Women's livelihood and Land Rights in Lower Mekong Basin Region

Kaneka Keo1, Daniel Lindgren2

1Oxfam America, Cambodia; 2Rapid Asia Co.,Ltd

Rapid economic expansion has led to an increase in demand for agricultural land, creating land tenure insecurity for the small-scale farmers. It also leads to negatively affected, as key industrial sector and other development project. Land grabbing, or the acquisition of land by the individual and cooperate investors or government is become a major threat to small scale famer and put their food security at risk “Why have smallholders been ignored or regularly stigmatized as old-fashioned, resistant of innovation, inefficient, and a barrier to modernization?” They contribute to the production of about 50% of the world’s food, which quells hunger in developing countries. In addition small-scale farmers in Lower Mekong Basin Countries also face challenges on several other fronts. In rural areas, involuntarily imposed landlessness is one of the main drivers of poverty. Considering this context, this paper aims to identify the characteristic and implications of economic growth’s effect on small-scale farmers, women farmers and landless in access to land and other resources in order to help understand and investigate the underlying issues of growth and its distribution in those LMB countries and analyzes How to minimize the negative impact of current policies and practices on smallholders ‘wellbeing and livelihood.


Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: The Yala Swamp Case Study of Kenya’s Land Governance System and Actual Practices

Odenda Lumumba


This paper examines large-scale land acquisitions in Kenya by looking at the case of the Dominion Farms Limited takeover of Yala Swamp. The case study illustrates actual practices of Kenya’s land governance system in terms of how large-scale land acquisitions take shape and their results on the ground. The phenomenon in Kenya as elsewhere in Africa is not new except the scale and scope has been exacerbated by the increased demand for large-scale land acquisitions for production of food, bio-fuels and extractive industry raw materials since 2008 (Alden Wily, 2011; Anseeuw et al, 2012; Deininger, 2011; World Bank, 2010; Amanor, 2012). This paper seeks to use Dominion Farms Ltd, a project of an American investor to show how it forms the continuation of past practices. It explores whether or not the new land governance frameworks are able to regulate such investments to ensure that they address the implications such as loss of access by local communities to agricultural land and commons for grazing and fishing. The paper further explores changes that have taken place at Yala Swamp from 2003 to 2013 and assesses them against the backdrop of recent and emerging land governance regulatory frameworks at national, regional and global levels.


Smallholders and large –scale land acquisition in west Africa: the case of the management committees of customary land in Benin

Avohoueme Midjeou Beranger

LADYD, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin

Rather than to defend that land investments is top-down phenomenon that facilitates African states, this article question the role of smallholders in land investments. The results show that many young illiterate or/scholars villagers sharing family relationships form some land management committees of their lineages. These committees functions as boards. They promote the land deals leasing whose areas range from 20 to 1,500 hectares in investors. The proliferation of large-scale land deals in the villages studied is motivated by the will of the family property management committees to control customary land. Three objectives underlying this desire to control: firstly, counter fraudulent land sales; secondly, create opportunities for rural development through land investments; and thirdly, to formalize boundaries of ‘stool land’ to avert potential future land litigations. In the villages, it exists connivance relationships between management organizations of "clans’ lands" and the other institutions involved in land regulation. From these complicities, offices of these management committees are able to easily circumvent the government measures of large-scale land investments restrictions in order to formalize the land deals for the benefit of investors.

06-12-Midjeou Beranger-675_paper.pdf
2:15pm - 3:45pm07-12: Valuing and Compensating Farm Land and Commons
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
MC 9-100 

Natural and Social Capital Valuation: Piloting a Bottom-Up Approach to Valuing the Commons and Paving the Way for Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal

Daphne Yin1, Yijia Chen1, Jeffrey Hatcher1, Santosh Bhandari2, Pete Watt2, Pratiti Priyadarshini3, Rahul Chaturvedi3, Jagdeesh Rao3, Peadar Davis4, Paul Bidanset4

1Indufor North America, United States of America; 2Indufor Asia Pacific, New Zealand; 3Foundation for Ecological Security, India; 4Ulster University, United Kingdom

This paper will present and analyze the development of a new tool to value community assets that links community-level engagement, remote sensing, and computer-assisted mass appraisal methods. The tool integrates social capital analysis as a proxy for tenure security in areas with un-registered property rights.

The project members developing the valuation approach include an international forestry valuation firm, a leading Indian NGO and a university department specialized in real estate valuation.

The project is being conducted in four phases:

1. Review of existing methods to value non-market assets including natural capital, ecosystem services, and cultural sites.

2. Construction of a social capital scoring system and development of a mobile application for bottom-up valuation engaging community members

3. Examining the steps required to integrate remote sensing datasets to scale up the valuation process, and to generate data for computer-assisted mass appraisal to identify the most significant contributors of value

4. Field testing of the valuation tool in six commons in Rajasthan, India with differing ecology, tenure status and uses.

The research currently underway will support the development of robust, scalable and transferable tools and approaches to calculate the value of common land, particularly to the communities who rely upon it.


Detemining Minimum Compensation for Lost Farmland: A Theory- Based Impact Evalution of a Bio-Ethanol Multinational Company in Sierra Leone

Joseph Saffa, Mohamed Sorie Conteh, Lansana Hassan Sowa

Sierra Leone Network on the Right to Food (SiLNoRF), Sierra Leone

The land grabbing issue has produced a plethora of debates ranging from ethical conduct of land grabbing agents, specifically concerning displacement, to evidence for and against positive externalities such as technological spill-overs and construction of infrastructure. An underexplored topic is the valuation of agriculture land and the compensatory payments made to land users, distinct from land owners, for the loss of their source of food security. This paper establishes a theoretical framework for the valuation of agricultural land from the perspective of land users, based on a household production function. For the analysis data were collected in a survey of 203 household in a land grab affected area in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone in 2013. It shows that for this case the compensatory payment receive by land users are far below the value of land lost and as such the lease income is unable to allow these households to maintain their previously, already tenuous, levels of food security. This study shows since the value of land is determined by local law the project could correctly call itself compliant but the land grab still resulted in significant welfare losses affecting mostly the vulnerable section of the local population.


Guarding Against Land-expropriation-related Mass Incidents (LERMIs): Practical Evidence From China's Local Governments

Siliang Wang1, Shukui Tan1, Lu Zhang1, Conghui Cheng2

1Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, People's Republic of; 2Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, People's Republic of

In China’s rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China’s local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed cases, break various practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce probabilities of conflicts, and the specific local practices which are always heterogeneous tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments’ paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.


Do rehabilitation institutions from land acquisition fit with farmers’ preferences? Results from a contingent ranking experiment in India

Vikram Patil1, Ranjan Ghosh2, Vinish Kathuria3

1Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, India; 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; 3SJM School of Management of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India

Large scale land acquisitions for developmental work around the world lead to displacement of near about 10-15 million people annually. Majority of them, especially in developing countries, end up being worse off. We argue that institutional fit can render rehabilitation measures effective. This is shown empirically through a contingent ranking experiment on 200 farmers in the catchment area of a large-scale irrigation project in India. Results suggest that landowners, given a choice, prefer land or employment based compensation over the existing method of monetary compensation. In the context of land acquisition and associated rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R), we find that preference as an indicator of acceptance helps contextualize institutions. Our results come at a critical juncture where newly enacted land acquisition policies in India are facing huge political resistance. It provides concrete evidence that the design of R&R needs to include landowners’ preferences.

4:00pm - 5:30pm08-12: Eminent Domain and Compulsory Land Takings
Session Chair: Jonathan Lindsay, World Bank, United States of America
MC 9-100 

Compulsory Purchase Powers - Essential For Emerging Economies

Tony Mulhall, James Kavanagh

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, United Kingdom

Many emerging economies have had a history of state confiscation of private land along with state ownership and management of this land. This experience has framed the views of many post communist governments. Having moved from command economies to market economies where the right to private property is enshrined as a key signifier of new freedoms there has been a reluctance to transfer back to the state the power to compulsorily acquire (eminent domain) private property even in the public interest. Experience with delegations from the land administration departments of emerging economies confirms the reluctance to introduce compulsory acquisition powers because of their association with previous totalitarian regimes. This reluctance to introduce compulsory acquisition powers is now acting against the public interest in key infrastructure provision particularly in relation to networked services. 1. This paper argues that failure to introduce compulsory acquisition powers will delay the provision of essential services for millions of people. 2. It argues for compensation reflecting existing market values rather than some form of state attributed value as a way of ensuring equitable treatment of owners. 3. It specifies particular skills and behaviours among professionals handling such acquisition to re-assure those whose land is being acquired.


Eminent Domain in Finland

Markku Markkula

National Land Survey of Finland, Finland

Professor Kauko Viitanen, Aalto University

Deputy Director-General Markku Markkula, NLS

Expropriation (compulsory purchase or acquisition in UK or eminent domain or condemnation in the U.S.A.) is not the primary method for land acquisition, but presumes that the land acquisition has been impossible to achieve in any other way. For example, it is stated in the Finnish Act on Expropriation that expropriation must not be enforced if the purpose of the expropriation can be achieved in some other way.

According to Finnish law the cadastral surveyor has in certain cases the same mandate as a district court to solve disputes. Appeal against the decisions given by a cadastral surveyor can be made to the land Court and from LC to the Supreme Court. The cadastral surveyor has this statutory mandate.

The Finnish expropriation system, which is carried out by a cadastral surveyor, is a very flexible and agile way of putting big infrastructure projects into effect. The District court or Land Court need not give verdict regarding compensations if no appeal is made. The interests of both parties are taken into ac-count by the cadastral surveyor who has to be an impartial person leading the procedure.


Displacement politics and post-aid urban development: Resettlements, donors and infrastructure development in Beira city, Mozambique

Murtah Read1,2, Annelies Zoomers1,2, Kei Otsuki1,2, Mayke Kaag2,3

1Utrecht University; 2LANDac; 3African Studies Center Leiden

Balancing the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ targets of urban development will pose significant challenges to struggling municipalities marred by infrastructure deficits, as land based investments have regularly lead to displacement and loss of livelihoods. For municipalities such as Beira in Mozambique however, which have succeeded in attracting substantial investments from abroad, it is a balancing act which is closely related to the priorities of the various supporting donors and IFI’s. It is against this background that this paper will discuss three recent cases of development induced resettlement in Beira, each associated with a different donor, resettlement strategy and development outcome. In doing so the paper will put forth the argument that resettlements are highly contingent upon the interests associated with them. Furthermore it will argue that such a contingency, occurring within the shared administrative framework and close proximity of the same city, serves to perpetuate the arbitrariness of municipal-resident relations, thus ultimately undermining inclusive urbanization. As an increasing amount of resources and interests are mobilized around urban land throughout the world, these findings point to the need for greater understanding of displacement politics if the ambitions of the NUA and SDGs are to be realized. .


Land For Infrastructure Development: Compulsory Acquisition And Compensation Of Undocumented /Unregistered Land In Kenya

Agatha Wanyonyi, Monica Obongo, Peter Mburu, Jane Ndiba

Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya

Kenya’s Vision 2030 aims at transforming the country into a newly industrialized middle income country and infrastructural development is high on the agenda to achieve this. Since most land already has interests the use of eminent domain by government is inevitable. However most of the land earmarked for compulsory acquisition comprises of un- registered land whose interests are not formally documented. Kenya has progressive statutes that provide for compensation of land that is compulsorily acquired even where the owners/ occupants do not hold legal titles. The paper explores how the government while implementing infrastructural projects using compulsory acquisition was able to identify genuine land owners, value the land and implement fair and just compensation. It looks at how grievances were resolved using alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. It also explores the benefits negotiated for the affected communities and safeguards being explored to guide future compensations.


Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am09-12: Impact of Land-related Regulations
Session Chair: Mondonga Mokoli, Strayer University and Montgomery College, United States of America
MC 9-100 

The Impact of Initial Security of Tenure on Smallholder Farmers’ Household Income and Food Security: A Case Study of the Chiradzulu District in Malawi

Kefasi Kamoyo1, Solomon Mkumbwa2, Harold Liversage3, Rex Baluwa1

1Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Malawi; 2Land and Global Land Tool Network- UN Habitat, Kenya; 3International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy

Malawi government with financial assistance from International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is implementing a nine year Sustainable Agriculture Production Programme (SAPP). Since all agricultural systems depend on land, the ownership of, or access to, agricultural land are important determinants of who actually benefits from agricultural investments. The land tenure system affects agricultural land use, prospects for improvement, productivity and food security. Using the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM), this paper examines how the structure of land tenure system among the SAPP beneficiaries influences technology adoption, agricultural productivity, and food security among the beneficiary households. It reveals that despite receiving the same package of extension training and farm inputs, households with less than 0.5 ha land holding size experienced more months of hunger and earned the least agricultural income. Again, those that rented land for agricultural production least adopted the sustainable land and water management that would improve the net value of land. In conclusion, the paper recommends that for effective and sustainable impact, initial analysis of tenure on land and natural resources should be a key component of any design of agricultural development investment programme.


Putting Land Rights into Value

Andreas Lange

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany

One of the main drivers behind the formalization of rural land rights is the assumption that increased tenure security will boost agricultural production, because it incentivizes farmers to make investments. Yet, the results of land formalization programs have partly stayed behind expectations. One reason might be that farmers require additional support systems to put land rights into value. Investments in tenure regularization need to be combined with a vision for enhancing landholders’ ability to access services needed for productivity enhancing investments. Tenure regularization programs also need to pay more attention to better securing the actual producers working the land, and not just the owners. This requires more insight into secondary rights and rental arrangements. The hypothesis of this paper is that a more secure access to land alone may not sufficiently trigger increases in productivity and agricultural production. Depending on the country context and the existing tenure security perception of farmers, additional support instruments may be necessary that help farmers putting their newly acquired land rights into value. The paper will discuss country examples supported by the German bilateral technical assistance focussing on formalizing land rights and providing farmers with additional livelihood support measures.


Land And Poverty Alleviation

Amit Bhola

Shri Balaji Agrotech Pvt Ltd, India

The Land and poverty alleviation is to remove poverty through implementation of all constituents of land reforms globally. Access to ownership of land and security of tenure can save the landless and the land poor from starvation or hunger. Implementation of land reforms doesn’t involve huge funds but requisite political and administrative will is required to implement measures of land reforms to reduce poverty. If land reforms are not implemented, the stark discrimination in society will cause the land poor in rural areas and the homeless in urban areas to mobilise and overrun the creations of globalisation and symbols of modern civilisation. This is not only a theoretical work on land vis-à-vis poverty, it also provides practical solutions and methodologies based on the best practices around the world in respect of each factor of land reform. It will be an epoch-making benchmark and experience for serious readers, practical administrators, policy-makers, peasants, sharecroppers and their leaders. Also mobile technology can bridge the connection gap in developing communities, can unlock markets and capital for farmers, and address food insecurity.As an effective land reform programme must boost efficiency and promote equity, land ownership should be targeted towards those who use it most productively.

10:30am - 12:00pm10-12: Governance of Real Estate
Session Chair: Arvo Kokkonen, National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
MC 9-100 

Property Based Information Systems of Turkey

Mehmet Fatih Diri

General Directorate of Land Registy and Cadastre, Turkey

Innovative policies following TKGM, also has a modern and integrated system of land registry and cadastre information. Two of the most important of these systems are TAKBIS and MEGSIS.

Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS) is one of the basic e-State projects aiming at uploading all ownership information within the country and allow people to search all kinds of answers in the electronic environment. The purpose is to allow carry out all kinds of transactions online; this would allow effective follow and control of both private and state immoveable properties by computers.

Another significant IT Project is MEGSIS. MEGSIS is a web-based application software; harnessing title deed and cadastral data. It is an open-source application developed by General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadaster, where cadaster data are collected by the center system from local users in the cadaster offices in digital .cad format and are harmonized with land registry data in order to be submitted to stakeholder institution, organization, municipalities and citizens by e-government link. There are about 70 million land parcels in the MEGSIS system. All the 70 million parcels can be queried in conjunction with the ownership data by users.


REGIA: creating new context for better governance

Aidas Petrosius, Kestutis Sabaliauskas, Arvydas Bagdonavičius

State Enterprise Centre of Registers, Lithuania

REGIA is a free GIS based cloud platform developed by the Lithuania’s Centre of Registers. In its core, REGIA is an interactive map loaded with multiple data layers, combining administrative data, data search and management tools, messaging, as well as other interaction functionalities, and an API providing application development and integration capabilities for third parties.

Principles woven into very fabric of the REGIA are those of voluntary participation, crowdsourcing, and open data. It is noteworthy that within two years after introduction of this platform all 60 municipalities and number of government institutions of Lithuania adopted REGIA.

In terms of technology REGIA is relatively simple, low cost solution that took approx. $100,000 USD to develop. Yet it’s not the technology or data itself that makes REGIA worth replicating in other countries, but rather the whole new contexts for decision making that are being created by combining multiple data layers together.

The impact REGIA has made in Lithuania over the course of past few years transformed the ways in which municipalities as well as government institutions use to disclose information, engage in collaboration with residents and local communities, address decision making, organize problem mapping, manage day-to-day activities, and perform many other tasks.


Formalizing Real Estate Markets Within Europe, Structural Reforms And Challenges

Chrysi Potsiou


This paper investigates experience in real estate markets, mainly gained from ECA economies in transition, as well as from European countries affected by the economic crisis, identifies major challenges and aims to improve awareness and increase capacity among professionals in the private and public sectors and in academia, on the basic principles of the framework policy for establishing sustainable real estate markets. The research aims to point out the fields where reforms are needed as well as the need for coordination of policies. Results of this research may be useful in other regions as well.

The topics that are addressed include recent examples, lessons-learnt and remaining challenges from various countries, with a particular emphasis on introducing the use of modern technologies and fit-for-purpose land administration, land use framework and spatial planning; alternative land dispute resolution/ mediation; the potential of crowdsourcing in improving the availability of land information and market data; regulating the necessary professional services; the challenge of converting dead capital (unused or underused land and real estate) into productive capital to increase employment and reduce poverty; developing sustainable financing to encourage private investment in real estate; property taxation; developing social housing/affordable housing policy; and improving professional capacity and training.


International Property Market Scorecard – A Tool for Data Collection

Sylvia Luchini1, William Endsley2, Anna Kompanek3

1The International Real Property Foundation, United States of America; 2World Citizen Consulting; 3Center for International Private Enterprise

Understanding property rights often remains limited to property titles, without deeper appreciation of the underlying and interconnected institutions that make property rights meaningful and contributing to overall economic development. Though in most countries private property rights are legally protected that protection changes greatly in practice because the implementing rules and data collection that shape property market transparency remain weak. The International Property Markets Scorecard is a tool that collects data from 54 different indicators under six core elements: property rights laws and enforcement, access to credit by small businesses, efficiency of governance, rational dispute resolution, financial transparency, and appropriate regulations. These map the institutional components of property markets and evaluates their effectiveness.

The Scorecard has two levels of study: secondary research and field assessments of current property market conditions. The implementation of the Scorecard has proven successful in a multiregional study in Armenia, China, Kenya and the Philippines by collecting data and identifying underlining obstacles that small businesses face in urban commercial property markets. Therefore, the Scorecard is a mechanism for in-country reformers, international policy advisors, and market analysts as it provides comprehensive snapshots of market conditions, identifying key areas for reform and market risks.

1:00pm - 2:30pm11-12: How Landuse & Building Regulations affect Property Markets
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
MC 9-100 

Evaluating the Equity and Efficiency Impacts of Land Use Regulations: Theoretical Framework and Empirical Approach

Eric Heikkila1, Robin Rajack2

1University of Southern California, United States of America; 2Inter-American Development Bank

This research investigates how land use regulations impact access to housing, with a focus on equity and efficiency outcomes. The initial applications are to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Campinas, Brazil. The conceptual model is elaborated in four successive versions: (i) a base case using a linear expenditure system model, with zero land use regulation as a benchmarking point of reference for future model iterations (ii) a modified base case where a single land use regulation is applied uniformly jurisdiction-wide, (iii) a modified base case with multiple zoning jurisdictions, and (iv) a modified base case incorporating a monocentric urban geography but with a uniform land use regime. Each of these model specifications results in a correspondingly distinct empirical strategy for estimating the impacts of land use regulations. An interesting theoretical result is that specifications (iii) and (iv) above are likely to have lower adverse impacts than specification (ii). The explanation is essentially a Tieboutian one: when there are more jurisdictions, each with its own regulatory regime (specification iii), any household can relocate to the jurisdiction that best suits its circumstances. Interestingly, geography can play a similar role, even where there is a single, uniform regulatory regime throughout the metropolitan region.


Effects of Land Misallocation on Capital Allocations in India

Gilles Duranton2, Ejaz Ghani1, Arti Grover1, William Kerr3

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania; 3Harvard Business School

Growing research and policy interest focuses on the misallocation of output and factors of production in developing economies. We consider in this paper the possible misallocation of financial loans. Using plant-level data on the organized and unorganized sectors, we first describe the temporal, geographic, and industry distributions of financial loans. We focus attention on a hypothesis that land misallocation might be an important determinant of financial misallocation (e.g., due to its role as collateral against loans). Using district-industry variations, we find evidence to support this hypothesis, although we do not observe a total reduction in the intensity of financial loans or for those being given to new entrants. We also consider differences by gender of business owners and workers in firms. While potential early gaps for businesses with substantial female employment have disappeared in the organized sector, a sizeable and persistent gap remains in the unorganized sector.


Factor Missallocation, Firm Entry and Exit, and Productivity in Ukraine's Agricultural Sector

Klaus Deininger1, Denys Nizalov2, Mykola Ryzhenkov3, Sudhir Singh1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 3Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine

To be filled

2:45pm - 4:15pm12-12: Property Rights Aspects of "Vertical Expansion"
Session Chair: Rohan Bennett, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
MC 9-100 

Apartment owners associations

Leon Verstappen, Noortje Vegter, Fokke Jan Vonck

University of Groningen, Netherlands, The

This paper deals with the results of an empirical study on how apartment owners’ association function in practice in the Netherlands. The background of this question is the hypothesis that with good functioning apartment owners’ associations, it is possible to improve distressed areas in cities, which relatively often have neglected apartment buildings.

This main question is divided in two sub-questions:

1. To what extent is the legal structure of the apartment owners’ association relevant for the well-functioning of the apartment owners’ association?

2. Two what extent is there a relationship between the formal functioning of apartment owners’ association and the substantive functioning (maintenance) of apartment owners’ association?

Before describing the results of this study, we provide a quick overview of apartment ownership in the Netherlands, focusing on the apartment owners’ association and the legal position of its members. After sketching the main results of the research on how well these organisations function in practice, we will outline some of the main recommendations to the legislator and legal practitioners.


Land Ownership in Nigeria: Towards a Legal Framework for Condominium

Awwal Magashi

Adam Smith International, Nigeria

Our population keeps on expanding exponentially but our lands keep on shrinking retrogressively. Sadly, there is no adequate arrangement put in place to address this issue. It is a common thread among the comity of nations that it is an inalienable right of every human being to own an immoveable property anywhere he deems fit provided he has complied with all the necessary legal requirements. Unfortunately, there are landmines all over the place militating against enjoyment of this right. This is more evident especially condominium owners where they have a mirage ownership of their units. In some instances, absence of proper legal framework regulating condominium renders nugatory the existence of such right. So also does the private estate developers hope of investing hugely in real estate sector is also severely undermined. The paper will reflect on mechanisms being developed in Kano State to support improvements in individual land ownership to support a more formal land market as a spur for economic growth. It is against this background that this paper argues for the need to have a legal framework in Nigeria to enable condominium owners enjoy their fundamental human rights to own and acquire property without much fuss.


The World Is Not a Pizza - How Single-Photon LiDAR Shows the World in 3D – Affordably and Reliably

Ronald Roth

Leica Geosystems, United States of America

Galileo is often credited for declaring the shape of the earth as bowl instead a flat plate or a pizza. Today, land stewardship depends on showing the world in 3D, not just 2D.

Resources and infrastructure are 3-dimensional, with shape and contour, texture and thickness. Such knowledge of our surroundings allows effective land and resource allocation, successful execution of infrastructure projects, better disaster preparedness. 2-dimensional information is expensive to generate and less intuitive. Efficiently managing our environment and access to resources, mandates describing our environment accurately, cheaply and in a readily usable form.

Airborne LiDAR is a leading method to collect 3-dimensional data. It rapidly captures spatial data from objects as small as a television cable and penetrates small openings in tree canopy to yield information about forest biomass and under-canopy topography. Single-Photon LIDAR (SPL) promises to significantly reduce the cost of obtaining topographic data, fueling nation-wide data collection at manageable cost, providing valuable, easily-transmitted, easily-interpreted models of our surroundings. The result: efficient resource management, effective infrastructure planning and better preparation for natural disasters, with all users accessing a consistent information base.

In this Lightning Talk, get an overview of SPL technology and its application in effective land stewardship.


Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017
9:00am - 10:30am13-07: Land & Forest Tenure Reform for Policymakers & Practitioners

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 9-100 

Land And Forest Tenure Reform Implementation And Tenure Security: An Orientation for Policy Makers And Practitioners

Anne Larson, Esther Mwangi, Mani Banjade

Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia

What is tenure security? What are the key factors influencing forest tenure security? How can the tenure rights of multiple actors (men, women, indigenous groups etc) be secured during reform implementation? How can tenure security be advanced during reform implementation? These are some of the questions that participants will explore during this Masterclass session. The session will draw heavily from ongoing research and action under CIFORs Global Comparative Study on tenure reform implementation and from related initiatives by CAPRi, FAO and the International Land Coalition.

The main objective of this masterclass is to enable participants to better understand the concept of land and forest tenure security, its multi-dimensional nature, linkages of tenure reforms with people’s livelihoods and key future initiatives to secure the rights of forest and land dependent communities. The session will also introduce participants to Participatory Prospective Analysis, a collaborative approach for analyzing tenure threats and for identifying options for tenure security. Masterclass will establish a community of practice and will be engaged over the course of the next two years in subsequent learning activities including a tenure café, electronic consultation and regional forums aimed at deepening our understanding of how to secure tenure rights in multiple settings.

11:00am - 12:30pm14-07: Towards Sustainable Pastoralism: The FAO VGGT Guide 6

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 9-100 

Towards Sustainable Pastoralism Through Improving Governance of Pastoral Lands: Implementation of the FAO VGGT Governance of Techncial Guide No. 6

Vivian Onyango1, Gregorio VelascoGil1, Fiona Flintan2, Jonathan Davies3

1Pastoralist Knowledge Hub (PKH), FAO,; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 3World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP)/International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Pastoralism, the extensive production of livestock in rangelands is practiced all over the world. However pastoralism as a land use system is hampered by poor tenure security and governance. In 2016 FAO launched “Improving Governance of Pastoral Lands: Implementing the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security.” This Guide builds on a number of initiatives and studies from recent years that have shone a light on pastoral governance and land tenure: on the inherent challenges pastoralists face, the shortcomings of governments in securing pastoral tenure, and the emerging examples of success and progress from around the world. The Guide also gives direction for developing a Pastoral Policy This paper summarises and discusses the content of the Guide and considers its application in different contexts. It draws from the experiences of several case studies to illustrate how best the guideline can be used, and what impacts its application will have.

12:30pm - 1:30pmILC: International Year of Rangelands and Pastoralists

Contact ILC Rangelands Initiative: Fiona Flinton:

MC 9-100 
1:30pm - 3:00pm15-07: Forest Governance Market and Climate Program

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC 9-100 

Forest Governance Market and Climate Programme (FGMC)

Francesca Marzatico02, Hugh Speechly01, Sandra Thiam03, Art Blundell04

1Palladium; 2Palladium; 3European Forest Institute; 4Forest Trends

Deforestation and forest degradation harm biodiversity, contribute to climate change and increase poverty. From 2010 to 2015, 32.5 million ha of natural forest - an area larger than Norway - was lost. Evidence suggests that for every million hectares of forest destroyed, up to a billion tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) are lost into the atmosphere. Close to 1.6 billion people – more than 25% of the world’s population – rely on forest resources for their livelihoods and most of them (1.2 billion) use trees on farms to generate food and cash. Forest clearance primarily for large-scale agriculture and illegal logging resulting in forest degradation, and the related trade in commodities and timber, therefore also deprive forest-dependent people of their livelihoods.

The master class aims at enhancing knowledge on forestry governance related issues and on how these contribute to poverty reduction while supporting sustainable development, market growth, equity and land rights. It also aims at expanding the community of practitioners with the purpose of exchanging information and lessons learned in order to enhance effectiveness of actions. It will do so through a participatory methodology including presentation, Q&A session and group discussions.