The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-01: Investing in the Commons: Choices and Consequences|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Translation French, Streaming.
Lessons from Investing in Land-based Commons by the French Technical Committee on Land Tenure and Development (CTFD)
1CIRAD, France; 2French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France
To be completed
The Commons in the Tonle Sap Flood Plain: Insights from community fisheries management
1Mekong Region Land Governance; 2Analyzing Development Issues Centre; 3French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) - UMR Passage
To be completed
Uneasy Relationship between Co-management (involving state agents) and Commons Management
To be completed
Benefits Derived from Official Recognition of the Commons by the State and Central Authorities
1Comores; 2Senegal; 3Kenya
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-02: Forest Tenure Reform Implementation: What have we Learned?|
Session Chair: Esther Mwangi, Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
Translation Spanish, Streaming.
Over the past two decades many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have adopted and implemented reforms in the natural resources sectors that have aimed at devolving or decentralizing forest and land management to lower levels of governance. The reforms have been aimed at securing the tenure rights of local communities living adjacent to forest resources as a pathway to improved livelihoods and sustainable use and management of forest resources. In addition, reforms have also targeted increased participation of different actors in decision making including women and marginalized groups. In the past five years, some countries have reviewed and re-authorized their laws while others are currently in the process of review and re-adjustment. It will involve a presentation of evidence and lessons from CIFORs Global Comparative Study on Tenure (GCS-Tenure)—see: http://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/.
Key Lessons from CIFORs Global Comparative Study on Tenure Reform Implementation
Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
To be completed
Case Study Colombia
Land Titling Office, Colombia
To be completed
Case Study Indonesia
Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia
To be completed
Case Study Kenya
Kenya Forest Service, Kenya
To be completed
Case Study Nepal
Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Nepal, Nepal
To be completed
Case Study Peru
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Peru
To be completed
Case Study Uganda
Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda
To be completed
The World Bank Group, United States of America
To be completed
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
To be completed
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-03: Using Remotely Sensed Data to Improve Land Use Efficiency|
Session Chair: Guido Lemoine, European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Italy
Tools for Improving Land Tenure Project Outcomes with Through Mobile Access to Land Management Information with the Global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS)
1USDA-ARS, United States of America; 2USAID, United States of America; 3University of Colorado @ Boulder, United States of America
Securing land tenure is often a necessary but rarely sufficient requirement for long-term sustainability of agricultural production and rural communities. To maintain and increase its value, land must be managed within its sustainable potential. This paper reviews the challenges of determining the potential of specific land types (soil+topography+climate), and accessing relevant information and knowledge necessary for management. It describes the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS), which is addressing these challenges described by providing soil-specific knowledge and information through mobile apps and cloud-computing. This system can also be used to more equitably allocate land based on its sustainable production potential. The free apps are currently being used to inventory and monitor the impacts of several rangeland restoration and management projects. By the end of 2017 they will provide users with relative potential production and soil erosion risk under several management scenarios, including annual cropping. The system is completely open, and all data are available on a data portal and through APIs. User inputs are used to increase the precision of soil identification using a simple icon-based interface supported by short embedded video clips. Future versions will provide soil-specific management information from new (including user-generated) and existing knowledge-bases.
Utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the agricultural sector
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Although there has been substantial technical advancement with respect to the exploi-tation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information during the last few decades, little attention has been given to the potential for geospatial methods to collect accurate data in agriculture and evaluate it. With this in mind, the present paper has shed light on the effective utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the agricultural sector by introducing a state-of-the-art geospatial information system; that is, the Korean Land Change Monitoring System (KLCMS). Moreover, this paper reports on two main applications of KLCMS to the agricultural environment in South Korea.
First, with a periodic monitoring, a state-owned land information system can decline the rate of the occupation without permission on state-owned lands, imposing property taxes on the use of them. Furthermore, a management system for supply and demand of agricultural products can precisely estimate crop areas by using images from UAVs, which would forecast yields of farm products.
In conclusion, these utilizations might contribute to suggesting feasible solutions for sustainable agriculture and rural development in South Korea as well as further develop-ing countries.
A Space-time Analysis Approach to Tackle Some Emerging Environmental Issues
Arizona State University, United States of America
Our planet has been experiencing significant changes in global population, urbanization, energy use, food security, water use, climate, and atmospheric conditions since the last few decades. These changes are emerging along with the rapid growth of spatiotemporal climate, environment, socio-economic, atmospheric and advanced analysis approaches. The integrative space-time system of geographic information science offers a unique and effective framework to investigate spatial-temporal processes and interactions in a wide range of environmental applications for informed decision-making. This trend is further enhanced by the growing availability of high temporal resolution data, computational performance of space-time concepts, and emerging data-intensive or big data-driven science. Especially with regards to remotely sensed image analysis spatio-temporal method has received attention since high temporal resolution MODIS was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999. This paper attempts to demonstrate if and how spatial-temporal image analysis can be employed to tackle some emerging environmental issues in connection to evidence-based sustainable land management. Example applications include (1) Environmental concerns of deforestation in Myanmar; (2) Spatio-temporal modeling of the urban heat island in the Phoenix metropolitan area: Land use change implications; and (3) Examining the ecosystem health and sustainability of the world’s largest mangrove forest.
A Cost-Effective Approach to Meeting Data Needs for Multi-Purpose Land Governance in Africa
Earth Institute, Columbia University, United States of America
Demands on land governance in Africa have grown faster than supply. In addition to the traditional purposes of access and property rights, processes of land governance in Africa are now increasingly expected to play a role in carbon management, regulation of land degradation, biodiversity protection, provision of food security, protection of indigenous rights, conflict management, population movement and resettlement, disease control, and sustainable water management. We build on the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) to identify the principles that can guarantee a cost-effective, scalable approach to meeting land governance data needs. 1) blending of official and unofficial data sources, 2) select investment in “club goods” that fill critical data needs more effectively than public good or private investments (for example, investment in high-capacity infrared and x-ray spectroscopy), 3) specification of land-governance data requirements around decision-support needs, 4) willingness to provide data in probabilistic terms, 5) creation of public-private data partnerships, 6) open-data architectures that extend principles of openness to sample frames, collection algorithms, estimation procedures, and fitness-for-purpose evaluations. We illustrate how such principles have made a difference in specific settings in Africa, and utilize quantitative evidence to demonstrate how the principles provide more value at lower cost than conventional approaches.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-04: Policies for Improving Urban Governance|
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
Comparative Analysis of National-Level Residential Planning Parameter Guidelines For Five Sub-Saharan African Countries
World Bank, United States of America
A comparative analysis of the urban planning parameters and guidelines is conducted for five Sub-Saharan African countries – Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda. The analysis focuses on the planning parameters for residential uses, and in particular, examines the density, plot size and site/plot coverage standards. The comparison is done between the national-level standards/guidelines. These usually exist as a compendium to the national-level Urban Planning Act (eg. as a subsidiary legislation, or in a manual, handbook or code form). The main objective of the study is to better understand the approach adopted in these SSA countries to guide residential urban development. This is particularly important in the context of SSA cities where informal settlement occupy high proportion of urban land, and where there are hige challenges in the ability to support affordable housing for a large urban poor population. It further attempts to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the guidelines examined, as a first step to potentially improve them. Potential areas for future research are also identified. The study is also one of the first attempts in this direction to fill a gap in current literature.
Addressing New Land Governance Challenges: Governance Schemes For Urban Regeneration Project In Latin America
World Bank, Colombia
Urban regeneration projects need an institutional capacity and solid arrangements between local governments and private sector. Implementation of these projects faces difficulties in urban infrastructure finance, land owner’s participation, public and private agreements for its development, and the continuation of projects beyond the city mayor’s period. In Colombia, cities have been leading urban regeneration projects for deteriorated areas using land use master plans for specific areas of cities “partial plans” (PP). Urban regulations stablish that public development agencies and public and private institutional agreements could be in charge of formulation and implementation of PP. Definition of procedures, roles, and interaction mechanisms between public and private entities are some of the components of these PP governance schemes (GS).
Main role of governance schemes will be presented through the study of 2 urban regeneration projects in Colombia, the PP of Fenicia in Bogota and the PP of Sevilla in the “Innovation District of Medellin. The study of governance schemes of these PP could be an example for other urban regeneration projects including: i) scope of the project, ii) urban regulations, iii) stake holder participation mechanisms, and iv) institutional agreement
Automated Landuse Clearance For Effective Development Control Mechanism: The Case Of Megacity Dhaka
RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh), Bangladesh, People's Republic of
Sanction of a landuse clearance following the master plan is the major activity of development control practiced for a few decades in Bangladesh. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) is the statutory and legitimate authority constituted by the Town Improvement Act, 1953 for planning, development and development control activity of greater Dhaka, Narayanganj and surrounding areas (TIA Act, 1953). RAJUK is an autonomous institute headed by its Chairman and five members who are the full time officials deputed by the Government who are responsible for regulating five departments as Land and Administration, Planning, Development, Estate and finance. Plan approval ensures some sort of legitimate ownership of land and estate. RAJUK (Capital City Development Authority of Bangladesh) has initiated a pilot project technically assisted by IFC to automate landuse clearance system of one of its eight zones designated for institutional service delivery of 1428 sq km of its functional jurisdictional area. This piloting should be a role model and be replicated in near future in other zones for effective service delivery of sanctioning landuse clearance. This study reveals the problems, prospects, future policy issues for automated landuse clearance for effective development control mechanism in the megacity Dhaka area.
Transparency and effectiveness in Municipal Land Use
NIRAS Finland OY
The paper introduces the current status and challenges in West-Balkan countries related to land-use planning, loss of agricultural land and growing number of illegal constructions. The situation in the last two decades has been characterized by inappropriate rural spatial planning and unsatisfactory transparency and accountability with respect to land use.
Lately region-wide significant efforts made by national and local governments for a change, by initiating the introduction of central spatial planning systems, to control land management in urban and agricultural territories and to ensure, that land use is in compliance with the local laws and subject to public scrutiny.
The success of such approach presented through Kosovo case, where experiences show, that nationwide, modular, central e-planning, based on sound legal grounds can bring about dramatic changes in so far as dealing with sounds land use policies and the everlasting struggle to combat informal settlements. The implementation of such system can ensure effective planning and controlling of national and local land management practices; it can secure zones for agriculture - all of these in transparent and cost effectiveness fashion; thereby ultimately stimulating economic growth.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-05: Can Legal Provisions Help Increase Gender Equality?|
Session Chair: Benedicte Leroy De La Briere, World Bank, United States of America
The Role of Legal Professions in Addressing Gender Equality in Land Ownership, Cases from the Office a Public Notary in Albania
1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Albania; 2Public Notary
This article presents the role of legal professions addressing SDG Goal 5, target 5.a: “undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources, in accordance with national laws”.
Women and girls’ access to economic recourses such as land depends on the legal framework and the way it is implemented. This paper will show that ownership of women and girls of land depends among others and especially upon drafting of the contract by legal professionals (in this case notaries), in order to ensure that their rights as co-owners, owners or heirs (even in cases when they are presumed) does not perish and disappear. For that reason, this paper will illustrate some authentic real life cases from a notary in Albania, to demonstrate how women are excluded from the right to ownership or co-ownership of real estate.
Even when laws and regulations are in place, the case of Albania demonstrates that custom and tradition rule the life of individuals and the work of public officials. In this paper cases from the diary of a notary will be presented, where women lost their property.
Gender Equality and Women's Rights: The Essential Role of the Notaire in Implementing and Diffusing the De Jure Law
1International Union of Notaries; 2Sherbrooke University
Once de jure laws are adopted, the challenge for states lies in ensuring that the people, particularly those targeted by the rules of non-discrimination, can benefit from them. How can the state reach these people, inform them, provide legal services to them and ensure uniform and impartial application of the de jure law on the entire territory and to the entire population? In reaching these goals the civil law notaires can make a huge difference.
As a legal professional, the notaires must apply the de jure law and thereby meet its requirements; they are also subject to the highest standards of impartiality, ethics and professional conduct. The notaire represents all parties to a real estate or other legal transaction.
Among their legal obligations, the notaires must check the status and ability of all parties to the transaction and obtain their free and informed consent. They will not hesitate to meet in private with a party in order to ensure that the expressed consent is not given under duress or due to that person’s ignorance of his or her rights.
Land and Gender in the Western Balkans: Understanding Customs and People’s Lives to Achieve the SDGs
1FAO, Italy; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany
The article presents a joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) (on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)) GmbH initiative to integrate the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security principles on gender equality and help countries develop capacity to collect data, monitor and report progress on the SDG Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. FAO is the custodian institution of the land related indicators under goal 5, including indicator 5.a.2 on gender-equitable legal frameworks.
The article presents the results from testing the methodology for monitoring and reporting on the SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans countries using FAO’s Legal Assessment Tool for gender-equitable land tenure and the cross regional support to countries from other regions to learn from the experience of the Western Balkans countries.
Women’s Rights To Land And Property In Kenya
While the law reforms in Kenya provides for formal equality, there is need for substantive equality for women as a sustainable way of improving women’s enjoyment of their rights. While women’s rights to land and property are protected under the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and various national legislations, in practice, women remain disadvantaged. The main restriction is customary law and practices, which prohibit women from owning or inheriting land and other forms of property. These customary laws and practices are enhanced by stereotypical practices and socialization of women in believing they are not meant to own or inherit land or any other property. Customary practices in Kenya generally grant women secondary rights to land, namely through their relationships to a male relative, and women are rarely able to inherit land in their own right. In addition, women face serious obstacles in claiming their property rights either because they are unaware of their rights or they are unable to lay claim to this right.
In addition there are legal gaps that exist, for example, the Government of Kenya should clearly demonstrate good will to: support women rights and repeal any sections of enabling laws that do not comply with the Constitution
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Multi-Faceted Impacts of Secure Tenure Rights|
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Does Strengthening Local Tenure Rights Help Fulfill Conservation Goals?
1McGill University; 2Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 3The Nature Conservancy; 4University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Secure land tenure has been positively associated with human well-being as well as nature conservation. Conservation organizations have implicitly recognized this association from the beginnings of the conservation movement, (see, e.g., creation of community land conservancies in Africa and the creation of the conservation easement tool in the US). These organizations are beginning to think about whether and how to better incorporate land tenure strategies directly into their work and to more soundly ground that work based on evidence of both conservation and human benefits. By reviewing the literature on land tenure and land tenure security as it relates to conservation practice, we aim to clarify why conservation practitioners should incorporate land tenure security interventions directly into conservation strategies. We present a framework that links tenure security, land management decisions, and resulting outcomes related to human wellbeing and natural resource conservation. We identify three common pathways through which land tenure security impacts conservation interventions. We review existing practical approaches to assessing land tenure security in practice, and common methods for strengthening land tenure security as it they relate to conservation programs. We conclude with research frontiers.
Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting for Land
1Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda; 2University of Rwanda; 3Statistics Netherlands, Department of National Accounts, Environmental Accounts team; 4Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences; 5Natural Capital Accounting, Rwanda Natural Resources Authority; 6Ministry in Charge of Natural Resources
In Rwanda, land is the basis for agriculture which accounts for 34 percent of GDP and 90 percent of jobs. The high rate of population growth and inheritance practices led to land fragmentation. The small plots reduce productivity while increased productivity is needed to achieve food security and to boost rural incomes. Beyond agriculture, Rwanda’s rapid urbanization and plans for development of secondary cities will require additional land, as well as policies to limit sprawl and promote zoning for green areas that improve quality of life.The Rwandan Government, found it necessary to develop the Land Accounts as tool to support the implementation of the national land policy on a rational use of land. We analyzed the land uses change for the period of 2014-2015 via so-called land use change matrices. The land cover and use accounting for the period of 1990-2010 was used to monitor and analyze changes in land cover and land use. Preliminary findings show that fragmentation increased slowly during 2014 and 2015 given ongoing policies aimed at combating land fragmentation. The average size of plots allocated to livestock declined by almost 10%, and residential land use is the fastest growing category, increasing by almost 14% throughout 2014.
Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience for cashew growers in Khong district of Champasack province
Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement Project, Lao People's Democratic Republic
Even with the abundance of natural resources and land for agriculture, Lao PDR remains on the list of the 20 least developed countries in the world. More than 70% of the population in Laos depends on agriculture as their main source of income. Rural farmers are engaged in subsistence farming practices, but most of those farmers are lacking Land Use Certificates. The Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement (SNRMPE) Project has identified key lessons learnt for Land Use Certification, piloting certification in a cashew nut production project.
The mobilization of land authorities to issue land certificates to farmers helped cutting short the time and eliminated unnecessary steps in the process. Policy dialogue contributed to the adoption of new policies and benefitted the farmers. To address the lack of education and language barriers for women and ethnic minorities, the project targeted government staff and production groups. Key lesson learnt are that before any intervention, the trust of ethnic people needs to be earned, women need to be provided with land ownership, women farmers need to be educated on land use rights and staff of land authorities need to be trained on the issuance of Land Use Certificates.
The potential for homestead microplots to contribute to food security in rural West Bengal
Landesa, United States of America
Landesa’s partnership with the Government of West Bengal on state land allocation and titling programs provides an extraordinary learning opportunity. This paper uses survey data gathered through a recent study of households across West Bengal to explore the relationship between newly gained tenure security and the potential for improving the food security of the household. It finds no titling effect on food security, nor does it find an effect when women’s names have been included on the title. However, it does find a positive effect on food security when households engage in such livelihood activities as homestead kitchen gardening and animal husbandry. It concludes by exploring ways to improve the uptake of such activities at scale.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-07: Putting Fit for Purpose Land Administration in Practice|
Session Chair: Cornelis de Zeeuw, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Establishing a Legal Cadastre for Good Governance in Ethiopia: Identifying Bottlenecks and Steps Toward Scale-Up
1Land Equity International, Australia; 2World Bank; 3Consultant; 4Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, Ethiopia
The Government of Ethiopia’s Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTP II) establishes an ambitious goal of reaching middle-income status by 2025, envisioning industrial development for growth and job creation through effective urban development. The targets identified to reach this goal will, however, require substantial amounts of land. Local government’s ability to deliver this land - by establishing and implementing urban plans, enforcing regulations and identifying under-utilized land for infill - is undermined by the absence of a comprehensive legal cadastre. This paper presents the core findings of a project to review the status of current pilots being undertaken to create the urban legal cadastre, and presents policy recommendations for the way forward. The work provides an important understanding of the governance, project management and public awareness challenges of registering urban land in Ethiopia. It builds on other recent efforts in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and elsewhere to register urban land, notably Rwanda, and supports the Land Policy Initiative goal of “ten member states putting in place transparent, efficient and cost-effective land administration systems which are reflective of Africa’s unique realities by 2020.” The learning will prove instrumental for other countries in sub-Saharan Africa in similar endeavours.
A Fit For Purpose Land Cadaster in Mozambique
1EXI LDA, Mozambique; 2DINAT - National Directorate of Lands; 3Dutch Kadaster; 4Verde Azul/ DINAT
Mozambique is an african country that is engaged in building its National Land Cadaster. It has enacted several legal instruments. However, most land, in excess of 90%, is still used under unregistered good-faith occupations and customary tenure arrangements.
Recently a Land Tenure Regularization program aiming at registering 4 thousand communities and 5 million parcels under good faith or customary practice occupations, was defined. This massive program is a starting point to implement the National Land Cadaster.
To ensure that this first registration exercise runs smoothly and that targets and goals for the program are met, several activities were executed, namely:
1. A Fit For Purpose methodology
2. Adjustments to the existent LAS system - SiGIT, including the implementation of a mobile application for community based crowdsourcing and a Cloud Platform for managing field data;
3. Capacity Building both for cadaster technicians but as well as for community members for this first registration.
4. Continuous support for keeping the cadaster up-to-date within the community, through appropriate training and tools.
Results from the pilot are positive and allowed for tunning and adjustments to the developed methodology, tools and materials.
Fit-For-Purpose land Administration - Developing Country Specific Strategies for Implementation
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2Know Edge Ltd, United Kingdom
This paper looks at implementing Fit-For-Purpose land administration solutions at county level. This will require a country specific strategy drawing from the recent GLTN publication on “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – Guiding Principles for Country Implementation”.
The Fit-For-Purpose concept is about applying the spatial, legal and institutional methodologies that are most fit for the purpose of providing secure tenure for all by addressing the current constraints and allowing for incremental improvement over time.
This paper aims to present the first step of implementation by unfolding the contents of this kind of country specific strategies. Arguably, they should include the following steps: 1) Analysis of country context; 2) Analysis of existing spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 3) Developing a country specific FFP strategy for land administration; 4) Designing the country specific FFP spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 5) Capacity Development; 6) Country Specific Instruction Manuals; and 7) Economic Benefits Analysis.
Finally, the paper presents some experiences and reflections from a case study on implementing the FFP approach for land registration in the Gresik District, Indonesia.
Implementation Of National Land Administration System - Fit-For-Purpose IT-Leap Approach
Innola Solutions, Inc., US
Decades of land administration (LA) projects worldwide have led to the development of a series of guidelines for the implementation of LA systems. Facing the complexity of the domain a more practical fit-for-purpose (FFP) concept evolved. Unfortunately, even with that breadth of information and guidelines, it still leaves many land administration practitioners with scopes of work that are too broad and lack a clear roadmap of key activities. The time is ripe for accepting the digital era reality and modernize FFP LA with a more specific modality – the IT-Leap concept. ICT has become not just an important or even critical component of the LA system but has been proven as a business driver and processes integrator. The paper presents the implementation planning aspects of an ICT solution, including details of a “how to make it work” approach. It extends the guiding principles with the FFP IT-Leap implementation roadmap, and provides a detailed set of value chain activities. It is time to use ICT as the mean to unify regulations, re-engineer processes, manage changes and drive capacity building. The FFP IT-Leap approach results in an ICT solution that fits the short-term needs and will scale up for the future ones.
Fit-for-Purpose and Fit-for-Future Technology for Cadastral Systems
1Esri, United States of America; 2Kadaster International, Netherlands
Configurable off-the-shelf spatial technologies are now available for cadastral systems. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.
This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This master class will discuss spatial platform and app technologies for collecting data with Androids, processing, producing, managing and sharing cadastral data. We will present how to configure and maintain a sustainable land system. This master class will present all the technology necessary and to get started.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: Strengthening Land Administration Management|
Session Chair: Charisse Griffith-Charles, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Delivering Land Administration Services at Scale The Experience of Development and Implementation of a Nationwide Agricultural Land Management Information System Case Study of Directorate for Agricultural Land, Republic of Serbia
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Serbia
It was a challenge to develop a nationwide information system for land management that will serve varying topographies, parcel sizes and administrative systems, in a way which is also sustainable after the donor support ends. Regional disparities between municipalities in Serbia are large: economic development, demographic structure, administrative organisation, geography of the terrain, size of land parcels, and availability of data, and had to be taken into consideration during the development of an Agricultural Land Management Information System that all 145 Local Self-Government Units of Serbia and their Directorate for Agricultural Land could use. Sustainability is important, to ensure the project’s benefits continue after the project ends, and to justify donors’ resources invested into building the system. Thus, sustainability of the information system is a key focus of this paper.
This paper reviews all stages of the project, and how GIZ was able to overcome the challenges as they arose. A close examination of the planning and development phases of the project sheds light on organizational change over the long term. A modern, user-friendly land management information system, combined with a state administration fully brought into the procedural reforms, can serve as a model for other projects around the world.
From Cloth Bags to Land Record Service Centers – Experiences from a Project In Punjab, Pakistan
World Bank, United States of America
This paper assesses the factors that enabled the transition from a system based on local civil servants (Patwari) carrying land records in a cloth bag to a modern Land Record Management Information System in Punjab Province, Pakistan. The Land Records Management and Information Systems Project is being implemented by the Pakistani Board of Revenue in Punjab Province since ten years with support from the World Bank. The paper will draw conclusions from a methodological mix of a desk review of project documents and field visits. The project was able to digitize more than 50 million paper-based land records, benefitting more than 20 million land owners. More than 150 Land Record Service Centers were established. The aim of this paper is to extract lessons learned about the transformation process from the Patwari to the Land Record Service Centers.
How a Global-to-Local Technology Partner Approach in Nigeria Contributed to Sustained results for State-level Land Administration Projects
1Thomson Reuters, South Africa; 2Teqbridge Limited
This paper shares a partnering example of how a local Nigerian firm (Teqbridge Ltd.) jointly partnered with a global technology firm (Thomson Reuters) to serve Nigerian state-governments; moreover, to jointly build stronger professional capacity in Nigeria.
The Role Of Electronic Cadastre In Development Of The Buissnes Community - The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia
Agency for real estate cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
The business community in the Republic of Macedonia is continuously searching for opportunities for opening new business, development and improvement of their existing facilities and services, or is simply seeking for information on future investments. Thus, they are seeking for a fast way of getting transparent, reliable and up to date data about the possibilities for new investments or new ways for development of their business. The Agency of Real Estate Cadastre with the introduction of the electronic cadastre called e-kat has become a valuable partner to the business community and a huge provider of relevant and up to date data. By listing the needs of the business community the Agency of Real Estate Cadastre has created a services that cut the time of the company needed for obtaining a construction permits, property certificates, has found new ways for getting credits for building in construction and has secure the mortgage market. Also this tool has help of raising the bullishness of the private valuers and notaries as well as helping the municipalities in their taxing operations.The paper researches how the business community deals with geospatial information before e-kat and after e-kat and how their business changes with its use.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-09: Standards for Land Administration: Ensuring Interoperability|
Session Chair: Nicola Heathcote, HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
Further standardisation in Land Administration
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The; 3The University of Melbourne, Australia; 4UN Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The paper describes the ongoing developments and standardisation in land administration. Standards are relevant in relation to building as well as maintenance and development of a land administration.
Standards like the ISO 19152 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) are helping to jump-start new initiatives and are connecting top-down and bottom-up projects together. The LADM facilitates the efficient set-up of land administration and can function as the core of any land administration system. LADM is flexible, widely applicable and functions as a central source of state-of-the-art international knowledge on this topic. Some future trends in the domain and the maintenance of the standard are presented and being discussed in the paper. These trends may be relevant for the development of a second edition of the LADM over the coming years.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has set up a domain group on land administration. The OGC members drafted a charter for a working group for the land administration domain. The charter describes how to improve the interoperability, effectiveness and efficiency of land administration systems by optimising the use of OGC and complementary open standards. Land administration activities in all countries can benefit from improved interoperability.
Land Transfer Standards – Bringing Fit For Purpose Concepts To The Land Transaction Process
RICS, United Kingdom
90% of residential and commercial property in Africa is untitled and land and property transactions are high on the global corruption index. Responsible governance of land is also at the core of resource management and sustainable extractive industries. Much of the headline challenges are well known to land professionals, from land grabbing, to tenure vulnerability, to ineffective land administration and corrupt governance and to a lack of professional capacity. At the very core of these multiple land issues is the lack of a consistent, global and easily understood standard on land transaction and a common understanding of the essential elements needed within that process. ‘Fit for Purpose’ is a key concept not just for spatial measurement, it is also important that it is used for valuation/appraisal and land reporting. The object is to aid and de-risk the process of land investment and real property transfer. This presentation will highlight some of the issues involved, the process of collaboration and current status of the initiative (ILMS).
Practical Application Of IAAO Standards For Land Administration And Property Tax Systems
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
This presentation will describe the 14 Standards developed by the International Association of Assessing Officers defining the objective and purpose of IAAO Standards. The purpose of the standards are two-fold; to guide the creation of the most efficient and effective property tax systems possible and to and to provide professional training and standards for industry and government officials who are directly responsible for implementing and advancing property tax and land valuation systems. Highlighted will be how IAAO standards can be utilized by various government agencies within the context of what stage of property tax system development the government has been able to achieve. It will examine some of the challenges valuation offices will face in the future and focus on emerging technologies that will assist in reaching IAAO standards in a cost effective manner. This will suggest a roadmap in utilizing IAAO standards to assist in project conception. The IAAO’s Guidance on International Mass Appraisal and Related Tax Policy will be summarized and the IAAO’s upcoming Body of Knowledge will also be briefly introduced.
Standards and interoperability in the Nigerian Land Sector
In every economy, land represents a factor of production, without which production that will be able to facilitate entrepreneurship, poverty reduction and social cohesion is achieved. However, inefficiencies of the institutional and administrative components of the land sector which include the poor recordation of land information and transactions, lack of data and information about available land stock, lack of structures and non availability of fit-for-purpose systems to facilitate interoperability of the land data and poorly implemented or non implementation of standards to guide how data and information about land is used.
The nature of land suggests geography via the cadaster, which acts as a repository for land information. In order for the cadaster to be useful, it has to be shared and used by relevant stakeholders in the private and public sector. However, the legal and regulatory provisions that govern the use of the cadastral information, which will facilitate interoperability, are poorly implemented in Nigeria. The implementation of the standards to achieve interoperability has a dual purpose; it strengthens inter-ministerial collaboration and supports a functional platform for land information sharing and dissemination about land and its associated economic resources for end-users.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-10: Development Partners Support to Tenure Security|
Session Chair: Suzuka Sugawara-Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
Improvement Of Community Tenure Security Through Access To Land Data: Evidences From GLTN Tools Application In Uganda And Kenya
1UN-Habitat, Kenya; 2University of Wisconsin-Madison
Access to land information is key in ensuring community protection against eviction promoting efficient mechanisms that guarantee tenure security. Administrative data through the formal cadaster may exist, but it may not be enough in terms of coverage and access for the community. In such cases, innovative approaches are required to bridge the gap between formal and informal land rights and to empower communities living in the second rank, protect their rights and establish a manageable land information system.
The Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) was launched in 2006 to find balance among practical tools and land policies and to help resolve the problems of land access for the poor and disadvantaged. This initial orientation has informed the subsequent evolution of the GLTN as it tries to reconcile these two challenges while ensuring it remains pro-poor and gender sensitive.
This paper explores how the GLTN vision has worked out in practice, as illustrated in eight case studies done in Kenya and Uganda. The cases show how GLTN and partners have adapted three land tools: 1) participatory enumeration; 2) STDM) and 3) GEC-in urban and rural contexts and how land policy evolution has proven more productive at the local level.
Establishing An Intra-Oganizational Fit For Purpose Land Rights Policy. Comparison Of Successes, Lessons Learned And Best Practices Across Projects.
ZOA, Netherlands, The
The paper compares the successes and lessons from land rights related projects, which are implemented by ZOA, a Dutch Humanitarian organization in Uganda and Burundi. The projects are evaluated with regard to how best practices might be applied in other contexts as well as how they might be integrated into an internal and fit for purpose land rights policy. The formulation of specific intra-organizational frameworks for coherent approaches to land rights related projects is valuable for organizations working in complex and fragile contexts. While the broadly appliedFit For Purpose Land Administration framework (FFP) developed by the World Bank and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) provides valuable guidelines for organizations working on land tenure related issues in developing countries it is necessary for an organization like ZOA with a very particular profile and target group to develop its own internal guidelines, which provide a more specific framework. Furthermore, the ongoing discourse concerned with practical ways of integrating land tenure administration into broader development frameworks and linking the issue with other aspects of sustainable development can strongly profit from linking on-the-ground experiences of specific projects with the broader existing frameworks and guidelines. The paper gives initial, practical recommendations in this regard.
Updating Land Records, Resolving Land Problems and Securing Clear Land Titles through the Community-driven Process Involving Local Youth
Up-to-date land records and clear land titles are the pre-requisite for economic development and optimum utilization of the land by its owners. Government of India is making efforts to modernize management of land records in the country through Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP). Lack of requisite community involvement was identified as a major challenge during the recent review of the NLRMP. Landesa made efforts to address this gap through a four-step process to verify and update the land records – 1) Household Survey; 2) Collecting Information from Land Records; 3) Field Verification; and 4) Data Analysis. This four-step process was done manually and later a technological application was designed and tested. About four thousand land problems were identified in the pilot villages and 60% - 90% entries in land records do not reflect the filed reality. This pilot offers a low cost community-driven model which can be scaled through the Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme. This paper discusses the learning from the six village pilot and the ways to make the large scale land records updation initiatives in India more effective and with the increased community participation.
District Multi-stakeholder Forums: Unexhausted Opportunity For Securing Land Rights, Tanzania Experience
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
Administration of land in Tanzania is more decentralized from the president to the village level. The law gives power to village councils and village assemblies to administer village land. The District authorities are given advisory and supervisory mandates over villages and represent the commissioner who takes overall administrative powers. Despite decentralization, institutions responsible for land administration, land have continued to be cause of many conflicts for years. Conflicts have been escalating and lead loss of lives and property. Lack of coordination among land administrative institutions has been the main route cause of land conflicts and ineffective systems of handling land conflicts administratively.
Civil society organisations, government institutions and development partners have been working to address and enhance coordination and communication among responsible institutions responsible for tenure security. The presents platforms which aim at multi-stakeholder policy dialogue on sustainable land-based businesses and investment solutions in ways that build upon active citizen participation. Therefore this paper presents multi-stakeholders forums as best model to address institutional coordination for land tenure security.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Land Rental Markets and Structural Transformation|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land rental markets participation and its impact on fixed investment and household Welfare: Evidence from China Apple Production Sites
1Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, People's Republic of China; 2Michigan State University,United States of American
To identify the determinants of affecting farmers’ land rental decision and quantify the effect from renting in land on households’ investment and economy welfare, original data from two specialized apple production sits of China are applied. By analyzing the access of land, labor, credit and insurance markets together, results indicate that economy of scale, efficient credit and insurance supply, laborsaving cultivation technology adoption and the motivation of reducing land fragmentation are the main forces to encourage households renting in land. Fixed investment improves with farm scales expanding and more access to credit and insurance. Renting in land from market will produce obvious welfare gains, including household agricultural income, total income and family expenditure.
How do land rental markets affect household income? Evidence from Rural Jiangsu, P.R. China
1Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 2Nanjing Agricultural University, P.R. China
The development of land rental markets in developing countries attracts much attention, but little is known about its impact on household incomes. This study empirically examines the effects of land rental decisions of farm households on their income and income components, i.e. farm, off-farm and transfer income, taking into account potential endogeneity of land rental decisions. Rural household survey data for 1,080 households in 128 villages in Jiangsu Province, China are used to estimate these effects. Quantile regressions are used to examine to what extent effects differ between income groups. Results indicate that lessee households generate higher total income as compared to autarkic households, in particular in the lower income groups, although they earn higher farm income throughout the entire farm income distribution. No significant differences in off-farm income between transacting households (i.e. lessee households or lessor households) and autarkic households are found. Transfer income of lessor households is significantly lower than those of autarkic households, especially those in the low-income quantiles.
Inheritance System, Tenure Security And The Functioning Of Land Rental Markets in Rural Pakistan
1University of Guelph, Canada; 2International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
This paper provides empirical insights into the manner by which rural farmers in Pakistan access farmland. Our results suggest that approximately 86% of owned land is inherited, 13% is purchased and the remaining 1% is acquired through other means (e.g., gifts, illegal settlements). Moreover, we review the different ways ownership is documented. We find that variation in formal documentation is not associated with variation in perceptions of tenure security in the case of inherited land. An important component of our paper is an exploration of rental arrangements. We use the Pakistan Rural Household Panel Survey round 3.5 conducted during 2014-2015. Forty percent of the survey respondents rent-in farmland. Of these households, forty-eight percent are landless Hence, rental arrangements are an important pathway by which land is redistributed to enable agricultural production. Using regression analysis, we examine the influence of key endowments – e.g., land ownership – on the redistribution of land for production purposes. Our findings generate a better understanding of the relationships between formalization and perceptions of land tenure security as well as land ownership and participation in rental arrangements. Our findings are relevant to ongoing efforts to improve land governance and agricultural production in rural areas of Pakistan.
Effects of Land Rights Certification on Rural Credit Market and the Market for Land Transfers ---- Evidence from China
1Nanjing Agricultural University, China; 2Monash University, Australia; 3Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, China
This paper investigates empirically the effects of land rights certification reforms on the rural market for credit and the market for rural land transfer in China. We isolate the effect on land rights certification by comparing rural households from land rights certification pilot villages and non-pilot villages. A Difference-in-differnces approach using yearly panel surveys data from Ministry of Agriculture’s Fixed Rural Observation Point System suggest that land rights certification significantly improved rural households’ access to formal credit and reduced their reliance on informal loans. At the same time, land rights certification substantially increased households’ demand for credit. However, our DID approach seems to suggest that the increased land rental market activities in rural China were not attributable to the land rights certification reforming.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-12: Helping Communities Document and Exercise their Rights|
Session Chair: Joachim Knoth, European Commission, Belgium
Participative Cartography in Benin
1VNG International The Netherlands; 2VNG International Benin
Cartography is the realm of specialists, land surveyor and mapmakers? Participatory Cartography says otherwise! Using the experience from Benin, we show how citizens can play the main role in demarcating their community’s borders. The process of Participatory Cartography places the community’s perception of its own boundaries at the centre and offers an inclusive and feasible method of settling internal border disputes which inhibit countless government policies. The result is a widely supported demarcation based on a community’s perception and identities rather than straight lines drawn by a ruler or nonsensical borders due to gerrymandering. Finally, maybe the best thing about Participatory Cartography: it is cheap.
Registration and Release of Customary-land for Private Enterprise: Lessons from Papua New Guinea
University of New South Wales, Australia
Land held under customary tenure has proven difficult to register and release for private enterprise globally. This is because the costs of developing secure rights to land held under communal ownership is high given that such ownership rules out a ‘pay-to-use-the-property’ system while punitive negotiation and policing costs make a ‘pay-him-not-to-use-the-property’ system ineffective (Demsetz, 1967, p. 355). Here I document reforms to institutions governing access to land held under customary title in Papua New Guinea that has imbedded collective ownership whilst allowing for a ‘pay-to-use-the-land’ for private enterprise. Reforms put in place over the past decade have allowed for voluntary incorporation of landowning clans, the registration of their land, and the leasing of this land for up to 99 years. The ongoing reforms provide lessons both for Papua New Guinea and for others wrestling with the challenges of making available land held by customary groups for individual enterprise.
Supporting Greater Tenure Security For Community And Customary Land Rights – Lessons Learned From The Field And How Community Led Participatory Mapping Empowers Small Holder Farmers In Myanmar.
Tetra Tech, United States of America
The democratic transition of power in Myanmar, following the handover of power to the National League for Democracy (NLD) administration, is still in its infancy and yet faces serious challenges. The absence of land tenure security is a significant issue facing rural communities throughout the country, a situation that has led to weak agricultural development, heightened rates of rural poverty and in the worse cases, the dispossession of land resources previously accessed by entire communities.
The USAID funded Land Tenure Project has supported the development of a National Land Use Policy (NLUP) and has been evaluating the implementation of articles of the NLUP at a series of pilot sites throughout the country. Community led participatory mapping of different land resources have been undertaken in coordination with local authorities, local civil society and the communities themselves. The technical approaches developed as part of this work will be shared as will the outputs and lessons learnt from these activities that will inform the development of a new National Land Law that will recognize the land rights of communities, ethnic minorities and women.
Norwegian Support To The Land Sector In Kyrgyzstan
1Statens kartverk - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway; 2Department of Cadastre and Registration, Kyrgyzstan
Norway - one of the few countries donating over 1% of its gross national income in official development assistance, supported the land sector in Kyrgyzstan from 2013 to 2016. With a grant of 1,4 million USD, the project “Securing Ownership to Land” implemented by the Norwegian Mapping Authority and the State Registration Service of Kyrgyzstan, was aimed at improvement of registration and information services to all groups of users requesting property registration and information. The project was built upon important achievements of the First and the Second Cadastre Projects funded by the World Bank. The Norwegian project was focused on specification of improvements to property registration system; technical and professional capacity building; knowledge transfer and training; surveying and mapping the remaining 20 % of privatized properties; and extension of KYRPOS - the network of permanent reference stations. Using of UAV technology for "mapping on demand" was tested and proven relevant for smaller areas and mapping corridors. The project contributed to improvements in servicing clients by reducing the average time needed for cadastral surveying and property registration. The project is now completed, delivering satisfactory results to all involved parties and meeting its development goal in improving security of ownership to land in Kyrgyzstan.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-13: Challenges of Land Acquisition for Infrastructure|
Session Chair: Harris Selod, World Bank, United States of America
Land for Food or Power? The Interface between Hydropower Production and Family Farming in Southwest Ethiopia
1Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Environmental and Climate Research Center for Ethiopia; 3University of Alberta
Gilgel Gibe-I hydroelectricity dam is one of the mega hydropower projects of Ethiopia found in the southwestern part of the country. This project was designed to produce 183 MW energy for 70 years, but is currently at risk of being silted up within 24 years. This study identifies the prospects and challenges to find a long-term balance between hydropower production, livelihoods of family farmers and sustainable land use. We used mixed methods approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data and applied a ‘riskscapes’ framework. The project displaced about 2,476 households out of which 560 moved to resettlement sites. The remaining households became landless, food insecure and are living in the surroundings of the project area farming inside the buffer zone. The community is also energy insecure because of lost access to source of biomass energy as a result of destruction of the riparian forest. In order to achieve a balance between the riskscapes of siltation, food and energy insecurity and national hydropower production, we recommend holistic approaches to community needs and project sustainability. In particular we recommend proper land use and buffer zone management, provision of electricity to the local communities and compensation for lost properties in the project area.
Using Participative G.I.S. For Infrastructure Corridor Planning Around Mining Projects: A Case Study From Indonesia
University of Delaware, United States of America
Regional planning approaches for mining aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as cumulative impacts that occur offsite. Achieving a balanced approach to mining infrastructure planning requires that stakeholder preferences for land uses from local communities, government, and mining companies be included in infrastructure planning. In this paper we describe a method for conducting Geographic Information Systems (GIS) least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure such as roads and power lines. Least-cost path analysis identifies optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we demonstrate the method using potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap. We found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors generated from local and national government perspectives. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can potentially reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.
Growing Demand, Shrinking Supply of Industrial Lands in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Can Improving Urban Land Administration and Governance be a Solution?
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
While Addis Ababa is rapidly urbanizing, job creation remains a challenge. The root cause of this has been the lack of structural transformation towards industries with higher potential for growth and job creation. In response, the government of Ethiopia through its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) targets the industry and manufacturing sectors to enhance structural transformation and create more productive jobs in Ethiopia’s cities. However, in the process of industrial promotion, industrial land has emerged as a key bottleneck. Currently, it is estimated that about 6000 investors are in the waiting list requesting land for investment in Addis Ababa. This has created distortions in the land and rental market and consequent price hike; and this threatens the job and economic growth potential of the city by discouraging businesses from entering or expanding in the city. Since Addis Ababa is one of the least industrialized cities in Africa, industrial land exhaustion cannot be the major explanation. We argue that given the city’s developable land size, there is significant scope to improve the supply of industrial land by solving some of the inefficiencies and market failures with the current arrangement of land allocation and management.
|9:00am - 5:00pm||Improving Housing Policies in Latin America to Increase Affordability and Mitigate Climate and Disaster Risks - I-|
By i nvitation only: please contact email@example.com
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-01: Implementing the AU Declaration on Land at Country Level|
Session Chair: Mamta Murthi, World Bank, United States of America
Translation French, Streaming.
How Land Issues Will be Addressed in AUC’s 4-year Business Plan
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
To be completed
NEPAD’s Contribution to Implementing Evidence-driven Land Policy at Country Level
NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, South Africa
The last decade has seen an increase in the competing use and demand of land due to rapid urbanization; infrastructure development; commercial agriculture; mining and even large scale land based investments (‘land grabbing’). Again, the impact of climate change has led to degraded and eroded lands. The increase in demand for land, necessitates a paradigm shift in addressing land issues from a sectoral to a systematic approach. Policies and investment decisions should promote an equitable, sustainable and inclusive growth, development of cities and rural areas.
Encouraged by the adoption the framework and guidelines on land policy and the principles for large-scale land based investments by the African Union in 2014, the NEPAD Planning and Coordination Agency (NPCA) in 2015, established an integrated land governance program, for advancing rural development and structural transformation. The programme is aimed at making available data and produce evidence to raise understanding at the country and continental level of the role of land governance in Africa’s structural transformation and sustainable development. This paper will share NEPAD‘s strategic intervention on land policy in Africa.
(Keywords: Land governance, equity, social and economic transformation)
Harnessing the Potential of Land Policy for Madagascar's Development
Ministry of State for Presidential Projects, Country Planning and Equipment, Madagascar
To be completed
Using Land Policy as an Engine for Rural Growth: Opportunities and Challenges for Implementing Malawi's Land Acts
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
To be completed
AFDB's contribution to addressing land issues in support of agricultural development
African Development Bank
To be completed
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-02: New Ways of Low-Cost Parcel Demarcation?|
Session Chair: Emmanuel Nkurunziza, Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
Parcel boundary adjustment of old cadastral maps with UAV images for efficient cadastral resurveying project in Rep. of Korea
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Currently, high quality images taken by unmanned aerial vehicle have attracted great attention because of fast and low-cost acquirement of geo-spatial data. One of important applications is quality assessment of old maps by comparing the maps and images. Then, out-of-dated geo-spatial objects in the maps can be removed or new real-world entities which do not reflected in the maps can be updated. Moreover, low positional accuracy of objects in the map can be improved by means of finding corresponding features between the maps and images. In Rep. of Korea, the cadastral resurveying project is a national-wide government project to revise and update old graphic cadastral map into accurate digital cadastral data. Previous field surveying methods such as total station or GPS surveys require significant time and cost so that a new method with fast and low-cost acquirement of geo-spatial data needs to be developed. In this study, a map conflation technique to obtain corresponding geometries between an old cadastral map and a UAV image and adjust the map into the image is proposed and experimented.
Mass Registration of Land Parcels Using Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration: Procedures and Methods
Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany
In many countries land parcels have not yet been demarcated and registered. With no complete and accurate land register a country cannot effectively manage its land and resources. It will need to carry out mass registration and establish the land administration system necessary to ensure secure land tenure, which in turn can attract national and international investors. The fit-for-purpose land administration approach has been applied in many countries in Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa. When mass registration is necessary there are two main procedures / methods which may be followed. For the purposes of this paper the two procedures will be labelled respectively the Carta and Terra procedures: (1) the Carta procedure because community participation commences with marking up boundaries on an orthophoto map and (2) the Terra procedure because community participation commences with marking up boundaries on the ground before producing the orthophoto maps. Both these procedures adhere to the fit-for-purpose land administration approach principle, in that they are flexible, inclusive, participatory, affordable, reliable, attainable, and upgradable. Countries which plan to implement mass land registration can choose which of the two procedures fits them best or choose the procedure that combines the advantages of both methods.
Low Cost, Post Conflict Cadastre with Modern Technology
1Esri, United States of America; 2Kadaster International, Netherlands
As Colombia continues the long road to peace, they recognize a key component to sustained peace and economic growth will be their cadastre. Choosing not to implement a system with traditional approaches, Colombia is embracing new technology, innovative approaches and recognized standards. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used and the status of progress in Colombia.
The e migration
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning Kenya, Kenya
Automating Land Services in Kenya has presented a unique challenge due to the various transitions in land legislation and administration.
The transformation has required deliberate action in a country accustomed to the specific tools commonly used in mobile phone platforms rather than online and e registers and transactions.
A multi dimensional approach to resolve, land Governance, land administration and sustainable land management in Kenya.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-03: Is there Scope for Inclusive Agribusiness Models?|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Landesa, United States of America
Legal Empowerment in Agribusiness Investments
IIED, United Kingdom
A recent wave of private sector investments in tropical agriculture has raised both hopes and fears for rural livelihoods and development prospects in low and middle-income countries. Evidence shows that, while investment in agriculture can be a force for good, ill-designed or implemented investments can undermine local livelihoods.
Interactions between governments, companies and affected people play an important role in shaping the terms and the outcomes of the deals. Yet these interactions often involve major asymmetries in capacity, resources, influence and negotiating power.
Legal empowerment interventions seek to strengthen the rights and voices of affected people, and their ability to get a fair deal. The spectrum of possible actions is broad, ranging from grassroots-level legal advice and representation through to linking local voices to international processes.
This paper distils insights from experiences with legal empowerment in agricultural investments. Drawing on selected examples, it conceptualises the spectrum of actors, actions and entry points, and explores the conditions affecting the effectiveness of the interventions. The paper also provide pointers for the design and implementation of legal empowerment interventions in the context of agricultural investments.
Land and Landscape Governance in Responsible Agri-supply chains in Africa
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
This paper explores the propositions that sound land governance is a fundamental to responsible investment in agri-food chains, and to foster sustainable and inclusive, local economies, land governance must be operationalised at a landscape or meso-territorial scale. We present findings of preliminary, literature-based research on current understandings and outcomes of market based, and hybrid governance approaches to both land and global value chains in the landscape or territorial context. Whereas land governance has taken a vertical, “flow-based” turn (Sikor et al 2014), emphasizing adoption of voluntary private standards aligned with global principles of the VGGT, landscape approaches at the forest frontier have begun to focus on cross-scalar interaction of governance instruments, and the potential of hybrid approaches combining voluntary private standards and stronger regulation. Although some authors promote jurisdictional landscape approaches, and territorially embedded value chain collaboration, discussion has privileged environmental issues, with little attention to land governance or distributional outcomes of land-use decisions and business models adopted. To help address policy knowledge gaps we propose research on the extension of hybrid land governance arrangements to the landscape scale, linked to a set of business-civil society agri-investment partnerships in African countries, and establishment of a broader coalition of research initiatives.
Ensuring Sustainable Agriculture Investment Through A Regional Model Contract
The best guarantee to achieve positive benefits from foreign investment is a solid foundation of domestic laws that are properly enforced. In many developing countries, however, the necessary domestic laws may not be in place or may not be sufficiently detailed. To its efforts to improve the legal framework for responsible investment in agriculture, the East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) perceive regional model contract as a innovative and sound instrument that represents a vehicle for the modernization and harmonisation of national laws and practices related to sustainable investment in the agriculture sector.
This instrument is flexible enough to allow States to adjust the text of the model contract to accommodate local requirements that vary from system to system and deals.
This paper presents key findings of a review of the legal and policy framework related to agricultural investment in the five East African Community partners States undertook by IISD. It presents the East african regional model contract for agriculture.
Palm Oil Financial Risks and Mitigation Tools
Climate Advisers, United States of America
Palm oil is an inexpensive and highly versatile oil derived from the fruit of the oil palm tree, a native of West Africa's tropical forests. It is found in half of all consumer goods on the shelves today in Western grocery stores. Palm kernel oil is also used as a bioeful to power vehicles, heat homes, and manufacture plastics. Due to its high yields and many uses, palm oil is the most actively traded edible oil in the world, with annual sales of $50 billion.
Indonesia and Malaysia have expanded their plantations and tripled production over the past 15 years, and today they account for 85 percent of global production. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, large-scale palm oil production is growing rapidly. For decades, however, the palm oil business has been criticized for its links to corruption, extinction, social injustice, and deforestation.
The paper will present financial case studies on:
• Supply and demand trends
• Corporate No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation commitments
• Corporations losing buyers for not achieving supply chain commitments
• Producers’ revenue-at-risk for poor supply chain management
• Approaches to ESG screening by asset owners / managers
• Joint venture expansions into Latin America and Africa
• Government procurement policies
• Biofuel mandates
• Proxy voting|
Delivering Transformation: The Status and Prospects of Emerging Tools to Leverage Commodity Supply Chains to Support Community Land Tenure
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
The world is better equipped than ever to leverage the power of the private sector to support secure local land tenure. But the complexities of addressing land tenure issues at the operational and investment level have largely limited private sector and CSO efforts to shift operations and investments to respect local rights and implement high level commitments.
Some individual companies and investors have demonstrated progress, but one-off examples and case studies will not provide sufficient basis to support collective action by a critical mass of private sector organizations to transform supply-chains and sectors. Unless the development world is able to demonstrate rapid, concrete results, companies and investors may revert to the ‘status quo’ of land acquisition and operations.
This presentation will provide an update on the status, progress, and next steps of the Interlaken Group and the IAN Risk Platform, two of the leading efforts to create ‘pre-competitive’ networks and practical tools to transform the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-04: Progress with VGGT Implementation|
Session Chair: Fritz Jung, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
Towards a culture of good governance: Implementing the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land (VGGT) have proven to be a very effective mechanism for participatory policy processes in many countries. By creating a multi-stakeholder platform where all relevant actors have a voice and can participate in the decisions that will affect their lives, the implementation of the VGGTs has proven to be a model of good governance that may well have strong spillover effects in areas beyond land, fisheries and forestry. The article will describe the successful experience of implementation in Sierra Leone, where the new land policy was developed through the multi-stakeholder process and the actual text of the policy draws language from the VGGTs. Using data and experience from other countries, the article performs an analysis of the factors for successful implementation of the VGGTs, including political will, an institutional framework with clear roles and responsibilities, an inclusive steering committee, a well-functioning multi-stakeholder platform that guarantees voice to all relevant stakeholders at central as well as decentralized levels, capacity developed among the actors to participate effectively in it, and strong accountability mechanisms. The article also analyses, with examples of several countries, the factors that hinder implementation.
The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VG): Core attributes of Successful Implementation by Countries
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy
On 11 May 2012, the VG were endorsed by CFS. FAO’s work started with awareness raising on how people could use the VG, whether they work in government, CSOs, the private sector and academia. And this work is ongoing – it never stops. Awareness raising provides a platform for other activities.
Drawing on FAO’s extensive experience at country level over the past five years in supporting countries in implementing the VG, the paper highlights on major axes of successful interventions across the whole set of countries of various regions and continents. Those are in four of the key areas where specific core approaches have been found to be successful in moving the responsible tenure governance agenda forward and illustrates these approaches with detailed country examples. The four key areas are as follows:
1. National multi-stakeholder platforms and processes; how they are constituted, how they work and what support is needed
2. Institutional frameworks, ministerial commitment and secretariat support
3. Capacity development
4. National policies and laws.
These elements should not be seen as being separate because the greatest benefits come when they are interlinked and mutually reinforcing. This paper will cover FAO’s experience on all these element one by one.
UN-REDD’s Progress in Supporting Partner Countries to Address Land Tenure
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
This paper presents what has been learned from the past 2.5 years of the UN-REDD Programme’s support to its partner countries to address tenure issues within the framework of REDD+. Following the request in the Cancun Agreements for country parties to address land tenure issues, and based on the conviction that tenure security is an important enabling condition for reducing deforestation and degradation, the UN-REDD Programme has provided financial and technical support to a number of its partner countries in Africa and Asia. The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure serve as the basis for informing and guiding work on tenure in the context of REDD+. Countries receiving support include Malawi, Tunisia, Benin, Madagascar, Zambia, Uganda, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.
The paper provides a summary of the type of support provided to each country and the main results and findings from the work undertaken. Common issues seen across countries and regions are highlighted in an effort to better understand how REDD+ programs may influence tenure security. Based on the experience to date, the author discusses some of the challenges to be overcome in order for efforts related to REDD+ and land tenure to be mutually reinforcing.
FAO Moving into a New Phase of VGGT Implementation
The momentum created by the endorsement of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the subsequent uptake by numerous global and regional governmental and non-governmental actors provides an opportunity to chart a new era of sustainable development through the responsible governance of tenure. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is making a significant contribution to this momentum. This study provides an insight into FAO’s VGGT Implementation Programme, reflecting upon the lessons learned to date from a broad range of initiatives and country projects. It captures the dynamic nature of global and national developments in the governance of tenure and sets out key strategies to meet these emerging challenges which are included in the next phase of FAO’s Implementation Programme.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-05: Ensuring Land Policy's Contribution to Gender Equality|
Session Chair: Vinodh Jaichand, Independent, South Africa
The Policy Response to Women’s Entitlement to Land: Implementation Gradualism in the Limits of Social Norms
Landesa, India, India
An analysis of land reforms policies in India shows that the state agencies speak simultaneously to two groups: the political elite nurtured with gendered forms of power who exercise power through access to political and economic institutions, and the political constituency of organized rural women and men who wield influence through the voting right. The contradictory power base of these two groups tends to result in implementation gradualism wrapped in the limits of social norms. The objective of this study is to locate the process of gender-responsive land reform policies in India. Secondary sources provide a background and explanation of observations in the fieldwork conducted in states Karnataka, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh.
The research findings suggest that, as a consequence of the continued demand for women’s entitlement to land, there have been some partial and fitful changes in policies and enactment of laws in India. Those women who had acquired entitlement to land had gained greater social status, increased bargaining power over household assets, experienced a reduction in gender-based violence. A broad conclusion is that the power of gendered norms diminishes in response to women’s claims for an independent access to ownership rights to land and productive assets.
Gender Equality - Goal or Tool?
1Lantmäteriet, Sweden (The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority); 2Kartverket, Norway (The Norwegian Mapping Authority)
Efficient management of land, forests and natural resources is recognized as being a vital ingredient in combatting poverty, climate change and improve sustainable economic and environmental development in a country. In addition, it is an extremely powerful tool that can be used to secure rights, ownership and access for indigenous people, poor and other vulnerable people. This powerful tool can if misused be a severe hinder for sustainable development, democracy and gender equality.
In some land administration projects, gender equality is being used as a goal in itself, something that can be easily measured; resulting in inadequate activates and measures. In many cases switching perspective and using gender equality as a tool to achieve results, e.g. increased capacity within a government land administration organization enabling more transparent, efficient and reliable service to the citizens is a more appropriate way. In the global challenge, striving towards the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, gender equity has the potential of being the most powerful tool of them all.
Political Economy of Land Governance and Women’s Empowerment – The Case of Meghalaya
The World Bank, India
This paper delves into the complex dynamics between traditional and formal institutions affecting land rights in the tribal state of Meghalaya and its repercussions on gender equity. The state is unique in its long established matrilineal background where traditional customs defines property rights. In terms of inheritance tradition, it is the daughter of the family who is responsible for “management” of family land for productive purpose. She, however, has no decision making rights over the same. With the state government bringing in modern instruments of land governance, significant social changes are being felt in the changing nature of land relations. The modern instruments are enabling increased commodification of community land with increased incidences of sale of community land to private individuals. Moreover, since women are traditionally excluded from any representation in local governance – this absence of decision making power is increasingly being reinforced at the wake of the changing land dynamics. This is leading to more women not just not owning land any more, but also becoming bereft of any power to have control over the same. This paper looks into the evolution of the nature of land ownership and governance and its implication on women’s status, in the state.
Claiming And Realizing Right To Land: Can Development Organizations Address The Gender Disparities In Bangladesh?
1University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Ohio University, USA
Right to own property is an important component of the social contract upon which a modern state is established. The laws of inheritance vary from religion to religion in Bangladesh context. Principles of distributing the property of inheritance are deeply connected with patriarchal belief, cultural pattern, history and traditions. Consequently, women in Bangladesh, in most instances are the victims of unequal distribution of land as property. BRAC, as the largest NGO of the world has been addressing multiple human-rights based issues through development programs for more than four decades. BRAC’s Human Right and Legal Aid Service (HRLS) program under the ‘Property Rights Initiative (PRI)’ aims to address the right to land problem by ensuring access to property rights for poor and vulnerable people, particularly women. This paper aims to respond: How effective is development organization's targeted intervention for women in claiming and realizing their 'right to land? This paper presents the findings of an impact assessment carried out on the project. The paper concludes although the project is addressing the practical needs of women by raising awareness, the strategic gender need has yet to be achieved.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: Creating the Data to Support Urban Land Management|
Session Chair: Peter Baumann, Jacobs U | rasdaman, Germany
Can We Talk About Smart Cities Without a Proper Land Management System In Place?
Can we talk about Smart Cities without a proper Land Management System in place?
“Today, 54 per cent of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050. Projections show that urbanization combined with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa, according to a new United Nations report launched today.” (2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA)
“Managing urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century. Our success or failure in building sustainable cities will be a major factor in the success of the post-2015 UN development agenda,” (John Wilmoth, Director of UN DESA’s Population Division)
For me it´s very simple, we can´t talk about “Smart Cities” without talk about “Smart Cadastre” and “Smart Public Registry” or “Smart Land Management Systems”.
Spatial Information for Developed and Developing Smart Cities
The Open Geospatial Consortium
Urban population accounts for more than half of the world’s population (World Health Organization). By 2030, this is expected to rise to 60%, with 95% of growth occurring in the developing world (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), 2015, Goal 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable), with a substantial proportion living in poverty in Megacities. High density cities can realize efficiency gains by making better use of spatial information. Geospatial information is often difficult to find, share, fuse, analyse and publish. Open standards are critical to enabling cities to ensure the data is made available to produce information that is actionable and fit for purpose and will work well with existing and emerging technologies. Maximizing the use of the data, selecting an appropriate level of openness and building an enabling infrastructure, supports improved governance.
The OGC has developed a Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework to provide guidance on how ICT location standards for City Models, Sensors, and Mobile enable efficient information management to support informed decisions for such scenarios as coastal flooding, 3D city modelling and Public Security. This talk will present the framework using examples from Dhaka, Bangladesh, the City of Berlin and other cities.
A New Spatial Indicator To Identify Ghettos
1Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; 2World Bank
From a statistical point of view, there are many reports that portrait similarities or differences between areas inside a city. This paper tries to highlight the importance of spatial correlation between observations in order to have a confidence interval of any assertion related to characteristics of a city. In particular, with information available from a standard population and housing census associated to block cartography, we present an attempt to locate ghettos based on characteristics extracted from census data. We believe this methodology will allow governments or NGOs to focus in city areas where needs are more acute.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-07: Methodologies to Evaluate Land Program Impact|
Session Chair: Heath Cosgrove, USAID, United States of America
A Land Evidence Framework
Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Following global agreement around the Voluntary Guidelines and Responsible Agricultural Investments, increasing investments are being made to improve land tenure and governance. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recently highlighted the importance of land in alleviating poverty, incorporating land tenure indicator 1.4.2 under Goal 1. As interventions and global monitoring of land increases, donors and governments are requesting better evidence on the impacts of land interventions and a comparable understanding of the status of land governance across the globe. As we look to improve our monitoring and evaluation frameworks, establishing global land indicators and data collection, what does the existing literature on land tell us and can we see consistent patterns emerging? How does the evidence to date compare to land's theory of change and what are the key gaps in the land evidence that would benefit from further analysis? Based on land evidence, this presentation offers an approach to modeling the economic benefits from improvements in property rights and land policy and suggests key areas for further research and understanding of the impacts from land.
Investigating the Causal Channels for Increasing Land Tenure Security: An Organisation-Specific Systematic Review
Improved land tenure security has become increasingly adopted as a means of reducing rural poverty. And accordingly, it is imperative that efforts are made to ensure practitioners have a strong understanding of its causal dynamics. In a bid to address a perceived lack of such understanding, and to identify gaps in the literature, this piece of research has conducted a comprehensive review of the existing evidence around the impact of secured land tenure, using the Systematic Review methodology. This review is unique in that it is specifically tailored to the land tenure-related activities of a single organisation, the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The research finds a total of 60 quantitative and qualitative papers that fit the inclusion criteria, which offer varying levels of support for the different causal mechanisms within the Theory of Change of IFAD's land tenure intervention portfolio.
Contextual Factors, Property Regimes, and Environmental Outcomes: Applying a Realist Synthesis Approach to a Systematic Review of Marine Protected Areas
1Portland State University, United States of America; 2CIFOR, Indonesia; 3CIFOR, Finland
Given the complex nature of common pool resource systems, evidence review approaches that help clarify when, how, where, and why property regime interventions are likely to result in positive environmental (or other) outcomes are needed. Realist synthesis has emerged as a promising approach in public health for identifying the mechanisms that condition policy intervention outcomes when complex systems are involved. Our paper describes the results of applying a realist approach to synthesizing data from 31 articles on marine resource governance. Owing to space limitations, we focus on an in-depth context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) analysis of five of the customary tenure regimes described in the sample dataset. Use of this approach allowed us to reach a better understanding of three key social mechanisms — perceptions of legitimacy, perceptions of the likelihood of benefits, and perceptions of enforcement capacity — that condition behaviors vis-à-vis marine and terrestrial resources. Our study contributes to the field of natural resources governance by demonstrating the utility of a systematic review method which has received little attention by property scholars but which has great promise to clarify understanding of how complex systems work.
Using innovative research methodologies to uncover nuance and diversity: The results of household diaries in Odisha, India
Landesa, United States of America
In this paper we discuss a methodology called household diaries (hereafter Diaries). The method brings together quantitative and qualitative research collected in nine visits to 150 households in Odisha between November 2015 and November 2016. Our findings highlight that 1) The number of parcels of land that households relied on with varying tenurial arrangements was higher than expected; 2) Conceptualizations of ownership are ambiguous and subjective; 3) Households consistently relied on undocumented plots; 4) The number of plots relied on by each household fluctuated over time; 5) Diversification was crucial for poor households who often struggled to meet basic needs and had to rely on land and non-land based activities; 6) The Diaries improved accuracy of data on plots of land.
The findings help our programming in two ways. It would help inform programming on what would be needed if beneficiaries of land programs are to experience increased food security and agricultural production and therefore reduce poverty, key outcomes of interest to development practitioners. Second, it will help us to improve our evaluation approach going forward. Our past efforts at evaluation focused mainly on homestead plots and to some extent the other plots that households owned.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: How to Ensure Public Trust in Land Records?|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Land and Property Rights Guaranteed and Protected
HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom
Secure land tenure rights are widely accepted to be beneficial in a number of ways, in particular as important elements to support economic development, social justice and safe environments.
The presentation explores how that security, or the perception of that security, can be delivered at scale and is based on experience at HM Land Registry. It will describe how HM Land Registry delivers guaranteed and protected property rights in England and Wales and the aspects of its model which are capable of providing confidence in the market, inspiring trust in the land authority and could be applied in service delivery models in other countries to provide a fit for purpose land administration system, tailored to local conditions.
Overselling the Mirror and Curtain Principles of Land Titling
University of Twente, Netherlands, The
Two forms of the land registration component of land administration systems are normally distinguished: deeds registration and title registration. In the latter the register is supposed to reflect the correct legal situation (“mirror-principle”), and there is no need for further (historic) investigation beyond the register (“curtain principle”). In reality, as shown in recent student work, both these principles do not work out as simple as this sounds. The mirror is either very incomplete (allowing for overriding interests) or tends to put the title before reality, even if the title has been acquired through manipulation. The curtain is lifted, and buyers want easy (on-line) access to earlier transaction documents to verity themselves how the current right holder on the title came into that position. With the proclaimed advantages of title registration not real, and some disadvantages still there, also the legal framework of fit-for-purpose land administration needs to be rethought.
Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Administration Systems
Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Information Systems:
Verification and integration of land data from external sources
Why would a manager of authentic land data (like a national land agency) trust data that comes from external or ‘informal’ sources? How can we create conditions whereby integration of data from ‘informal’ sources may enrich and complement ‘formal’ sources as authentic data? How can we make sure society will benefit from the value created by ‘informal’ land data sets? How can these data sets be used successfully for a wider range of purposes than the original ones? The authors research the answers to these questions using experiences and evidence from practice in Benin, Namibia, Togo, Indonesia Suriname, Aruba and the Netherlands.
Land Registry, Mortgage Markets and Consumer Protection
IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
The modern systems of land Registration appeared during the XVIII and XIX Centuries linked to the mortgage market and cross border investment. The Registries originally organized as offices of mortgages evolved into property registries. As stated in the Prussian Mortgage Law the main aim of the Registry was to make easier the land credit and this was a model for many european countries. In order to achieve this goal the Land Registry no t only provides information about the encumbrances on a plot of Land but is an important tool to bring to an end the usurary credits, which links the Land Registry with the programs to fight poverty. In 2013 the European Union approved a Directive 93/13 CEE on unfair terms in consumer contracts. The Key question of this paper is to see if the Land Registry can play a decisive role in the enforcement of the Directive. This poses the problem of the organization of the Land Registries and the background of the people who perform function as registrars. Recent Sentences from the European Court of Justice have taken into account the problem of mortgage foreclosures, unfair clauses in mortgage contracts and unfair interests rates against consumers.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Applying Land Administration Domain Models|
Session Chair: Christiaan Lemmen, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
Development and Employment of a LADM Implementing Toolkit in Colombia
1BSF Swissphoto AG, Switzerland; 2Cadastre Subdirectorate, Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi, Colombia; 3Office for Geoinformation, Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland
The Swiss Government is currently financing a project which provides technical assistance to the Colombian institutions in order to establish the conceptual and technical bases of a modernized land administration.
This paper explains the data modelling process and methodology applied by the project for adopting the ISO19152 (Land Administration Domain Model) in Colombia and for describing the LADM country profile using the Conceptual Schema Language INTERLIS, as well as the development of specific Free and Open Source Software tools that support the countrywide implementation of the standard.
The project’s Model-Driven Approach responds to the conceptual framework of the Multipurpose Cadastre defined by the Colombian Government, where the operation of the cadastre will be delegated to third-party operators by applying a “Freedom of Methods” principle. Because of this principle, a system independent data exchange mechanism is needed, a requirement that INTERLIS meets. With the developed Data Validation Tool and its integration with a web service, data delivered by the cadastre operators is checked against the LADM-COL model.
With the defined, well-documented and successfully applied modelling process, methodology and deployed tools, a LADM Implementing Toolkit is at the disposal of countries that face similar challenges as Colombia in modernizing their land administration.
Improving Land Administration in Brazil: re-engineering Cadastre using LADM
Brazilian recent advances in rural cadastre are noticeable. However, there are important issues that must be addressed to support land rights recognition, conciliate conflicts and control land use. To support this, it is being developed a National Cadastre project, considering: (i) the legislation; (ii) organizational framework: roles of the government agencies, including the existence of one rural cadastre and more than five thousand urban ones, under municipalities responsibility; (iii) the Land Administration Domain Model - LADM, ISO 19152:2012; (iv) Fit-for-purpose for Land Administration concepts: different classes for data in cadastre, allowing that the less precise evolves to more precise, in time; (v) Socio-cultural issues: potential tenure conflicts arising from the need of definition of boundaries; (vi) technical context of cadastre. Partial achievements are: modeling of the occupational situation and the basic land rights in levels, according to Brazilian Civil Code and based on LADM classes; object diagrams of several tenure situations, including traditional communities, land reform settlements and land conveyancing; Business Process Maps of part of the data inclusion and update. It is expected that with this project, it should be possible to improve Land Administration in Brazil with an integrated concept of cadastre provided by LADM, enabling the multipurpose applications.
Models Of Interaction Between Land Registries, Cadasters, and Land Tenure Systems
Habitat for Humanity International LAC Region, Peru
There are remarkable gaps of information (as incoherencies, fragmentation, inconsistency) between registries, cadasters and land systems which relates to negative consequences related to poverty and inequity that impact economic growth, public finances, public participation, urban planning, and access to housing, environmental and social conflicts.
Legal institutions in Latin American countries commonly prioritize the private property as the core of property rights, which are widespread in the various legislations, but the difference is that they become more effective compared to others, based on: i) the regulatory frameworks how they are applied in practice to deal with informality, security of tenure, and housing for the neediest; ii) the institutional capacities and practices on land administration including the use of geo-reference data; and, iii) the needs of the population to access land tenure protection mechanisms.
Based in the cases of Peru, Bolivia, and Guatemala this paper argues that the use of technology, specifically the use of geo reference information interlinking land registry, cadaster, and land tenure systems will positively impact responsible land governance.
Land Registration Data Standards, Interoperability and Data Access in Kenya
1Ministry of Lands - Kenya, Kenya (MoL); 2Technical University of Kenya (TUK); 3The University of Nairobi (UoN)
Land Registration and Administration in Kenya operates on a multi-legal platform [UN 2013]. The Land Registration Act No. 3 of 2012 (LRA) was enacted to consolidate, harmonize and rationalize land registration goals which are yet to be achieved. This is majorly because in as much as the 2012 statute repealed five out of the seven major lands registration laws they all remain in force under LRA’s transitional clauses.
The Government of Kenya is making efforts to avail land registration information online via the e-citizen platform. This is the official Government portal for e-payments. It is meant to facilitate e-land searches from the point of payment to downloading the land information instantly without the need to go to the lands office physically. The uptake of this search is however slow because it is not fully legally recognized.
Innovative Rural Cadastre Development in Ethiopia
1NIRAS, Responsible and Innovative Land Administration(REILA)Project, Ethiopia; 2Hansa Luftbild, Germany; 3Ministry of Agriculture Natural Source (MoANR),Rural Land Administration and Use Directorate (RLAUD), Ethiopia
This lightning talk presents the development of a fully-functional „National Rural Land Administration Information System” (NRLAIS) for Ethiopia, based on free and open-source software (FOSS).
Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic whose constitution and land legislation gives significant powers to its regional states. Against this background and with the support of the Responsible and Innovative Land Administration Project (REILA) , the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, responsible to manage and administer the rural land, developed an IT strategy to find the most suitable option to harmonise rural land administration in the country.
The development of the pilot system was awarded to Hansa Luftbild, a geoinformation services company from Muenster, Germany. It is based on FOSS components and applies the ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard. With its innovative and cost-effective architecture and modular “tool-kit” approach it is independent of a fully functioning internet infrastructure and can be easily adapted to cater for different legal requirements of the Ethiopian regional states.
The system development commenced in April 2015. A prototype will be delivered by December 2016, and by the end of April 2017 the system is expected to be in full operation after rigorous testing at six different pilot offices.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-10: Agribusiness Investment, Land Tenure, and Land Use|
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource equity, United States of America
Rubber Boom and Land Use Dynamics in Southwest China: Driving Force and Its Impact on Carbon Balances
1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany; 2University of Hohenheim, Germany; 3Peking University, China
The objective of this study is to explore the trajectory of land use change of smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN and empirically examine its driving factors as well as evaluate its implications for local environment regarding carbon balances. The analyses use the household survey data of some 600 smallholder rubber farmers conducted in 2013 in XSBN, and the collected second-hand time series data such as GDP and the prices of rubber and other crops in the past three decades. Follow the Seemingly Unrelated Time Series Equations framework (SUTSE), we develop a structural model to estimate the changes in land use pattern in XSBN. A simple land use allocation model is established to analyze the impacts of farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics and geographical conditions on their decisions of land use for rubber farming. Finally, follow the Rapid Carbon Stock Appraisal (RaCSA) method, we estimate the carbon stocks of land use systems of all sample households in XSBN over the past three decades. The results provide critical information on the trajectory of rubber expansion and land use change in XSBN, and is intended to support discussions on the future of rubber based land use system and its sustainability.
Gender Norms and Gendered Impacts of the Oil Palm 'Land Rush' in Indonesia
1Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia; 2University of Brighton, UK; 3University of Indonesia, UK
Gender issues are relegated to the periphery in current debates and approaches concerning the sustainable governance of oil palm. However, ongoing research by the Center for International Forestry Research in collaboration with University of Brighton, University of Indonesia and the Rights and Resources Initiative in Indonesia points to the critical roles that women play as workers, smallholders and members of affected communities. Oil palm expansion is displacing local women from land on which they cultivate food crops. Women workers’ contributions to production are either less visible, rendering them as shadow workers, or women are over-represented in the ‘casual worker’ category, with limited entitlement. Male community leaders and household heads have a greater voice in decision-making process. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) could be a platform to raise gender awareness, hold producers accountable and offer lessons for other standards in the sector. However, the RSPO principles and criteria, guidance and auditing mechanisms conflate gender with other forms of discrimination and view gender issues as beyond RSPO boundaries. Greater specificity and clarity in the P&C are needed and so is guidance on selection, training and evaluation of social auditors. RSPO must also learn from good practices in other certification schemes.
The Impact Of Large-Scale Land Development Deals That Remain Unimplemented
1Dept of Geoscience, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Faculty of Forestry, National University of Laos, Laos
Many land deals are never implemented or only partially so and more knowledge is needed regarding the ways in which unimplemented or abandoned projects affect local communities. We use empirical interview-based case-study evidence of the first three years of a large-scale biofuel project in northern Laos, examining the negotiation processes of a partially abandoned project and its effect on local people’s land access and their perceived tenure security. The project negatively affected local land use and community members’ land rights. Political pressure on administrative actors to increase economic development in poor provinces and districts, limited consideration of proposals and priorities from villages, combined with officials’ lack of experience of negotiating large contracts and limited attention paid to exit conditions created a strong bargaining-position for investors. However, the investment project helped the government policy to move away from the traditional, subsistence-oriented land use, towards commercially oriented agricultural production. In this way, we argue that the land grab continues after the original investor is gone.
Where Effective Governance is Absent, Ineffective Governance Becomes the Obvious: Interrogating Large Land Acquisition Processes and its Impacts on Investment Projects in South West Cameroon. The Case of Herakles Farms.
University of Melbourne, Australia
This paper will examine how the conventional top-down approach used in large-scale land allocation to foreign investors undermines the effective implementation of land investment projects in Cameroon. Long-held customary land used by communities in the South West Region to sustain rural livelihoods is under ‘grab’ by foreign investors for the development of commercial oil palm plantations without the consent of those on the land. This paper will argue that the approach used to acquire land is elite- dominated, corrupt, and shapes prospects for local resistance, which in turn negatively affects the effective implementation of investment projects despite government’s approval. The study will advocate the need for effective land governance policies – suggesting a re-visitation of the existing politico-administrative and legal instruments governing land use and management in the country, with emphasis on the need to practically engage local communities in land deal negotiation and implementation processes. Without these, I argue that local communities will continue to contest the establishment of commercial agricultural projects on ancestral land despite its promises in enhancing local economic development.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Implications of Evolving Land Markets for Equity|
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Competitiveness of land rental market and productivity growth in Ukrainian agriculture
Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Land market in Ukraine is yet emerging. Despite the establishment of private property for land and 25 years of reforms, it is not fully functional. Its ‘rental’ arm has been the main farmland transaction channel for farmers and landowners. Its ‘sales and purchases’ arm is virtually dysfunctional due to the farmland sales ban or moratorium. The moratorium was introduced in 2001 as a temporary measure, but since then it has been extended 8 times. Yet expectations of lifting the moratorium for farmland sales in Ukraine (expected from the January 1st 2018) escalate a debate on conditions and restrictions of rental and sales market for agricultural land. Some restrictions such as possible caps on the size of land holdings are yet debated, other restrictions such as imposing 7 years floor on duration of rental contracts, payments in cash only and regulations on size of rental payment are already in place. While the scope of debated land market regulations is wide, almost no evidence exists on their economic implications in agricultural sector. In this paper we look at the competitiveness of the local farmland market and the state of the land governance, and how it affects local productivity growth.
Leasehold Rights As A Vehicle For Economic Development: The Case of Small Scale Farmers In The Oshikoto Region
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Secure tenure is believed to be a necessary condition for economic development, increasing the use of credit to invest on the land, increasing land transactions, reducing disputes and raising productivity. Namibia therefore introduced several land reform instruments to address the pre-independence imbalances in land ownership patterns through the use of long-term lease agreements. It was expected that leasehold rights would enable smallholder farmers to be economically productive and bring them into the mainstream economy by using the lease agreements to access capital and investments to support agricultural production. The researchers investigated the impact of long-term leases on the ability of beneficiaries to access financing for improved livelihoods and agricultural production.They analysed the institutional framework for resettlement allocations and the transaction costs in order to analyse the impact of leaseholds on the beneficiaries’ ability to access credit and mobilise investments.It was found that no lessee had used their leasehold rights to access credit or mobilise investments, even though they considered their rights to be generally secure and the transaction costs are within international norms.The researchers concluded that the inability to access credit is due to an information deficit and the economic infeasibility of the parcel/beneficiary relation.
Freedom to Farm: Agricultural Land Use, Crop Selection, Fallowing, and Proposed Changes to the Myanmar Farmland Law Necessary to Strengthen Land Tenure Security
Landesa, United States of America
The freedom to farm one’s land as one chooses, as manifested in overall agricultural land use, crop choice, and fallowing, is an assumed right held by many agriculturalists. In the Myanmar context, government restrictions create a different environment for smallholders. The Farmland Law of 2012 prohibits the growing of alternative crops and the fallowing of land without permission of the government, and the same law, requires applications for permission to grow alternative crops. To better understand what is at stake with these prohibitions in place, this paper produced for USAID explores: first, the basis for general right for agriculturalists to use their farmland as they wish, based in the productivity and food security related to this freedom to farm, and the international norms which support it; second, the right to crop selection, examining the economic issues involved, including the land tenure security benefits of crop choice and the agricultural benefits of crop diversity, as well as legal and ecological issues; third, the basis for the right to fallow, again looking at the economic effects of fallowing, as well as the cultural, legal, and ecological issues involved; and fourth, proposed amendments to the Farmland Law to strengthen the freedom to farm.
Land Fragmentation and Land Services Delivery Ratios on Mailo Tenure in Uganda: Evidence from LIS Data
Associates Research Uganda
Land fragmentation is a phenomenon which constitutes one of the biggest obstacles to profitable agricultural production. It is further exacerbated by skewed ownership of land, with women and youth having limited access to productive land. This paper shows the extent of land fragmentation on mailo tenure, the oldest forms of registered tenure in most of central and western Uganda. Fragmentation is measured by analyzing administrative data from Uganda’s modern Land Information System (LIS) set up in 2013 to 2016. Taking into account the complexes of plots aggregation, results on occurrence and intensity are presented, with additional qualitative analysis on land sector services ratios and the impact of fragmentation on women registered as owners or co-owners, to represent the real situation on the ground in selected follow-up parcels. Whereas publically accessible land information underpins tenure security especially where development pressures create an ever increasing demand for land, it is important to enhance capacity and quality of data captured in LIS to reflect the process that a particular transaction or land parcel goes through and treat transactions as stages at which data must be captured so as to yield completeness.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-12: New Approaches to Large Scale Land Acquisition|
Session Chair: Hafiz Mirza, UNCTAD, Switzerland
The intricacies of large scale agricultural investment in Gambella Region, Ethiopia
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
Ethiopian government use agricultural investment as the most important and effective strategies for economic growth, food security and poverty reduction in the country. Since the mid-2000s, government has awarded millions hectares of fertile land to rich countries. This study explores the impact of large scale agriculture investment and its consequences to local livelihoods in Gambella region, Ethiopia. Gambella people’s survival and their identity are strongly tied to the land and the rivers that run through it. However, currently foreign and local investors grab the farm area on an industrial scale and that deprives their livelihoods and increasing food insecurity. Moreover, large land acquisition has been tremendous environmental devastation in region like forest has been cleared and burnt, wetland drained and people are largely dependent on international food aid and financial assistance. Further, it leads to displacement of smallholder farmers, loss of grazing land for pastoralists, loss of incomes and livelihoods for the peoples. Lastly, due to lack of good governance and transparency in the region, the natural resources are depleted and societies became food insecure. Therefore, Ethiopian government strategies are on the verge of falling unless integrated approach is not implemented.
Key words: agricultural investment, livelihoods, food insecurity, integrated approach
Understanding the Implication of Macroeconomic Growth on Smallholder Farmer, Landless, Landpoor and Women's livelihood and Land Rights in Lower Mekong Basin Region
1Oxfam America, Cambodia; 2Rapid Asia Co.,Ltd
Rapid economic expansion has led to an increase in demand for agricultural land, creating land tenure insecurity for the small-scale farmers. It also leads to negatively affected, as key industrial sector and other development project. Land grabbing, or the acquisition of land by the individual and cooperate investors or government is become a major threat to small scale famer and put their food security at risk “Why have smallholders been ignored or regularly stigmatized as old-fashioned, resistant of innovation, inefficient, and a barrier to modernization?” They contribute to the production of about 50% of the world’s food, which quells hunger in developing countries. In addition small-scale farmers in Lower Mekong Basin Countries also face challenges on several other fronts. In rural areas, involuntarily imposed landlessness is one of the main drivers of poverty. Considering this context, this paper aims to identify the characteristic and implications of economic growth’s effect on small-scale farmers, women farmers and landless in access to land and other resources in order to help understand and investigate the underlying issues of growth and its distribution in those LMB countries and analyzes How to minimize the negative impact of current policies and practices on smallholders ‘wellbeing and livelihood.
Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya: The Yala Swamp Case Study of Kenya’s Land Governance System and Actual Practices
KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya
This paper examines large-scale land acquisitions in Kenya by looking at the case of the Dominion Farms Limited takeover of Yala Swamp. The case study illustrates actual practices of Kenya’s land governance system in terms of how large-scale land acquisitions take shape and their results on the ground. The phenomenon in Kenya as elsewhere in Africa is not new except the scale and scope has been exacerbated by the increased demand for large-scale land acquisitions for production of food, bio-fuels and extractive industry raw materials since 2008 (Alden Wily, 2011; Anseeuw et al, 2012; Deininger, 2011; World Bank, 2010; Amanor, 2012). This paper seeks to use Dominion Farms Ltd, a project of an American investor to show how it forms the continuation of past practices. It explores whether or not the new land governance frameworks are able to regulate such investments to ensure that they address the implications such as loss of access by local communities to agricultural land and commons for grazing and fishing. The paper further explores changes that have taken place at Yala Swamp from 2003 to 2013 and assesses them against the backdrop of recent and emerging land governance regulatory frameworks at national, regional and global levels.
Smallholders and large –scale land acquisition in west Africa: the case of the management committees of customary land in Benin
LADYD, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin
Rather than to defend that land investments is top-down phenomenon that facilitates African states, this article question the role of smallholders in land investments. The results show that many young illiterate or/scholars villagers sharing family relationships form some land management committees of their lineages. These committees functions as boards. They promote the land deals leasing whose areas range from 20 to 1,500 hectares in investors. The proliferation of large-scale land deals in the villages studied is motivated by the will of the family property management committees to control customary land. Three objectives underlying this desire to control: firstly, counter fraudulent land sales; secondly, create opportunities for rural development through land investments; and thirdly, to formalize boundaries of ‘stool land’ to avert potential future land litigations. In the villages, it exists connivance relationships between management organizations of "clans’ lands" and the other institutions involved in land regulation. From these complicities, offices of these management committees are able to easily circumvent the government measures of large-scale land investments restrictions in order to formalize the land deals for the benefit of investors.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-13: Land Value Capture Experiences|
Session Chair: William Mccluskey, African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, United Kingdom
A Century of Unsuccessful Attempts at Value Capture? An Analysis of the UK’s Track Record
Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
The UK has used a variety of devices to try to capture the increase in land value resulting from demographic or economic growth or consent for a change land use to a more valuable one. The Finance Act 1909 was strongly influenced by the ideas of Henry George. It proved difficult to implement but was abolished when the government lost power. Subsequently town planning acts in 1947, 1967 and 1975 and 1976 brought in betterment levies and powers for local authorities to acquire land. In each case the legislation was brought in by Labour governments and abolished by Conservative ones with evidence of development being held back in the expectation that the measure would be short-lived. Implementation in each case was complex. The 1990 Planning Act allowed the imposing of planning obligations and contributions from developers and a community infrastructure levy has sought to make this more systematic and predictable. Against the problems of these measures revaluations of business rates, stamp duty land tax payable by buyers and capital gains tax on sellers have encountered much less political opposition or implementation problems. These measures suggest that although betterment levies can be difficult to collect other taxes can perform similar functions.
Transformation Of Land To Land Lot, Value Gain, Land Speculation, And Opportunities For Sharing Value Increment: An Evaluation Of The Turkey Example
1ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 2ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 3ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey; 4ankara unıversıty, department of real estate development and mangement, Turkey
Income from taxes constitutes the main revenue source of local and central governments in emerging economies. Urban services envisaged in development plans for rapidly growing urban populations are provided by local governments; however, available financial resources remain inadequate for effective, efficient and high quality service delivery. Especially in urban centers, the transformation of land to land lots and increasing residential density in the urban periphery place additional economic burden on local governments. In this context, a model proposal has been made towards controlling by taxation, which is an application tool of land lot policy, of urban sprawl process, increasing local government revenues and reducing revenue loss to a minimum in the Ankara Metropolitan area, of which scale is gradually growing and governance efficiency is declining. The results of the evaluation carried out in a 59.7 hectare study area in the Çukurambar Region in the Çankaya District of Ankara Province have shown that local governments’ tax revenues will increase by a factor of four by value increment financing. Using practices such as controlling the process of transformation of land to land lot, property tax, taxation of value increment, and reducing economic rent seekers’ tendencies of acquiring unearned increment will be possible.
Capturing Land Value after the Collapse of the Oil Economy to Finance Luanda's New Urbanisation
Development Workshop, Angola
With the collapse of oil prices through 2014 and 2015 the Angolan state budget has been drastically reduced, and the government will not be able to provide investment and subsidies to continue building new housing and urban infrastructure.
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum-based guarantees to build prestige urban projects. The private sector, both international and local has been a major beneficiary of construction subsidies from the state. The private sector, however, has been reluctant to provide their own financing and invest in real-estate due to weak land tenure and the lack of legislative reforms to make a functional land market. Solving the problems around land may be a way to stimulate the engagement of private sector participation in providing financing for the housing sector.
The author argues that "land-value capture”, a method that provided financing for the growth of Chinese cities, should to be studied and could be adapted in Angolan cities. It could provide an opportunity to finance the large backlog in urban upgrading of basic service infrastructure and housing for the poor for cities like Luanda.
Does Ethical And Participative Land Based Financing Support Better Land Governance
1University of East london, United Kingdom; 2UN-Habitat; 3Arab Urban Development Institute; 4Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
The use of land to generate resources for its development and the reverse process of external investments into land development are well known. Not sufficiently explored is how or whether choices of financial arrangements affect individual relationship with land, and land governance. The essay explores examples of facilitating alternative, ethical and Islamic finance and outcomes for land governance.
The objective of the paper is to consider the possible correlation between participative/ethical finance models and improved land governance prospects. Ethical finance features of such closer reliance on land (asset based), profit and loss models and value imperatives promoting real or abstract notions that contribute to land governance are studied. The paper interrogates the construction of land financing as a limited question of availability without exploring the possible benefits of participative finance for land governance.
|12:00pm - 12:30pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-02: Caucus on Women and Land|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-14: Plenary: Harnessing the Potential of New Data|
Session Chair: Steven Ramage, Group on Earth Observations (GEO), France
New Opportunities to Access High Resolution Imagery for Affordable Cadastral Mapping
DigitalGlobe, United States of America
Space offer s a unique vantage point to map the changing planet at its finest detail. Vast libraries of imagery collected over time give you a look into the past, present, and with satellite life designed for 12+ years, continuity to 2028 and beyond. As we collect imagery more and more imagery, it is now possible to create accurate 3D models that can be used for urban cadaster. Detailed mosaics of countries allow for rapid mapping of land cadaster economically, especially with changing business models in the commercial remote sensing industry.
How the Microsatellite Revolution can Help Developing Countries Achieve the SDGs
Planet, Inc., United States of America
To be completed
Supporting the EO r/evolution at scale - shifting the focus from data to services
1European Space Agency (ESA-ESRIN), Italy; 2The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
How the Bank can help its clients to better access and use spatial data
The World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
What is Google Earth Engine?
Google, United States of America
To be completed
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||Smallholders and private sector working towards sustainable sugar production in India|
Session Chair: Jose Masjuan, IFC, United States of America
Promoting Smart Land and Water Use for Climate Smart Sugarcane: Focus on Smallholder Behaviour Change with a Robust Business Case
International Finance Corporation
India is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change which threatens to push millions of smallholders back into poverty. With growing population, there is an ever-increasing competition for scarce natural resources, particularly land and water, to meet the demand for food-fibre-fodder-fuel. There is a need to support smallholders for behaviour change through capacity building to adopt climate smart agriculture practices that encourage smart land and water use, enhance on-farm resource efficiency and safeguard livelihoods from climate-related shocks.
IFC is supporting two Indian agribusiness companies to build capacity of 100,000 smallholder sugarcane farmers to adopt climate smart sugarcane cultivation practices, focused on sustainable land and water use. Since inception in 2012, the project has increased sugarcane farm yields by 20 percent, increased farm incomes by 25 percent and 75 billion litres in farm water-use avoided. The sugar companies have benefitted through improved sourcing, higher business volumes and greater farmer loyalty.
The project underscores the need for a “win-win” business case for both the farmers and the private sector that promotes smart land and water use in the commodity value-chains. Based on a robust business case, the private sector can play a leadership role in contributing to Sustainable Development Goals.
Smallholder Agri-supply Chains
International Finance Corporation, Indonesia
Partnership Management in Agribusiness Supplychains
International Finance Corporation, India
Good Practices for Agri-Water and Irrigation/Water Management
international Finance corporation, United States of America
Agronomic Practices for Smart Land Use
International Finance Corporation, India
Smallholder Supply-chain Development and Sustainable Resource Use: a Private Sector Perspective
Olam, United Kingdom
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||Uganda: How Strengthening Land Governance Supports Job Creation and Tax Revenues|
Session Chair: Klaus Tilmes, World Bank,
How Land Administration Increases Tax Revenue and Supports Job creation
World Bank, Uganda
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-01: Land Policy Lessons from the 2017 WDR: Governance & the Law|
Session Chair: Phillip Jeremy Hay, World Bank, United States of America
Translation French, Streaming.
Lessons from WDR 2017 on Producing Better Governance Outcomes: Commitment, Coordination and Cooperation
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
Improving Land Administration for Good Governance: What Uganda can do to Achieve Complete Coverage
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, -
To be completed
Land as a Key for Better Governance and Economic Growth in Tanzania: Perspective and Recent Initiatives
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania
To be completed
Leveraging Land Governance for Sustainable Urbanization: Improving the Quality of Land Administration
Ministère des Domaines de l'Etat et des Affaires Foncières au Mali, Mali
To be completed
Implementing Land and Cadaster Reforms in Colombia
National Planning Department (DNP), Colombia
To be completed
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-02: Will Blockchain Technology Revolutionize Land Administration?|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
Blockchain-Based Land Administration, feasible, illusory or a panacea?
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
October 31st 2015, the Economist wrote an article about the use of Blockchain as a ‘Trust Machine’, stating: “The spread of blockchains is bad for anyone in the “trust business” (…), such as (…) government authorities that are deemed sufficiently trustworthy to handle transactions”.
In this paper we describe the possible use of blockchain technology in Land Administration. Among other recent developments in the field of blockchain technology (technical maturity, hard fork) and Governance (DAO, hacks), we describe the relationship between Person, Objects and Rights in a Land Administration system and the complexity within these three elements: identity of a person, legal diversity ('bundle of rights') and the diversity in objects (including the possible use of bitsquares).
One of the central elements in this paper will be the principles of Good Governance in Land Administration. Are these principles met in a Blockchain-based system of Land Administration, developed and tested in various countries? The proposed system needs transparency, accountability, security (rule of law) and consistency. Is the technique (already) mature enough and is it feasible for Developing countries? It needs to be Fit For Purpose. Depending on the various (legal) systems, do we need (all) current actors in Land Administration processes?
Blockchain and Land Register - A New "Trust Machine"?
Lantmäteriet, the Swedish Mapping, Cadaster and Land Registration Authority, Sweden
Systems; legal as well as technical; for land registration and cadaster are built on trust and confidence for the public held processes for securing rights and information about property. Many national systems has taken centuries to build and some has not even started. The digitization and information era has increased the pace of development and even fairly new IT-systems must be changed in order to work according to demands from the new generation of the general public, citizens and companies using the public services.
Sometimes inventions like Internet, social media or Blockchain comes up and make bigger impacts to what we do. The blockchain technology is very much spoken of these days and some say it is the "new Internet thing". This contribution reflects on some land administration issues relating to the new technology based on experiences from a Swedish project where the Land Registry tried the blockchain.
Setting Up a Real-estate Pilot
ChromaWay http://www.chromaway.com have pioneered blockchain since 2012, when our CTO made the first implementation in the world of code that allows you to issue assets on the (bitcoin) blockchain. This was one of or even the first protocol that made financial institutions interested in blockchain. In 2014 we started ChromaWay.
ChromaWay are now the sole blockchain company working in a project comprised of companies and banks in nordics which involves SBAB, Landshypotek bank, Telia company and the Swedish land registry (We’re working now to add a couple of more institutions in the Nordics). We released a real-estate pilot which can be seen here: http://www.chromaway.com/landregistry and in March 2017 we’re launching a sandbox based on our product configured real-estate transactions, mortgages and property titles together with our banking partners. This Sandbox will be tested by the land registry out of a security, legal and business perspective.
Blockchain – Can This New Technology Really Revolutionize The Land Registry System?
1Federal Chamber of German Civil Law Notaries (BNotK); 2The Council of European Geodetic Surveyors (CLGE); 3International Notarial Cooperation Commission (CCNI)/ (UINL); 4Council of the Notariats of the European Union (CNUE); 5Ordre de Géomètres-Experts (OGE)
Some claim that a blockchain-based approach to registering property titles could increase the efficiency of conveyancing significantly and even prevent fraud. It is also said that property transactions could be handled on a blockchain in a similar way to payments between parties using digital currencies. Last year a project to blockchain the land register of Honduras was launched to give the owners of the nearly 60 percent of undocumented land an incentive to register their property officially. Apparently the project has stalled. But there are more developing countries considering blockchain a suitable technology to build their land registry system on. However, any decision to use the blockchain technology for land registries should be preceded by a thorough assessment of its risks and legal impacts. There are good reasons why most land register systems are kept by the government or other public agencies. Trusted third parties such as notaries and surveyors who are strictly supervised by government agencies have to make sure that the information entered into the register is accurate and complete. But who would be liable if damage is caused by false entries in the blockchain-based system? And who would be able to control the input into the blockchain?
Blockchain’s Struggle to Deliver Impersonal Exchange
Pompeu Fabra University, Spain
With its decentralized peer-to-peer structure, application of the blockchain technology underpinning Bitcoin holds the promise of making impersonal exchange possible for all types of old and new transactions in all types of markets. Such theoretical promise is examined here by identifying what value blockchain adds to the contractual process, exploring its contractual potential and analyzing the main difficulties it is facing.
The article argues that blockchain applications will evolve towards dual structures separating causal and formal transactions. Contrary to naive conceptions that proclaim the end of intermediaries and state involvement, such applications will rely on a variety of interface and enforcement specialists, including standard public interventions, especially for property transactions. Without these interventions, blockchain will at most work as an in personam—instead of as an in rem—system, therefore facilitating mere personal instead of impersonal transactions.
Using Blockchain in Georgia
National Agency of Public Registry, Georgia
Georgia is one of the first countries in the world using the Blockchain technology for immovable property registration.
The works on integrating registration services in Blockchain started in 2016. The first phase of cooperation with the BitFury Group involved development of the pilot project on using blockchain technology for immovable property registration, which has been successfully completed.
Since 2017, NAPR moved to the second phase of implementation of Blockchain technology, which envisages enactment of the pilot project and introduction of the "smart-contracts".
Information about the extract on any immovable property is automatically sent to the Blockchain system. It is impossible to delete, alter, rewrite or illegally manipulate the data stored in Blockchain.
The innovation means to assign a special hash to the immovable property extract. The hash is a sequence of symbols, which is unique for each document if the same algorithm is used. The identical hashes in the Blockchain system and NAPR website confirm authenticity of the extract. The old extracts, i.e. those prepared till 20th of February, 2017, are possible to store in the Blockchain system only upon their renewal.
Consequently, with Blockchain, NAPR makes information on immovable property even more secure, transparent and accessible around the world.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-03: Will Drones Open Up New Ways of Mass Registration?|
Session Chair: James Kavanagh, RICS, United Kingdom
Comparative Evaluation of Type-Dependent UAV Performance in High-Precision National Territorial Surveying and Spatial Information Acquisition
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This study is mainly concerned with evaluating and comparing the level of accuracy and resolution of images taken from a fixed wing UAV and a rotary wing UAV at the same flying altitude. A test-bed was installed for image data collection using fixed wing and rotary wing UAVs of the same manufacturer. To evaluate the accuracy of UAV imagery, the imaged coordinates were checked against coordinates in cadastral records and coordinates obtained from terrestrial surveying.As a result of comparing UAV-imaged coordinates’ accuracy using an RMSE analysis, the rotary wing UAV was found to have slightly higher RMSE value. While no significant UAV type-dependent differences were confirmed in the digital surface models, both UAV types showed differences from the coordinates in the cadastral records, thus demonstrating the feasibility of UAV application to the project of inspecting cadastral non-coincidence. In resolution analysis, the rotary wing UAV was found to have a slightly higher spatial resolution due to camera orientation parameters, and the fixed wing UAV showed higher visual resolution due to weather conditions. In the comparison of processing time, fixed wing UAV was found to require 25% less time for the work from image acquisition to image analysis.
Could We Cadaster Faster in an Integrated IT System by using UAVs with GIS Services in a Cloud Infrastructure?
Teamnet Group, Romania
There is a significant number of geographies around the world where the percentage of land with cadaster and land books registered in an integrated IT system is rather low and increasing it is a real challenge for all stakeholders: the governmental institution managing the domain, surveyors, IT businesses and citizens.
In order to improve the duration and costs of mass registration we analyze the involvement of modern technologies along the process, automation of eligible registration sub-processes, usage of UAVs for faster field data collection and storing and sharing all work in progress in the cloud infrastructure. We measure the improvements and analyze their impact on quality and total cost of ownership to determine whether such improvements are a real “win” for all stakeholders and obtain promising results: comparing the mass registration process in several scenarios with different levels of automation on the sub-processes reveals a decrease of the duration or cost of sub-processes with 20-40%, a decrease in number of validation iterations with 25-50% and the improvement of public registration service transparency for the citizens.
Case Study On Using New Technology For The Cadastral Systematic Registration In The Republic Of Kosovo
Kosovo Cadastral Agency, Kosovo
Kosovo Cadastral Agency with the continuous support from the World Bank through the project for Real Estate Cadastre and Registration (RECAP) in Kosova, is carrying out the systematic registration activities of reconstruction of cadastral information. This activity consists of public awareness campaign, data collecting from the field, their analyzing and processing until their final registration in Kosovo Cadastre Land Information System (KCLIS).
This pilot project is being implemented in two phases, where the first phase has consisted on production of orthophotos using UAV technology and Open Source Software. This phase has started on December 2015, where for one cadastral zone the process is repeated on April 2016, because of poor weather conditions during the December. The second phase has consisted on data collection from the field through OSS and whole process of reconstruction of cadastral information in about 1,500 ha, in these two cadastral zones is completed by September 15, 2016.
This paper will show results and will give conclusions, recommendations on faster and cheaper collection of geoinformations, from the field, through preliminary signalization of parcel boundaries in the field. All recommendations will facilitate and improve greatly on new projects of reconstruction of cadastral information in the Republic of Kosovo.
How the World Bank can help clients to harness the potential of drones
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-04: New Ways to Track Large Farm Performance and Compliance|
Session Chair: Chris Penrose Buckley, DFID, United Kingdom
Articulating a Rights-Based Argument for Land Contract Transparency
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
This paper explores whether and how existing state obligations under human rights law require disclosure of land contracts and more transparent contracting processes around land investments. It focuses on the extent to which guidelines for responsible land-based investment, which encourage greater transparency, reflect existing host and home state obligations. Based on a review of relevant human rights law and authoritative interpretations thereof, the paper articulates rights-based arguments for land contract disclosure, based in particular on rights to participation and the right of access to information. This rights-based approach, which has not been fully articulated to date, bolsters understanding of the extent to which best practice recommendations regarding transparency in land investments are reflected in binding human rights obligations, and thereby provides arguments for pushing the transparency agenda forward with states. Moreover, where uncertainty exists regarding how best to implement recommendations regarding land contract disclosure, rights-based arguments can serve to inform and shape measures adopted in pursuit of implementation. The paper also seeks to encourage greater discussion of the links between human rights law and transparency in land investments within the various fora and communities of practice focused on these issues, and to lend legal weight to policy arguments.
Systematic and Rapid Assessment of Concessions Using GIS and Remote Sensing: The case of Economic Land Concessions in Cambodia
1ESRI, United States; 2Indufor North America, United States; 3Forest Trends, United States
Over the past decade, significant attention has been given to the rapid increase in the allocation of large-scale commercial land concessions within developing countries. Concerns have been raised regarding the process by which concessions were granted as well as the subsequent management of them. Some of those concerns include social displacement, large-scale deforestation, and the lack of monitoring and oversight related to adherence with national laws. Using lightweight GIS and remote sensing data, a methodology will be explained for how one can go about monitoring and analyzing key concerns related to economic land concessions, including the extent of forest cover loss, extent of planting, potential social displacement, and adherence with local development requirements.
A recent study focusing on economic land concessions in Cambodia will serve as a concrete example for discussion.
The Land Matrix initiative – from a global data base to a network of decentralised and thematic land observatories
1GIGA, Germany; 2CIRAD, France; 3University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CDE, Switzerland; 5International Land Coalition, Italy; 6Investigador Independiente del CONICET
Over the years, the LM has encountered several challenges and, in order to respond to them, has restructured and adapted its activities and methodologies – particularly by decentralising and transforming from a global initiative and dataset into a network of decentralised and thematic land observatories. The objective of this paper is to present these challenges (section 1), ii) to detail how the LM responded to the latter and to critically assess its present contribution (Section 2).
Land Concession Data Transparency: A Survey of Fourteen Forested Countries
1World Resources Institute, United States of America; 2Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
Global demand for agricultural commodities, minerals and forest products is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. These activities occur on land allocated by governments to companies for extractive or productive purposes, known as land concessions. Data on the location, ownership and extent of land concessions is essential to attribute drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, demand accountability and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land. However, most countries lack comprehensive information on the precise location, extent, ownership and use of land concessions. To date, no previous studies have assessed the availability of open spatial information on land concessions across countries or sectors. This paper fills this knowledge gap by providing a survey of the state of play in land concession transparency for the first time, with a special emphasis on spatial data. More specifically, this paper examines the completeness and quality of land concessions data in fourteen forested countries, as well as the laws governing the disclosure of concessions data and an assessment of the implementation of these laws. Each country and sector is evaluated against criteria for data accessibility and quality, and, based on these findings, recommendations are made to improve land concessions data access.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-05: Avenues to Enhance Women's Land Ownership|
Session Chair: Julian Quan, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
Securing the Land Rights of Poor and Women through Provision of Legal Services to Address Their Land Problems
Landesa/ Rural Development Institute, India
A major cause of economic vulnerability of rural families in India is insecure rights to land, arising partly from the lack of access to legal support by the poor.
To find out major land problems and legal needs of the poor, Landesa conducted a mixed-method study in rural areas of Warangal district of Telangana State during December 2013-February 2014. It was found that 13 types of land problems are most commonly faced by the poor. A sample of 100 cases was selected to represent these 13 types of land problems.
The study shows that the most prevalent types of bottlenecks faced by the respondents were “no legal awareness” (80%), “illiteracy” (59%), “lack of support from revenue department” (54%), “negligence of revenue staff” (40%) and “Corruption” (38%). It was found that almost twice the percentage of male respondents pursued land-related problems themselves compared to female respondents. Village revenue officers (VRO) emerged as the key authority to provide legal assistance and to resolve land problems.
It was found that to improve the reach of legal assistance to the poor: 1) legal services and land programs should be modified according to their needs; 2) the reach of the Revenue Courts should be improved.
Securing land rights for widows living with and affected by HIV using customary justice structures
1International Center for Research on Women, United States of America; 2Kenya Ethical and Legal Issues Network on HIV and AIDS
This document provides a summary of the work that KELIN and ICRW have achieve at building evidence towards supporting interventions that secure land rights for widows living with and affected by HIV using customary justice structures. Utilizing a human rights framework, this presentation discusses the results of a legal intervention that supports HIV affected widows that have been expelled of their land after the death of their partner.
In Homabay and Kisumu counties of Kenya, many widows and orphans become vulnerable to HIV when their husbands and fathers die, due to disinheritance by their families and communities, which leaves them destitute. These counties are among the 47 with the highest HIV prevalence rate, with Homabay at 25.7% and Kisumu at 19.3%, as against the national prevalence of 6.04%. Many are evicted from their rural homes and flee to urban areas where they find themselves vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse, increasing their vulnerability to HIV. Often they resort to high-risk behavior, such as polygamy or involuntary sex work in order to earn enough money to survive. For women and children living with HIV it becomes very difficult to access consistent treatment.
Namibia: Good Practices and Lessons Learned for Gender and Communal Land
Landesa, United States of America
This paper attempts to better understand the intersection of gender, communal land and land reform in Namibia. While this paper is not a comparative study per se, it focuses on two regions that adopted different approaches to communal land governance. The Oshana region leads the implementation of the nation-wide Communal Land Reform Act, 2002 that introduced the registration of customary land rights in communal areas, while the Kavango region declined to participate in the registration process and instead continues to independently administer customary land rights in accordance with its established customary system. The case study uses a gender lens to systematically assess the different approaches taken by these communities to illustrate good or emerging practices and draw lessons learned from measures that have sought both to protect community rights to land and also protect the rights of women and men in those communities. The paper evaluates these measures in light of the primary objective, selected strategies and outcomes. Ultimately, the case study attempts to illustrate what measures can be implemented in different political, legal, and cultural contexts to enable communities facing similar situations to benefit from the experiences of others. Both promising practices and challenges faced, offer insights.
Women’s Knowledge and Perception towards their Land and Property Rights Across Bombali, Portloko And Tonkolili Districts In Northern Region, Sierra Leone.
Sierra Leone Network on the Right to Food (SiLNoRF), Sierra Leone
The ongoing debate on women's land rights violation in poor countries continues to gain more recognition. This case study explores communities in three districts in Northern Sierra Leone to further investigate land rights violations and assess women's knowledge and perception on their land rights after remarkable laws were passed to protect their land tenure in the country. This study found out that rural women continue to be subjected to land and property rights violations despite the existence of the 2007 Gender laws that prevent discrimination against women, their knowledge on the gender laws are too weak. As well, women who do most of the farm work and on which many family livelihood depend on, still have little access, ownership and control over land. Customs and traditions are still widely used to discriminate women; traditional rulers are not trusted to promote women’s land and property rights. Civil society activism has helped to raise the awareness level of many women in rural communities about their land and property rights but still a lot has to be done to balance the equation. Full participation of women is essential at all levels to empower them to advocate for their rights.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-06: Can Securing Tenure Contribute to Mitigating Climate Change?|
Session Chair: Rose Mwebaza, African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Climate Benefits, Tenure Costs: The Economic Case for Securing Indigenous Land Rights in the Amazon
1World Resources Institute, United States of America; 2Resources for the Future, United States of America; 3Rainforest Alliance, United States of America
With the Paris Agreement entering into force on the 4th November 2016, governments around the world need to look for cost-effective solutions to implement their Nationally Determined Commitments. It is clear that addressing land use is central to these solutions, whereas Indigenous peoples are central to forest-based climate mitigation solutions. Indigenous Peoples and other communities hold and manage 50 to 65 percent of the world’s land. However, by far, very few studies have provided the science-based evidence that quantifies the important benefits that indigenous forestlands can provide.
This research has examined for the first time the economic benefits provided by tenure-secure indigenous lands in three Amazonian countries, incl. Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. We found that giving secure tenure to indigenous peoples can help reduce deforestation and generate billions and sometimes trillions of dollars’ worth of benefits in the form of carbon sequestration, reduced pollution, clean water and more. Securing indigenous land tenure are among the most cost-effective mitigation options that help forest nations meet their commitments to Paris agreements as well as achieve their Sustainable Development Goals. While our study has focused on the Amazon, the findings can have important implications to many other countries across the world.
Formalization of land and water rights combinations to deal with the consequences of climate change in the rural & urban areas in China
Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Climate change in China means higher temperatures, more droughts in the rural areas and because of an increased volatility of the rains sometimes flooding in the urban areas. People have developed adaptation mechanisms and it will be argued that adaptation requires titling of land and water rights. This would facilitate water trading, which has been used in several countries to mitigate the consequences of drought. We show land and water rights are related because an improved allocation of water by stakeholders requires them to know they are entitled to sell surpluses. Our research in rural China will be presented where dealing with more severe droughts wase an issue. Then our research in urban China is presented to show climate change adaptation mechanisms in urban areas and the implications for land and water rights. Finally, some conclusions will be presented. China wants to move to a unifying land titling system. Such a system would integrate the registration of all land resources, including what is on the land and what is below, meaning the water and the minerals.This is important to allow adaptation to the consequences of climate change in the urban and rural areas.
Securing Land Rights at Scale Through Participatory Role-play: the Forest Investment Program in Burkina Faso
1INSUCO, Burkina Faso; 2Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change, Burkina Faso; 3The World Bank
The Forest Investment Program (FIP) was launched with the objective to strengthen the governance over communal lands on a significant portion of Burkina Faso (around 10% of the country's rural communes) with the objective to replicate the initiative over the entire national territory.
More specifically, the FIP is supporting the creation of communal Plans for Land Use and Management (POAS) in 32 communes, and for that purpose developed an innovative, inclusive and transformational methodology that puts local actors in the driver's seat to accurately identify challenges and come up with consensual solutions.
One of the steps in the process relies on the TerriStories® methodology developed by the CIRAD and builds on findings from the MARP, the COMMOD, and other role playing-based methodologies to improve the governance of tenure and land use planning.
The article explores the entire process leading to the development of the POAS at the local level. It explains in detail the methodology used by looking at the important challenges that arose – mostly caused by the large-scale approach and the decision to focus at commune level – and how they were addressed.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-07: Planning Urban Development Using Satellite Imagery|
Session Chair: Shlomo Angel, New York University, United States of America
From Megacities to Historic Towns: Leveraging Satellite Imagery and Spatial Analysis to Inform Urban Planning
The World Bank Group
This paper showcases the use of rapid geospatial analysis such as high resolution satellite imagery, night time lights and spatial data to characterize urban growth patterns and to tease out the issues and gaps related to the effectiveness of institutional coordination and master plans, disaster risks, growth and prosperity, urban livability, land use planning and enforcement, and urban design policy conflicts using: (i) Karachi megacity (largest city in Pakistan); and (ii) Kandy (UNESCO World Heritage secondary city in Sri Lanka) as examples. The paper will also detail how the World Bank has leveraged on these findings and translated them into policy action and investments in ongoing projects and technical assistance.
A New Plan for African Cities: The Ethiopia Urban Expansion Initiative
New York University Marron Institute of Urban Management, New York, USA
Recent research indicates that a simplified approach to urban planning in Sub-Saharan African cities can address the challenges of rapid urban growth. Current plans focus too heavily on the existing area of the city and offer unrealistic agendas for future urban growth, such as densification, containment, and high-rise development; plans are also often unreasonably complicated, lack sufficient integration across levels of government, and are too costly. In response, NYU Stern Urbanization Project and the Government of Ethiopia have tested a simple methodology known as Making Room for Urban Expansion to assist eighteen Ethiopian cities that are experiencing rapid growth. This program is called the Ethiopia Urban Expansion Initiative. The Initiative set aside a number of standard planning objectives and instead focused only on expanding city boundaries to include adequate land for expansion, designing and protecting a network of arterial roads spaced approximately 1km apart, and identifying and protecting environmentally sensitive open spaces. These efforts focused on areas that were not yet been occupied by development. Results from 18 participating cities show that simple plans can lead to the construction and protection of large amounts of arterial roads, beginning to bring the urban land supply in line with projected growth.
Calibrating Housing Programs with Geo-Spatial Census Data
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Peru
A conventional problem for public policies is to focus in the social groups with the most acute needs; in most circumstances this imply a sort of field operation, usually under the form of a survey. This paper shows how to recycle an old product (housing and population census) with the cartography elaborated for it; in order to find population size and surface occupied with acute needs classified by type. In particular, which plots have housing without drainage systems, or housing with soil as floor material, or household crowdedness.
Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Quezon City Informal Settlements:Towards An Informal Settlements Growth Model
1Geodata Systems Technologies, Inc., Philippines; 2School of Urban and Regional Planning, Philippines
Informal settlements are not transitional but rather grow in area as time goes on as
revealed by spatio-temporal analysis of informal settlements in Quezon City, Philippines. Spatio-temporal analysis of mapped indicators confirmed existing literature that IS grow in areas near roads, rivers, on flat lowlands, near dumpsites and disaster-prone areas, near sources of income, near worship areas, and near educational and health institutions. Their growth is encouraged by the presence of government projects. The proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in IS areas is an indicator of the high political awareness of IS.
Through spatial analysis using GIS, factor maps with their corresponding weights
derived in the Informal Settlements survey were created, and were used as inputs to the development of the Quezon City Informal Settlements Growth Model (QC-ISGM) model. The model was developed and calibrated using available 1986 and 2003 actual orthophoto maps. It was used to simulate and predict future spatial expansion areas of known existing IS. The calibrated model was used to predict 2009 IS growth. The QC-ISGM prediction was tested against actual locations as of 2009 (extracted from interpreted 2009 imageries) using Fragstats. The calibrated model was used to predict location of IS by 2029 and 2059.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-08: Approaches to Implementing Property Tax Reform|
Session Chair: Kauko Jussi Viitanen, Aalto University, Finland
The Critical Elements Of Sustainable Property Tax Implementation And Reform”
Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom
Designing and implementing land and property tax reforms is a critical element of a country’s economic health. So often these reforms are built around advice from international experts. This initial advice can often influence the overall project. The quality of this advice must be second to none. Those involved must research the country situation and ensure that any advice suits the current circumstances of that country. Any reforms must be fit for purpose and sustainable. It is unacceptable for consultants to deliver “what they think is best” rather than properly researched proposals that deliver workable and acceptable systems.
One of the critical elements of the reform process is the effective involvement of local experts who have sufficient authority to ensure productive project management. Too often “local advice” is either ignored or totally disregarded. It is important that “in country” protocols are observed particularly those that impact on the timely delivery of the objectives of the project.
This paper seeks to identify the key elements to the delivery of successful and sustainable reforms. Those involved must take ownership of their role in any project. Integrity must always prevail. Technical assistance should be seen as a “duty” to those who retain you.
Workable Solutions for Property Tax Reform
1Almy, Gloudemans, Jacobs & Denne, United States of America; 2International Association of Assessing Officers
This paper elaborates on recommendations in the literature for evaluating the need for property tax reforms. It summarizes common reform issues and makes recommendations for reform programs. It contains policy and practice examples that are worthy of examination.
Success Factors for a System for Property Taxation and the Consequent Risks
Netherland Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, The
Based on our experience in the Netherlands it is more than tempting to describe a best-practice that would serve as a model for other jurisdictions to compare with, adjust to or just to copy and implement. We of course agree that it is appropriate for jurisdictions considering implementing a system of property tax to study and learn from systems that function well. However we do not suggest copying a best practice. Rather than focussing on what the best system is that others should copy, we propose to analyse the choices that have been made in shaping and developing successful systems and to explore the environment in which these systems have evolved. Along with these choices come the related risks. In our paper we describe the fundamental choices that have to be made and the choices we made in the Netherlands. These choices deal with aspects of the environment in which the property taxes are to be levied and with the risks that are inevitably related to these choices. By doing so we hope to be able to contribute to effective implementation and improvement of systems for property taxes in different circumstances.
Improving Land Valuation Models in Sparse Markets: A Comparison of Spatial Interpolation Techniques Used in Mass Appraisal
1Ulster University, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
The research in this working paper has set up the groundwork for a national AVM of Malawi, Africa, using only secondary data collected by the 2010-2011 Integrated Household Survey. Model variables include physical characteristics of the property, economic variables, as well as location-specific distance and climate variables. This paper additionally helps bridge the current gap in development property tax literature by evaluating response surface analysis (RSA) at a national level, specifically with respect to technical standards of the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO). Our initial research shows that variables with positive effects on perception of value include agricultural plot size and estimated annual income (rental) potential. Plots situated further from agrimarkets and auction locations are perceived to be less valuable. Negative effects are associated with sandy soil, higher average annual rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and plots situated in swamps or marshlands. The ordinary kriging-based predictions, while seemingly less likely to overestimate perceived value, are more regressive. Ordinary kriging achieves superior scores of vertical equity, but inferior scores of uniformity when compared to a current OLS model with location factor adjustment variables derived from RSA.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-09: Improving Urban Land Governance|
Session Chair: Robert Buckley, New York University Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Land governance in the context of the New Urban Agenda: Experiences from Harare (Zimbabwe) and Johannesburg (South Africa)
1Transparency International Zimbabwe; 2Chinhoyi University; 3Corruption Watch South Africa
This discussion provides a nuanced analysis of how land governance systems influence the New Urban Agenda in the context of two different African cities, Harare and Johannesburg. Responsible land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of this Agenda and thus Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11. One of the key components of the Agenda’s vision and that of SDG 11 is the concept of cities for all, meaning “equal use and enjoyment of cities, towns, and villages and seeking to promote inclusivity and ensure that all inhabitants, of present and future generations, without discrimination of any kind, are able to inhabit and produce just, safe, healthy, accessible, resilient, and sustainable cities and human settlements, as a common good. It is within this context that land governance variables such as land corruption, land access, and land planning have become important in achieving the vision of the New Urban Agenda. The paper which is informed by an extensive review of literature argues that land governance is at the core of achieving the targets of the New Urban Agenda. The paper seeks to propose policy recommendations on how the New Urban Agenda can be more responsive to challenges in land governance.
Towards An Urban Land Resource Curse? A Fresh Perspective On A Long-Standing Issue
Transparency International - Secretariat, Germany
The governance of urban land and real estate development is one of the central challenges not just for urban but also more broadly for global development in times of rapid urbanisation. This paper advances a fresh perspective to look at urban land by exploring to what extent it could be characterised as a resource curse problem. The conclusion is a qualified yes: urban land issues exhibit a number of characteristics and dynamics that compellingly suggest that we are facing a resource curse type of situation when it comes to urban land not only in a small number of global mega-cities in the global North but increasingly also in rapidly urbanising areas in developing countries. What’s more, the particular configuration of drivers and characteristics points to a resource curse that rivals and in some aspects even dwarfs the risks, complexities and acuity associated with the phenomenon in other sectors. Drawing on the experience with tackling resource curse challenges this paper concludes by discussion a number of practical remedies that offer promise in the context of urban land with a particular focus on targeted transparency and education initiatives
A Critical Assessment of Urban Land Leasehold System in Ethiopia
1Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
The land management and governance system can be the underlying cause for materializing the opportunity or face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The urban land lease policy of Ethiopia is considered the most influential factor that determine whether there exists unhealthy, haphazard and unbalanced investment environment in the cities. The paper critically reviews the policy and its institutional arrangement. It quantitatively analyzed the fundamental factors that drive the value of land developers place on urban land for investment using the land auctions data obtained from Addis Ababa City. Base price, plot size, location and grade and auction period have significant effect on land value. Investment type and capital have mixed effect. Our findings suggest that the implementation of the land lease policy still requires reexamination of constraints and opportunities with the aim of devising appropriate measures towards sustainable urbanization. The institutional mechanism does not provide ‘appropriate’ incentive for developers and accountability for bureaucrats. It should help to facilitate cities’ transition from dependence on land sale revenue to modern taxation, and consider the capability of the rural citizens, who are expected to displace as urbanization progresses, to access the opportunities and their entitlements for integration into cities throughout the urbanization process.
Holding Land in Common within Cities, Commoning for Land Rights– What Can We Learn from Collective Tenure in Urban Context?
1Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; 2French Development Agency
In cities of developing countries, access to decent housing and secure land tenure remains a great challenge for most of urban dwellers; yet secure land tenure is a key component of urban resilience. The aim of this paper is to present and synthetize an exploratory study on collective tenure in developing countries’ cities that was conducted in 2016. This study is part of a wider reflection on the possible contribution of the analytical framework of the commons for renewing the approach of development aid, conducted by the AFD, and seeks to explore to what extent Collective Tenure in Urban Context can contribute to inclusive and sustainable cities.
First, we will demonstrate how the debate on securing land rights for the urban poor can be enriched by the analytical framework of the commons. Second, we will draw lessons from three of the six case studies developed in the study, namely housing cooperatives, collective land titling, and Community Land Trust.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-10: Assessing Impact of Land Reform Interventions|
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Baseline Findings And Evaluation Challenges For An Irrigation and Land Tenure Security Initiative in the Senegal River Valley
Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America
Improving irrigation infrastructure in the Senegal River Valley has the potential to boost agricultural productivity and the welfare of households in the region. However, unless land rights are clearly assigned and secure, investments in land may be dampened, preventing the benefits of improved irrigation from being fully realized. In addition, the potential for land conflicts could rise as land increases in value, particularly if land tenure is insecure.
With these issues in mind, between 2010 and 2015, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) invested in an initiative in the Senegal River Valley that combined irrigation infrastructure improvements with activities to improve land tenure security and governance in affected areas. Mathematica Policy Research is conducting a rigorous evaluation of the initiative.
Here, we present findings from our analysis of a baseline survey conducted by a previous evaluator between 2012 and 2013 among households targeted by the intervention and a group of comparison households. Our analysis illustrates several challenges for evaluations of land interventions, including measurement issues, identifying a credible comparison group, and isolating impacts from the effects of other contemporaneous interventions. We will present our plan for mitigating these risks, and considerations for designing our upcoming follow-up surveys.
Outcomes of land and forest tenure reform implementation in Indonesia
Center for International Forestry Researcy, Indonesia
Most of the developing countries have undergone through forest tenure reform in past two decades offering some rights to local communities over land and forest resources. About one third of world’s forest is under community ownership or use. However, the actual contribution on tenure security, livelihoods and forest condition is not fully understood. This paper tries to fill that gap by analyzing outcomes of various forest tenure regimes in Indonesia based on the research from 16 forest communities under social forestry schemes, informal customary systems, and various partnership schemes.
The results show that all the communities whose rights were legally recognized under the reforms had strong perceptions of tenure security; and improved forest condition was observed in the communities with advanced reform implementation. However, these communities had low increase in income after the reform as well as have failed to take into account women’s representation and voice in forest governance. Variation in outcomes within and across the formal reform types could be attributed to the disproportionate possession of extent, protection and assurance of rights, access to capital, capacity, biophysical conditions and post formation support.
Methods for Determining Land Formalization Cost-effectiveness: The Per-parcel Cost and Quality of USAID’s MAST Pilot in Tanzania
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International
Technical and financial requirements for land formalization programs are substantial, prompting donor and government interest to find low-cost approaches to customary land documentation and registration. Such programs must be feasible to implement at scale, with manageable time, personnel and technical requirements, but also provide sufficiently high-quality service delivery to meet development objectives and ensure sustainability of the process beyond initial donor support. Currently there is no standard approach in the land sector for determining per-parcel costs or cost-effectiveness of such programs. Such analyses could, however, help clarify resource needs and potential efficiencies, identify how differences across approaches may contribute to overall quality and sustainability, and facilitate selection from a range of options. We draw on cost-effectiveness analyses and qualitative data collection with district land staff and program beneficiaries to estimate the cost-per-parcel and associated quality dimensions of USAID’s Mobile Application to Secure Tenure (MAST) pilot approach to map land and facilitate formal documentation of customary use rights in Tanzania. While cost data present several uncertainties, results suggest evidence of a trade-off between per-unit cost and quality, and identify advantages of the MAST system that appear to benefit overall quality, CCRO delivery time, and beneficiary trust in the process.
Land Markets, Property Rights, and Deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia (1992-2015)
1Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Basque Center for Climate Change, Spain
We examine the emergence of land markets and their effects on deforestation in Sumatra (Indonesia), using farm-household data for the period 1992-2015. The paper is based on a theoretical model of land acquisition for cultivation by a heterogeneous farming population, as well as micro-econometric analysis of primary data. We observe that land market development, under an institutional context of weak land tenure security, has not triggered deforestation in the study area. While the de facto property right protection provides sufficient internal tenure security for most farm-households, the sense of external tenure security is low for the land that cannot be formally titled. This results in the undervaluation of directly appropriated forest land. Clearing forest land for trading in the land market is, therefore, financially less lucrative for farmers than engaging in cultivation of plantation crops in already converted land. The study also indicates that land market development alone has been unable to deter forest appropriation by local (non-migrant) households.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-11: Policies for Land Consolidation|
Session Chair: Denys Nizalov, University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom
Options for Legislative and Institutional Reform of Land Consolidation in Serbia: Choosing the Right Approach and Building Regional Expert Networks
GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Serbia
Agricultural land fragmentation constrains agricultural development in Southeast Serbia, where average land parcel sizes amount to 0.1 to 0.3 hectares, parcels are often left abandoned and are not accessible by roads or field tracks. Investments into land consolidation (LC) in Serbia can have high mid and long term returns, in particular as Serbia is on its way to become a competitive agricultural producer on the way to EU membership. Land consolidation programs contribute towards updated land cadasters, better infrastructure, better rural living and working environment, increased property market values resulting in increased investments, employment and increased direct and indirect tax revenues. This paper analyses the findings from piloting land consolidation within the past 4 years of pilot implementation in seven pilot municipalities in southeastern Serbia and discusses the advantages and limitations of different land consolidation approaches or models, their requirements and key principles. It further outlines options for practical legal and institutional reform for effective implementation of land consolidation projects in Serbia as well as the establishment and strengthening of regional land consolidation expert networks.
Property Rights and Private Investment: Evidence from a Planned Settlement in Rural Tanzania
Oklahoma State University, United States of America
We investigate the mass resettlement of rural population in Tanzania that occurred in early 1970s. The policy was implemented to strengthen the role of the state in establishing villages for communal production and development. The villagisation process that followed was implemented with unclear goals, haste and at some point coercion that it was unlikely to bring any short-term improvement in the rural economy. We exploit a recent survey data to examine the impact of the ujamaa operation on farming activities. Our findings show that areas affected by the villagisation in which proprietary rights in land were given to households had significantly better transferability rights and had made significant investments in land. We detect improvement in access to rural credit market and a closing gender gap in land ownership.
New trends in development of Land Consolidation in Russia
State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation
Land Consolidation is a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural production via rational use of scare resources: land, labor and capital based on reduction of transaction costs. The specific objectives of Land Consolidation are the following: increasing the efficiency of agricultural production; providing of sustainable development of agrarian sector; rational use of land, labor and capital in agriculture; optimization of agricultural production structures both in territorial and production aspects; increasing the competitiveness of agricultural producers in domestic as well as foreign markets; environmental protection; development of production as well as social infrastructure in agriculture. Land Consolidation should be carried out based on the following principles: voluntariness; openness and transparency; financial and economic feasibility; taking into account the interests of the population groups involved including women and youth as well as indigenous people; step by step implementation; consideration of local conditions; state and NGO support. In Russia now there is a trend of development of Land Consolidation at both the federal and regional level, for example, in Orel Region where land is consolidated by private farms and parastatals
The Turkish Experience in Consolidation of Irrigated Land: Productivity and Efficiency Implications
1Independent Consultant, Turkey; 2State Hydraulic Works, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkey
Land consolidation is more than a simple reallocation of parcels to remove effects of fragmentation. It enables and facilitates broader social and economic reforms. Within the context of irrigated agriculture in Turkey, efforts for consolidation of parcels have sought to enlarge individual land holdings to assist with the building and operation of more efficient irrigation and drainage infrastructure. Land consolidation leads to significant cost savings during the investment phase of the infrastructure (both irrigation systems and roads), and in later stages, results in reduced O&M and cost of production, enhanced crop productivity and improved water management.
Value of agricultural land in Turkey largely depends upon its productivity, location and proximity to various sites of interest, where productivity is the dominant parameter. Land consolidation is a process whereby farmers voluntarily agree to swap fragmented pieces of land with larger pieces of land of equivalent productivity, and not necessarily of equivalent size. Land consolidation creates additional value and generates economic benefits. It is a synergic process whereby the outcome can be characterized as a case where “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-12: Valuing and Compensating Farm Land and Commons|
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
Natural and Social Capital Valuation: Piloting a Bottom-Up Approach to Valuing the Commons and Paving the Way for Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal
1Indufor North America, United States of America; 2Indufor Asia Pacific, New Zealand; 3Foundation for Ecological Security, India; 4Ulster University, United Kingdom
This paper will present and analyze the development of a new tool to value community assets that links community-level engagement, remote sensing, and computer-assisted mass appraisal methods. The tool integrates social capital analysis as a proxy for tenure security in areas with un-registered property rights.
The project members developing the valuation approach include an international forestry valuation firm, a leading Indian NGO and a university department specialized in real estate valuation.
The project is being conducted in four phases:
1. Review of existing methods to value non-market assets including natural capital, ecosystem services, and cultural sites.
2. Construction of a social capital scoring system and development of a mobile application for bottom-up valuation engaging community members
3. Examining the steps required to integrate remote sensing datasets to scale up the valuation process, and to generate data for computer-assisted mass appraisal to identify the most significant contributors of value
4. Field testing of the valuation tool in six commons in Rajasthan, India with differing ecology, tenure status and uses.
The research currently underway will support the development of robust, scalable and transferable tools and approaches to calculate the value of common land, particularly to the communities who rely upon it.
Detemining Minimum Compensation for Lost Farmland: A Theory- Based Impact Evalution of a Bio-Ethanol Multinational Company in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone Network on the Right to Food (SiLNoRF), Sierra Leone
The land grabbing issue has produced a plethora of debates ranging from ethical conduct of land grabbing agents, specifically concerning displacement, to evidence for and against positive externalities such as technological spill-overs and construction of infrastructure. An underexplored topic is the valuation of agriculture land and the compensatory payments made to land users, distinct from land owners, for the loss of their source of food security. This paper establishes a theoretical framework for the valuation of agricultural land from the perspective of land users, based on a household production function. For the analysis data were collected in a survey of 203 household in a land grab affected area in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone in 2013. It shows that for this case the compensatory payment receive by land users are far below the value of land lost and as such the lease income is unable to allow these households to maintain their previously, already tenuous, levels of food security. This study shows since the value of land is determined by local law the project could correctly call itself compliant but the land grab still resulted in significant welfare losses affecting mostly the vulnerable section of the local population.
Guarding Against Land-expropriation-related Mass Incidents (LERMIs): Practical Evidence From China's Local Governments
1Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, People's Republic of; 2Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, People's Republic of
In China’s rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China’s local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed cases, break various practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce probabilities of conflicts, and the specific local practices which are always heterogeneous tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments’ paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.
Do rehabilitation institutions from land acquisition fit with farmers’ preferences? Results from a contingent ranking experiment in India
1Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, India; 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; 3SJM School of Management of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India
Large scale land acquisitions for developmental work around the world lead to displacement of near about 10-15 million people annually. Majority of them, especially in developing countries, end up being worse off. We argue that institutional fit can render rehabilitation measures effective. This is shown empirically through a contingent ranking experiment on 200 farmers in the catchment area of a large-scale irrigation project in India. Results suggest that landowners, given a choice, prefer land or employment based compensation over the existing method of monetary compensation. In the context of land acquisition and associated rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R), we find that preference as an indicator of acceptance helps contextualize institutions. Our results come at a critical juncture where newly enacted land acquisition policies in India are facing huge political resistance. It provides concrete evidence that the design of R&R needs to include landowners’ preferences.
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-13: Marshalling Grassroots Support to Strengthen Local Rights|
Session Chair: Fridah Githuku, GROOTS Kenya, Kenya
Toolkit for the Gender-Sensitive Implementation and Monitoring of the Tenure Guidelines (VGGTs) and the African Union's Framework and Guidelines for Land Policy: Preliminary Scorecard Results from Several Countries.
1ActionAid International, Kenya; 2ActionAid USA, United States of America; 3Equator Group
The livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people, particularly the rural poor, are based on secure and equitable access to and control over land and natural resources which are in turn the source of food and shelter, the basis for social, cultural and religious practices, and a central factor in economic growth. While each country’s unique tenure system and challenges require tailored responses, there is a need common across most countries for substantial investments in land management and administration, as well as more focused work to address those sections of society whose tenure rights are the weakest.
With a focus on marginalized communities, women, small-scale food producers and local communities, this paper presents preliminary results from a gender-sensitive toolkit/scorecard that is being piloted by CSOs in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, the Gambia, the Netherlands, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Australia to assess each country’s current legal framework and tenure governance arrangements, and foreign relations policies, against six key principles drawn from the VGGTs and the AU-F&G. The six principles are: Inclusive multi-stakeholder platforms, Recognition of customary rights and informal tenure, Gender equality, Protection from land grabs, Effective land administration, and Conflict resolution mechanisms.
Building Evidence on Rural Women Struggles for Land Rights in Tanzania: The Quest for Knowledge, Recognition and Participation in Decision Making Processes
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
Land is one of the terrains of struggle for most rural women in Africa because of its importance in sustaining rural livelihoods, and social-cultural and geopolitical factors that hinder women from enjoying land rights. Even when there are progressive land laws, as it is for Tanzania, women have not really enjoyed their rights. However, this has not stopped women to keep fighting for their land rights. They have sought their own approaches by leveraging opportunities within traditional, religious, and formal systems standing for their rights.
Using three examples of interventions implemented by civil society organizations in Tanzania, this paper shows how rural women have been helped to overcome their straggles over land. Through their agencies, the paper argues that women have used both formal and informal systems to negotiate and mediate their claims on land. Although to the great extent the interventions chosen in this paper have been shaped and influenced by the work of civil society organizations, they have equally been influenced by rural women movements and rural women themselves. The cases selected in this paper provide lessons on the security of women land rights in both privately and communally held property/land.
Promoting women land rights in Vietnam
International Center for Research on Women, United States of America
This presentation discussed the findings of a mix methods assessment of the LAW program in Vietnam. This program conducted by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the Institute for Social Development Studies (ISDS) in two provinces in Vietnam aims to strengthen women’s access to land rights. Through this program, 60 CVGEA in Hung Yen and Long An were selected and trained on land rights and gender barriers and how to exercise these rights. The training also included instruction on how to collect data to monitor their progress and to provide solid evidence to support advocacy for more user- friendly solutions at the province level. The CVGEAs have provided counseling on gender and land rights issues to 5,476 people, of whom 3,139 are women. As of June 30, 2016, they had resolved 1,229 cases, conducted land rights awareness events, worked with local authorities to advocate for land law implementation, and connected with civil society organizations (CSOs) to advocate for more gender equitable policies.
How Can Informal Settlement Communities Leverage Global Networks? The Case Of Yogyakarta, Indonesia
University of California, Los Angeles
Recent literature has shed light on the role of global networks such as the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) in helping informal settlement communities address their own land and housing issues. However, little is known about the ways in which local communities leverage such global networks to lead to far-reaching changes in local governments’ attitudes and policies. Hence, this paper focuses on two communities in Yogyakarta, a mid-sized city in Central Java, Indonesia, that have benefitted from the ACHR support. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews and field observations are employed. The findings are twofold: the informal settlers, by breaking the long-standing deadlock over the local government’s support, have become active agents for change by restoring their pride and motivation; second, by internalizing the external support, the communities have established more people-oriented collaborative platforms, and partnerships with the local government, and are promoting further upgrading activities even after the termination of the external support. These findings provide implications for better ways to form and deliver this global support to local communities in the Indonesian decentralized and bureaucratic setting. However, these improvements also exhibit limitations in that they do not lead to fundamental changes in the local government’s land tenure policies.
|3:45pm - 4:00pm||Coffee Break|
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-01: Lessons from a Decade of Large Scale Land-Based Investments|
Session Chair: Mathieu Boche, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France
The global land rush 10 years on: Taking stock of commercial pressures on land
IIED, United Kingdom
Pressures on land and natural resources are growing in many low and middle-income countries. This trend partly reflects long-term changes in national societies, linked to population growth, changing land use and socio-economic differentiation. But it is also the result of global market and policy forces, which in recent years have fuelled a wave of large-scale land investments in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Dubbed “land grabbing” by the critics, these processes have triggered lively debates about development pathways and control over resources. There is a substantial body of research on the scale, drivers, features and early outcomes of these land investments. But with a few important exceptions, much research has primarily focused on specific sectors, particularly agriculture, and changes in global markets since mid-2014 have significantly changed the international commodity landscape. Building on a global research project and drawing on data from multiple global databases, repositories or platforms, this paper takes stock of evidence on changing commercial pressures on land and resources, and related responses in policy and practice. The paper takes an integrated approach to understanding commercial pressures on land and natural resources, and considers evolutions both in patterns of actual investments and in the wider frameworks governing them.
International Land Deals for Agriculture. Fresh insights from the Land Matrix: Analytical Report II
1GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany; 2University of Pretoria; 3University of Bern
Large-scale land acquisitions continue to be an important
issue for governments, development organisations, NGOs and
farmers’ organisations all over the world; this remains the case
even in times of global economic slowdown, recession and
crisis. The scale of this trend and its significant impacts on rural
transformation and livelihoods make it necessary to further
monitor, observe and positively influence such deals wherever
The Land Matrix Initiative is a global partnership which aims
to improve transparency around large-scale land acquisitions. It
collects and provides data and information through a network
of global and regional partners.
This report aims to contribute to the body of knowledge available
on land acquisitions in low- and middle-income countries by
presenting an up-to-date analysis of the data contained in the
Land Matrix database and providing complementary evidence
based on case studies. It provides a concise overview of general
trends and developments, as well as regional and local insights.
In particular, the report gives an update on recent developments,
zooms in to focus on the key target regions, investigates who
acquires land and discusses emerging evidence on the impacts
of large-scale land acquisitions. Additionally, through a number
of case studies, it provides
insights into realities on the ground.
Sustainable livelihoods in the global land rush? Archetypes of livelihood vulnerability and sustainability potentials
University of Bern, Switzerland
Large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) have become a major concern for land use sustainability at a global scale. A considerable body of case studies has shown that the livelihood outcomes of LSLAs vary, but the understanding of factors and processes that generate these livelihood outcomes remains controversial and fragmented in terms of cases, contexts, and normative orientations. This study presents a meta-analysis of 44 systematically selected studies covering 66 cases in 21 countries to explain varying livelihood impacts. Results show that LSLAs affect livelihoods through a small set of archetypical configurations. Adverse outcomes arise most frequently from processes of (1) enclosure of livelihood assets, (2) elite capture, (3) selective marginalisation of people already living in difficult conditions, and (4) polarisation of development discourses, and less frequently from (5) competitive exclusion, (6) agribusiness failure, and (7) transient jobs. The processes are activated in specific configurations of social-ecological factors. Moving beyond diagnosis, the paper identifies archetypical potentials for safeguarding or enhancing sustainable livelihoods in LSLA target regions at multiple levels of decision-making. Finally, we analyse how contextual factors modify these general insights. The results can be used to better link local case studies with regional and global inventories of the global land rush.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-02: Using Land Policy for Sustainable Value Chains: the case of Brazil|
Session Chair: Pablo Pacheco, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia
Implementation of the CAR in the Amazon and Cerrado: Lessons learned and ways ahead
Ministry of Environment, Brazil
Protection And Sustainable Use Of Tropical Forests Need Land Tenure Regularization - Evidence From Brazil
1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Brazil; 2Superintendencia Nacional de Regularicacao Fundiaria da Amazonia - SRFA; 3Secretaria Extraordinária da Regularização Fundiária da Amazônia Legal - Serfal; 4Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia – IPAM
The protection and socially and economically just development of the Amazon rainforest highly depends on responsible land governance and land tenure security. Going back in Brazilian history, land regularization has often led to deforestation, putting productive exploitation of land as a condition for obtaining a land title. This paradigm shifted with the creation of the Brazilian program "Terra Legal" in 2009 to regularize 57 million hectares of public federal lands in the Amazon as one of the main strategies to combat deforestation. Despite its progress in land tenure regularization, Terra Legal is challenged to demonstrate its contribution in combating illegal deforestation.
This paper discusses the environmental impact of land tenure regularization in the Amazon with the Terra Legal program. The article is based on a data analysis of rural land parcels situated on federal public lands, comparing the extent of deforestation over a period of 5 years (between 2009 and 2014) along two data sets: one before and another after having initiated a land regularization process. Preliminary results indicate that deforestation rates on lands that have not been addressed by Terra Legal are higher than of those benefitted by the program.
Using the CAR for accessing credit: The ABC experience
Ministry of Agriculture, Brazil
Policy Findings from Evaluating Landholders' Responses to CAR in Pará
1Middlebury College, United States of America; 2University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America
This study presents an evaluation of deforestation and registration behavior in response to the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) in the Amazonian state of Pará. From late 2007 to 2013, approximately 100,000 properties covering 30 million hectares of self-declared claims were entered in this digital registry. We used fixed effects regression models and property level data to assess how registration influenced likelihood of deforestation on different sizes of properties. Registration had little initial impact on deforestation behavior, with the exception of a significant reduction on “smallholder” properties in the size range of 100–300 ha. We link this reduction to interacting incentives and suggest that desire to strengthen land claims motivates these landholders’ response to the environmental registry. We also present evidence that some landholders may be registering incomplete or inaccurate parcels to strategically benefit from policy incentives. Our results for smallholder properties indicate that environmental registries have potential to facilitate reductions in deforestation if combined with a favorable combination of incentives. However, in places where land tenure is still being negotiated, the utility of environmental registries for forest policy enforcement may be limited without ongoing investment to resolve uncertainty around land claims.
Deforestation on the Rise Again: the Role of the Private Sector Toward Zero Deforestation
Amazon Institute of People and the Environment - IMAZON, Brazil
From 2005 to 2012, government, civil society and the private sector helped to reduce deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon by nearly 80%. Nevertheless, after three years of deforestation fluctuating around 5,500 km2, deforestation increased by 75% from 2012 to 2016 (when it reached 8,000 km2). Forest clearing increased because the government weakened environmental policies, the prices of agricultural commodities increased and the zero-deforestation beef commitments did not progress as expected (only half of meatpackers have signed agreements and no full traceability of cattle has been implemented). With the prospect of long political and budget crises in Brazil, reducing deforestation would depend more on private leadership.
World Bank, United States of America
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-03: Urban Expansion: Measurement Challenges and Implications for Policy|
Session Chair: Anjali Mahendra, World Resources Institute, WRI, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
To be completed
The Atlas of Urban Expansion--2016 Edition: Methodology and Key Results
New York University, United States of America
The Atlas of Urban Expansion--2016 Edition provides maps and metrics on the urban extent of 200 cities, a stratified sample of cities from the universe of 4,231 cities that had 100,000 -people or more in 2010. The paper will present the methodology we developed for defining and measuring the urban extents of cities and their key attributes: the definition of what constitutes a 'city', the spatial extent of cities, the average population density of built-up areas and the urban extent as a who,e the fragmentation of the built-up areas of cities by open space, and the compactness of the urban extent in geographic space. Using this methodology, we present metrics for the 200 cities in three time periods, circa 1990, circa 2000 and circa 2014 for cities, for the world at large, for less developed countries and for more developed countries. We discuss the statistical difference of means between metrics. We also discuss the changes in three metrics over time and the share of new built-up areas that constitute infill, extension, leapfrog and inclusion. Finally, we also discuss the advantages and limitations of the methods used to define and measure the urban extent of cities.
Characterizing Urban Change Using New Global Data: An Exploratory Analysis
University of Pennsylvania
The understanding of global trends in urbanization has long been constrained by inconsistencies in the definitions of urban areas and a reliance on administrative boundaries as the units of analysis. However, advances in technology are now beginning to enable a more consistent approach to understanding the spatial form, scale, and pace of global urban development. In particular, the new Global Human Settlement data set allows an evidence-based approach to global urbanization. It combines a global map of built-up areas produced using earth observation data with a global population distribution layer, to which a standard definition of urban areas based on size, density, and contiguity of populations and built-up areas is applied. The result is a global map and catalogue of the changing populations and extents of all such urban clusters around the world (several thousand in total). This paper explores changes in all ‘urban centers’ (or ‘high density clusters’) from this dataset across the world during the 1990-2015 period. We calculate a range of metrics for all such clusters, and summarize the results by country, region, size category, and income group. We also discuss limitations of the data set.
The Policy Implications Of Varying Techniques To Identify Urban Growth Patterns From Satellite Imagery: The Example Of Informal Construction In Ho Chi Minh City, 1994-2001
University of Southern California, United States of America
This paper demonstrates the potential for using remote sensing imagery to monitor the development of informal settlements in order to inform policy and urban planning in a rapidly changing context. This study applies thresholding and texture analysis of remote sensing imagery developed by Kim et al (2004) to not only identify newly urbanized land patterns but to distinguish between formal and informal urbanization. Using data for Ho Chi Minh City, it finds that 12 percent of the urban expansion area identified for 1994-2001 is informal. In addition, these informal settlements are concentrated in the urban periphery, close to roads and waterways, potentially placing these residents at higher risk of displacement and flooding. Furthermore, this study also compares our identification of urbanized areas with those identified by Angel et al. (2005) and the World Bank (2015) for 2000 in Ho Chi Minh City. We find that while all three converge on classifying urban areas in the city’s core, in the periphery each study’s methods systematically identify different kinds of urban spatial patterns. These differences suggest the importance of customizing algorithms to account for the local context and testing through ground-truthing to establish their accuracy.
Urbanization and Development: Is Latin America and the Caribbean Different from the Rest of the World?
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of Pennsylvania
Two long-established stylized facts in the urban and development economics literatures are: (a) a country’s level of economic development is strongly positively correlated with its level of urbanization; and (b) a country’s level of urbanization is strongly negatively correlated with the size of its agricultural sector. However, countries in LAC appear to depart significantly from the rest of the world with regards to these two basic relationships. In particular, while Latin American countries appear to be significantly more urbanized than predicted based on these global relationships, Caribbean countries appear significantly less urbanized. Analysis involving cross-country comparisons of urbanization levels are, however, undermined by systematic measurement errors arising from differences in how countries define their urban areas. In this paper, we re-examine whether LAC countries differ from the rest of the world when it comes to the basic stylized facts of urbanization, development and structural transformation. To do this, we make use of alternative methodologies for the consistent definition of urban areas across countries. These methodologies rely on globally gridded population data sets as input. There exist several such data sets and so the paper also assesses the robustness of its findings to the choice of input population layer.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-04: Corridors and Agricultural Investment Zones for Africa?|
Session Chair: Mandi Rukuni, LGAF Technical Advisory Group, Zimbabwe
Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investment in Kenya: Is the participation, and benefits of affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties.
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Land Development and Governance Institute; 3Land Development and Governance Institute
Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
Combating poverty. Cluster farming initiatives in Nigeria
1Adam Smith International, Nigeria; 2Government of Jigawa State
Agriculture is central to the economy of Jigawa State in Nigeria. The cumulative impacts of poverty, environmental degradation and increasing population has resulted in decreased efficiency and reduced yield. Increasingly the state has, along with neighbouring states in northern Nigeria, become vulnerable to increasing levels of hunger and malnutrition amongst the rural poor. The state has reacted by developing a system of local ‘cluster farm’ initiatives in all 284 local wards to address the problem and to educate and encourage farmers to adopt an increasingly commercial ‘for profit’ approach to production of staple crops suited to the local environment. These crops are rice, ground nut, soya bean and sesame.
Land status of agricultural concessions in Kinshasa (D. R. Congo): Legal framework limitations to Production Incentive.
1Economics and Rural Development Unit , University of Liege, Belgium; 2Agricultural Economics Department, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Faculty of Law, Unversity of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
The results of this analysis highlights that since the enactment of the 1973 Land Act, access to agricultural land in this region rarely comply with legal procedure; most land occupants rather transact with various individuals who have customary rights over lands (traditional chiefs) instead meeting the competent services. As a matter of fact, from a legal standpoint, most of the occupants limit themselves to awarding a provisional occupancy contract, which is just a preparatory step to agricultural concession, the issuance of which appears to be less complicate as per common practice in the constituency. The fact that land owners limit themselves at the stage of the provisional contract, usually far beyond the officially prescribed deadline, without even launching the application for the concession contract justifies the lack and poor level of development of occupied lands. Meanwhile, the value of these lands increases. The great trust gained by owners from the land administration and the payment of customary rights enables him/her to keep the funds in serenity and to receive yearly appreciation without an actual agricultural production. Thus, lands status obtained on the basis of this double recognition ensures an apparent land tenure security but does not promote agricultural production.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-05: How to Ensure Gender Equality in Access to Communal Lands?|
Session Chair: Margaret Buck Holland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, United States of America
A Comparative Analysis of National Laws Recognizing Women’s Rights To Community Forests in the Developing World
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
Up to 2.5 billion people hold and use community lands worldwide, yet the tenure rights of women who comprise over half the world’s Indigenous Peoples and local communities are seldom acknowledged by national laws. This analysis of 30 developing countries concludes that the vast majority of national laws regulating 78% of the developing world’s forests fail to adequately protect women’s rights to property, inheritance, community membership, community-level governance (voting and leadership), and community-level dispute resolution. While overarching national laws regulating the tenure rights of all women often fail to satisfy international legal standards, statutes regulating women’s rights to community forests are especially gender-insensitive. Countries’ commitments to protect women’s tenure rights under constitutions and international law are not reflected in the laws regulating women’s everyday interactions with community forests. These legislative omissions enable discriminatory practices against women, constrain their economic and personal agency, and render their communities vulnerable to livelihood insecurity. Findings reveal that laws recognizing communities as forest owners—as well as laws created with the principle aim of acknowledging community-based rights—afford greater protections for women’s forest rights than laws that fail to convey community ownership rights.
Changing Form and Content of Women’s Land Rights under Customary Tenure: Is Registration or Titling an Opportunity?
1Associates Research Uganda; 2Consultant Surveyors and Planners, Uganda
Women’s rights to land under customary tenure are limited to access and use, while the male counterpart has the primary right of ownership. Often, these are described as “secondary rights”, because they are ancillary to the primary right to own land. In event of formalization of land rights, identification and recognition of secondary land rights may be seen as a threat to the primacy of the men’s land rights which are presumed to be primary, permanent and formal. It has been argued that women’s vulnerability does not result from the allegedly secondary character of these rights but from the various socio-economic processes that have significantly altered the terrain in which rights are currently negotiated. To substantiate and demonstrate, this study explores the influence of two shock events – the establishment of refugee settlement camps in West Nile and the effects of war and displacement in Acholi land in Uganda – on the content and form of land rights for women, when systematic land adjudication and certification (SLAAC) takes place, with the issuance of certificates of customary ownership (CCOs), by determining and defining the points of vulnerability in the approaches used to identify and record secondary rights under customary tenure.
Gender and Collectively Held Land: Good Practices and Lessons Learned from Six Global Case Studies
1Resource Equity, United States of America; 2Landesa, United States of America
Early lessons suggest that formalizing collective rights to land can lead to different outcomes for men and women, often with women the losers. Because men and women typically have different roles within the household and community, their interests in collective lands are often different, and women’s interests may not be considered or protected in the implementation of state programs to strengthen collective tenure.
This report seeks to answer the question: Where collective tenure arrangements are either being formalized or supported for the sake of securing the community’s rights to land, what steps are required to strengthen women’s land rights in the process?
This report synthesizes findings from six case studies – from China, Ghana, India, the Kyrgyz Republic, Namibia, and Peru – that assess interventions to strengthen collective tenure and ensure that both women and men benefit from the improved land tenure security. The purpose of the case studies was to understand how formalizing or securing rights to collectively held lands can affect women and men differently and how projects and interventions can best address gender differences. In every case the focus is on practice, not theory, with the goal of informing the implementation of other similar interventions.
Collective Land Tenure in Colombia: Current State and Prospective Challenges
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the results of an academic project funded by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) on the current state of collective land tenure in Colombia and its prospective challenges. It focuses on the illustration of the relevant actors, norms and dynamics that shape the acces to and use of land and natural resources of the country´s ethnic communities. Special attention is given to forest-dependent communities.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-06: What Evaluations Tell us on the Impact of Land Interventions|
Session Chair: Arianna Legovini, World Bank, United States of America
Assessing the Impact of Second-Level Land Certification in Ethiopia
1NORC; 2Stanford Research Institute; 3Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America; 4USAID, United States of America
This paper presents the results of a USAID-funded impact evaluation of the Ethiopia Land Tenure Administration Program (ELTAP) and the Ethiopia Land Administration Program (ELAP). Utilizing panel data collected from 4,319 households in Ethiopia, the evaluation employed a Difference-in-Difference design coupled with matching to examine the impact of second-level certification relative to first-level certification across a range of household-level outcomes. The evaluation found small, positive, and potentially important impacts on household access to credit and on indicators of female empowerment. Little evidence for household impacts of second-level beyond first-level certification was found for indicators related to tenure security, land disputes, land rental activity, or soil and water conservation. The key findings of the evaluation presented in this paper contribute to the knowledge around the impacts of formal land documentation on household level development outcomes. Moreover, the critical analysis of the impacts and limitations of ELTAP and ELAP can contribute to enhanced programming during the Government of Ethiopia’s ongoing scale up of second-level land certification. Finally, the evaluation findings may inform the development of a national land use policy.
Formalizing Rural Land Rights: Long-Run Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Benin
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Paris School of Economics; 3Michigan State University
We present evidence from the first large-scale randomized-controlled trial of a land formalization program, the Plans Fonciers Ruraux in Benin, which aim to improve tenure security and stimulate agricultural investment through the formalization of customary land rights in rural areas. The intervention consists of an identification of land right holders and mapping of parcels at the village level followed by the delivery of property rights (Certificats Fonciers Ruraux) to the identified land right holders. We draw on two rounds of data to assess the short-run and medium-run effects of the program. Improved land security following land demarcation in 2011 led to an increase in long-term agricultural investment in tree planting and perennial crops. Female-headed households further responded to demarcation by closing the gender gap in fallowing, a key soil fertility investment. Four years later, treated households continued to report significantly higher rates of perennial crop cultivation. Despite the observed increases in investment, no average effects on output or farm yields were observed in either 2011 or 2015.
Inheritance law reform, empowerment, and human capital accumulation: Second generation effects from India
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University & Michigan State University; 3University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China
Evidence from three Indian states, one of which amended inheritance legislation in 1994, allows us to assess first- and second-generation effects of inheritance reform using a triple-difference strategy. Second- generation effects on education, time use, and health are larger and more significant than first-generation ones even if mothers’ endowments are controlled for. Improved access to bank accounts and sanitation facilities in the parent generation suggest that inheritance reform empowered females in a sustainable way, a notion supported by significantly higher female survival rates.
Impact of property rights reform to support China’s rural-urban integration: Evidence from the Chengdu national experiment
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University & Michigan State University; 3Renmin University; 4University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China
As part of a national experiment, Chengdu prefecture implemented, in 2008, ambitious property rights reforms including complete registration of all land together with measures to ease transferability and eliminate migration restrictions. We examine impacts of these reforms at village and household level, using a discontinuity design with spatial fixed effects to compare 529 villages just inside and outside the prefecture’s border and the Statistics Bureau’s regular household panel. Village level evidence points suggests that reforms increased tenure security, aligned land use closer to economic incentives, mainly through market transfers, and led to an increase in enterprise start-ups. This is consistent with household level analysis suggesting s reforms increased consumption and income, especially for less wealthy and less educated households, with estimated benefits well above the cost of implementation. Local labor supply increased with the young shifting towards agriculture and the old towards off-farm employment. Agricultural yields, intensity of input use, and diversity of output also increased, suggesting that improved property rights helped to increase investment and diversification.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-07: Towards Integrated Land Use Planning|
Session Chair: Steven Lawry, Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
Mapping gendered landscapes in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT): Environmental histories, livelihood narratives, and story mapping
Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
A landscape approach to land-use planning views landscapes as mosaics with multiple and overlapping land-cover classes that host dynamic socioecological systems. Complex interactions described by a landscape approach invite cartographic methods now made widely available through the Web 2.0 to render the lived experiences of dynamic project landscapes through multiple perspectives. This research explores mapping as a process to integrate environmental histories and visual narratives into multimedia cartographies that document the many ways that landscape change is being experienced in the growth corridors of East Africa. The Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) is poised to become the breadbasket of Tanzania stretching over 350,000 hectares from the port of Dar es Salaam to Malawi, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo This lightning talk will present methodologies for documenting different gendered perspectives of landscape and livelihood change through geospatial narratives, and propose story mapping as an accessible platform for participatory land-use planning in SAGCOT. Story maps offer a visual way of communicating a plurality of gendered narratives over space and time, capturing the reality of multiple project outcomes and the full complexity of applying a landscape approach.
Ethiopia’s Move to a National Integrated Land Use Policy and Land Use Plan
1USAID, Ethiopia; 2Tetra Tech Inc.; 3Tetra Tech Inc.; 4Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ethiopia; 5Prime Minster Office, Ethiopia
Ethiopia has federal and regional land laws providing legal framework on the administration and use of land. The laws, however, are predominated by land administration articles offering little direction on the use of land. Studies conducted under the USAID supported Land Administration to Nurture Development (LAND) Project show that people in Ethiopia have been using land, for far too long, in unplanned and uncontrolled fashion.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ethiopia brought the imperative and urgent need for formulating a comprehensive national land use policy and developing and implementing a sectorally integrated national land use plan to the attention of the Prime Minister’s office. Recognizing the gravity and urgency of the situation, the Prime Minister’s Office gave the green light for formulating a national land use policy and preparing a national land use plan. As a result, a road map on the preparation and implementation of the plan has been prepared.
The paper will provide background on efforts in the past, highlight recent developments, assess Government of Ethiopia’s commitment and examine the way forward.
Developing the National Land Use Policy in Myanmar: The Importance of Inclusive Public Consultations and Close Donor Coordination
1Tetra Tech, Myanmar; 2Land Core Group, Myanmar; 3Public Legal Aid Network (The PLAN), Myanmar
Recent rapid changes in Myanmar lead to legitimate concerns being raised relating to the land tenure and property rights of smallholder farmers and communities throughout the country. The simple fact that the overall legal and governance frameworks relating to land use management and tenure security in the country are poorly harmonized and largely antiquated added to these concerns. In Response to this the Government of Myanmar committed in 2012 to the development of a National Land Use Policy in order to strengthen land tenure security of vulnerable communities and improve the land governance frameworks in the country. This paper provides an overview of the process utilized by the Government to develop the National Land Use Policy, with emphasis on the inclusive multi-stakeholder consultative process that was transparent and ultimately respected by the parties involved. The paper will also emphasize how important donor coordination was in ensuring success of this unprecedented effort. Finally, the paper will illustrate how this policy development process has helped inform similar processes in the country.
Evidence-based Land Use Planning Process: Piloting In Bago Region, Myanmar
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation, Myanmar
Myanmar has been trying its best for the sustainable development of the nation. Due to the lack of land use management plan, land related spatial data/information, land related issues and conflicts are happening across the country. In January 2016, National Land Use Policy-NLUP was successfully adopted through a series of multi-stakeholder consultations. NLUP indicated that how land information and land use management plan are important. In addition, precise and evidence based balance among economic development, sustainable use of resources and environmental conservation is very critical. Ensuring accurate data to produce the valid and relevant spatial plans is a common approach. We are in the process of promoting land use planning and refining the zoning methodologies in support of its NLUP implementation process. This paper will introduce the emerging approach; evidence-based land use planning process, by a pilot study that was conducted in Bago Region Myanmar. In this study, we used land use/land cover map generated from Rapideye imageries and five biophysical layers. Based on this approach, our process on land use planning up to National scale will be conducted in line with national development goals and objectives through multi-stakeholder participation.
Allocative Efficiency or Agglomeration? Devolution of Household Forestland Management and Rental Markets in China
University of Gothenburg, Sweden
This paper evaluates whether the devolution reform of forestland to household management has an effect on allocative efficiency and household welfare through participation in forestland rental markets. Using a household panel dataset from three Chinese provinces, we find that forestland rental markets improved allocative efficiency, in terms of factor equalization. With the reform forestland is transferred to forestland-constrained and labor-rich households, and to households with higher level of productivity in forestry. We do not find any support for agglomeration of forestland to land-richer, wealthier, bigger or powerful households. Participation in forestland rental markets increases household per-capita income and decreases the likelihood of income below the poverty line.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-08: Using ICT for Improving Property Tax Collection|
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
The remote sensing implication in the property mass valuation GIS in Serbia
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
The reform of the cadastral system in Serbia was carried out under the Real Estate Cadastre and Registration Project in Serbia, in the period from 2004 to 2012, with the financial support from the World Bank loan. The Real Estate Cadastre was established – a modern system of property and property rights records. Support for the development of the property market and fiscal mobilization of funds through more efficient and equitable application of the property tax, based on reliable property records, is one of the significant results achieved under the project.This paper describes the methodological procedure for property valuation improvement through the application of the remote sensing in the mass valuation GIS, which provides for flexibility, allowing iterative modification for the purpose of improving the valuation procedure. Primary and secondary objective of the study was to provide methodological procedure for property mass valuation that can be repeated through several iterations to improve the existing methodologies for the collection of attribute data on properties in the GIS environment, using remote sensing and GIS technologies as the primary tools in the procedure for determining the property market value for the purposes of the taxation system of Serbia.
The Role of ICT in delivering Revenue Collection in Developing Countries: The Tanzanian Experience
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2World Bank; 3Consultant; 4African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Globally local governments are under pressure to deliver basic services to their citizens. To fund amenities such as clean drinking water, waste management, adequate power supply and healthcare, sub-national/city administrations are under financial stress. The development of an integrated revenue collection system provides the necessary platform to support municipal administration to more efficiently collect own source revenue and to assist the decision making process through improved data collection, visual data representation, sophisticated reports and analytical metrics. Utilizing a case study approach this paper will demonstrate how the use of ICT through an integrated Local Government Revenue Collection Information System (LGRCIS) improved local government revenue collection, with initial promising results in selected secondary cities in Tanzania.
Land Management For Improved Dispute Resolution And Property Tax Revenue For Local Governments: Evidence From Somalia
Land management is tied to a range of economic, social and environmental outcomes, particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions. This is the case in Somaliland and Puntland where urban growth is occurring, raising property values, creating opportunities for improved local revenue generation but also causing land-related conflicts, particularly between pastoralists and urban dwellers due to the urban sprawl and its ensuing grabbing of undeveloped land. UN-Habitat, in collaboration with four UN entities operating under the auspices of the United Nations Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralised Service Delivery in Somalia (JPLG), are working to strengthen local governance as well as ensure transparent, accountable and efficient local service delivery in Somalia. UN-Habitat's work includes building the capacity of local governments to improve land management and land dispute resolution systems, implementation of a GIS-based cadastre system, and support for improved property tax collection. UN-Habitat also provides technical assistance relating to public financial management and tax collection to Somaliland and Puntland, which has also been extended to Mogadishu. Local government capacity building is paired with legislative support through creation of a local governance finance policy and legal analysis of land governance in Somaliland and Puntland.
Mass Valuation in a Developing Country: The Case of Chitungwiza Town in Zimbabwe
Independent Consultant, Zimbabwe
The main rationale behind mass valuation or rating valuation in Zimbabwe is updating property value databases for local authorities and to maximise tax revenue collection from the property owners within a local authority’s jurisdiction, as stipulated in the country’s relevant statutes.
In Zimbabwe mass valuation is regulated by a number of legislations. The main ones are the Urban Councils Act Chapter 29:15 which outlines the procedure as well as methodology of mass valuation, the Regional Town and Country Planning Act 29:12, which is the primary law governing physical planning issues, the Land Survey Act 20:12, which is administered by the Department of the Surveyor General and provides the legislation relating to the survey of land including providing cadastral information for the preparation of diagrams. Finally, the Deeds Registries Act 20:05 caters for registration of property rights. The paper draws from a recent mass valuation assignment that was conducted by the author in Chitungwiza. The paper shall dwell on the methodology followed in conducting the mass valuation, the challenges and frustrations and the benefits of such an exercise against all odds. The challenges include outdated local plans with the resultant informal and illegal properties.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-09: Can New Data Sources Help Protect Indigenous Rights?|
Session Chair: Frank Pichel, Cadasta Foundation, United States of America
The New Safeguard Standards for Indigenous People: Where do we start?
Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP, Canada
On August 4, 2016 the World Bank's Board of Directors approved new environmental and social framework, modernizing a decades-old set of policies aimed at preventing Bank funded development projects from harming the environment and people. Standard 7 on indigenous peoples is the policy that sets up standards that borrowing countries are expected to follow to protect indigenous rights The paper examines models for development on lands where competing assertions of State authority and indigenous land rights show no likelihood of foreseeable resolution. It analyzes the international legal instruments intended to address this friction, including the new safeguards, and then reports on the Grand Bend Wind Project in Canadian province of Ontario, and the policies on which it relies, as a case study for successfully implementing the objectives of these legal interests, and allowing a project to proceed notwithstanding claim uncertainty.
Contribution of Open Data to Protect Indigenous People’s Livelihood, Land Security and Natural Resources Sustainability
1Heinrich Boell Foundation Cambodia; 2Cambodia Indigenous Peoples Organization; 3Open Development Cambodia
Cambodia remains a country in which the large majority of the people still lives in the countryside. It is therefore more complicated to assess the diversity of people’s livelihood, and to make clear census on population, in comparison to more urban countries. The need for information is crucial in Cambodia, in order to facilitate decision-making, to preserve indigenous people way of living, and to conserve one of the country’s greater asset: its natural resources.
The lack of transparency regarding Cambodian development highlights the potential benefits of open data for the country, which serves both Cambodian people, official authorities, as well as anyone interested in the country’s evolution. The knowledge spreads by open data initiatives also contribute in enforcing the rule of law in Cambodia, for it provides people a better understanding of their rights and duties, while underlining the potential flaws of the existing policies. Land titling, land concessions, and land disputes including the territory of indigenous peoples are among the hottest current issues in Cambodia. Group of NGOs in Cambodia believe that open data helps clarifying these types of conflicts, and could be useful both for indigenous people, but also to representative authorities into their legal enforcement duty.
Using open data and digital mapping to aggregate evidence for identifying and protecting indigenous people’s lands and resources in Cambodia
Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia
Cambodia’s 24 indigenous communities have traditionally managed nearly 4 million hectares of remote forests. Their wellbeing is tied to land security.
Today they face threats from fast economic growth. It is common for indigenous communities to find agricultural or mining concessions encroaching on their land, logging companies clearing their forests or dam builders forcing them to relocate. Land alienation means loss of livelihood and tradition, poorer health and education.
Agencies addressing the problems can find it difficult to source reliable independent data to inform and underpin their work. Data is often dated, incomplete or slanted to an agenda.
Data aggregation and digital mapping in an open data environment provide one solution. Open Development Cambodia (ODC) an independent, politically-neutral body, aggregates data and develops interactive maps and datasets accessible in English and Khmer.
Users synthesize data to their needs, for example matching indigenous lands with economic land concessions to find overlaps and support the alteration or revoking of concessions, or locating indigenous communities in mineral exploration areas, guiding on who should be consulted and compensated.
ODC’s development-focused open data initiative offers a model for developing areas globally.
This paper bridges two conference themes, around data technologies and securing land rights.
Itenure- New Tool For Land Claim Registration And Legal Advice On Land Tenure Status
1People in Need, Cambodia; 2Open Institute, Cambodia; 3University Collage London
In Cambodia, thousands of people are affected by land conflicts. Country’s regulations regarding land expropriation, titling and conflict resolution are fairly complex and many people are not aware of their rights.
It has been demonstrated that general i.e. not household specific information and advice provided by CSOs to beneficiaries is not particularly useful. Moreover, it may cause some distrust between CSOs, communities and local authorities, which may consider such actions as inciting.
A household specific assessment of a land claim, legal analysis and advice is considered more effective. The reports documenting the claim including maps, names of claimants, etc. can be used in the court as support documentation. A legal advice referenced to the local legislation makes claimants more confident when in the court or during negotiations with government officials. However, it is time consuming to collect, analyze and provide information to thousands of claimants. Moreover, the legal language used in the advice sheet may not be understandable to the people whose level of education and literacy is low.
This paper explores how new technologies offer number of solutions which can be used to speed up such processes and improve communication.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-10: Property Rights and Operation of Factor Markets|
Session Chair: Fernando Pedro Mendez Gonzalez, COLEGIO DE REGISTRADORES DE ESPAÑA, Spain
Land administration & property titles
What do the Land Registries serve for? In a complex society there are institutions that made possible impersonal and abstract trust. Secure and well defined property rights is one of the foundations of the economic development. The exchange of "rights in rem" takes place through contracts, which have been previously checked (ex ante control). This leads to a reduction of transaction costs and information asymmetries. Blockchain and smart contracts theorists believe that this new technology can perform (substitute), in a decentralized environment, the functions that until the present have been done by the Land Registries. But these new technology is challenged because the (truth) exactness of the contracts cannot be proved and thus the chain of contracts becomes uncertain.
Romania’s Housing Privatization as an Anticommons Problem
World Bank group, United States of America
Romania has the world’s highest share of privately owned housing. It has also experienced a rapid shift in housing property rights ever, which changed from the most strictly publicly-controlled of any economy to one where individual decision-making became the highest in the world. And while it would appear that the widespread private ownership would lead to a well-functioning housing market, this is unfortunately not the case. As many have pointed out, the so-called “tragedies” in literature on common pool resources are often really fables that overlook details about how these resources ultimately get managed. Unfortunately, for Romania’s housing sector, the word tragedy appears to be an all too accurate description of how property rights have been allocated.
Romania’s common pool tragedies are an outcome of the strictly controlled housing rights under the old regime, and also the fact that the new property rights definition ignores the effects of the old system on the spatial, management, and architectural dimensions of the housing stock. Unless more attention is given to property rights governing the use of buildings rather than those of individual housing units, Romania will continue to have limited labor mobility, and a housing market that is unresponsive to demand.
Public/Public Tenure Dualism in China: How the Dichotomy between State and Collective Ownership Has Shaped Urbanization and Driven the Emergence of Wealth Inequality
former Visiting Professor, Renmin University, Beijing; former Senior Land Law and Land Tenure Expert, World Bank; former Director, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
In China, the two basic forms of land ownership are both public: state ownership, which applies to all urban land, and collective ownership, which applies to almost all rural land. This paper examines how China’s dual land tenure system originated; how it has shaped China’s urbanization and contributed to both modernization and the rise of dramatic wealth inequality; what its intended and unintended results have been; how far the tenure reform program now taking shape will alter the nature and extent of that dualism, and how adequately those changes will address dualism's problematic impacts. The paper also examines from a comparative perspective how tenure dualism is employed elsewhere to disadvantage one portion of the nation and advantage another. This is often seen in post-colonial polities. The similarities and contrasts between dualism and its role in the Chinese and post-colonial cases are revealing. They also have implications for the applicability of the Chinese model of modernization through urbanization in other developing country contexts.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-11: Is Land Tenure Formalization Increasing Investments?|
Session Chair: Benito Arrunada, Pompeu Fabra University, Spain
Market Exposure Makes Smallholders More Competitive and Closes the Gender Gap
Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Germany
Our investigation concentrates on the encounter of two economic and farming systems which are at the extremes along the dimension of market exposure: peasant, communal subsistence farming on the one hand and large-scale, capital-intense and profit-oriented farming by the global agricultural industry on the other hand. To this end, we conduct our investigation in Zambia – a popular destination for large-scale agricultural investors. Our investigation takes advantage of spatial differences in market exposure of rural and remote villages. Based on competition decisions of 935 adults and 401 children, we find that living in the proximity of large-scale agricultural investment sites makes smallholders more competitive. This effect is particularly strong for females and achieves closing of the gender gap in competitiveness in the villages with market exposure. A second driver of competitiveness is market integration of smallholders by selling their produce at markets. We regard our findings as highly important for the understanding of what societal arrangements influence individuals’ preferences. As policy makers in developing countries are able to steer market exposure through the settlement of large-scale investments, our findings hold important policy implications
Do the land poor gain from agricultural investments? Empirical evidence from Zambia using panel data
gothenburg university sweden, Sweden
In the context of the global land rush, some portray large-scale land acquisitions as a potent threat to the livelihoods of already marginalized rural farming households in Africa. In order to avoid the potential pitfall of studying a particular project that may well have atypical effects, this paper systematically investigates the impact of all pledged investments in the agricultural sector on commercial farm wage incomes for rural smallholder households in Zambia 1994–2007. The results, which are robust to both placebo tests and a variety of different specifications and time frames, show that agricultural investments are associated with a moderately positive effect, but only for households with a relative shortage of land.
Land Property Rights and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Panama
Tohoku University, Japan
This paper estimates the effects of land property rights on agricultural productivity in Panama. Using district level panel data to investigate the impact of privately owned land on agricultural productivity from 1990 to 2010, I find that land privatization increases rice yield in agriculture labor intensive districts, but it does not have any significant impact in non agriculture intensive districts. Then, using household level data I find that households with registered land titles are more likely to obtain an agriculture loan and undertake land-attached and land mobile investments.
Agricultural Intensification and Market Participation under Learning Externality: Impact Evaluation on Small-scale Agriculture
UNU-MERIT, Netherlands, The
This study provides empirical evidence regarding the impact of agricultural technologies (high-yielding varieties and inorganic fertilizer) on smallholders’ output market participation. The analysis is based on Farmer Innovation Fund impact evaluation survey collected by the World Bank in 2010-2013 covering 2,675 households in Ethiopia. Endogenous treatment effect and sample selection models are employed to account for the self-selection bias in technology adoption and market participation decision. Regressions based on matching techniques are employed for robustness check. The estimation results show that the use of improved agricultural technologies significantly affect farm households marketable surplus production. We found evidence that application of high-yielding varieties increases surplus crop production by 7.6 percent per year, whereas chemical fertilizer use increases surplus by 2.8 percent. When farmers apply the two technologies jointly, marketed surplus increases by 6.4 percent, which establishes the complementarity of the two technologies. Marketable surplus crop production and market participation of farmers are determined by access to modern inputs, crop price, farm size, availability of labor, and infrastructure. Access to credit and training fosters technology adoption, however, we are unable to witness learning externality from neighbors on smallholders marketed surplus. Therefore, agriculture and rural development policy needs to focus on supporting agricultural technology adoption.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-12: Eminent Domain and Compulsory Land Takings|
Session Chair: Jonathan Lindsay, World Bank, United States of America
Compulsory Purchase Powers - Essential For Emerging Economies
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, United Kingdom
Many emerging economies have had a history of state confiscation of private land along with state ownership and management of this land. This experience has framed the views of many post communist governments. Having moved from command economies to market economies where the right to private property is enshrined as a key signifier of new freedoms there has been a reluctance to transfer back to the state the power to compulsorily acquire (eminent domain) private property even in the public interest. Experience with delegations from the land administration departments of emerging economies confirms the reluctance to introduce compulsory acquisition powers because of their association with previous totalitarian regimes. This reluctance to introduce compulsory acquisition powers is now acting against the public interest in key infrastructure provision particularly in relation to networked services. 1. This paper argues that failure to introduce compulsory acquisition powers will delay the provision of essential services for millions of people. 2. It argues for compensation reflecting existing market values rather than some form of state attributed value as a way of ensuring equitable treatment of owners. 3. It specifies particular skills and behaviours among professionals handling such acquisition to re-assure those whose land is being acquired.
Eminent Domain in Finland
National Land Survey of Finland, Finland
Professor Kauko Viitanen, Aalto University
Deputy Director-General Markku Markkula, NLS
Expropriation (compulsory purchase or acquisition in UK or eminent domain or condemnation in the U.S.A.) is not the primary method for land acquisition, but presumes that the land acquisition has been impossible to achieve in any other way. For example, it is stated in the Finnish Act on Expropriation that expropriation must not be enforced if the purpose of the expropriation can be achieved in some other way.
According to Finnish law the cadastral surveyor has in certain cases the same mandate as a district court to solve disputes. Appeal against the decisions given by a cadastral surveyor can be made to the land Court and from LC to the Supreme Court. The cadastral surveyor has this statutory mandate.
The Finnish expropriation system, which is carried out by a cadastral surveyor, is a very flexible and agile way of putting big infrastructure projects into effect. The District court or Land Court need not give verdict regarding compensations if no appeal is made. The interests of both parties are taken into ac-count by the cadastral surveyor who has to be an impartial person leading the procedure.
Displacement politics and post-aid urban development: Resettlements, donors and infrastructure development in Beira city, Mozambique
1Utrecht University; 2LANDac; 3African Studies Center Leiden
Balancing the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ targets of urban development will pose significant challenges to struggling municipalities marred by infrastructure deficits, as land based investments have regularly lead to displacement and loss of livelihoods. For municipalities such as Beira in Mozambique however, which have succeeded in attracting substantial investments from abroad, it is a balancing act which is closely related to the priorities of the various supporting donors and IFI’s. It is against this background that this paper will discuss three recent cases of development induced resettlement in Beira, each associated with a different donor, resettlement strategy and development outcome. In doing so the paper will put forth the argument that resettlements are highly contingent upon the interests associated with them. Furthermore it will argue that such a contingency, occurring within the shared administrative framework and close proximity of the same city, serves to perpetuate the arbitrariness of municipal-resident relations, thus ultimately undermining inclusive urbanization. As an increasing amount of resources and interests are mobilized around urban land throughout the world, these findings point to the need for greater understanding of displacement politics if the ambitions of the NUA and SDGs are to be realized. .
Land For Infrastructure Development: Compulsory Acquisition And Compensation Of Undocumented /Unregistered Land In Kenya
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya
Kenya’s Vision 2030 aims at transforming the country into a newly industrialized middle income country and infrastructural development is high on the agenda to achieve this. Since most land already has interests the use of eminent domain by government is inevitable. However most of the land earmarked for compulsory acquisition comprises of un- registered land whose interests are not formally documented. Kenya has progressive statutes that provide for compensation of land that is compulsorily acquired even where the owners/ occupants do not hold legal titles. The paper explores how the government while implementing infrastructural projects using compulsory acquisition was able to identify genuine land owners, value the land and implement fair and just compensation. It looks at how grievances were resolved using alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. It also explores the benefits negotiated for the affected communities and safeguards being explored to guide future compensations.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-13: Mechanisms to Formalize Community Rights|
Session Chair: Katia Araujo, Huairou Commission, United States of America
Breaking the Mould:Lessons for Implementing Community Land Rights in Kenya
University of Naiorbi, Kenya
The adoption of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 ushered in the legal recognition of community land rights in Kenya. Translating these provisions into actual practice is fundamental to the realization of the rights of communities in Kenya. This will catapult communal arrangements for land holding and management from the shadows of the law to the forefront of legal regulation of land rights. The presentation is based on a book edited and launched just a few weeks before the enactment of Kenya’s Community Land Act in 2016. The book, based on lessons from South Africa and Brazil, demonstrates that constitutional provisions on their own are insufficient to deliver real security of tenure and access to land-based resources to citizens. They require detailed supportive legislative enactments, administrative arrangements and complementary community of practice on the ground.
The presentation makes the case that both the text of the Community Land Act and its implementation has to take into account the reality that while tenure in traditional and communitarian settings differs from modern conceptions both have undergone transformation over the years hence the need for innovation and adaptation.
Investigating Community Knowledge Of Rural Land Resources In The Yway Gone Village Tract,Bago Region, Myanmar
Tetra Tech, United States of America
In Myanmar, seventy percent (70%) of the population live in rural areas and rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. It is essential for these citizens, particularly the most vulnerable i.e. women and ethnic minorities, that use and tenure rights are recognized thereby supporting more equitable economic growth for all.
The agricultural sector of Myanmar has long suffered due to poor national level policies, weak land use planning, and a lack of enforcement of land related laws and regulations, a situation exacerbated by the absence of formal tenure security for many individuals and communities. The new era of political transparency beginning in 2011 which ultimately led to the new, democratically elected administration in 2016 has heralded an era of rapid political and economic transition, something that is clearly evident in the formulation of policies that impact rural populations as well as foreign investment. A National Land Use Policy (NLUP) now exists that will form the basis for the future development of a new National Land Law.
This paper explores the degree to which a rural community in Myanmar understands existing land resource management practices with a view to documenting what future actions would necessary to safeguard presently informal tenure arrangements.
Development of Pro-poor and Gender Responsive System (ProGResS) of Land Governance in Nepal
1Ministry of Land Reform and Management, Nepal; 2UNHABITAT Nepal; 3Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University; 4Project Engineering and Environmental Studies [PEES] Consultant (P) Ltd., Nepal; 5Department of Land Information and Archive, Ministry of Land Reform and Management
The Land Administration System (LAS) of Nepal experiences two major lacking from pro-poor and gender responsive perspective of governance; 1) It lacks pro-poor and gender responsive socio-economic data of the land owners 2) It lacks information on informal land tenure under which a large number of people are leaving with unsecured tenure and without formal spatial recognition.
Most of the people suffering from these two major pitfall of Nepalese LAS are poor, marginalized and Socio-Economically Disadvantaged (SED) people, especially the women and children. Because of the absence of pro-poor and gender responsive information in the LAS, it is difficult to formulate evidence based policies and make informed decision to ensure equitable access and meaningful control over land for the target group.
This study investigates development of Pro-poor and Gender Responsive System (ProGResS) of land governance. Existing LAS in Nepal is extended with the development of three new modules for Data Acquisition, Data Analysis and Data Dissemination. Identification, Verification and Recording (IVR) process was carried out in participatory approach in the selected study area to collect primary data on informality and socio-economic status of land owners. The ProGresS was tested and validated widely among the stakeholders and results are found encouraging.
Responsible Governance To Secure Land Rights Of Single-Women – An Example From Odisha (India)
Landesa (Rural Development Institute), India
The state’s land and welfare programs in Odisha (India) leave behind a group that remains “invisible” to policymakers: rural single women. In strongly patriarchal societies, these women end up being “absorbed” by a larger household which denies them exclusive rights to access land and other public entitlements. Landesa, in partnership with the state government, designed an approach to identify women in this category of risk by establishing a Women Support Centre (WSC) that operates from the sub-district level land administration office and facilitating their entitlements. Initially, the program was piloted in one sub-district and subsequently scaled to seven districts with 88 WSCs.
Using field data and qualitative information from four districts, this paper (i) describes the enumeration mechanism introduced to count the women who previously remained invisible to the system and how they are then assisted to be included in both land and social security programs; (ii) presents the successes and challenges in implementing this approach to date; (iii) discusses how an effective management information system (MIS) developed is helping to improve governance by allowing easy access to information about beneficiaries across programs;(iv) describes what it would take to scale it to other settings; and (v) makes policy recommendations.
|5:30pm - 6:30pm||Addressing Land Tenure Rights in the World Bank Forest Action Plan|
Session Chair: Karin Erika Kemper, The World Bank, United States of America
|5:30pm - 6:30pm||GLII Discussion on roadmap|
|5:45pm - 6:30pm||Pre-Launch of the Africa Land Advisory Group. Special Guest: His Excellency, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, Former President of Nigeria|
By invitation only. For more information please contact: Margaret Rugadya at M.Rugadya@fordfoundation.org
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-01: Large-scale Land Acquisition and Agribusiness|
Towards an Analysis of Consequences of Large Scale Land Investments in the Urban-Rural Nexus.
Agribusinesses, Smallholder Tenure Security and Plot-level investments: Evidence from rural Tanzania∗
Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Germany
This land is my land! Competing uses, large acquisitions and conflict events in Sub-Saharan Africa
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy
Land acquisition by foreigners in Brazil: legal framework changes and recent tendencies
1University of Campinas, Brazil (Unicamp); 2University of São Paulo, Brazil (USP); 3Brazilian Land Registry Institute (IRIB), ANOREG/MT
Land Governance at the Crossroads: Finding the Locus between Development Efforts and Human Rights Concerns
Commonwealth Intelligence & Ally Network (CIAN)
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-02: Large-scale Land Acquisition and Agribusiness|
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). - The Role of the Private Land Sector in Supporting the 2030 Global Agenda
Use of Cluster Farming to improve productivity and reduce poverty amongst small holder rural farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria
Jigawa State Governemnt, Nigeria
Land Governance: A Study About Conflict Land in the Acre
1University of Acre, Brazil; 2University of Campinas, Brazil
Ethnic Politics, Civil Conflicts And Agricultural Investments In South-west Nigeria
1Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, Nigeria; 2Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-03: Large-scale Land Acquisition and Agribusiness/ Gender and Land Tenure|
Large-Scale Land Acquisitions (LSLAs): Global analysis And Cambodia Case Study
University of Maryland, United States of America
Institutional Policies Integration Assessment: The Case of Acre State/ Brazil
1University of Acre - Brazil; 2University of Campinas- Brazil
The Deliver for Good Campaign: Bringing a Gender Lens to the Sustainable Development Goals
Women Deliver, United States of America
Rural Women and Land equity in Ethiopia
Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
Gender, Land Rights and Access to Land Justice in Northern Uganda.
Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's welfare ( UCOBAC), Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-04: Gender and Land Tenure|
Land Ownership and Poverty Status of Female Headed Farming Household in South West Nigeria
Bowen University, Nigeria
Gender Dimensions To Securing Land Rights And Agricultural Development In Nigeria
1Babcock University, Illishan Remo, Nigeria; 2Kwara State University Malete, Ilorin, Nigeria
An analysis of Tanzania's implementation of the 1999 land reforms: Bridging the gender gap in the land tenure debate
Lynette Mwaikinda Consulting Group
Action-Oriented Strategic Research for Improving Responsibility and Gender-Equitability of Land Tenure Governance
Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-05: Gender in Customary Lands and the Commons|
Examining the Nexus between Gender Transformation, Agricultural Transformation and Household Food Insecurity in South Africa. Evidence from a 2014 Household Survey.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
A Humanities And Social Science Perspective On How People With Rights To Land May Or May Not Have Land Rights
1Technical University Munich, Germany; 2Universtiy of Lyon III, Jean Moulin; 3Malmö University; 4Royal University of law and economics Cambodia; 5Conseil Superieur du Notariat
A Warped Land Adjudication and a Faulty Legal Regime: The Impact of Insecurity on women land and property rights in Tana River County Kenya
Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya(FIDA-Kenya), Kenya
Registration Of Occupancies To Enhance Security Of Tenure And Sustainability For Customary And Common Lands And For Natural Resources
1Law Develoment Centre; 2Sozi & Partners Advocates
Legal Pluralism And Land Administration In West Sumatra: The Implementation Of The Regulations Of Both Local And Nagari Governments On Communal Land Tenure
Andalas University, Indonesia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-06: Customary Lands and Commons|
Land Rights and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia
Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
Land Ownership, Fortification Of Poverty And Governance Issues – Nigeria
Vanguard Newspaper, Nigeria
Land Rights and Farmer Decision Making for Productivity and Soil Fertility Management in Uganda and Mozambique
1Iowa State University, United States of America; 2Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
The Place Of Council Of Elders In The New Constitutional Dispensation: A Case Study Of The Traditional Justice System In Kenya
Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya(FIDA-Kenya), Kenya
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-07: Customary Lands and Commons|
Perceived Land Tenure Security And Investment In Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices Among Smallholders In Masaka District, Central Uganda.
Iowa State University, United States of America
Application of Linear programming technique to assess the area allocation, income distribution and employment in case of Finger Millet in Karnataka
UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, India
The Agrarian Question And The Migration Process In The Northern Region of Brazil
University of Campinas, Brazil
Promoting Agriculture based Micro and Small Industry through Land Reform Policy: Nepalese Perspective
School of Environmental Science and Management, Nepal
The Impact of Food Price Changes and Land Policy Reforms on Household Welfare in Rural Tanzania
Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-08: Customary Lands and Commons|
Hypothesis Of The Decrease Of The Poverty In Drc (Ground Floor) By The Sustainable Development Of The Congolese Ground
UNIVERSITE DE LUBUMBASHI, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
An institutional assessment of the impact of access to land by the youth on adoption of resilience building farm practices in Kenya
Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya
Farmland Distribution and Rural Transformation in Developing Regions
1Independent Consultant and Adjunct Faculty, Georgetown University; 2Food and Agriculture Organization
“Challenges of Land Use in Nepal and Way forward “
Paribartan Nepal,nongovernmental organization, Nepal
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-09: Customary Lands and Commons|
Impact of land Fragmentation on agriculture productivity in Punjab,Pakistan
University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, Pakistan
Assessing Customary Land Administration as an Innovation for Improving Land Governance
Development and Land Solutions Consult, Ghana
Securing Land Rights in Rural Communities: The Community Land Act
Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning Kenya, Kenya
Cooperation, transaction cost and heterogeneous saving response in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from natural experiment
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Urbanisation: Conflicting Impact on Land Resource and Protection for Food Security
1Land Administration and Development Studies (LAnDS) Research Group, Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia; 2Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-10: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Challenges to sustainability and resilience in wetlands managements activities among diverse ethnic communities and land tenure systems in Cameroon
1Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, and Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, USA; 2African Studies Program, College of Liberal Arts, The Pensylvania State University, USA; 3Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon; 4Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Land Use and Carbon Flux: Looking to the Future
Oklahoma Panhandle State University, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, United States of America
Costs land degradation and improvement in Eastern Africa: Case of Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania
Center for Development Research, Germany
Impacts of Land Tenure and Property Rights on Land Management in Ethiopia
North Carolina A&T State University, United States of America
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-11: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Valuation of water purification services of forests: Panel data evidence from South Africa
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Impact of Land Tenure on Farmers’ Adaptive Investment in Coping with Climate Change in China
Central South University, China, People's Republic of
Examining Forest Governance Policies And Regulations Enforcement Within Mt. Cameroon National Park REDD+ Conservation Projects
1The University of York, UK.; 2The Forgotten Green Heroes, Buea, Cameroon
Public-private partnerships in development cooperation: can they contribute to Inclusive Green Growth?
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Netherlands, The
Promoting Climate Justice in Degraded Landscapes: Appreciating Smallholder Farmers’ Perspectives on Climate Change in Western Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3University of Nairobi, Kenya; 4Department of Geography, University of Leicester, UK
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-12: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Impact of Land Degradation on Household Poverty in Malawi and Tanzania: Evidence from Panel Data Simultaneous Equation Models
Center for Development Research, Germany
Land degradation and poverty among subsistence farming households in Nigeria: Empirical Analysis of Linkage and Responsible land governance
1Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria, Nigeria; 2Federal University, Oye-Ekiti,; 3Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, Nigeria; 4Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria,
The Role of Policy framework for Sustainability and Resilience of Land Resources in Lake Tana, Ethiopia
Amhara Regional State of Rural Land Administration and Use Bureau, Ethiopia
Awareness Raising Among The Local Communities And Institutional Capacity On Climate Change Mitigation Through Youth Participation In Apiarist.
1Uganda Land Alliance, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat; 3LANDnet
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-13: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Connecting Theory and Practice: Communal Land Management Approaches for Increased Productivity, Sustainability and Inclusion
Humana People to People
Productivity Growth and Convergence in Vietnamese Agriculture
Rockland Trust, United States of America
The Resource State: Deconstructing the Causality of Growth, Bad Governance, and Land and Natural Resource Rights
Poverty And Land Degradation
Nigerian Red Cross, Nigeria
Impact of Land Use /Land Cover Change on Farmers Livelihoods in the Eastern Periphery of Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia
Amhara National Regional State of Rural Land Adminstration and Use Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-14: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Agricultural Price Distortions in Africa and Their Effect on Land Use Efficiency
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Uganda; 2Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency; 3Wageningen University and Research
Do forest-land tenure reforms secure rights of forest dependent communities in the tropics? Findings from a cross -country comparative study.
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Kenya
“The valuation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, geospatial technology application and the political economy of resource exploitation on customary land in Fiji, Case studies, Namosi Land Copper mining (Viti Levu) and Bua Bauxite mining (Vanua Levu), from ridge to reef assessment”
The University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands
the Integration Of Ecotourism In Combating Desertification Polcies In Arid Land Area: Case Study of Béni-Khédache in the South East of Tunisia
UMR Passages - Pau University, France
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-15: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
The Debilitating Impact Of Exploration: Land Reclamation Within The Legal Framework Of Environmental Protection In The Niger Delta Area Of Nigeria
American University of Nigeria, Yola. Nigeria, United States of America
The Project Phytokat In Katanga (DRC): Conditions For The Integration Of Traditional Medicine In Modern Healthcare And A Model Answer Against Anthropogenic Erosion Of Biodiversity
1Université de Lubumbashi (RDC), Congo, Democratic Republic of the; 2Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; 3Université de Liège, Belgium; 4Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo; 5Université de Mons, Belgium
Nigeria Erosion and Watershed Management Project (NEWMAP); an Innovative Way of Solving Gully Erosion and Addressing Land Management Issues In Nigeria
Federal Ministry of Environment, Federal Government of Nigeria, Nigeria
Land Tenure Security for Increased Climate Change Resilience in Africa
POLICY INNOVATIONS, Uganda
Integrating Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils From The Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo) In Land Governance: Phytoremediation And Enhancing Ecosystem Services.
1Université de Lubumbashi, Congo, Democratic Republic of the; 2Université de Liège, Belgium; 3Institut Polytechnique Lasalle Beauvais, France; 4Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-16: Effects of Land Tenure on Land Use and Livelihoods|
Using The Law As A Tool To Eviscerate The Effect Of Mining On Host Comunities: A Case Study Of Niger, Oyo And Plateau States Of Nigeria
1American University of Nigeria; 2University of Pretoria
The impact of density of population, land use, irrigation and literacy on poverty in Telangana State of India, 1881 - 2015.
Nalla Malla Reddy Engineering College, India
Brazil-Peru Energy Cooperation in the Amazon Basin: Challenges for Socio And Environmental Responsible Financing
Universidade Federal de Tocantins, Brazil
Advances On Multistakeholders Dialogues For Improve Land Governance In Brazil