Mangrove Governance and Tenure: Insights for Policy and Practice from Selected Sites in Indonesia, Tanzania and a Global Review
1Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya; 2Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
Mangrove forest ecosystems are highly productive, rich in biodiversity and adapted to the harsh and variable interface between land and sea. Despite their crucial ecological and socioeconomic roles the world’s mangrove are on the decline. This paper presents results of a study on mangrove governance and tenure in Indonesia and Tanzania and a review of the global literature.
There is a mismatch between the attributes of the mangrove resource (i.e. being both on land and sea) and the legal and institutional frameworks designed and adopted for their governance. Most mangroves are managed by single, mandated authorities such as forestry agencies which for the most part are under resourced. Where institutional design takes into account the biophysical complexity of mangroves, a coherent coordination framework is lacking. Paradoxically, mangrove governance does not demonstrate the diverse management regimes that are characteristic of terrestrial forests even though the systems and rules underpinning their management are drawn heavily from terrestrial settings. Where community rights to mangroves are expanded and formally recognized (such as in parts of Asia and Latin America) positive outcomes for resource condition and rehabilitation efforts are increasingly evident. Gender equity is not considered in any meaningful way in mangrove management.
Governance of the Land-Water Interface in Southeast Asia: A Policy Reform Agenda for 21st Century Challenges
1Independent researcher specializing on land and social development issues in Southeast Asia; 2Co-Executive Director of Land Alliance.; 3Ph D Scholar at the International Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, The Netherlands.
This paper sets out a policy and research agenda for addressing the unique governance problems of land-water interface in Southeast Asia. It traces the evolution of separate water and land policies and administrative regimes through colonial and post-colonial developments and current institutional configurations that caused the proliferation of simplistic policies and programs which ignore customary practices. It highlights how legal regimes meant for individual and commercial users fail to account for the reality of communal use. Consequently, large-scale investments in land have consistently breached customary water entitlements and vested ownership, management, and control of water in the State, thereby decoupling water rights from land-use rights. Such investments are also responsible for frequent land grabs that go hand-in-hand with water grabs, environmental degradation and resulting livelihood uncertainties. The paper recommends an enabling environment for rural smallholders and local communities so they can engage in land and water issues for better resource use. Public investments must be promoted to achieve an equitable distribution of benefits and sustainable management of natural resources. This is possible only if the multiple sources of land and water rights are taken into consideration and an integrated and coherent approach for reforming land and water governance is pursued
Understanding the change of regional cultivated land pressure in China: 2000-2012
1huazhong university of science and tecnhongy; 2huazhong university of science and tecnhongy; 3Queensland University of Technology
The fast development of industrialization and urbanization has resulted in a great loss of farmland in China. As a result, the development of cultivated land resource faces enormous pressure. This paper applies the modified model of cultivated land pressure index and the Theil index to analyze the provincial cultivated land pressure and regional characters in China. The research shows that although the cultivated land pressure increased slightly from 2000 to 2012, the overall cultivated land pressure was under control and the cultivated land resource maintain the balance of supply and demand. The central of gravity of the cultivated land pressure has moved into the southeast and the safe cultivated land pressure has moved into northeast. Geographically, the cultivated land pressure of the southeastern coastal area has been transformed from safe pressure to mild pressure and showing a distinct tendency into high pressure. The cultivated land pressure of the most areas in the northeastern and the northern areas has been transformed from moderate, slight to no pressure. At the same time, the difference of cultivated land pressure is mainly caused by intra-regional difference within the eastern, central and western area in China, with the average contribution rate as high as 76.85%.
Tenure Integrity, Security and Forestland Transfer: Evidence from Jiangxi Province, China
1Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu, China; 2Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi, China; 3The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra, Australia
Forest is recognized as an important resource which not only contributes to combating rural poverty and ensuring food security, but also bears the responsibility of maintaining a friendly ecological environment. The new round of collective forest tenure reform in China since 2003 provides farmers with more integrate and secure forestland rights. Based on household data collected in Jiangxi province in 2011 and 2013, this paper examines the impacts of households’ recognition of tenure integrity and security on forestland transfer activities. Our empirical results show that households with higher perception of use rights and mortgage right would reduce the probability and intensity of renting-in land, while households with lower anticipation of forestland redistribution or expropriation are more likely to rent in more forestland. In order to promote the development of forestland transfer market and stimulate a sustainable utilization of forest resource, the government may further facilitate the enforcement mechanism of the forest tenure reform and improve such supplementary measures as establishment of a well-functioning transfer platform, and a well-performed rural social security system.