Institutional Innovation and the Protection of Livestock Corridors in Agropastoral Drylands
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America; 2Syracuse University; 3Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricole; 4Pole Pastoralisme et Zones Seches
The need to protect livestock mobility in the Sahel has been demonstrated by researchers and is increasingly acknowledged by national governments. Nonetheless, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Policy tends to be based on an abstract conception of mobility that insufficiently addresses the multiple dimensions of resource use and access. This study used participatory mapping to collect data on the corridors, resting points, and water resources used by pastoralists in eastern Senegal. The GIS database (including 5000 km of corridors, 744 encampments, and 1010 water points) depicts how mobility functions within a network of linked resources. Adopting a network approach can address the “paradox of pastoral tenure” by maintaining flexible resource use within a framework of protected resources. Finally, qualitative data from 14 municipalities along the mapped corridors was used to characterize institutional challenges to corridor protection. Resource users hold two competing perspectives on corridors. The first is control-oriented, focusing on preventing crop damage and reducing conflict; the second is access-oriented emphasizing corridors as a means to maintain access to pastures. Without a clear understanding of the functions of corridors, formalization can result in corridors restricting livestock mobility.
Transformation Of Land Tenure In Semi-Arid Areas And Implications For Climate Resilient Economic Development
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2University College London, United Kingdom; 3Independent consultant, Kenya
The Pathways to Resilience in Semi-arid Economies (PRISE) programme seeks to examine the role of land tenure in reducing climate vulnerability and enhancing climate-resilient economic development in the semi-arid lands of Kenya. These areas face a range of interacting drivers of risk, including climate change, land use change and land tenure reform, which are affecting local people’s ability to adapt and thrive.
Focussing on Kenya’s arid and semi-arid counties, and Kajiado county in particular, this paper documents the recent policies and trends that underlie the transformation of land tenure and implications for land use and governance in a changing climate. It goes on to explore how such transformations affect communities’ abilities to adapt to climate change by comparing the outcomes of different land tenure regimes (private and communal) on livelihoods and disaster risk management.
Finally, the implications for climate-resilient economic development will be explored particularly the impact of land tenure transformation on the potential of climate-smart livestock value chains to strengthen the resilience of pastoralist communities in the semi-arid lands of Kenya.
Public Lands Ranching in the U.S. - Social and Economic Characteristics of Public Lands Ranchers
1Sustainable Rnglands Roundtable University of Wyoming, United States of America; 2Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming, USA; 3Department of Ecosystem Science and Mgmt, University of Wyoming, USA
Federal land management agencies in the United States work with ranchers through grazing permits to facilitate livestock use and management of public lands. Reliable information documenting social and economic characteristics of ranchers who operate on public lands is needed to help land managers and policy makers, responsible for administering the nation’s rangelands, to understand ranchers’ economic and social diversity, as well as the variations among their operations, and their contributions to local communities and organizations. To obtain this information, a national survey was administered in 2015 to gather these data, mirroring in part a previous survey conducted in the late 1990s. Data were collected to be statistically relevant at the national level. Cluster analysis was used to determine different rancher groups in both studies, and the rancher groups were then compared to one and other, and previous survey results, to identify sources of income, type and numbers of livestock, values that keep ranchers ranching, and participation and leadership in community organizations. Data analyses sought to evaluate similarities and differences among the groups of ranchers, and potential responses/reactions to policy changes impacting public land management through grazing permits, upon which many western ranchers rely as part of their overall operations.
Dispossession through Formalization: The Plight of Pastoralists in Tanzania
1University of Michigan, United States of America; 2University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Danish Institute of International Studies (retired)
Advocates of formalization promote it as a means of ensuring tenure security for smallholders and reducing conflict. Yet in Tanzania conflicts are on the rise, especially in areas earmarked for the SAGCOT (Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania) agricultural investment program. Here, formalization is occurring alongside large-scale evictions of pastoralists and, to a lesser degree, of small-scale farmers. In this paper we explore the antecedents and rationales for formalization in Tanzania, and the effects on those who are the intended beneficiaries. We identify the main drivers underlying the up-scaling in formalization efforts since 2009. We furthermore disentangle a series of simultaneous developments to assess their relative weight in the rising levels of conflict: (1) SAGCOT investment activities; (2) the G8-led Land Tenure Support Program formalization initiative; (3) the longstanding Tanzanian government objective to end traditional modes of livestock keeping; and (4) the recent full waiver issued by the World Bank releasing Tanzania from its obligation to adhere to the safeguard policy for indigenous peoples. Rather than enhancing tenure security as is so often touted, formalization, we posit, seems instead to be facilitating the wide-scale dispossession of especially pastoralist lands to support foreign investment and conservation agendas.