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02-09: New Approaches to Secure Pastoral Tenure
Land Use Change in the Bale Mountains Eco-Region of Ethiopia: Drivers, Impacts and Future Scenarios
1SIT/World Learning Inc; 2International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Livestock has been an integral part of the Bale Mountains Eco-Region landscape for many centuries. This paper describes the results of a research study undertaken in the region comparing land use change and livestock movements over a period of eight years from 2008 to 2016. The study provides some insights into the trends of intensification that have taken place, the challenges of this, and indications of who is benefiting from these processes and who is not. In 2008 the majority of the area was predominantly livestock in terms of production systems, with the traditional godantu movement system still functioning well despite challenges. However by 2016 though livestock numbers have not decreased in all areas, poverty levels have grown and access to resources for livestock production have become increasingly difficult for many. Key causes of this is the allocation of land to investors by local governments, trends in privatisation of resources, and a strengthening of the boundaries of the Bale Mountains National Park. The paper concludes by making recommendations for reconciling some of the conflicts arising, particularly over land use, and how land management in the area can be improved.
Securing Shared Grazing Land and Water Resources in Semi-Arid Pastoral Areas: Application of Social Tenure Domain Model Experience in Rural Kenya
1Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya; 2UN-HABITAT; 3International Fund for Agriculture Development
Development of smallholder dairy farming in Bomet County of Kenya is constrained by among others, lack of proper management of communal grazing lands, resource over-exploitation, low quantity and quality of water and pasture. With the support of IFAD and UN-Habitat, through Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) the Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme(SDCP) in Kenya is piloting the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) to secure tenure on land and other natural resources.The project is implemented jointly by SDCP, Resource Conflict Institute (RECONCILE), Pamoja Trust and Technical University of Kenya. Using a census survey in Sugumera of Bomet County, 498 smallholder farmers were interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaires, and using GPS, coordinates of their homesteads, farms, communal grazing lands and water points were collected. Data entry and analysis and creation of outputs (spatial and non-spatial maps) were done using STDM software.A total of 43 common resources were identified and documented. The database and analysis results were presented, validated and discussed at a community meeting.The results brought to the knowledge of many farmers especially the poor and vulnerable, the diverse resources available and how they could share across seasons including creation of seasonal access corridors and established a local resource management framework for sustainability.
Making Rangelands more Secure in Cameroon: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Policy Makers, Development Actors and Pastoralists
1Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries Yaounde, CAMEROON, Cameroon; 2Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) CAMEROON; 3Community Initiative for Sustainable Development (COMINSUD), Bamenda, Cameroon; 4International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
In Cameroon, rangelands occupy about 20 % of surface area; provide critical habitat to many animal and plant species; offer many vital goods and services to society and are home to pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, crop farmers, fishermen and hunter-gatherers, who for centuries co-existed peacefully. In recent years this harmony is being threatened by changing land use patterns, poor land use planning and poor recognition of ownership rights. Despite efforts by state and non-state actors to improve pastoral tenure security little has been achieved because of poor coordination among actors and a complete absence of opportunities to document and or showcase these good initiatives. This study, supported by the ILC Rangelands Initiative, sought to identify, review and analyse the different initiatives that are contributing/have contributed in making rangelands more secure. A case study approach was used to document initiatives using primary and secondary sources and with choice predicated on the prominence, variety and indicated successes of the initiatives. Ten initiatives were showcased under five thematic areas ranging from: governance/decision making processes; resolving conflicts; land use planning; empowering communities; protecting pastoral resources. The results of this study will contribute to a more targeted development of future initiatives that build on past good practices.
Land Use Planning and Communal Land Tenure Reforms in Pastoral Areas: The Experiences of Kenya
National Land Commission Kenya
This paper analyzes planning and communal land tenure reforms for rangelands in Kenya. It proposes a framework to manage the dichotomy in a manner that yields sustainable livelihoods for the pastoralists. Key considerations are the deficiencies of the land management choices prevailing in Kenya rangelands and the East Africa/Horn of Africa region more generally, and how they impact on the pastoralist’s principle of “the commons”. This study adopts a qualitative, exploratory approach. Three government documents are considered; namely the County Spatial Planning Manual, Community Land Act (2016) and the County Land Management Board development control regulations 2015. The three documents present a paradigm shift in planning and management for community lands and presents tangible benefits for rangeland communities. With the CSP, CLA and CLMB, rangeland communities are now obliged to carry out more systematic planning, and management of rangeland resources, and resources harnessed for national interests, the communities are entitled to benefit sharing. The results of this study is useful to policy makers, planners and development managers in Kenya and East/Horn of Africa and beyond. The experiences described here also show that through a multi-stakeholder process land use planning and land tenure challenges in pastoral areas can be simultaneously addressed.