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|Location: MC C1-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Recognition of Local Rights for Achieving Conservation Goals|
Session Chair: Raelene Webb, National Native Title Tribunal, Australia
The Tenure Gap And Its Influence On Socio-ecological Conditions
1University of Maryland, Baltimore County, United States of America; 2University of Washington, United States of America; 3The Nature Conservancy, United States of America; 4McGill University, Canada
In this study, we characterize the ways in which tenure gaps influence socio-ecological conditions. We define the tenure gap as the difference between tenure as defined per law and policy, or those bundle of rights that are statutorily recognized (de jure), and tenure which is socially-defined and realized on-the-ground (de facto). We recognize the importance of assessing both components of this potential gap (where de jure rights are not upheld on-the-ground, or where de facto rights are not formally recognized). We do so using in-depth mapping interviews and structured surveys with land tenure experts from a set of twelve countries across the global Tropics. Our main objective has been to gather qualitative, quantitative, and spatial data to characterize, identify, and assess the characteristics and impacts of tenure gaps in the places where they occur. Here we present preliminary insights from this systematic survey across all countries, and offer case study illustrations of both components of the tenure gap for communities in Colombia, Guatemala, India, and Indonesia. We see the results from this research as offering critical information to conservation and development organizations about one of the major obstacles to strengthening and clarifying land tenure for local stakeholders.
Land Titles and Agricultural Intensification at Forest Margins in Indonesia
Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany
This study combines data from a panel survey of farm households and satellite imageries to examine the effects of land titles on agricultural production intensity and the consequential implications for deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia. Panel regression models show that land titles contribute to significant increases in the use of farm inputs and labor and thus also to higher crop yields. No evidence was found for land titles increasing deforestation. However, using satellite imageries dating back to 1990 we show that farmers who settled at the forest margins are less likely to hold land titles due to government restrictions. Without land titles, these farmers lack incentives to intensify production; to increase agricultural output they can expand their land area by encroaching surrounding forestland. Tolerating deforestation activities by farmers while denying formal title deeds for land at the forest margins can, therefore, contribute to economic marginalization and further deforestation. Besides increasing farmer’s access to land titles over non-forest land, policy responses could include a better recognition of farmers’ customary land rights and simultaneously protecting forestland without recognized claims.
The emergence of Conservation Units in the Western Amazon: the case of Extractive Reserves of Acre
Universidade federal do Acre, Brazil
This article discusses the origin of Conservation Units, especially the extractive reserves in Acre, one of the important forms of recognition of property rights in the region. This, mainly, allows unravel the complex relationship between two opposing processes that express the dynamics of occupation of the Acre state land from the decade of the 70s of the last century (CAVALCANTI, 1983 SOUZA, 2016). During this period began a peculiar economic and social process of occupation of the Amazon lands that are now considered as ideal place for application of capitalist investment, supported by these economic and fiscal policy of the Central Government of Brazil.
The fragility of property rights is considered by a vast literature a crucial obstacle to economic development. There are unanimous in saying that the existence of security of property rights has a crucial role in increased economic efficiency of land use, and ensure political and social stability, reducing conflicts over land (SOTO, 2000; DEININGER, 2003). The process clearly demonstrates the speculative character and this concentrator process of appropriation of large plots of land in Acre. The acceleration and expansion of deforestation on the other hand, shows the degrading aspect of this process.
Participatory Mapping As a Tool and Approach to Define Traditional User Rights of Forest Land
We have been witnessing the rapid development of participatory mapping initiatives for many years, especially in developing but also in developed countries. Participatory approaches to forestry have been evolving in many parts of the world, but very few of them in Europe.
The forestry sector in Albania holds great potential to support national economic growth. Challenges remain with the registration of public forests transferred from the state to newly established municipalities in 2016. Traditional users are managing these transferred lands – mainly to satisfy their basic needs. These are customary rights, generally well-respected, but they are not yet formalized.
The Environmental Services Project supports the registration of forest and pasture lands transferred to municipalities, and the FLED project aims to improve decentralized and sustainable communal forestry. The process of establishing user rights is ongoing, using the participatory mapping approach. The following main actions are taken: participation of the community in the whole process; demarcation of forest users parcels; creating digital maps and field forms; using up-to-date technology (GNSS, GIS); and ensuring council authorization of the mayor to sign an agreement with traditional users. The opportunities for wider use of the approach require greater support and various activities to be taken.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: Capacity Building for Scaling Land Administration|
Session Chair: Chrysi Potsiou, FIG, Greece
Body Of Knowledge
International Association of Assessng Officers, United States of America
Local jurisdictions in the United States have developed one of the most progressive and efficient property tax assessment systems in the world. The International Association of Assessing Officers was formed in 1934 to assist in developing the standards by which that system is measured and through which it is improved. Subject matter experts within that group are currently taking those standards and the education material that has been developed over the years and combining them into a set of documents that will be collectively referenced as a body of knowledge. These documents will describe what is needed to be an effective assessor working in several disciplines of the profession. It is divided into eight broad subject areas, each of which will contain information needed by those learning that particular discipline as well as those who have been practicing several years. These documents will then form the basis for future IAAO education programs and provide direction for our professional designation program.
The National Land Capacity Building Model for Informatization – an ICT based model to strengthen human resource capacity for the sustainability of land administration modernization projects
1LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 22E Consulting; 3GEOMEXSOFT.,LTD
No matter the size of a country, land is always a scarce resource. Therefore, it is important that land is managed effectively and efficiently and good land governance take place. A way this can be achieved is a modern land administration system based on ICT based land information system and many countries seek to do so. But when they embark on such projects, human capacity strengthening happen once projects begin, preventing the country to be in charge of the project.
Based on this understanding LX, the Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation and Consortium developed a capacity building model that aims to tailor-make a capacity building model that is suitable for the country so that its own experts can lead a project. Called the National Land Capacity Building Model for Informatization, this model focuses on the analysis, construction, development, maintenance of land service or system, digitally based, by looking at different sectors from policy, planning, land data, data acquisition, expertise, etc. It is systematically designed into three areas -- tool to analyze the capacity of the country in land administration, tool for development of capacity building, and finally methodology for strengthen the capacity in this sector. This paper examines it.
Towards a Curriculum on Responsible Land Administration
1RMIT University, Australia; 2Ardhi University; 3Global Land Tools Network; 4University of East London; 5University of Florida; 6University of Twente
The New Urban Agenda commits UN member states to promote increased security of tenure for all, recognizing the plurality of tenure types, and to develop fit-for-purpose, and age-, gender-, and environment-responsive solutions within the continuum of land and property rights, with particular attention to security of land tenure for women as key to their empowerment, including through effective administrative systems. This is the essence of ‘Responsible’ Land Administration.
Improving the capacity of higher education institutions to teach principles of responsible land administration and land governance will be needed to achieve the goals of the New Urban Agenda.
In late 2016, an Expert Group Meeting was held at the University of East London and the outcome of discussions fed into an expanded draft curriculum outline that will form the basis for the development of teaching materials. The EGM was charged with designing and to establishing a RLA curriculum that will help develop a new wave of graduates. They will become change agents for seeking tenure security and housing for all, using pro-poor and gender-responsive approaches. This curriculum will be discussed in this paper.
Curriculum reform in land governance education: the need for transforming existing curricula in Africa
1Chair of Land Management, Technical University of Munich; 2Licensed Surveyors Association of Ghana, Ghana; 3Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Higher education curricula in African are not adequately responding to Africa’s needs in capacity development in land. This calls for a (re)conceptualization of the role curricula play in capacity development in the continent’s land sector. The African Land Policy Initiative recognized this in its assessment report on the continent. However, there is a lack of follow-up research to investigate more carefully the best ways forward. This study contributes beyond theory by examining curricula in land education from 10 African countries. The countries are Botswana, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Kenya, Mauritius, Uganda, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania. The study examined curricula from selected institutions from these countries to ascertain their adherence to current needs in Africa. Using a track system derived from African Land Policy Initiative’s assessment report, the study critically investigated these curricula’s relatedness to the current requirements in land education in the continent. It makes specific recommendations for improving curricula in land education in Africa.
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-01: Caucus on Women and Land|
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||03-06: Land Governance in Latin America & the Caribbean|
Session Chair: Enrique Pantoja, World Bank, United States of America
Comparative Land Governance Research in the Caribbean and Latin America: Recent Findings from Five National Case Studies
Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
Strengthening land governance is critically needed in Latin America and the Caribbean to protect the environment, achieve gender equality in land rights, expand the transparency of land records, and facilitate planned urban growth. The region faces major challenges in land tenure informality and overlapping mandates for titling, mapping, and registration.
This research responds to the gaps in land governance information within five Latin American and Caribbean countries—Barbados, Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. The research draws upon a methodological framework inspired by both the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework and USAID’s Blueprint for Strengthening Real Property Rights. Applying this methodology illuminates the interplay between land administration and social housing provision, and the extent to which legislation and regulations affect land tenure rights, especially those of women and ethnic minorities. Findings are also compared to previous land governance assessments conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, and Peru. This research ultimately underscores the continued need for improved inter-agency coordination on land governance.
The methodology discussed in this paper is employed by Diego Erba, Charisse Griffith-Charles, and Robin Rajack in detailed Land and Poverty Conference 2017 papers on land governance in Brazil, Ecuador, and Trinidad & Tobago.
Challenge and Opportunities for the VGGT Implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean
Almost five years after the adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (the Guidelines) by the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), this paper will focus on the challenges faced and the opportunities generated for their implementation in a specific region: Latin America and The Caribbean (LAC). As a first part, the paper will explore some of the regional trends impacting governance of tenure. The paper will then develop a second part on the advances and limitations made and faced for improving the governance of tenure using the Guidelines in LAC at country level (drawing lessons from various countries), at sub regional level (in particular by Reunion Especialisada por la Agricultura Familiar – MERCOSUR), and at stakeholders level (such as civil society, Indigenous People…).The third part of the paper will explore challenges ahead and suggest ways forward to enhance the Guidelines implementation in the region.
The Challenges of Land Governance in a High-Income, High-Potential, Small Island Developing State: the Case of Trinidad and Tobago
1The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Inter-American Development Bank
A recent participatory land governance assessment performed in Trinidad and Tobago with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) examined the land governance through a stakeholder assessment process. Experienced and knowledgeable land professionals were brought together to discuss the various perspectives on the country’s land governance to arrive at grades in different aspects of its performance. The assessment process utilised the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) of the World Bank, and Global Housing Policy Indicators (GHI) to provide standardisation of the methodology. Various dimensions of land governance were assessed inclusive of law and public policy, registry and cadastral information systems and services, land use planning and management, and land tenure regularisation.
This paper presents the perceptions of the country’s land governance held by participants to the study, supported by census and institutional data where possible. These perceptions and the limited data available can help to point toward concrete programmes that can be undertaken to address the land governance gaps to improve equity and sustainability in the country.
It is recommended that transparency and accessibility of the land information would go a long way toward interrupting corrupt practices, where they exist, and also encouraging registration and confidence in the systems.
Applying an Adjusted Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) to Evaluate the Relationships between Land Cadasters and Informality: Lessons from Brazil and Ecuador | Usando el Marco Ajustado de Evaluación de la Gobernanza de la Tierra (LGAF) para evaluar las relaciones entre el Catastro Territorial y la Informalidad: Lecciones desde Brasil y Ecuador
1Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentine Republic; 2Inter-American Development Bank
In Latin America, a territorial cadastre is a public registry that manages information relating to parcels. The majority of cadastres are still structured under the orthodox model, which accounts only for economic (land and building values), physical (form, size, and location of parcels), and legal characteristics (tenure). Much of this information may be out of date and incomplete, particularly because the orthodox cadastre is typically restricted to private properties. Moreover, the orthodox model fails to encompass key parcel level data needed for urban policy decisions, such as information on transportation, infrastructure, and utility networks, as well as environmental attributes and the socioeconomic profiles of occupants. These data are structured under the Multipurpose Cadastre - MPC, which connect institutions and systems.
To evaluate the relationship between Cadastres and Informality, a study supported by the Inter-American Development Bank was developed, following the Case Study Guide provided by Sanjak & Donovan (2016). The case was focused in Brazil and Ecuador using both, qualitative and quantitative information, and permits to conclude that the integration of urban data into a MPC, incorporating the irregular settlements is the first step to know the real face of the cities. It will definitely conduce to the informality reduction.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||04-06: Can Documenting Communal Rights be Cost-Effective?|
Session Chair: Brent Jones, Esri, United States of America
Land Documentation in Zambia: A Comparison of Approaches and Relevance for the National Land Titling Program
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Zambia; 2USAID; 3Surveyor General, Ministry of Lands, Zambia
Since 2014, Zambia has been preparing for the launch of a systematic land documentation process to increase tenure security, improve service delivery in informal settlements, rural areas and peri-urban areas, as well as increase tax revenue. Zambia’s Ministry of Lands has the intention to launch a National Titling Program. This paper examines the approaches piloted in Zambia on customary and state land documentation over recent years. It examines the hardware, software, data standards and processes associated with systematic documentation in Zambia, as well as the anticipated structures for long-term administration. For example, it examines the extent to which each process includes spatial data, data accuracy requirements, how each process validates field data collected through witnesses and key informants, and the structure of land certificates. The paper continues to consider how the approaches will have to be adapted in informal settlements, peri-urban and rural areas. While most of the land documentation experience in Zambia to date has focused on rural, customary chiefdoms, the most pressing need for documentation will be within the informal settlements and at the peri-urban interface of customary and state land.
Rigorous Impact Evaluation of Land Surveying Costs: Empirical Evidence from Indigenous Lands in Canada
1Natural Resources Canada, Canada; 2University of British Columbia, Canada
The cost of systematically registering property in land administration systems has been a topic of much discussion and analysis in the last decade. Various reports suggest survey costs make up somewhere between 30-60% of the total cost of registering property. A review of 97 land surveys conducted on Indigenous lands in Canada revealed the median cost to fully survey a parcel of land is approximately $4,300/parcel. A multiple regression analysis showed significant relationships of the survey cost with: 1) the number of parcels - for every additional parcel surveyed, the cost decreases by $112/parcel; 2) Area – for every increase of 1 hectare, the cost increases by $34/parcel; 3) water boundaries – if a boundary in the survey is a water boundary the cost increases by $3090/parcel; 4) Company size – larger companies are $1900/parcel less expensive and medium size firms are $1500/parcel less expensive when compared to small companies; 5) distance – as the distance travelled to the survey location increases by 1 km, the cost increases by $2.40/parcel. The results of this research can potentially inform discussions both within Canada and internationally on the use of a land survey in developing or reforming land and resource tenure systems.
Stakeholder Engagement and Conflict Prevention in Village Boundary Setting/ Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) – Lessons Learned/Evidence from Indonesia’s Participatory Mapping and Planning (PMaP) Project, MCA-Indonesia Green Prosperity Project (GP)
Abt Associates, Indonesia
The Green Prosperity (GP) Project in Indonesia is an important and ambitious program with multiple aims. A key stage of GP has been the Village Boundary Setting and Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) under the Participatory Land Use Planning (PLUP). The work undertaken reveals significant lessons for future development projects in regional Indonesia. One lesson involves promoting an embedded participatory approach to stakeholder engagement that understands local contexts and dynamics. Paying ‘lip service’ or taking a ‘one size’ approach is not a recipe for success in multi-ethnic Indonesia. This ethnographic approach embraced a participative partnership, focusing on deep connections between facilitators and village communities. It resulted in effective, flexible and sustainable outcomes in: identifying and understanding disputes, conflict prevention and establishing and maintaining support for the objectives and operations of the program. Participatory Mapping and Planning (PMaP) activities, established an engagement framework underpinned by the Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) principles. It critically sourced, trained, guided and utilized local people, in a partnership for success. This paper highlights the critical importance of promoting contextualized understandings of localized socio-cultural and political dynamics through stakeholder engagement in conflict prevention, within village boundary settings and introduces the concept of Ethnographic Participatory Partnership (EPP).
Strengthening Indigenous Peoples Land rights in Honduras: The Miskitu People’s experience of Collective Land Titling, lessons learned and main challenges for the future
1Programa de Administracion de Tierras de Honduras (PATH II); 2World Bank; 31; 41
The paper will discuss a new model of indigenous people’s community land titling implemented in Honduras: the Inter-Community Land titling. This model, which is based on the International Labour Organization’s ILO Convention No. 169, which the Honduran government approved as a legally binding instrument, that establishes the government’s obligations regarding the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples. Specifically, the Convention 169 states the indigenous people’s rights of ownership and possession over the lands, which they have traditionally occupied, but also to the lands to which “they have traditionally had access for their subsistence and traditional activities”.
Derived of the initiative from 2012 to 2016, the results reflect the Intercommunity titling of the Miskito’s people’s and other indigenous people’s community land through the intercommunity land titling model of 14 thousand square kilometers equivalent to 12.5% of the country’s territory.
Accordingly, the paper will: (a) Describe the Miskitu people’s and the Government’s efforts for the recognition of the Miskitu peoples land rights; (b) identify the main political, institutional and technical lessons that have contributed to the obtained results and joint efforts to overcome the main challenges; (d) present the main challenges for the future.
|Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Multi-Faceted Impacts of Secure Tenure Rights|
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Does Strengthening Local Tenure Rights Help Fulfill Conservation Goals?
1McGill University; 2Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; 3The Nature Conservancy; 4University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Secure land tenure has been positively associated with human well-being as well as nature conservation. Conservation organizations have implicitly recognized this association from the beginnings of the conservation movement, (see, e.g., creation of community land conservancies in Africa and the creation of the conservation easement tool in the US). These organizations are beginning to think about whether and how to better incorporate land tenure strategies directly into their work and to more soundly ground that work based on evidence of both conservation and human benefits. By reviewing the literature on land tenure and land tenure security as it relates to conservation practice, we aim to clarify why conservation practitioners should incorporate land tenure security interventions directly into conservation strategies. We present a framework that links tenure security, land management decisions, and resulting outcomes related to human wellbeing and natural resource conservation. We identify three common pathways through which land tenure security impacts conservation interventions. We review existing practical approaches to assessing land tenure security in practice, and common methods for strengthening land tenure security as it they relate to conservation programs. We conclude with research frontiers.
Rwanda Natural Capital Accounting for Land
1Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda; 2University of Rwanda; 3Statistics Netherlands, Department of National Accounts, Environmental Accounts team; 4Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences; 5Natural Capital Accounting, Rwanda Natural Resources Authority; 6Ministry in Charge of Natural Resources
In Rwanda, land is the basis for agriculture which accounts for 34 percent of GDP and 90 percent of jobs. The high rate of population growth and inheritance practices led to land fragmentation. The small plots reduce productivity while increased productivity is needed to achieve food security and to boost rural incomes. Beyond agriculture, Rwanda’s rapid urbanization and plans for development of secondary cities will require additional land, as well as policies to limit sprawl and promote zoning for green areas that improve quality of life.The Rwandan Government, found it necessary to develop the Land Accounts as tool to support the implementation of the national land policy on a rational use of land. We analyzed the land uses change for the period of 2014-2015 via so-called land use change matrices. The land cover and use accounting for the period of 1990-2010 was used to monitor and analyze changes in land cover and land use. Preliminary findings show that fragmentation increased slowly during 2014 and 2015 given ongoing policies aimed at combating land fragmentation. The average size of plots allocated to livestock declined by almost 10%, and residential land use is the fastest growing category, increasing by almost 14% throughout 2014.
Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience for cashew growers in Khong district of Champasack province
Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement Project, Lao People's Democratic Republic
Even with the abundance of natural resources and land for agriculture, Lao PDR remains on the list of the 20 least developed countries in the world. More than 70% of the population in Laos depends on agriculture as their main source of income. Rural farmers are engaged in subsistence farming practices, but most of those farmers are lacking Land Use Certificates. The Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity Enhancement (SNRMPE) Project has identified key lessons learnt for Land Use Certification, piloting certification in a cashew nut production project.
The mobilization of land authorities to issue land certificates to farmers helped cutting short the time and eliminated unnecessary steps in the process. Policy dialogue contributed to the adoption of new policies and benefitted the farmers. To address the lack of education and language barriers for women and ethnic minorities, the project targeted government staff and production groups. Key lesson learnt are that before any intervention, the trust of ethnic people needs to be earned, women need to be provided with land ownership, women farmers need to be educated on land use rights and staff of land authorities need to be trained on the issuance of Land Use Certificates.
The potential for homestead microplots to contribute to food security in rural West Bengal
Landesa, United States of America
Landesa’s partnership with the Government of West Bengal on state land allocation and titling programs provides an extraordinary learning opportunity. This paper uses survey data gathered through a recent study of households across West Bengal to explore the relationship between newly gained tenure security and the potential for improving the food security of the household. It finds no titling effect on food security, nor does it find an effect when women’s names have been included on the title. However, it does find a positive effect on food security when households engage in such livelihood activities as homestead kitchen gardening and animal husbandry. It concludes by exploring ways to improve the uptake of such activities at scale.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: Creating the Data to Support Urban Land Management|
Session Chair: Peter Baumann, Jacobs U | rasdaman, Germany
Can We Talk About Smart Cities Without a Proper Land Management System In Place?
Can we talk about Smart Cities without a proper Land Management System in place?
“Today, 54 per cent of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050. Projections show that urbanization combined with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa, according to a new United Nations report launched today.” (2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA)
“Managing urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century. Our success or failure in building sustainable cities will be a major factor in the success of the post-2015 UN development agenda,” (John Wilmoth, Director of UN DESA’s Population Division)
For me it´s very simple, we can´t talk about “Smart Cities” without talk about “Smart Cadastre” and “Smart Public Registry” or “Smart Land Management Systems”.
Spatial Information for Developed and Developing Smart Cities
The Open Geospatial Consortium
Urban population accounts for more than half of the world’s population (World Health Organization). By 2030, this is expected to rise to 60%, with 95% of growth occurring in the developing world (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), 2015, Goal 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable), with a substantial proportion living in poverty in Megacities. High density cities can realize efficiency gains by making better use of spatial information. Geospatial information is often difficult to find, share, fuse, analyse and publish. Open standards are critical to enabling cities to ensure the data is made available to produce information that is actionable and fit for purpose and will work well with existing and emerging technologies. Maximizing the use of the data, selecting an appropriate level of openness and building an enabling infrastructure, supports improved governance.
The OGC has developed a Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework to provide guidance on how ICT location standards for City Models, Sensors, and Mobile enable efficient information management to support informed decisions for such scenarios as coastal flooding, 3D city modelling and Public Security. This talk will present the framework using examples from Dhaka, Bangladesh, the City of Berlin and other cities.
A New Spatial Indicator To Identify Ghettos
1Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; 2World Bank
From a statistical point of view, there are many reports that portrait similarities or differences between areas inside a city. This paper tries to highlight the importance of spatial correlation between observations in order to have a confidence interval of any assertion related to characteristics of a city. In particular, with information available from a standard population and housing census associated to block cartography, we present an attempt to locate ghettos based on characteristics extracted from census data. We believe this methodology will allow governments or NGOs to focus in city areas where needs are more acute.
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-02: Caucus on Women and Land|
|2:15pm - 3:45pm||07-06: Can Securing Tenure Contribute to Mitigating Climate Change?|
Session Chair: Rose Mwebaza, African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Climate Benefits, Tenure Costs: The Economic Case for Securing Indigenous Land Rights in the Amazon
1World Resources Institute, United States of America; 2Resources for the Future, United States of America; 3Rainforest Alliance, United States of America
With the Paris Agreement entering into force on the 4th November 2016, governments around the world need to look for cost-effective solutions to implement their Nationally Determined Commitments. It is clear that addressing land use is central to these solutions, whereas Indigenous peoples are central to forest-based climate mitigation solutions. Indigenous Peoples and other communities hold and manage 50 to 65 percent of the world’s land. However, by far, very few studies have provided the science-based evidence that quantifies the important benefits that indigenous forestlands can provide.
This research has examined for the first time the economic benefits provided by tenure-secure indigenous lands in three Amazonian countries, incl. Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. We found that giving secure tenure to indigenous peoples can help reduce deforestation and generate billions and sometimes trillions of dollars’ worth of benefits in the form of carbon sequestration, reduced pollution, clean water and more. Securing indigenous land tenure are among the most cost-effective mitigation options that help forest nations meet their commitments to Paris agreements as well as achieve their Sustainable Development Goals. While our study has focused on the Amazon, the findings can have important implications to many other countries across the world.
Formalization of land and water rights combinations to deal with the consequences of climate change in the rural & urban areas in China
Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Climate change in China means higher temperatures, more droughts in the rural areas and because of an increased volatility of the rains sometimes flooding in the urban areas. People have developed adaptation mechanisms and it will be argued that adaptation requires titling of land and water rights. This would facilitate water trading, which has been used in several countries to mitigate the consequences of drought. We show land and water rights are related because an improved allocation of water by stakeholders requires them to know they are entitled to sell surpluses. Our research in rural China will be presented where dealing with more severe droughts wase an issue. Then our research in urban China is presented to show climate change adaptation mechanisms in urban areas and the implications for land and water rights. Finally, some conclusions will be presented. China wants to move to a unifying land titling system. Such a system would integrate the registration of all land resources, including what is on the land and what is below, meaning the water and the minerals.This is important to allow adaptation to the consequences of climate change in the urban and rural areas.
Securing Land Rights at Scale Through Participatory Role-play: the Forest Investment Program in Burkina Faso
1INSUCO, Burkina Faso; 2Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change, Burkina Faso; 3The World Bank
The Forest Investment Program (FIP) was launched with the objective to strengthen the governance over communal lands on a significant portion of Burkina Faso (around 10% of the country's rural communes) with the objective to replicate the initiative over the entire national territory.
More specifically, the FIP is supporting the creation of communal Plans for Land Use and Management (POAS) in 32 communes, and for that purpose developed an innovative, inclusive and transformational methodology that puts local actors in the driver's seat to accurately identify challenges and come up with consensual solutions.
One of the steps in the process relies on the TerriStories® methodology developed by the CIRAD and builds on findings from the MARP, the COMMOD, and other role playing-based methodologies to improve the governance of tenure and land use planning.
The article explores the entire process leading to the development of the POAS at the local level. It explains in detail the methodology used by looking at the important challenges that arose – mostly caused by the large-scale approach and the decision to focus at commune level – and how they were addressed.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||08-06: What Evaluations Tell us on the Impact of Land Interventions|
Session Chair: Arianna Legovini, World Bank, United States of America
Assessing the Impact of Second-Level Land Certification in Ethiopia
1NORC; 2Stanford Research Institute; 3Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America; 4USAID, United States of America
This paper presents the results of a USAID-funded impact evaluation of the Ethiopia Land Tenure Administration Program (ELTAP) and the Ethiopia Land Administration Program (ELAP). Utilizing panel data collected from 4,319 households in Ethiopia, the evaluation employed a Difference-in-Difference design coupled with matching to examine the impact of second-level certification relative to first-level certification across a range of household-level outcomes. The evaluation found small, positive, and potentially important impacts on household access to credit and on indicators of female empowerment. Little evidence for household impacts of second-level beyond first-level certification was found for indicators related to tenure security, land disputes, land rental activity, or soil and water conservation. The key findings of the evaluation presented in this paper contribute to the knowledge around the impacts of formal land documentation on household level development outcomes. Moreover, the critical analysis of the impacts and limitations of ELTAP and ELAP can contribute to enhanced programming during the Government of Ethiopia’s ongoing scale up of second-level land certification. Finally, the evaluation findings may inform the development of a national land use policy.
Formalizing Rural Land Rights: Long-Run Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Benin
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Paris School of Economics; 3Michigan State University
We present evidence from the first large-scale randomized-controlled trial of a land formalization program, the Plans Fonciers Ruraux in Benin, which aim to improve tenure security and stimulate agricultural investment through the formalization of customary land rights in rural areas. The intervention consists of an identification of land right holders and mapping of parcels at the village level followed by the delivery of property rights (Certificats Fonciers Ruraux) to the identified land right holders. We draw on two rounds of data to assess the short-run and medium-run effects of the program. Improved land security following land demarcation in 2011 led to an increase in long-term agricultural investment in tree planting and perennial crops. Female-headed households further responded to demarcation by closing the gender gap in fallowing, a key soil fertility investment. Four years later, treated households continued to report significantly higher rates of perennial crop cultivation. Despite the observed increases in investment, no average effects on output or farm yields were observed in either 2011 or 2015.
Inheritance law reform, empowerment, and human capital accumulation: Second generation effects from India
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University & Michigan State University; 3University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China
Evidence from three Indian states, one of which amended inheritance legislation in 1994, allows us to assess first- and second-generation effects of inheritance reform using a triple-difference strategy. Second- generation effects on education, time use, and health are larger and more significant than first-generation ones even if mothers’ endowments are controlled for. Improved access to bank accounts and sanitation facilities in the parent generation suggest that inheritance reform empowered females in a sustainable way, a notion supported by significantly higher female survival rates.
Impact of property rights reform to support China’s rural-urban integration: Evidence from the Chengdu national experiment
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University & Michigan State University; 3Renmin University; 4University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China
As part of a national experiment, Chengdu prefecture implemented, in 2008, ambitious property rights reforms including complete registration of all land together with measures to ease transferability and eliminate migration restrictions. We examine impacts of these reforms at village and household level, using a discontinuity design with spatial fixed effects to compare 529 villages just inside and outside the prefecture’s border and the Statistics Bureau’s regular household panel. Village level evidence points suggests that reforms increased tenure security, aligned land use closer to economic incentives, mainly through market transfers, and led to an increase in enterprise start-ups. This is consistent with household level analysis suggesting s reforms increased consumption and income, especially for less wealthy and less educated households, with estimated benefits well above the cost of implementation. Local labor supply increased with the young shifting towards agriculture and the old towards off-farm employment. Agricultural yields, intensity of input use, and diversity of output also increased, suggesting that improved property rights helped to increase investment and diversification.
|5:30pm - 6:30pm||GLII Discussion on roadmap|
|Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Role of Property Rights in Realizing Environmental Services|
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
Land-use change and forestry programmes: Evidence on the effects on greenhouse gas emissions and food security
3ie Impact, United States of America
Governing payments for ecosystem services: What can be learned from comparing Chinese and American experiences of restoring degraded cropland?
Michigan State University, United States of America
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) have attracted broad attention as an incentive-based approach to ecosystem service provision. However, there have been inadequate efforts tackling their design and implementation at the program level. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of restoring degraded cropland in China and the U.S., this paper aims to derive some valuable and timely policy insights that can be used by China and other countries in improving the performances of their PES programs in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Building on a well-defined concept of environmental governance and the framework for studying social-ecological systems, our analysis will unfold through addressing several specific questions. They include: What are the socioeconomic and environmental backgrounds for one country to launch a large PES program? How was it designed initially and has evolved over time? How has its performance been evaluated and what are the main outcomes? What are the primary challenges to its long-term success? Finally, this study calls for a more practical approach to PES design, implementation, and evaluation that will lead to improved outcomes of ecosystem restoration and biodiversity conservation.
A Comparison of Land Use and Socioeconomic Outcomes from Payment for Watershed Services Programs in Mexico
Colorado State University, United States of America
Payments for watershed services programs (PWS) provide direct financial incentives to landowners with the aim of increasing hydrological benefits. Evidence of the impacts of PWS on conservation and livelihood outcomes remains limited, and even less is known about how specific program design features or contexts influence outcomes. We surveyed over 290 smallholders in three versions of Mexico’s PWS program to test the impacts on conservation and livelihood outcomes. The three programs included: the national PWS program, a local “matching” version of the PWS program, and the latter PWS program combined with integrated water resources management (IWRM). We used matching statistics to control for observable household characteristics and bias-adjusted regression to estimate treatment effects. Households in PWS programs had higher environmental knowledge, received more information, and implemented more conservation actions than households not enrolled. There were small increases in assets owned by households in PWS compared to those not enrolled. Comparing the three PWS programs we found few differences in conservation or livelihood outcomes but significant differences in perceptions of equity in benefit distribution. Overall, our results suggest that PWS is leading to positive to neutral outcomes and that there are important differences in how the programs are perceived by smallholders.
Avoided Deforestation Linked to Environmental Registration in the Brazilian Amazon
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America; 2Middlebury College, Vermont, United States of America
We quantified the avoided deforestation impacts of environmental land registration in the Brazils Amazonian states of Mato Grosso and Par´a between 2005 and 2014. We find that the program reduced deforestation on registered lands by 62.5%, which generated a total avoided deforestation of 10% across the two states. The impacts of registration varied over time, likely due to multiple policies that use registered boundaries for deforestation monitoring. Our results also reveal that more agriculturally productive lands were more likely to register. We conclude that environmental registration is an important first step to implement avoided deforestation policies targeted towards individual land use decisions.
Conserving the Amazon by Titling Indigenous Communities: Evidence from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador
1Resources for the Future, United States of America; 2World Resources Institute,United States of America
Over the past two decades, indigenous communities (ICs) have emerged as important players in efforts to reduce forest carbon emissions, in part because recent research has shown that their forests contain considerable carbon and are cleared at rates far lower than forests managed by the state or private sector. Yet ICs tend to be located in remote areas where rates of forest cover change would be quite low regardless of the management regime. Therefore, to determine whether IC management actually contributes to additional avoided carbon emissions, it is important to control for such confounding factors. We analyze the effects on deforestation and forest carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012 of legally recognized IC management in the Amazon regions of Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Colombia. We use fine-scale data derived from satellite images to measure deforestation and forest carbon along with propensity score matching and regression to control for pre-existing land characteristics. We find that even controlling for confounding factors, IC management is correlated with substantially lower rates of deforestation and forest carbon emissions in three of our four study countries: Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia. These findings suggest that IC management can, in fact, help combat climate change.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Protecting Pastoral Production Systems|
Session Chair: Fiona Flintan, International Livestock Research Institute, Ethiopia
Evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin in Cameroon
1University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon, Cameroon; 2Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, and Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, USA; 3African Studies Program, College of Liberal Arts, The Pensylvania State University, USA; 4Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Over time immemorial, wetlands have remained the main haven for cattle during unfavorable dry season in the intertropical regions of the World. Transhumance is widely practice in sub Saharan Africa, especially in Cameroon and in the Upper Noun Drainage basin as a traditional practice. Our study objective was aimed at evaluating socio-ecological challenges of pastoralism and indigenous peoples’ tenure systems on wetlands management in the Upper Noun Drainage Basin of Cameroon. In the Upper Noun Drainage basin, cattle move in from the immediate surrounding upland areas and other areas of the western high plateau. This usually results in various stages of interaction leading to diverse socio-ecological and tenure systems challenges on wetland management. The floodplain receives about 21,000 cattle during transhumance. Common species of fodder include Pennisetum purpureum, Leersia hexandia, Scirpus jacobi etc. Some of these observed challenges are habitat destruction and retardation of vegetal growth, water pollution, river bank destruction, wetland siltation and acute farmer/grazier conflicts that are the order of the day. Crops are destroyed and there is also animal cruelty which at time leds to blood sheds with a far reaching negative influence on the management and socio-cultural relationship such as jailing of some victims.
Implementation of Responsible Land Governance: Informing the development of policy through a participatory land delimitation experience in Tana River County, Kenya
Overcoming the challenge of policy implementation or policy domestication at decentralized levels is subject to the policy formulation process which must, in turn, be informed by the systematic collection of data. The FAO experience of securing community land tenure by applying its Participatory Land Delimitation (PLD) methodology and the County Government interest to alleviate land conflicts in the county were combined to formulate sound county level policy that addressed land management by establishing the criteria to identify and locally manage the grazing areas in the county through different community groups.
Bottom-up policy formulation woven and aligned to national policy is critical for a smooth transition onto policy implementation.
Evolving a Policy on Pastoralism in the Semi-Arid State of Rajasthan, and India
Foundation for Ecological Security, India
Pastoralism in India, as in many other parts of the world, is a highly under-valued lifestyle and production system, often misconceived as being an archaic and inefficient, environment unfriendly practice. Policies to support such climate adjusted, resource attuned lifestyles are either absent or not pursued. This paper looks at nomadic pastoralism, sifting through available literature on the subject and through the story of a pastoralist group in the semi-arid state of Rajasthan, in northern India. Highlighting the significance of pastoralism to the livelihoods and State economy, food security, and the social and bio-physical infrastructures, the paper attempts to outline the need for notifying State policies on pastoralism considering five main inter-linked components. These include – (a)strengthening and augmenting the contribution of pastoralism to the economy and food security; (b)securing and protecting the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists and ensuring their rights to dignified and honorable living; (c)securing their rights to forests, land and water resources that are central to their existence; (d)recognizing, collaborating and promoting the role of pastoralists in conservation and management of State’s biodiversity and natural resources; and (e)developing collaborative systems for periodic enumeration of pastoralist populations, measuring their economic contributions and supporting mobility.
The Role of Rural Land Registration in Enhancing Communal Holding Tenure Security
1Niras Finland, Ethiopia; 2MANNA Development Management Consulting
Benishangul-Gumuz is a region of Ethiopia. The methods of implementing pro-poor, and innovative land administration including aiming at securing land tenure rights for equity, sustainability and resilience and how it may impact the governance of CPRs like grazing and forest lands, has been at its early stage in Ethiopia in general and in BG in particular. Under customary law communal lands are subject to multiple bundles of tenure rights and have fluid boundaries which makes them liable to be encroached.
In BG competition between cropping and grazing is increasing due to the fact that all sources of livestock feed are increasingly dependent on natural grazing during both dry and wet seasons. Communal holdings are not only threatened by individual farmland encroachers but also by infrastructural developments, and commercial agricultural investment expansions.
The paper argues that though land certification is clearly beneficial to tenure security, it does not necessarily lead to more gains for communal holders, where especially communal grazing lands are under the threat of encroachment form individuals and commercial agricultural investors in some cases.
|12:00pm - 1:00pm||SDE-03: Caucus on Women and Land|
|1:00pm - 2:30pm||11-06: Roundtable on Valuation of Unregistered Land|
Session Chair: Christopher Barlow, Thomson Reuters, United States of America
A Valeur Perspective
RICS, United Kingdom
To be completed
1Esri, United States of America; 2Indufor North America, United States of America
To be completed
Approaches in US counties
Stafford County, United States of America
To be completed
IAOO approach to valuation of unregistered land
International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
To be completed
|2:45pm - 4:15pm||12-06: The Role of Tenure in Reducing Land Degradation|
Session Chair: Melchiade Bukuru, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United States of America
Achieving Land Degradation Neutrality For Improved Equity, Sustainability And Resilience
For many developing countries, long-term food security and economic growth is highly dependent on the management of their land resources, including soil, water and biodiversity. To ensure the sustainable use of these essential components into the future, there is no choice but to support a new vision of stewardship based on rights, rewards and responsibilities. This would provide the incentives needed for young people to remain in the rural areas and help foster an enabling environment for more equitable access to markets, investment and infrastructure. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), as part of its mandate to help achieve the SDGs, is advocating and supporting over 100 countries to integrate appropriate land governance systems in their voluntary land degradation neutrality targets. The UNCCD’s new flagship publication, the Global Land Outlook, strongly advocates for national and local governments to play a critical role in developing the necessary governance and incentive frameworks that encourage more sustainable land management decisions at all scales. Otherwise, future scenarios are rife with shortages, conflicts and instability.
Land Management And Policy On Sustainable Use Of Land Resources: The Case Of Burkina Faso
1Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 2Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey; 3Ankara University, Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Turkey
Agricultural lands cover 44.22% of the surface area of Burkina Faso; the agricultural population constitutes 77% of the total population, the annual population increase rate is 2.91% and the urbanization rate is fairly high with 5.84%. The slow pace of urban infrastructure investments and construction works leads to serious real estate problems; 4/5 of the real estate supply consists of deedless immovables while the land production and real estate construction performance of local governments are deemed insufficient. In 1960-2014, the rate of agricultural lands in total surface area increased significantly. The change in arable land assets is affected by social factors such as population, economic factors such as agricultural exports and environmental and spatial factors such as the rate of forestry lands and lands allocated to other sectors. It is reported that the amount of productive lands per capita has decreased due to reasons such as increased population, constant migration between settlement areas, and limited land rehabilitation and development works. Thus, land disputes have sharpened lately in rural areas. With the Agricultural and Land Reform, which started in 1984, land development policies have continuously been on the agenda; yet, public administrations have had limited success in developing.
The Emerging Tenure Right Fortunes and Its Policy Implications: The Case of The World Bank Financed Sustainable Land Management Project II In Ethiopia
The World Bank Group
In Ethiopia, high unemployment rates combined with a lack of access to arable land among rural youth contributes to greater food insecurity while limiting the youth ability to generate income from agriculture. The current legislation limits the extent to which land rights can be transferred through land rentals. While the number of landless youth is trending upward, an innovative practice under the World Bank-financed SLMP-2, provides youth groups an opportunity to gain access to degraded land in exchange for restoration. Under this approach, youth groups are given secure, legally binding rights to use and manage the restored land. Addressing both the scarcity of land and limitations of the legislation, provides opportunities for income generation and incentivize good land stewardship among the next generation of community leaders, while boosting the climate resilience and carbon storage potential of production landscapes.
Early results suggest that this model is affordable and provides land tenure options that can be scaled-up to unlock new fortunes. Accordingly, it is recommended that the specific restrictive provisions on land rental market be lifted and a natural resource-based youth strategy be developed. We strongly recommend this model for roll-out elsewhere in the country in combination with extension support through SLM and livelihood enhancement related initiatives.
Programmatic Approach to Land Degradation in Burundi
The World Bank, United States of America
Burundi is a country of nearly nine million people, living on approximately 28,000 square kilometers making it the second most densely populated country in sub-Saharan Africa. With a population growth rate of about 3.2% per annum, the density is likely to continue increasing in the future. Burundi is predominantly rural, and scarcity of land and competition for land resources is a continued underlying driver of conflict and fragility. Poor land use planning, bad land management system, and lack of certainty of property rights have exacerbated people’s exposure and vulnerability to erosion and natural hazards, and more specifically drought, flooding and landslides. The country has been facing rapid degradation of the environment resulting in a decline in agricultural productivity, which provides livelihood to about 90% of the population who depend on agriculture. The World Bank is engaged in reversing this trend through a programmatic approach consisting of CEA as analytical foundation and Coffee Landscape Project (IDA & GF), and new Landscape Restoration Project under preparation that looks at opportunities for increasing resilience, productivity and introduction of ecosystem services in Burundi. The paper will present the results of CEA and the World Bank action plan associated with it.
|Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017|
|9:00am - 10:30am||13-02: Using UAVs, GIS, and the Cloud for Land Administration|
Could We Cadaster Faster in an Integrated IT System by using UAVs with GIS Services in a Cloud Infrastructure?
Teamnet Group, Romania
There is a significant number of geographies around the world where the percentage of land with cadaster and land books registered in an integrated IT system is rather low and increasing it is a real challenge for all stakeholders: the governmental institution managing the domain, surveyors, IT businesses and citizens.
In order to improve the duration and costs of mass registration we analyze the involvement of modern technologies along the process, automation of eligible registration sub-processes, usage of UAVs for faster field data collection and storing and sharing all work in progress in the cloud infrastructure. We measure the improvements and analyze their impact on quality and total cost of ownership to determine whether such improvements are a real “win” for all stakeholders. We will compare the mass registration process in several scenarios with different levels of automation on the sub-processes and study the decrease of the duration or cost of sub-processes, the decrease in number of validation iterations and the improvement of public registration service transparency for the citizens.
We will conduct several demonstrations using own software suite for cadaster in order to explore the features and benefits of such products.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||14-02: Land Administration Software Customization Using InnoLa|
For more information or signing up, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Examples Of Land Administration Software Customization Using InnoLA Framework
Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America
This master class invites professionals and government employees who is interested to understand how software tools, used to manage property registration process, can be adjusted and tailored for particular user’s needs with use of modern technologies. The purpose of the class is to present a real case scenario of the client requirements for implementation of a certain business process and illustrate how it is fulfilled using the software. The most important aspect is to illustrate that this rather complicated customization exercise might be performed by accordingly trained professional without the need to get into hard core software development aspects. During 90-minutes session, we will customize on the fly our web-based registration software called InnoLA, which is deployed as NLIS in Uganda. InnoLA is a modern, web-based professional open software framework for registering, managing and distributing real property objects and related data fully compliant with the LADM ISO standard.
Using Grant of Freehold transaction as an example, we will demo further enhancement and changes of the system, including modification of the system workflow definition; customization of data entry form and its associated fields; change of the existing business rule etc.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||15-02: Mass Appraisal of Land Values |
For more information or signing up, please contact Colatruglio@iaao.org
Where Do We Begin?
International Association of Assessng Officers, United States of America
One of the earliest applications of mass appraisal techniques is the cost approach. Of the three classic approaches to estimating value (cost, comparable sales and income) the cost approach is the easiest to learn and apply.
Based on the principle of substitution, which states that a buyer will pay no more for an improvement than the cost of constructing another improvement of equal utility, the cost approach is dependent on data that is readily available virtually everywhere. The user needs to establish the cost of building an improvement of average quality and size and the relative contribution of different levels of quality and additional amenities. Each of these can be placed in a schedule that forms the basis for future cost estimates.
One of the benefits of the cost approach is the ability to separate the land and the building values. The steps in applying this approach are to calculate the value of the land on which the improvement is to be located. Calculate the cost of constructing the improvement. Subtract the total amount of accrued depreciation from that total cost and, finally, add the result to the land value.
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Conference: Land and Poverty 2017
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