Conference Agenda

The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.

Only Sessions at Location/Venue 
Session Overview
Location: MC C2-131
Date: Tuesday, 21/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am01-08: Challenges to be Addressed in Protecting Communal Rights
Session Chair: Mamadou Baro, University of Arizona, United States of America
MC C2-131 
ID: 576 / 01-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Pastoralism and Agro-pastoralism, Communal Land Tenure, Group Land Rights, Land Use Change, Conflict

Land Use Rights, Land Governance Institutions, and Tenure Security Indicators in a Pastoral Community: Evidence from a Baseline Study in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

Kate Marple-Cantrell1, Aidan Schneider1, Heather Huntington1, Caleb Stevens2

1The Cloudburst Group, United States of America; 2USAID, United States of America

Historically, the Afar region of Ethiopia has been populated by pastoralist communities, but their migratory and herding patterns may be threatened by commercial interests or conflicts with other ethnic groups. This paper presents exploratory baseline findings from an impact evaluation of USAID’s ongoing Land Administration to Nurture Development (LAND, 2013–2018) project in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Drawing on survey and qualitative data, the first objective of the paper is to present the customary governance context in the study area, and evaluate perceived strengths and weakness of local customary land governance systems to navigate tenure security pressures. The second objective is to explore perceptions of specific outside actors that potentially threaten tenure security: the government, private sector investors, and other ethnic groups. The paper also explores the content of tenure security in practice, such as specific examples or descriptions of land access, documentation, reallocation, and conflict. The primary data used in this study represents an important opportunity to understand the health of the pastoral land use systems in this region and the prevalence and severity of land access challenges, which may be less pervasive than suggested in other reports that are based on a smaller sample size.


ID: 704 / 01-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Securing Pastoral community land

Towards Securing Community Land Tenure in Kenya A Holistic Approach To Community-Based Natural Resource Governance:

Husna Mbarak

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya

In Kenya a constitutional milestone that was achieved within the new constitutional dispensation was the recognition of ‘Community Land’ as one of the three legal land categories in Kenya; the others being private and public land. Indeed, directly vests ownership of all community land in communities that are identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community interests. It further emphasized the need for legal Recognition, Protection and Registration of communal land rights. The enactment of the Community Land Act 2016 actualizes the constitution.

The Participatory Land Delimitation (PLD) process that FAO had already been tested in countries various countries. For the case of Kenya, there was an additional challenge to consider: these were not sedentary farmers whose land have a fixed set of recognizable boundaries in terms of land use, these were pastoralist and mobile communities who use and perceive land differently. This dynamic demanded a much higher level of engagement not with the community in question but with the other neighboring and moving pastoralists whose land use was also determined by the rain and available pastures. This is seen in the case of Wayu community of Tana River County and Lokichar area of Turkana County of Kenya.


ID: 580 / 01-08: 3
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Indigenous Rights / Bedouins/ tenure security/ West Bank

Strengthening Security of Tenure for Indigenous Bedouins in the West Bank

Shlomit Stein

Norwegian Refugee Council, Palestine

The Bedouin in the West Bank – a Palestinian territory occupied by Israel – are a semi-nomadic people who have lived in southern historical Palestine at least since the seventh century and survived mostly by grazing their flocks. They originate from the Negev/Naqab desert, from which they were compelled to flee during and following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Following the 1967 war and the occupation of the West Bank by Israel, the Bedouin residing in the area are under the effective control of Israel as the occupying power. The Bedouin communities in the area have undergone several displacement waves and are constantly struggling to prevent further displacement brought about by numerous factors, including: border changes; the establishment of Israeli settlements; the construction of roads and infrastructure around the settlements; the construction of the separation wall; closure of areas for military training purposes; lack of formal land title; and lack of adequate planning schemes which make any and every building illegal under the existing planning laws and therefore in threat of demolition. Combined, these have produced a reality of tenure insecurity for the Bedouin communities of the West Bank, with devastating humanitarian implications that warrant timely and effective response by the international community.


ID: 462 / 01-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: pastoral production and livelihood system; pressures on land; livestock mobility; institutional innovation; resilience building and adaptation to climate change

Resilient Pastoral Institution for a Changing Environment: the case of the Stock Routes Co-Management Approach in Western Sudan

Faisl Eljack2, Harold Liversage1, Yonas Mekonen1

1International Fund for Agricultural Development; 2Western Sudan Resource Management Program

The paper aims at investigating the Stock-Route Co-management model developed and spearheaded by the Western Sudan Resource Management Program (WSRMP) through an incremental process of institutional innovation over a 10 years period. The approach's model pilot application on two model Stock Routes is presented. Preliminary results supporting WSRP's efforts to bridge the divide between formal and customary institutions are discussed, especially in relation to its scaling up and replication potential across the greater Kordofan region and wider linkages with other developmental effort. It concludes with good practices and lessons learnt for other countries, especially in the Horn of African & Sahel region.

10:30am - 12:00pm02-08: Frontier of Sustainable Land Management Research
Session Chair: Paola Agostini, The World Bank, United States of America
MC C2-131 
ID: 1147 / 02-08: 1
Invited Paper

Geospatial Impact Evaluation and Valuation of Land Degradation Projects

Juha Ilari Uitto1, Geeta Batra1, Anupam Anand1, Dan Runfola2, Ariel BenYishay2, Jyoteshwar Nagol3

1Global Environment Facility Independent Evaluation Office, Washington DC; 2College of William and Mary, USA; 3University of Maryland, USA

We will present the impact assessment and valuation of GEF Land degradation projects using geospatial and econometric methods. The use of machine learning algorithms for assessing the factors influencing the environmental outcomes of the land degradation projects will be discussed. We will also present the use of Value Transfer Approach to estimate the amount of carbon sequestered highlighting the additional benefits generated from these projects. Our work demonstrates the utility of satellite-derived land degradation indicators and geospatial methods for impact assessment and valuation of sequestered carbon using the indicators proposed by the UNCCD's Land Degradation Neutrality(LDN) framework recommended for the SDG target 15.3. Lastly, we will share our experiences in using these methods, lessons learned and future work.


ID: 928 / 02-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: Global Environment Benefit, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Tracking Tool, Production Landscape

Quantifying The Multiple Environmental Benefits Of Sustainable Land Management Projects: An Analysis Of The Land Degradation Portfolio Of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Jean-Marc Sinnassamy, Rahul Madhusudanan, Sonja Teelucksingh, Mattew Foster, Ulrich Apel, Gustavo Fonseca, Asha Bobb-Semple

World Bank, Global Environment Facility, United States of America

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the financing mechanism of several Multilateral Agreements for the Environment. The Land Degradation (LD) Focal Area is the GEF mechanism under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) for investing in Sustainable Land Management to improve or restore ecosystem services in production systems. This paper presents the first analysis of LD Focal Area Tracking Tools available from a cohort of 1117 GEF projects submitted between July 1st 2010 and June 30, 2016, equivalent of 504 million of US dollars of GEF grants. These projects include direct interventions on 50.5 million ha of production landscapes, benefiting to 40 million rural people (half of them being women). The multiple global environment benefits are related to the maintenance, enhancement, or restoration of ecosystem services, including biodiversity, water, carbon, and forests resources. This analysis uses the tracking tools and other relevant data to quantitatively discuss the global environment benefits, local socio-economic benefits, and contextual information on the extent and drivers of land degradation at the GEF portfolio level. Recent findings will help to complement the analysis and the discussion (Value for Money study from the Independent Evaluation Office, Land Degradation Neutrality and SDG 15.3).


ID: 986 / 02-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: SLM, Ethiopia, watershed management, Google Earth Engine

SLM Intervention Impact Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Data

Daniel Monchuk, Daniel Ali, Klaus Deininger, Marguerite Duponchel

The World Bank, United States of America

The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of watershed conservation and management practices on introduced in the Abbay River-Basin of the Amhara and Benishangul Gumuz Regions in Ethiopia from 2009-15 as part of the Tana Beles Integrated Water Resources Development Project (TBIWRD). Specifically, this paper examines the impact of project interventions on vegetative intensity as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The Google Earth Engine developer platform is used to compute seasonal average NDVI values at the pixel level (30m resolution) in project areas as well as proximate, non-intervention(control) areas. A panel dataset is constructed combining pixel-level NDVI with micro-watershed-level M+E activity data. Controlling for pixel characteristics by way of a fixed-effects regression model, we find TBIWRD has had a positive impact on vegetation outcomes as measured by NDVI. These results are found to be robust to various specifications.


ID: 1128 / 02-08: 4
Invited Paper

Building Local Capacity to Monitor Land Use Change and Intervention Impacts

Amadou Moctar Dieye

Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE), Senegal

To be compeleted


ID: 1166 / 02-08: 5
Invited Paper


Stefanie Herrmann

The World Bank, United States of America

To be completed

ID: 1235 / 02-08: 6
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies


Ran Goldblatt

UC San Diego, United States of America


2:15pm - 3:45pm03-08: Addressing Land Tenure Aspects of REDD+
Session Chair: Esther Mwangi, Center for International Forestry Research, Kenya
MC C2-131 
ID: 806 / 03-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: REDD+, climate, tenure, well-being, poverty

Creating an appropriate tenure foundation for REDD+: The record to date and prospects for the future

William Sunderlin1, Claudio De Sassi2, Erin Sills3, Amy Duchelle4, Anne Larson5, Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo6, Abdon Awono7, Demetrius Kweka8, Thu Ba Huynh9

1Independent consultant, United States of America; 2Ministry of the Environment, Switzerland; 3North Carolina State University, United States of America; 4CIFOR, Indonesia; 5CIFOR, Peru; 6Independent consultant, Australia; 7Paul-Valéry University, France; 8Independent consultant, Tanzania; 9University of Melbourne, Australia

This paper reports on “before-after/control-intervention” research to assess how proponents have performed in addressing tenure in subnational REDD+. Research was carried out in two phases (2010-2012 and 2013-2014) in five countries (Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia) at 21 subnational initiatives, 141 villages and 3,754 households. Three questions were posed: (1) How has perceived tenure insecurity of village residents changed?; (2) What are the main reasons for that change?; and (3) How do village residents evaluate the impact of tenure-related interventions on wellbeing? The findings are that: (1) tenure insecurity decreases only slightly across the sample; (2) being in a REDD+ intervention area has decreased smallholder tenure insecurity only in Cameroon, and has increased insecurity of smallholder agricultural tenure in Brazil; (3) the main reported reasons for worsening tenure security are outside companies, lack of title, and competition from neighboring villagers; and (4) views on the effect of tenure interventions are overall positive. By and large, proponents have little to show for their efforts. Work on tenure remains an urgent priority for safeguarding livelihoods and for reducing deforestation. This will require increased attention to participatory engagement, improved reward systems, tenure policy reform, integration of national and local efforts, and “business-as-usual” interests.


ID: 477 / 03-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: CBNRM, rural development, land tenure regularization

Community Land Rights Delimitation and Natural Resources Management in Mozambique: Significance and Implications for Sustainable and Inclusive Development

André Aquino1, João Fonseca2

1World Bank, Mozambique; 2World Bank, Mozambique

While Mozambique has come a long way since the signing of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992, which ended the country’s seventeen-year conflict, many structural land and natural resources challenges persist. One key challenge continues to be the reconciliation of rural poverty reduction efforts and environmental sustainability. Two central issues permeate this overarching challenge: community land tenure regularization and natural resources management. Despite the common inspirations and the positive synergies that would arguably be produced by tackling these issues in an integrated fashion, Mozambique’s policies since the late 1990s have dealt with them in a largely disconnected manner. Reintegrating these issues into concerted policies would yield substantial benefits to communities, enabling poverty reduction efforts and more sustainable management of the country’s natural resources base. This would entail more strategic implementation of community land rights delimitation in Mozambique, as part of a wider rural development strategy and program that has sustainable natural resources management at its core.


ID: 709 / 03-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Forest tenure reform, gender, implementation processes, Uganda, Peru, Indonesia

Gender In Collective Tenure Regimes: Women Rights And Forest Tenure Reforms

Anne M. Larson1, Iliana Monterroso1, Esther Mwangi1, Nining Liswanti1, Tuti Herawati1, Mani Banjade1, Baruani Mshale1, Julia Quaedvlieg2

1CIFOR, Peru; 2Independant

Based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms by the Center for International Forestry Research, this paper examines results from a research project in Indonesia, Peru and Uganda. This paper uses a gender perspective to analyze how these reforms have resulted in changes in tenure arrangements that have affected men and women in distinct ways and how these may affect tenure security outcomes. In particular, we focus on formal and informal local-level practices, including customary tenure systems, to understand how collective land tenure regimes define institutional arrangements to consider rights of women and other vulnerable groups and the challenges these face to exercise their rights and attain secure tenure and access to resources.

Using a mixed-method approach, research combined different quantitative and qualitative data collecting tools. At the national level, legal and historical analysis of key regulations around reforms illustrated how reforms emerged. At the local level, semi-structured interviews, intra-household surveys, and focus groups generated information and promoted the participation of local stakeholders in the discussion of the origins, and nature of forest tenure reform outcomes. The sample includes 55 villages in ten different tenure regimes and over 1300 households across the three countries.


ID: 893 / 03-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: commons, tenure, polycentricity, governance

Securing the Commons in India: A Polycentric Approach

Ruth Meinzen-Dick1, Jagdeesh Rao2, Rahul Chaturvedi2, R Kaushalendra Rao2, Sophie Theis1

1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Foundation for Ecological Security, India

Common pool land and water resources in India play vital, but often overlooked, roles in livelihoods and ecosystem services. However, these resources are often fragmented and fall under different government departments, resulting in uncertain tenure for the people who depend on these resources for fodder, fuel, water, and other products. An Indian NGO, Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), has developed a process for “commoning”—assisting communities to secure the commons by forming inclusive local institutions to manage the resources, and to work with different government departments to gain stronger rights to the commons.

This paper applies polycentricity theory to examine the institutional arrangements that govern the commons in FES sites in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and identify factors for effective commons management. It draws on village-level netmapping exercises and key informant interviews to show the complex flows of resources, information, and influence related to the commons among Forestry, Revenue and Watershed Management agencies, local government, habitation-level organizations, and NGOs, and the MNREGA rural employment guarantee program. The methodology developed here can be used as a diagnostic tool and guide for interventions to help communities to strengthen their tenure on the commons and management of those resources.

4:00pm - 5:30pm04-08: Land Policies for Affordable Housing
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
MC C2-131 
ID: 727 / 04-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: housing policy, residential segregation, privatization, land use governance

Law and Inclusive Urban Development: Lessons from Chile's Enabling Markets Housing Policy Regime

Diego Gil Mc Cawley

Stanford Law School, United States of America

This paper addresses the recent international trend in development theory and practice towards a so-called “enabling markets” approach in housing policy. This approach calls for delegating to housing markets the responsibility of providing affordable housing and therefore limiting the role of government to stimulating the market through targeted subsidies. I ask whether an enabling markets policy constitutes an adequate regulatory strategy for the provision of sustainable housing solutions for the urban poor. I explore this question through an in-depth case study of Chile’s pioneer market-based housing policy regime. My analysis demonstrates that a market-based strategy based on targeted subsidies aimed at promoting homeownership does not necessarily lead to affordable housing for the low-income sector of adequate quality, because the policy strategy does not interfere with the market dynamics that tend to concentrate the poor in cheap, isolated, and underserved urban neighborhoods. The evidence collected suggests that Chile’s government needs to use land use governance mechanisms to ensure that low-income housing is fairly distributed within cities. The Chilean experience casts doubt on the general market-oriented approach to affordable housing policy, and suggests that an enabling housing markets strategy should be complemented by a planning housing markets approach.

04-08-Gil Mc Cawley-727_ppt.pptx

ID: 122 / 04-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: housing affordability, exclusionary land use regulation, land markets, housing informality, land use regulation index, Latin America.

Housing Affordability: The Land Use Regulation link to Informal Tenure in Developing Countries

Cynthia Goytia, Ricardo Pasquini

Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic

This paper provides empirical evidence on the causal association between land use regulation and housing affordability in cities from Latin America, where informal residential tenure condition of households is widespread. Filling the gap of the lack of a source of comparable and systematic knowledge on the topic, we collected a nationwide survey of local land use regulation from planning professionals in Argentina’s municipalities. A set of land use indicators are then created allowing the analysis of the regulatory environment (e.g., existence of land use plans; authorities involved in zoning changes and residential projects approval processes; existence of building restrictions, infrastructure provision, the presence of access to land regulatory elements, and the cost related to project approvals). Between other findings, we document that highly stringent regulatory context constrains formal housing development, inducing lower rates of compliance with property laws. We also find negative effects on formality for residential approval costs, tighter regulation (in the form of more authorities involved in housing projects approvals), and positive effects on formal tenure housing driven by the existence of inclusionary policies.


ID: 109 / 04-08: 3
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Zero Land policy, ZLP, Land management, Land pricing

Evaluating “Zero Land Policy”: Iran’s initiative to provide homes for those with lower incomes

Tohid Atashbar

Research Center of Iran's Parliament, Iran, Islamic Republic of

“Zero Land Policy” is the main idea behind Iran’s nationwide “Mehr (Love) Housing Project”. ZLP was designed on the basis of the idea that the value of the land contributes to a great deal to the total costs and expenditure of the house built on that land (from 40% in small cities to 60% in capital Tehran).

In this project, governmental and national lands were allocated under the “99 years ownership/leasehold” plan, which is basically a design for a 99-year leasing of lands with very low pricing (near zero) to housing cooperatives for the purpose of building houses for those with lower incomes. Individuals who receive “99 years lands” can convert these lands to freehold and reverse the 99-year condition in return for a specified premium later.

So far, more than 2 million residential units with a total capacity of 8 million individuals (10 percent of the country’s population) have been allocated as part of the project.

The present study aims to investigate and evaluate the policies behind Mehr (Love) housing project based on the idea of Zero Land policy.


ID: 322 / 04-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: land registration effectiveness, title maintenance

Land Administration Effectiveness in State-Subsidised Housing in Du Noon, Cape Town, South Africa

Michael Barry

University of Calgary, Canada

Du Noon is a Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) housing development in Cape Town, South Africa built in the 1990s. The RDP programme and subsequent state-subsidised housing programmes have delivered some 3.7 million housing opportunities, and it is one of the largest housing and land titling programmes ever undertaken. The study examined the effectiveness of land registration in state-subsidised housing developments, the involvement of community based organisations in land governance, the impacts of the behaviour of the of officials and CBOs in the housing delivery process, and the consequences of relaxing building standards in pro-poor housing projects. The study builds on a number of case studies where official systems of land tenure administration function very well. In Du Noon this is not the case. Contributing factors may be that community based organisations have offered alternative strategies to transact in land, the relaxation of building standards has reduced the level of visible administration by street level bureaucrats, and entrepreneurs have bought houses for well below cost, demolished them and built blocks of flats that cover the entire site. Ongoing visible administration and title maintenance appear to be critical elements that are missing.


ID: 910 / 04-08: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: Urbanization, land market, housing, regularization

“From The Right To Housing To The Defense of Titling And Private Property: A Critique Of The Peruvian Approach to Housing Informality And A Contribution To A New Land And Housing Policy”

Sofia Garcia

Special Program for Urban and Regional Studies - MIT, United States of America

Traditional explanations of informality in rapidly urbanizing regions like Latin America have often reduced the phenomenon to an inadequate urban planning system, incapable of coping with the dramatic rate of urbanization that outstrips every form of planning process. However, less attention has been brought to the economic and political structures that actually cause and reproduce informality. This work firstly explores the land and housing policies implemented in Peru through the second half of the 20th century that allowed informal settlements to occur. Secondly, it analyses the land deregulating policies and the land titling program that was massively deployed during the 1990s under the neoliberalizing project of former president Alberto Fujimori, with the financial aid of international development banks and following Hernando De Soto’s famous theory on property rights and informal settlements. The analysis shows how on one side these policies augmented the gap that separated the population from the formal market which ended up reproducing informality; and on another side, it shows that these policies functioned within an authoritarian regime that used titling and social spending to create strong clientelist bonds with the poorest sectors of the population, while undermining the State’s own financial capacities for investment in creating affordable land and housing.

Date: Wednesday, 22/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am05-08: Strengthening Land Administration Management
Session Chair: Charisse Griffith-Charles, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
MC C2-131 
ID: 541 / 05-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: land management, information system, rural development

Delivering Land Administration Services at Scale The Experience of Development and Implementation of a Nationwide Agricultural Land Management Information System Case Study of Directorate for Agricultural Land, Republic of Serbia

Svetlana Bačanin, Katja Grbic

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Serbia

It was a challenge to develop a nationwide information system for land management that will serve varying topographies, parcel sizes and administrative systems, in a way which is also sustainable after the donor support ends. Regional disparities between municipalities in Serbia are large: economic development, demographic structure, administrative organisation, geography of the terrain, size of land parcels, and availability of data, and had to be taken into consideration during the development of an Agricultural Land Management Information System that all 145 Local Self-Government Units of Serbia and their Directorate for Agricultural Land could use. Sustainability is important, to ensure the project’s benefits continue after the project ends, and to justify donors’ resources invested into building the system. Thus, sustainability of the information system is a key focus of this paper.

This paper reviews all stages of the project, and how GIZ was able to overcome the challenges as they arose. A close examination of the planning and development phases of the project sheds light on organizational change over the long term. A modern, user-friendly land management information system, combined with a state administration fully brought into the procedural reforms, can serve as a model for other projects around the world.


ID: 330 / 05-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Pakistan, land record management, South Asia

From Cloth Bags to Land Record Service Centers – Experiences from a Project In Punjab, Pakistan

Linus Pott

World Bank, United States of America

This paper assesses the factors that enabled the transition from a system based on local civil servants (Patwari) carrying land records in a cloth bag to a modern Land Record Management Information System in Punjab Province, Pakistan. The Land Records Management and Information Systems Project is being implemented by the Pakistani Board of Revenue in Punjab Province since ten years with support from the World Bank. The paper will draw conclusions from a methodological mix of a desk review of project documents and field visits. The project was able to digitize more than 50 million paper-based land records, benefitting more than 20 million land owners. More than 150 Land Record Service Centers were established. The aim of this paper is to extract lessons learned about the transformation process from the Patwari to the Land Record Service Centers.


ID: 736 / 05-08: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Land Administration Systems (LIS), Geospatioal Technology, Local partners, capacity building.

How a Global-to-Local Technology Partner Approach in Nigeria Contributed to Sustained results for State-level Land Administration Projects

Gasant Jacobs1, Chiemeka Ngwu2

1Thomson Reuters, South Africa; 2Teqbridge Limited

This paper shares a partnering example of how a local Nigerian firm (Teqbridge Ltd.) jointly partnered with a global technology firm (Thomson Reuters) to serve Nigerian state-governments; moreover, to jointly build stronger professional capacity in Nigeria.


ID: 644 / 05-08: 6
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: electronic cadastre, buisness comunity, construction permits, Registry of prices and leases, notaries, municipalities, valuers

The Role Of Electronic Cadastre In Development Of The Buissnes Community - The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia

Darko Crvenkovski

Agency for real estate cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of

The business community in the Republic of Macedonia is continuously searching for opportunities for opening new business, development and improvement of their existing facilities and services, or is simply seeking for information on future investments. Thus, they are seeking for a fast way of getting transparent, reliable and up to date data about the possibilities for new investments or new ways for development of their business. The Agency of Real Estate Cadastre with the introduction of the electronic cadastre called e-kat has become a valuable partner to the business community and a huge provider of relevant and up to date data. By listing the needs of the business community the Agency of Real Estate Cadastre has created a services that cut the time of the company needed for obtaining a construction permits, property certificates, has found new ways for getting credits for building in construction and has secure the mortgage market. Also this tool has help of raising the bullishness of the private valuers and notaries as well as helping the municipalities in their taxing operations.The paper researches how the business community deals with geospatial information before e-kat and after e-kat and how their business changes with its use.

10:30am - 12:00pm06-08: How to Ensure Public Trust in Land Records?
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
MC C2-131 
ID: 569 / 06-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Fit-for-purpose, Transparency, Cost effective

Land and Property Rights Guaranteed and Protected

Nicola Heathcote

HM Land Registry, England and Wales, United Kingdom

Secure land tenure rights are widely accepted to be beneficial in a number of ways, in particular as important elements to support economic development, social justice and safe environments.

The presentation explores how that security, or the perception of that security, can be delivered at scale and is based on experience at HM Land Registry. It will describe how HM Land Registry delivers guaranteed and protected property rights in England and Wales and the aspects of its model which are capable of providing confidence in the market, inspiring trust in the land authority and could be applied in service delivery models in other countries to provide a fit for purpose land administration system, tailored to local conditions.


ID: 692 / 06-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: land registration, title registration, mirror principle, curtain principle, reality

Overselling the Mirror and Curtain Principles of Land Titling

Jacob Zevenbergen

University of Twente, Netherlands, The

Two forms of the land registration component of land administration systems are normally distinguished: deeds registration and title registration. In the latter the register is supposed to reflect the correct legal situation (“mirror-principle”), and there is no need for further (historic) investigation beyond the register (“curtain principle”). In reality, as shown in recent student work, both these principles do not work out as simple as this sounds. The mirror is either very incomplete (allowing for overriding interests) or tends to put the title before reality, even if the title has been acquired through manipulation. The curtain is lifted, and buyers want easy (on-line) access to earlier transaction documents to verity themselves how the current right holder on the title came into that position. With the proclaimed advantages of title registration not real, and some disadvantages still there, also the legal framework of fit-for-purpose land administration needs to be rethought.


ID: 428 / 06-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: verification integration external land data

Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Administration Systems

Paulus Saers, Mathilde Molendijk, Co Meijer

Kadaster, Netherlands, The

Reliable Data For Inclusive Land Information Systems:

Verification and integration of land data from external sources

Why would a manager of authentic land data (like a national land agency) trust data that comes from external or ‘informal’ sources? How can we create conditions whereby integration of data from ‘informal’ sources may enrich and complement ‘formal’ sources as authentic data? How can we make sure society will benefit from the value created by ‘informal’ land data sets? How can these data sets be used successfully for a wider range of purposes than the original ones? The authors research the answers to these questions using experiences and evidence from practice in Benin, Namibia, Togo, Indonesia Suriname, Aruba and the Netherlands.


ID: 849 / 06-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: Land Registry, Mortgage Market, Consumer Protection, Usury, European Directives

Land Registry, Mortgage Markets and Consumer Protection

Nicolás Nogueroles

IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain

The modern systems of land Registration appeared during the XVIII and XIX Centuries linked to the mortgage market and cross border investment. The Registries originally organized as offices of mortgages evolved into property registries. As stated in the Prussian Mortgage Law the main aim of the Registry was to make easier the land credit and this was a model for many european countries. In order to achieve this goal the Land Registry no t only provides information about the encumbrances on a plot of Land but is an important tool to bring to an end the usurary credits, which links the Land Registry with the programs to fight poverty. In 2013 the European Union approved a Directive 93/13 CEE on unfair terms in consumer contracts. The Key question of this paper is to see if the Land Registry can play a decisive role in the enforcement of the Directive. This poses the problem of the organization of the Land Registries and the background of the people who perform function as registrars. Recent Sentences from the European Court of Justice have taken into account the problem of mortgage foreclosures, unfair clauses in mortgage contracts and unfair interests rates against consumers.

12:30pm - 2:00pmUganda: How Strengthening Land Governance Supports Job Creation and Tax Revenues
Session Chair: Klaus Tilmes, World Bank,
MC C2-131 
ID: 1230
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale

How Land Administration Increases Tax Revenue and Supports Job creation

Moses Kibirige

World Bank, Uganda



ID: 1264
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale


Richard Oput

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda


ID: 1265
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience

Concluding Remarks

Betty Ongom Amongi

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda


2:15pm - 3:45pm07-08: Approaches to Implementing Property Tax Reform
Session Chair: Kauko Jussi Viitanen, Aalto University, Finland
MC C2-131 
ID: 441 / 07-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: Reforms, Sustainable, Appropriate, Timely, Integrity

The Critical Elements Of Sustainable Property Tax Implementation And Reform”

David Laurence Magor

Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom

Designing and implementing land and property tax reforms is a critical element of a country’s economic health. So often these reforms are built around advice from international experts. This initial advice can often influence the overall project. The quality of this advice must be second to none. Those involved must research the country situation and ensure that any advice suits the current circumstances of that country. Any reforms must be fit for purpose and sustainable. It is unacceptable for consultants to deliver “what they think is best” rather than properly researched proposals that deliver workable and acceptable systems.

One of the critical elements of the reform process is the effective involvement of local experts who have sufficient authority to ensure productive project management. Too often “local advice” is either ignored or totally disregarded. It is important that “in country” protocols are observed particularly those that impact on the timely delivery of the objectives of the project.

This paper seeks to identify the key elements to the delivery of successful and sustainable reforms. Those involved must take ownership of their role in any project. Integrity must always prevail. Technical assistance should be seen as a “duty” to those who retain you.


ID: 277 / 07-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale
Keywords: property tax, reform, valuation, diagnostics, performance

Workable Solutions for Property Tax Reform

Richard Almy1, Margie Cusack2

1Almy, Gloudemans, Jacobs & Denne, United States of America; 2International Association of Assessing Officers

This paper elaborates on recommendations in the literature for evaluating the need for property tax reforms. It summarizes common reform issues and makes recommendations for reform programs. It contains policy and practice examples that are worthy of examination.


ID: 673 / 07-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: property taxation, valuation, administration

Success Factors for a System for Property Taxation and the Consequent Risks

Benjamin Bervoets, Marco Kuijper, Ruud M. Kathmann

Netherland Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, The

Based on our experience in the Netherlands it is more than tempting to describe a best-practice that would serve as a model for other jurisdictions to compare with, adjust to or just to copy and implement. We of course agree that it is appropriate for jurisdictions considering implementing a system of property tax to study and learn from systems that function well. However we do not suggest copying a best practice. Rather than focussing on what the best system is that others should copy, we propose to analyse the choices that have been made in shaping and developing successful systems and to explore the environment in which these systems have evolved. Along with these choices come the related risks. In our paper we describe the fundamental choices that have to be made and the choices we made in the Netherlands. These choices deal with aspects of the environment in which the property taxes are to be levied and with the risks that are inevitably related to these choices. By doing so we hope to be able to contribute to effective implementation and improvement of systems for property taxes in different circumstances.


ID: 888 / 07-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: spatial interpolation, mass appraisal, property tax, automated valuation models

Improving Land Valuation Models in Sparse Markets: A Comparison of Spatial Interpolation Techniques Used in Mass Appraisal

Paul Bidanset1, William McCluskey2, Peadar Davis1, Michael McCord1

1Ulster University, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

The research in this working paper has set up the groundwork for a national AVM of Malawi, Africa, using only secondary data collected by the 2010-2011 Integrated Household Survey. Model variables include physical characteristics of the property, economic variables, as well as location-specific distance and climate variables. This paper additionally helps bridge the current gap in development property tax literature by evaluating response surface analysis (RSA) at a national level, specifically with respect to technical standards of the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO). Our initial research shows that variables with positive effects on perception of value include agricultural plot size and estimated annual income (rental) potential. Plots situated further from agrimarkets and auction locations are perceived to be less valuable. Negative effects are associated with sandy soil, higher average annual rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and plots situated in swamps or marshlands. The ordinary kriging-based predictions, while seemingly less likely to overestimate perceived value, are more regressive. Ordinary kriging achieves superior scores of vertical equity, but inferior scores of uniformity when compared to a current OLS model with location factor adjustment variables derived from RSA.

4:00pm - 5:30pm08-08: Using ICT for Improving Property Tax Collection
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
MC C2-131 
ID: 308 / 08-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: Real Estate Cadastre, Remote Sensing, Mass Valuation, GIS, Serbia

The remote sensing implication in the property mass valuation GIS in Serbia

Stojanka Brankovic

Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia

The reform of the cadastral system in Serbia was carried out under the Real Estate Cadastre and Registration Project in Serbia, in the period from 2004 to 2012, with the financial support from the World Bank loan. The Real Estate Cadastre was established – a modern system of property and property rights records. Support for the development of the property market and fiscal mobilization of funds through more efficient and equitable application of the property tax, based on reliable property records, is one of the significant results achieved under the project.This paper describes the methodological procedure for property valuation improvement through the application of the remote sensing in the mass valuation GIS, which provides for flexibility, allowing iterative modification for the purpose of improving the valuation procedure. Primary and secondary objective of the study was to provide methodological procedure for property mass valuation that can be repeated through several iterations to improve the existing methodologies for the collection of attribute data on properties in the GIS environment, using remote sensing and GIS technologies as the primary tools in the procedure for determining the property market value for the purposes of the taxation system of Serbia.


ID: 263 / 08-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: Own source revenue, collection, ICT, automation

The Role of ICT in delivering Revenue Collection in Developing Countries: The Tanzanian Experience

William Mccluskey1, Chyi-Yun Huang2, Patrick Doherty3, Riel Franzsen4

1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2World Bank; 3Consultant; 4African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Globally local governments are under pressure to deliver basic services to their citizens. To fund amenities such as clean drinking water, waste management, adequate power supply and healthcare, sub-national/city administrations are under financial stress. The development of an integrated revenue collection system provides the necessary platform to support municipal administration to more efficiently collect own source revenue and to assist the decision making process through improved data collection, visual data representation, sophisticated reports and analytical metrics. Utilizing a case study approach this paper will demonstrate how the use of ICT through an integrated Local Government Revenue Collection Information System (LGRCIS) improved local government revenue collection, with initial promising results in selected secondary cities in Tanzania.


ID: 668 / 08-08: 3
Individual Papers
Either of these formats
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: Land governance, Property taxation, Land dispute tribunals, Municipal finance, Local governance

Land Management For Improved Dispute Resolution And Property Tax Revenue For Local Governments: Evidence From Somalia

Tefo Mooketsane

UN-Habitat, Kenya

Land management is tied to a range of economic, social and environmental outcomes, particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions. This is the case in Somaliland and Puntland where urban growth is occurring, raising property values, creating opportunities for improved local revenue generation but also causing land-related conflicts, particularly between pastoralists and urban dwellers due to the urban sprawl and its ensuing grabbing of undeveloped land. UN-Habitat, in collaboration with four UN entities operating under the auspices of the United Nations Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralised Service Delivery in Somalia (JPLG), are working to strengthen local governance as well as ensure transparent, accountable and efficient local service delivery in Somalia. UN-Habitat's work includes building the capacity of local governments to improve land management and land dispute resolution systems, implementation of a GIS-based cadastre system, and support for improved property tax collection. UN-Habitat also provides technical assistance relating to public financial management and tax collection to Somaliland and Puntland, which has also been extended to Mogadishu. Local government capacity building is paired with legislative support through creation of a local governance finance policy and legal analysis of land governance in Somaliland and Puntland.


ID: 625 / 08-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization

Mass Valuation in a Developing Country: The Case of Chitungwiza Town in Zimbabwe

Maxwell Mutema

Independent Consultant, Zimbabwe

The main rationale behind mass valuation or rating valuation in Zimbabwe is updating property value databases for local authorities and to maximise tax revenue collection from the property owners within a local authority’s jurisdiction, as stipulated in the country’s relevant statutes.

In Zimbabwe mass valuation is regulated by a number of legislations. The main ones are the Urban Councils Act Chapter 29:15 which outlines the procedure as well as methodology of mass valuation, the Regional Town and Country Planning Act 29:12, which is the primary law governing physical planning issues, the Land Survey Act 20:12, which is administered by the Department of the Surveyor General and provides the
to the
land including providing cadastral information for the preparation
 diagrams. Finally, the Deeds Registries Act 20:05 caters for registration of property rights. The paper draws from a recent mass valuation assignment that was conducted by the author in Chitungwiza. The paper shall dwell on the methodology followed in conducting the mass valuation, the challenges and frustrations and the benefits of such an exercise against all odds. The challenges include outdated local plans with the resultant informal and illegal properties.

Date: Thursday, 23/Mar/2017
8:30am - 10:00am09-08: Using Land Data as a Basis for Local Administration
Session Chair: Vanessa Lawrence CB, Location International, United Kingdom
MC C2-131 
ID: 665 / 09-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: Local, Committment, UAV, Cloud

Thinking Local: Can Local Land Administration Systems Avoid the Pitfalls of National Land Systems?

Linda Maria Lodin1, Kent Johan Ronny Nilsson2, Frank Pichel3

1Kartverket, Norway; 2Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 3Cadasta

An ongoing challenge in land administration, particularly in emerging economies, relates to the difficulty in implementing modern, enterprise level nationwide land registration and cadastral systems.

The collaboration involving Kartverket, Lantmäteriet and Cadasta Foundation to pilot an approach for implementing a local land information system that can be used both for managing property rights and to allow for more effective property tax collection at the local level. The key to success is involving the local community and visible hands on results, tangible improvements for the vulnerable person, which will be achieved focusing on local commitment, and a combination of low cost and fit for purpose tools, including drones for imagery, open source software for data management, mobile applications and paper based tools for data collection. This localized system does not require the same complexity in terms of workflows, IT-infrastructure and historical data integration. All to demonstrate that localized land information systems can be sustainable, equitable and cost effective, particularly when managed by trained local community members.


ID: 438 / 09-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: GIS, Satellite images, urban planning, Development Control, Software

Integrating Low Cost/Open Source Gis And Remote Sensing In Urban Planning In Developing Countries – Case Of Blantyre City, Malawi

Costly Chanza


The manual method to manage urban planning and development control has always been the traditional way. In the late 1990s, thanks to the advent of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, the process of urban planning in Malawi received a new impetus. Capturing the spatial details by remote sensing either by satellite images and organising the data under GIS offered tremendous ease in undertaking urban planning activities. Unfortunately among other problems, the practical use of GIS has always been hampered by the lack of adequate resources to procure GIS software and satellite images . Use of low cost/ open source GIS software and online free satellite images can be a solution to spatial and non spatial data management for urban planning management and development control. This can help many municipal councils in developing countries reduce urban planning challenges. In this paper, various examples have been used to show how low cost/open source GIS software and free satellite image integration in urban planning management and development control can solve planning problems.


ID: 190 / 09-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: attributes and entity-sets, digital spatial data, municipal affairs, responsible land governance, shared periphery

Redressing the Municipal Affairs with Digital Spatial Data toward Responsible Land Governance

Shamsuddin Ahmed

YCPPL, York University, Canada

This research offers a basis for spatial data management case in point that the land governance strategy denoting as a routine of digital spatial data legacy development is a major stipulation to the “land resources” and the “community services”. Until 2015, Ontario’s municipalities cover just 17 percent of its landmass where the municipal affairs pace complications in land use reckoned to the seven provincial plans. The Greater Golden Horseshoe Growth Plan often cloaks the multi-jurisdictional constraints, for example, the amendment of the municipal zoning ordinance, land registry and surveys, land claims and conciliation, and housing options and taxation. The emphasis is to contour: first, identification of the key attributes and entity-sets; second, structuring of the geo-relational database connecting the local activities at the dissemination areas; and finally, the thematic features of each municipality and their contiguity. On the contrary, responsible land governance in municipal affairs is obviously substance at least to the three central obligations such as approach in integrated land management, shared periphery negotiation for economic and environmental growth moratoria, and digital data automation properties and protocols. The suggestion is that a massive development of digital spatial data is necessary to readdress the municipal affairs toward responsible land governance.


ID: 476 / 09-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies
Keywords: systematic registration, ortho-photos, property boundary

Capturing Property Boundaries from Ortho-photos to Support Systematic Registration

Augustine Mulolwa, Elias Mwambela, Emmanuel Tembo

University of Zambia, Zambia

According to a 2015 report from the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (MLNREP) which is responsible for land administration, there are only a paltry 142,000 titles in the land registers for the whole Zambia. This is not justified for a country with a population of 16 million (2016 estimates), a territorial area of 753,000 square kilometres, and yearning for accelerated economic development. The MLNREP, therefore, initiated two pilot studies in Lusaka to capture property boundaries and other features from 10 cm or 20 cm ortho-photos. The aim of the pilot studies was to test the use of ortho photos in capturing property boundaries as a basis for systematic titling and registration. Over a two week period, two officers were assigned to do the mapping and produced over a thousand properties in the Kalingalinga pilot area. For the other study site, Mtendere, eleven students from the University of Zambia were engaged. In two months they captured one thousand nine hundred and six (1906) property boundaries and four thousand and nine (4009) building structures. The target for the MLNREP is to issue 30 million titles over a ten year period for the whole country.

10:30am - 12:00pm10-08: Using New Data & Platforms for Land Policy Research
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
MC C2-131 
ID: 1066 / 10-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: industrial policy; FDI; concessions; geo-referenced data; nighttime light

Government Policy and Natural Resource Sector FDI: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Liberia

Bradley Parks1, Jonas Bunte2, Daniel Runfola1, Harsh Desai3, Kanio Gbala4

1The College of William and Mary; 2UT-Dallas; 3London School of Economics and Political Science; 4TrustAfrica

Governments have used a variety of policies to increase the impact of foreign investment on economic growth. One policy is becoming increasingly popular: instead of providing public goods themselves, host governments require foreign investors to provide public goods as part of concession agreements. This strategy intends to crowd in additional investments and create clusters of interconnected firms. Liberia represents an ideal empirical setting to test the effectiveness of this strategy. We construct a new dataset that measures the precise locations of 557 natural resource concessions. We then merge these data with a measure of nighttime lights at the 1km x 1km grid cell level. Using a difference-in-difference strategy, we find that growth near concession areas is significantly higher than in matched locations faraway from concessions. Differences across sectors (mining versus agriculture) and investor nationalities (U.S. versus Chinese) are consistent with the expected effects of the government's spatial development corridor strategy.


ID: 982 / 10-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies

Monitoring of Agricultural Land Conversion with Copernicus Sentinel Sensors: Case Study of Gambella State (Ethiopia)

Guido Lemoine, Felix Rembold

European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Italy

Agricultural production in Africa needs to expand considerably for food self-sufficiency to keep up with population growth and differentiating dietary needs. Expansion of agricultural cultivation is already ongoing and, in some regions, has led to controversy about the scale, manner and impact of land allotment policies.

The recent introduction of the European Union's Copernicus Sentinel-1 and -2 sensors has added global monitoring capacities in the 10-20 m spatial resolution domain. Sentinel data are available under a "full, free and open" license. Sentinel sensors combine Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, Sentinel 1) and multispectral (Sentinel-2) observation capacities with a 6 day revisit (Sentinel 1A and 1B) and a 5 day revisit (Sentinel 2A and Sentinel 2B (Q2/2017)), respectively.

We will illustrate the use of Sentinel data for the delineation of large land development in Gambella State (Ethiopia), where we have been able to identify a total of 110,000 hectares of recent developments. We will discuss how we use the Google Earth Engine cloud computing environment to continue the monitoring of Gambella state and expand into other areas where land deals have been identified.


ID: 296 / 10-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Securing land rights for equity, sustainability and resilience
Keywords: forest cover mapping, tropical dry and humid forests, Sentinel satellites

Satellite based monitoring of forest resources compliant with REDD+ and Zero Deforestation

Thomas Haeusler, Fabian Enßle, Sharon Gomez

GAF AG, Germany

Natural Forests provide valuable ecosystem services and at the same time, direct and indirect human impacts affect these ecosystems. Especially in tropical countries with a high percentage of remaining natural forests, human induced land use change is one of the main drivers for increasing deforestation rates. The drivers, time scale and impact on forests are quite different between countries, but the necessity of a consistent, trustworthy and accurate monitoring of these resources is relevant to manifold stakeholders such as in the domain of land governance. The application of satellite imagery can greatly facilitate this need. The large area coverage and high spatial resolution of newly launched optical and radar satellite systems offer the opportunity to retrieve forest related information on a wall-to-wall basis. Satellite data based forest monitoring systems can provide evidence of most recent forest area and land cover changes with the capability to map historic events by incorporating archived data sets. Mapping forest extent and changes thereof is a crucial information requirement for managing the commons and customary land, forests and natural resources. The paper presents requirements, challenges and a methodological approach to implement National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMS) at country level by incorporating user needs.


ID: 897 / 10-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: property rights, experiment, investment, geospatial data

How Land Tenure Systems Affect Foreign Investment: Evidence from Liberia

Alexandra Hartman1, Darin Christensen3, Cyrus Samii2

1UCL, United Kingdom; 2NYU, United States of America; 3UCLA, United States of America

Identifying the causal effects of economic institutions, such as private property rights, is a challenge given concerns about reverse causality and omitted variables. We take advantage of a natural experiment in the West Africa state of Liberia to assess the impact of property rights institutions on changes in land investment (proxied by forest loss) before and after the 2007-8 Global Food Crisis. Liberian law divided the state into two zones, which with a distinct system of property rights. Our difference-in-differences design rests on the parallel-trends assumption — investment would have followed the same trend had there been no difference in land tenure. While untestable, we bolster this assumption by showing that investment in each zone follows parallel trends prior to the Crisis. We show that since the Crisis, land investment increased in the County zone where statutory fee simple property rights govern land transactions. Within 20 kilometers of the boundary cumulative forest loss increased approximately eight percent between 2001-2014. In contrast, investment in land increased more slowly on the other side of the boundary (cumulative forest loss is just over five percent for the same period). To explain this finding, we introduce a model of land investment under varying property rights systems.

1:00pm - 2:30pm11-08: Adapting Property Tax System
Session Chair: Lionel Galliez, International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
MC C2-131 
ID: 416 / 11-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Delivering land administration services at scale

Pragmatism or Principles? Property Taxation Valuation in Finland

Mika-Petteri Törhönen1, Kauko Viitanen2

1The World Bank, United States of America; 2Aalto University, Finland

The paper discusses international best practice in mass property valuation and property taxation in comparison to the case of Finland and reveals shortcomings relevant globally. Earlier work by the World Bank, FAO and the Centre of Registers of Lithuania defined pre-conditions for successful value-based recurrent property taxes including access to quality price data, efficient tax administration, and appropriate valuation infrastructure. Finland has reliable land and property records, ample geospatial data, transparent markets and strong valuation infrastructure that adhere to international standards, and all these are applied to property taxation valuation. However, the article raises a number of issues with the equality and accuracy of the property taxes stemming from the ancient split of property taxes to separate land and building taxes, valuation that targets condominium buildings rather than apartments, restricted access to apartment market information, and a number of other factors. The article’s conclusions on the way forward in Finland are relevant globally for countries and cities introducing recurrent property taxes in the era of covering digital records and transparent property markets.


ID: 876 / 11-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land for infrastructure, investment, disaster risk reduction
Keywords: Valuation, taxation, Ireland

Modernising the Delivery of Statutory Valuation Services: An Irish perspective

Terence Fahey1, Aanchal Anand2

1Valuation Office, Ireland; 2World Bank, United States of America

Between 2008 and 2011 the economic and property crash in Ireland witnessed a 50%+ collapse in commercial property rental values. Demand from government and other stakeholders to conduct and accelerate the national revaluation programme placed a huge strain on Valuation Office resources. The aim of the revaluation was to restore Equity and Uniformity to an outdated valuation list and in the medium term to conduct a revaluation every 2 years in order to remove a repeat of the impact that the existing time gap since the last revaluation in 1988 was having on ratepayers. With major financial and capacity constraints, there was pressure to provide efficiency at the lowest cost. In order to achieve this objective the Valuation Office introduced a significant programme of change. The Office was about to enter into a transitional phase, moving from using traditional labour intensive practices to a modern office that will use technology to its optimum effect in order to drive efficiency and reflect international best practice. The purpose of this paper is to outline a number of key developments currently underway with this regard and draw lessons for other countries that are establishing similar systems.


ID: 932 / 11-08: 3
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: street addressing, urban management, geo-spatial technologies

Street addressing - a Global Trend

Soumya Dharmavaram, Catherine Farvacque-Vitkovic

World Bank, United States of America

Street addressing is not just a numbering system. It is a methodology to map and organize data for urban management. Earlier street addressing systems focusing on city centers have not kept pace with rapid, unplanned urban growth and expansion. With the advent of e-commerce, efforts in disaster resilience and advancements in geo-spatial technologies, street addressing is undergoing a revolution today. More and more cities are embarking on street addressing programs. This paper presents the main findings of a demand-assessment conducted to assess the spread and objectives of street addressing programs globally. The survey established that street addressing has proven to be an accepted tool for improving urban management by municipalities globally. Further: i) although new geo-spatial startups get the most sound-bites these days, public agencies play a strong role in street addressing today, ii) while most street addressing initiatives are part of larger urban programs to improve service delivery, a surge in e-commerce reflects the growing interest from private investors, iii) though trendy approaches include geo-grids and geo-location “apps”, the low-cost World Bank street addressing methodology is used widely. On the horizon, lies the potential for achieving larger impacts at lower costs in urban governance.


ID: 137 / 11-08: 4
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: moral hazard problem, New Institutional Economics, tax compliance/non-compliance, transaction costs

Predicting Taxpayer Behaviour and Compliance: An Analysis of Jamaica’s Property Tax System

Tina Beale, Peter Wyatt

University of Reading, United Kingdom

Property tax compliance in Jamaica has been described as a national disgrace, yet the reasons why so little tax is collected remain unclear. Tax literature suggests a rational economic trade-off between the benefit of evading tax versus the risk of getting caught and paying a fine, and the tax payer is prepared to take more risk the higher the amount of tax payable. Then there are behavioral reasons, centering on how individual taxpayers think others behave, on the perceived fairness of the tax system and benefits obtained from paying the tax. Property taxation has its own idiosyncrasies, particularly in developing economies. Administration may lack resources to maintain the property tax. Legislation may be unclear regarding who pays, particularly where tenure is customary or informal. Levels of tax may simply be too high. Enforcement action in cases of non-payment may be weak. This paper examines property tax compliance/non-compliance in Jamaica, contextualizing it to provide insights on how the property tax system and land market has been shaping the compliance equilibrium. This investigation focuses on land and property issues; namely the nature of taxable tenure rights and the asymmetry of land and property information between taxpayers and tax administrators.

2:45pm - 4:15pm12-08: Urban Services and Property Tax Collection
Session Chair: Cynthia Goytia, Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
MC C2-131 
ID: 514 / 12-08: 1
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Academic research on land governance / rigorous impact evaluations
Keywords: valuation, unregistered, land, valuation theory

The Valuation of Unregistered Land: Case Studies from Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru

Franklin Obeng-Odoom2, Michael McDermott1

1University of Technology, Sydney; 2Global Property Advisory, Australia

There is a colossal literature on land registration and its promises. What is relatively little studied is (a) how to value unregistered land and (b) in what ways are unregistered lands currently being valued and (c) based on a and b, what next to do with the valuation of unregistered land.

The years of research on the informal economy has tended to be limited to concerns about how informality arises and in what ways it can be transformed or overcome, centering on debates about dualism, structuralism, and legalism. Based on (1) fieldwork in Ghana, Indonesia, and Peru involving conversations with valuers, analyses of valuation reports, and studying of judicial decisions, this paper shows that the primary concept of value adopted in practice is limited to the neoclassical version. Secondly, accepted market behaviour in this context may substantially undervalue unregistered land, and thirdly the idea of value in practice can facilitate systemic dispossession and inequality. We show that the dominant approach remains regardless because of methodological and ideological reasons not easily disturbed by empirical reality. An alternative valuation approach is feasible, but its wide acceptance is contingent on the articulation and acceptance of a new theory of value grounded in institutions and social structures.


ID: 220 / 12-08: 2
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Land and urbanization
Keywords: Valuation, Standards, Fiji, Standardisation, Challenges

Issues Facing Standardisation of Property Valuation Practices: A case study of Suva, Fiji

Sandeep Narayan1, Sharlene Biswas2, Louzanne Sahib3

1Rolle Associates, Fiji Islands; 2University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Home Finance Company, Suva, Fiji Islands

Property Valuations are a source of information for financial reporting as well as decision making in land governance. Globalization and increasing foreign property investments are compelling nations to adopt international practices for greater transparency and better land governance.

However, a number of smaller countries struggle to implement such international frameworks and practices. Likewise, Fiji has long struggled with finding common ground concerning the standardization of valuation practices. Some challenges facing the valuation industry to date include lack of information sources, guiding principles or standards, the need for automation, as well as legislative support to bring about improvements in land governance measures.

Using a case study of property valuations in Fiji, this paper categorizes key challenges as institutional, informational and technical issues in implementation of the International Valuation Standards (IVS). It is essentially constructed using the pragmatic approach to research known as the mixed methods approach (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). It uses quantitative data collection techniques and qualitative techniques to further understand valuer behavior. A host of behavioral studies were also utilized to understand valuers’ behavior and subjective practices (Diaz, 1990).

Findings from this paper helped build recommendations towards improving land governance procedures targeting institutional, informational and technical issues highlighted within.


ID: 987 / 12-08: 5
Individual Papers
Oral Presentation
Topics: Harnessing geospatial data, cloud platforms and other data technologies

Property Tax in Kigali: Using Satellite Imagery to Assess Collection Potential

Daniel Ayalew Ali, Klaus Deininger

World Bank, United States of America

To be completed

Date: Friday, 24/Mar/2017
9:00am - 10:30am13-10: Low Cost Valuation Methodologies

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC C2-131 
ID: 187 / 13-10: 1
MasterClass - learning day events

Low Cost Valuation Methodologies with Excel and ArcGIS Online

Brent Jones1, Larry Clark2

1Esri, United States of America; 2International Association of Assessment Officials (IAAO)

Equitable and defensible property tax is dependent on fair, accurate, and equitable real estate valuation. In developed economies, these are complex systems that use dozens of variables to calculate value, require expert knowledge to operate and support, and take months or years to implement. There are alternative methodologies that deliver fair and equitable valuation and mapping capabilities for analysis and publication. This class will present how to use Excel and ArcGIS Online to build a sustainable, low cost, accurate valuation system.

Based in Washington D.C., Brent Jones oversees Esri’s worldwide strategic planning, business development, and marketing activities for land records, cadastral, surveying, and land administration. As a recognized technology innovator, Jones specializes in modernizing existing land administration systems and designing new GIS-based cadastral management platforms for small and large governments around the globe. He is a member of the URISA board of directors and past president of the Geospatial Information and Technology Association and a current member of the United Nations Committee of Experts on Geospatial Information Management sitting on the Expert Group on Land Administration and Management.
11:00am - 12:30pm14-10: Earth Observation For Sustainable Development

For more information or signing up, please contact

MC C2-131 
ID: 992 / 14-10: 1
MasterClass - learning day events

Earth Observation for Sustainable development: agriculture and rural development

David Annandale1, Evelyn Aparicio2, Anna Burzykowska3, Remco Dost4, Eva Haas5, Silvia Huber6, Annemarie Klaasse4, Parya Pasha Zadeh7, Almudena Rodriguez8, Bastiaan Roos2, Niels Wielaard9, Raul Zurita-Milla7

1Lahmeyer International, Germany; 2Nelen en Schuurmans, the Netherlands; 3European Space Agency ESA, Italy; 4eLEAF BV, the Netherlands; 5GeoVille, Austria; 6DHI-GRAS, Denmark; 7Faculty of Geo Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, the Netherlands; 8SpaceTec, Belgium; 9Satelligence, the Netherlands

Satellite Earth Observation (EO) has a tremendous potential to inform and facilitate international development work by providing evidences that can lead to improved land governance schemes. Since 2008 the European Space Agency (ESA) has worked with Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and their client countries to harness the benefits of EO in their operations and resources management. Recently, ESA started an initiative aiming at a more systematic approach in order to meet longer-term strategic geospatial information needs in both developing countries and international and regional developing organizations. This initiative brings together ESA, MDBs, client countries and European companies and knowledge institutes to work together towards the large scale exploitation of satellite data in support of international development by providing a suite of EO-based services and organizing various capacity building and communication activities. The goal of this masterclass is to share the state of the art of EO-based services for evidence based sustainable development. This will be done by demonstrating the use and benefits of these services in Agriculture and Rural Development. This masterclass will also show use cases based on our work with the World Bank group, the Asian Development Bank and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Raúl ZURITA-MILLA received in 2008 a Ph.D. degree from Wageningen University for his research on the use of the fused medium and high spatial resolution satellite images for mapping and monitoring heterogeneous landscapes. That same year, he joined the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth observation (ITC) of the University of Twente (The Netherlands), where he is currently Associate Professor in spatio-temporal analytics. He is actively involved in teaching GIS, Remote Sensing and programming courses to MSc and post-graduate international students as well as in national and international research projects. He has published more than 30 journal peer-reviewed articles and it is on the editorial board of the online journal “Remote Sensing”.
1:30pm - 3:00pm15-10: ICT Tools to Strengthen the Disaster Resilience

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MC C2-131 
ID: 1002 / 15-10: 1
MasterClass - learning day events

ICT Tool For Capacity Building To Strengthen The Disaster Resilience

Kuo-Yu Chuang, Meng-Min Chen

GeoThings Inc.

To strengthen the disaster resilience, we need various kinds of data for pre-disaster preparedness, in-disaster response, and post-disaster relief. Together with local government agency and community, GeoThings provides the ICT tool, named geoBingAn (究平安), to collect the data about disaster. This ICT tool has straightforward UI, is able to cache map, also can leverage the geo-tagged SMS for working in remote or rural area with bad connectivity.

In this training, we will introduce the scenarios and go through the work flow for:

(1) How and what to update for the existing OSM building data to know the vulnerability.

(2) How and what to survey for disaster preparedness and plan for evacuation.

(3) How and what to report during disaster as crisis mapping for a in-time response.

This geoBingAn tool is currently adopted by Asian Development Bank pilot project, "Applying Space-Based Technology and Information and Communication Technology to Strengthen Disaster Resilience", for Armenia, Bangladesh, Philippines, and Fiji. And not only for disaster, this tool can further be leveraged for baseline survey to agricultural survey, land usage, IDSR, and WASH. Come and join us to know more about this Humanitarian ICT, we look forward to your participation!

Kuo-Yu slayer Chuang has worked on Location-Based Service (LBS), crowdsourcing, and disaster response with ICT for years. His is now the co-founder of a social enterprise, GeoThings, which provides the integrated ICT platform for Communities, NGOs, and Government Agencies on disaster management for resilience. He is also working with various international organization such as OGC, GEO, ITU, and actively joined the open communities like Open Street Map (OSM), HOT, and Crisis Mappers. With those international collaborations, Kuo-Yu really look forward to a greater impact with this technology, called "Humanitarian ICT", developed by GeoThings.

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