Digital Literacy Initiatives in Canada: Exploring Successes from Multiple Perspectives
1University at Buffalo, SUNY, United States of America; 2McMaster University, Canada
This poster presents initial results of a study exploring digital literacy training provided by public libraries and other community organizations in Canada. The goal of the study is to identify best practices for these kinds of training opportunities, and to prepare a toolkit that public libraries and community organizations can use to evaluate these initiatives. In addition, the study seeks to contribute to theoretical understanding of digital literacy and digital literacy instruction. The study, being undertaken by scholars across multiple disciplines, and supported by partners in the public library sector and other community organizations, will build knowledge and understanding from interdisciplinary and inter-institutional perspectives. Methods include case studies in public libraries and other community organizations, as well as a national survey of public libraries. The poster presents initial results of case studies of digital training initiatives offered by public libraries and other community organizations in one medium-sized and in one large Canadian city.
Dealing with privacy - Personal privacy from a research data management perspective.
1Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 2University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA
Sharing research data is increasingly required by key stakeholders, such as funding agencies and journals. However, sharing human subjects data poses multiple issues around protecting these subjects’ privacy. This poster examines these issues through a Delphi study, comprising interviews and questionnaires, of stakeholders (n=24) involved in data curation and sharing in Norway. Two particular contexts are considered: 1) privacy in international research collaboration and 2) maintaining research subjects’ trust in the researcher. The findings presented in this poster show tensions between maintaining subjects’ privacy, maintaining public trust, and advancing research. These tensions are complicated further by conflicting perspectives on privacy held by different stakeholders. Researchers and other stakeholders must balance these aspects throughout the data lifecycle, from data collection to decisions about sharing. All stakeholders involved in data sharing should pay attention to research subjects through dialog and negotiation.
A Toolkit for Algorithmic Equity and Community Empowerment
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Washington, United States of America; 3University of Oxford, United Kingdom; 4University of Washington, United States of America; 5University of Washington, United States of America; 6Middlebury College, United States of America; 7West Virginia University, United States of America; 8University of Michigan, United States of America; 9University of Washington, United States of America
A wave of recent scholarship documenting the discriminatory harms of algorithmic systems has spurred widespread interest in algorithmic accountability and regulation. Yet effective accountability and regulation is stymied by a persistent lack of resources supporting public understanding of algorithms and artificial intelligence. Through interactions with a US-based civil rights organization and their coalition of community organizations, we identify a need for (i) “street level” heuristics that aid stakeholders in distinguishing between types of analytic and information systems in lay language, and (ii) risk assessment tools for such systems that begin by making algorithms more legible. The present work delivers a toolkit to achieve these aims.
“I Like the Way the Skin Looks”: Player Perspectives on Aesthetic Appeal and Self-Representation With Video Game “Skins”
1iSchool Inclusion Institute, United States of America; 2The Pennsylvania State University; 3University of California, Irvine
Microtransactions are the purchasing of in-game items in video games, often using real money. Through microtransactions, game players can obtain a type of cosmetic called “skins” that change the physical appearance of playable characters. Considering the default “skin” in many games is that of a white male, there are various psychosocial and economic costs that may be extended to players of color when attempting to select skins for their avatars. To examine how players of different racial and ethnic backgrounds interact with “skins,” and the additional costs associated with them, we conducted a survey asking participants about their spending patterns with “skins” and reasons for choosing certain “skins” over others. The most common response from participants when asked why they select their skins was “because I like the way the skin looks.” As this statement is broad, we delve into other results from our survey and previous studies by other scholars to analyze what this response may be able to tell us about players who selected this as their answer.
Augmented reality in complex manufacturing systems as an informational problem: a human-centered approach
1INESC TEC - Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science, Portugal; 2FEUP, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal
The informational complexity that characterizes future manufacturing environments raises new problems in the Information Science and Information Management fields. New facets of the information overload problem are being revealed e.g., as textual and "smart data" from the manufacturing processes are continuously generated and pushed to the workers, beyond their cognitive capabilities. The challenge of making use of augmented reality in manufacturing processes, empowering the human-worker, has not yet been addressed by Information Science as an information organization and retrieval problem. Furthermore, manufacturing processes are more and more knowledge-intensive, so knowledge codification, transfer, and use are another challenge not addressed so far from the information management point of view. Therefore, the objective of this doctoral research project is to study the combination of augmented reality technology (as a way to convey real/virtual visual information), centered in the human-worker (as the crucial key user) as an information organization/retrieval problem, from the theoretical perspectives of Information Field. In this poster, we present the research design and the preliminary results of the literature review.
Navigating Ethical Challenges in Academic Library Makerspaces
University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill, United States of America
This poster presentation outlines a pilot study that examined how U.S. academic library makerspaces navigate ethical uncertainty. The typical configuration of a makerspace includes technologies such as 3D printers, VR/AR, laser cutters, circuitry supplies, and hand tools. These technologies, like libraries, are not neutral and bring a host of ethical considerations that makerspaces professionals are presently grappling with. In particular, makerspace staff members are often unsure how to navigate an ethically fraught situation (e.g. whether to 3D print a gun). As such, this exploratory study analyzes the responses from information professionals who oversee an academic library makerspace within a university system (the system is comprised of 17 institutions). The scope of the responses, prompted by qualitative methods: survey and interviews, focused on the training and written policies present within each of the makerspaces in the study. The poster presentation will extend an environmental scan of ethical uncertainty prominent within academic library makerspaces, and will offer a nascent framework for training and development approaches for makerspace leadership and staff.
Telling Multifaceted Stories with Humanities Data: Visualizing Book of Hours Manuscripts
1University of Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America; 2Drexel University, PA, United States of America
The Book of Hours is a type of book artifact that was produced and circulated in Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Its name is from the fact that each book contains a sequence of prayers that were recited hourly throughout the day. This study examines the visualization of a dataset of Books of Hours collection, which was curated and digitized at the University of Pennsylvania Libraries. We performed a data cleaning and manipulation procedure on this manuscript dataset and created information visualization using the R programming language. Aiming to communicate to the wider audience the rich history of Books of Hours with meaningful visualizations, we focused on the temporality, spatiality, and decoration aspects of the resource. This project serves as a point of departure to engage in broader topics at the intersection of information visualization, digital humanities, and manuscript studies, especially how to leverage humanistic interpretations of data into visualization practices.
Information Domains and the Analysis of Distributed Morality in “Always Onlife” Information Societies
Florida State University, United States of America
The question posed by this poster is whether the three domains proposed in Information Domains (individual, social, and signification) can provide a useful framework for the analysis of distributed morality (DM) and its po-tential consequences. DM is present when moral responsibility is distrib-uted across human and artificial agents. The affordances of information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled intensification of inter-action between human and artificial moral agents, which has in turn funda-mentally altered our concepts of morality and its agency. 21st century moral responsibility is increasingly distributed across human and artificial agents. In our “always onlife” world , all actions, even neutral actions, can be combined into good or evil results without human review or re-course. The inclusion of artificial moral agents problematizes the assump-tion of traditional ethics that agency (and therefore, accountability) is either individual or social. In artificial agents, we witness the re-ontologization of both the infosphere and the ecosphere [1, 2].
Artificial intelligence is a form of re-ontologized signification that may be said to influence or even pre-determine human moral decision-making. Arti-ficial agents may perform actions that have moral consequences, but is it possible to hold them accountable for these consequences? What does that even mean?
Multidisciplinary comparison of proceedings papers and academic books based on Altmetrics and citation
School of Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.
The presence of Book Citation Index (BKCI) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (CPCI) confirmed the increasing importance of book and proceedings paper. Meanwhile, scholars are also provided data and indexes to conduct research on them. In the present study, we involved citation and altmetric indexes to explore the differences between academic books and proceedings papers from a multidisciplinary perspective. Results reveal that: 1) The existence of differences between book and proceedings paper reflects that the selection of knowledge carrier varies with disciplines. 2) Academic books have higher citation and altmetrics impacts than proceedings papers. Publications in MED have the best performance. 3) Citation and altmetric indexes for books are more concentrated than those for proceedings papers. 4) Citation and altmetric indexes of books and proceedings papers both have weak correlation. This study is a constructive attempt to exhibit traits of two underestimated document types on multidisciplinary dimension. Altmetrics data was applied to ensure the comprehensiveness of the evaluation.
How are ego-centric networks of researchers coupled?
Center for Studies of Information Resources, Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
Scientific knowledge creation can be viewed as social-economic activities, which inspires us to explore researchers’ interpersonal capital and its impact on scientific performance. In this study, we investigate on multiple types of interpersonal relationships between researchers, including co-authorship, author citation, and social relation, which are considered as interpersonal capital of researchers. Thus, three types of ego-centric networks (ECNs) are constructed by using the data from Twitter and Web of Science. The composition of social networks and the coupling relationships between ECNs in terms of the same researchers are analyzed. The preliminary results on the field of Cheminformatics show that most researchers tend to interact with research related accounts in social networks. The coupling degree between co-authorship networks and author citation networks is significantly higher than that between co-authorship networks and friend networks. Researchers are more likely to collaborate with the researchers who have close scholarly communication with them than the friends from social networks. This study contributes to the understanding of interpersonal relationship in scientific community. Future research will focus on the impact of interpersonal capital on scientific performance.
The Effects of Evidence Type on Online Health Headline Selection – a Moderation of Thinking Style
1School of Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China; 2Center for Studies of Information Resources, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China; 3Library, Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, China
The acquisition of health information is conducive to promoting the public's health literacy and improving citizens' health. The display of online health information features an entering page that lists headlines hyperlinked to health article pages. Among the various techniques that help increase headline effectiveness, this study was particularly inter-ested in evidence type (anecdotal type/numerical) and investigated how it influenced headline selection in the form of fixation and click-ing and considered thinking styles as a possible moderator. Based on an eye-tracking experiment, this study found that participants were more likely to click on numerical headline than anecdotal headline. In addition, message credibility had moderating effects on the relation-ship between evidence type and fixation and that between evidence type and clicking count. The findings provide useful implications for creating effective online headlines in the health domain and enrich our understanding of how information characteristics affect information selection.
Exploring the Perceptions of Race on Video Game Covers
i3 iSchool Inclusion Institute, United States of America
This study compiled the 20 best-selling games from 2010 to 2015 from Steam250 to build a survey to examine potential game players’ perception of video game cover art. The survey was distributed to potential players through snowball sampling, yielding 298 submissions with various ethnicities for analysis. All participants felt non-White representation was inadequate. Non-White participants felt that self-representation of their ethnicity on video game covers to be significantly more important than White participants. Non-White participants did not feel demographically represented by many individuals in the compilation of video game covers, while White participants did feel represented. Our results give insight into the intersection of video game studies and paratextual representation.
Who Gave You the Right?: Exploring Power and Politics in Journalism and Academic Work Chronicling Hurricane Maria
1University of Michigan, United States of America; 2University of Puerto Rico; 3Vanderbilt University; 4Texas State University; 5iSchool Inclusion Institute (i3)
Hurricane Maria impacted Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017 and caused severe damage to the island. During the year after Hurricane Maria, government agencies and news organizations struggled to arrive at a consensus regarding the hurricane’s death toll. The early death estimates that were severely underreported affected the amount of relief that Puerto Rico received from government institutions, as well as from private groups. As a result, it is imperative to understand how these consequential numbers were constructed following Hurricane Maria. We interviewed journalists and academic researchers who produced and disseminated information following Hurricane Maria and considered the role that these individuals played in communicating the number of deaths caused by the hurricane, how their methods differed, and how these factors con- tribute to the production of death toll numbers and narratives. We discuss our results in the context of validation and the consequences of colonization on in- formation production and dissemination.
A Model of Romance Fiction Search Behavior
Department of Library and Information Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
This poster describes a preliminary model of romance fiction search behavior based on grounded theory inspired interviews with avid romance readers. The model is composed of three elements: contextual factors, search goals, and selection strategies. The portrayed behavior characteristics and associations among contexts, goals, and strategies are based on at least one participant mention in our interview. We will continue to expand and verify the model in the following investigation with a hope to construct a theoretically and empirically sound model to analytically represent romance fiction readers’ information and search behavior.
Building the iSchools Searchable Online Database: Issues and Experience.
Northumbria University, United Kingdom
The iSchools Searchable Online Database is a recently built centralized and searchable database containing collective information on the people as well as the teaching and research activities that are carried out at the various iSchool institutions around the world. The project was initiated principally with a view to facilitating information search and discovery about the iSchools, enhancing the visibility of the iSchools both individually and as a body, and promoting research collaborations among them. This paper presents an overview of the searchable online database, showcasing its features and functionalities, but more particularly discussing the issues and challenges which arose or were encountered in the process of building the service. Other important questions concerning the long-term maintenance and sustainability of the database are also discussed.
Singly Authored Papers Affect Scientists’ Impact Most Significantly
1Nanjing University, China, People's Republic of; 2Nanchang University, China, People's Republic of
Utilizing citation data for 100,000 most-cited scientists in the Scopus da-tabase, this paper investigated how citations received by an author in dif-ferent authorships affect his/her academic impact differently. Using a linear regression model as an estimation, we found that the citations received as the single author of a paper elevates the academic impact the most, followed by that as the first (but not single) author, last author and middle author. But differences also emerged when we probed into different research fields separately as in some fields citations in the four authorships do not differ a lot and also in some fields the last-authored citations could ‘outweigh’ the first-authored ones.
What Kind of Research Topics Emerged in the Biomedical Domain? - A Perspective from Newly Added Subject Terms in a Thesaurus
University of Oklahoma SLIS, United States of America
Understanding what kind of research topics will emerge in scientific domains has implications for researchers, policy makers, and industry. Existing studies on emerging topics generally approach the problem from the publication perspective, that is, to retrieve a set of publications and identify emerging topics from them. This study aims to offer a different perspective to understand emerging topics. By tracing the newly added subject terms in a thesaurus, this study provides insights into what kind of topics emerged and what did not. This study found that economic, biomedical, or social impact is important for a biomedical topic to emerge in addition to the common features used for identifying emerging topics. More attention was paid to topics that have direct impact on humans than on other species. This aspect is largely neglected in the literature. The findings from this study have implications for designing predictors for emerging research topics in the biomedical domain.
Who Gets Hired by Top LIS Schools in China?
1School of Information Management, Central China Normal University, People's Republic of China; 2School of Management, Hebei University, People's Republic of China; 3College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University, USA; 4School of Information Management, Wuhan University, People's Republic of China
In this study, we provide evidence and discuss findings regarding talent flow and intellectual diversity in library and information science (LIS) us-ing a faculty hiring network of 274 full-time faculty members from 7 top LIS schools in China. We employ three groups of data items, including the universities they got Ph.D., their Ph.D. programs, and whether their gradua-tion schools are iSchools. We use these to develop a descriptive analysis of the community’s educational backgrounds. We show that faculty mem-bers in Nankai University are the most diverse, while Wuhan University, Nanjing University, Renmin University of China, and Peking University are experiencing intellectual inbreeding. Wuhan University has sent the largest number of talents to other LIS schools. Top LIS schools in China prefers those who graduated from LIS schools and more than half of the fac-ulty members at each of the top 7 LIS schools graduated from iSchools. Overall, LIS faculty educational backgrounds analysis has considerable value in deriving credible academic hiring and revealing talent flow within the field.
Examining Scholars’ Activity on a Chinese Blogging and Academic Social Network Site
1Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2Sun Yat-sen University, China; 3Peking University, China
This study analyzes scholars’ activity on a popular academic blogging and social network site (SNS) in China, ScienceNet. We collected blogs, comments, recommendations, likes, and user profile information and analyzed how different groups of users differ in their patterns of activity with others in different disciplines, professional ranks, and universities. Results indicate that: 1) scholars in management and mathematics are active in recommending and commenting other users; 2) scholars from well-known universities and research institutes often receive more comments and recommendations than those from other universities; 3) scholars with higher professional ranks are more active, and are more likely to receive comments and recommendations from others. These findings suggest different usage of academic SNS among scholars of different disciplines, ranks, and universities.
Investigating How Queer People of Color Use ICTs to Cope with Stigma
1Stony Brook University, United States of America; 2University of Pittsburgh, United States of America; 3Pennsylvania State University, United States of America; 4Indiana University Bloomington, United States of America; 5iSchool Inclusion Institute (i3)
Stigma is an attribute that differentiates and negatively classifies an indi-vidual within a specific categorized identity. Multiple identities are stigma-tized, such as the LGBTQ and PoC communities. When these identities are layered on top of one another, so are the stigmas associated with them, and this creates an increased risk of negative consequences. Literature indicates that a way to ameliorate these negative consequences is to find ways to cope. This literature review analyzes the current research regarding what is known about how QPOC leverage ICTs as a tool for coping with stigma. Overall, it was found that not much is known about the particular ICTs QPoC are leveraging to cope, nor is there much knowledge on how they are using these unidentified ICTs. Further research is necessary to better under-stand what ICTs are being used and how QPoC are using them in order to help ameliorate the negative consequences of stigma.
Content Mining and Visualization of Traditional Genealogies of China —Deployed on the Genealogy of Wu’s in Gaoqian, Zhejiang
School of Information Resource Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing
[Background] Facing the elite figures in the traditional genealogy of China, this paper advocates that the traditional genealogy archives should be trans-formed into multi-dimensional resources by means of combining historical and humanistic analysis with digital technologies in order to analyze and display the family elite culture. [Method] This paper takes the genealogy of Wu's from Zhejiang Province of China as the research material, and con-structs the genealogy ontology, in order to reveal the trend of digitalization of traditional genealogy research. [Results] This paper constructs the concept system and relationships of the genealogy ontology, and takes Wu Shilai, the ancestor of the 23rd generation of Wu’s, as an example to realize the visuali-zation of Chinese traditional genealogy. The significance of the visualization of traditional genealogy archives in "the construction of new rural talents” and "the construction of family heritage” is put forward.
How Do Users of Activity Tracking Technologies Perceive the Data Privacy Environment in the EU?
Heinrich Heine University, Germany
With the omnipresent digitalization and quantification of our everyday life, data privacy became an important topic in research, politics and legislation. In order to contain the possible risks of uncontrolled data collection and its possible misuse, it is important to ensure a sustainable data privacy environment. Here, one of the most important aspects is an efficient and effective legisla-ture. In May 2018, when the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force, the EU made an important step towards improving the European data privacy environment. In this study there are investigated both, the awareness and the perception of the GDPR by the users of fitness tracking technologies. This investigation focuses on people from the EU using a fitness tracking application as well as a fitness tracking device, which usually collect a lot of personal and health-related data. Most of the fitness tracking users are aware of the GDPR but do not believe that it will improve the reality of data privacy. Even though there appears to be limited belief in the sustainability of the European data privacy environment (in terms of a positive development of consumers’ data privacy), this does not necessarily affect the everyday usage of activity tracking applications and wearables.
Defining Data Ethics in Library and Information Science
University of North Texas, United States of America
In the library and information sciences (LIS), data ethics is an area of in-creasing focus. The purpose of this study is to answer these questions and comprehensively define data ethics in the LIS fields based on the diverse body of literature on the topic. Through an integrative literature review, we found four overarching themes in LIS literature on data ethics: privacy, re-search ethics, ethical ecosystems, and control. Additionally, these four themes gave us an opportunity to create a comprehensive definition of data ethics in the library and information science fields.
Nobel-prize-winning papers are significantly more highly-cited but not more disruptive than non-prize-winning counterparts
1Nanjing University, China, People's Republic of; 2Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
Using citation data of 557 Nobel-prize-winning papers and the same num-ber of their non-prize-winning counterparts in the same journal issues, this study examined if the prize-winning papers have higher academic disrup-tion than their counterparts. The results show that overall, the former group is significantly more highly-cited but not more disruptive than the latter. Moreover, the results are not consistent with existing knowledge that the numbers of authors and references negatively correlate with the disruption of papers.
Definitions of Fake News in Library Guidelines: A Pilot Study
St. Catherine University, United States of America
Fake news has drawn special attention in the aftermath of the 2016 US presidential election. Librarians have played a proactive role in combatting fake news in a variety of ways. Nevertheless, the term fake news is not well defined. This pilot study attempts to identify key characteristics of fake news by employing a content analysis of guidelines about fake news from 14 academic libraries. The findings show that the two elements of intention to mislead and falsity are explicitly present in the definitions of fake news in the guidelines. Other elements such as partisan bias, click-bait, and distorted context manifest in the definitions of only some guidelines. No guidelines present the element of omission of important information in their defini-tions. This study suggests that guidelines would be more helpful to students with def-initions that reflect the complexity of the current phenomenon of fake news.
What data characteristics are needed for data reuse in the domain of social sciences in Korea?
1Department of Library and Information Science, Ewha Womans University, Korea; 2School of Information, University of South Florida, United States of America
With the benefits of data sharing and reuse, data reuse have been promoted in various domains. While there are practices and discussions regarding da-ta sharing and reuse, we still have little knowledge on what characteristics of data impact decisions on data reuse. In this sense, we aim to explore data characteristics in the context of data reuse within the domain of social sciences in Korea. For the purpose of this study, we conducted in-depth inter-views with twelve researchers in the field of social science in terms of six dimensions: data producer, country/language, data type/collection method, procedure, accessibility, size/currency. For the producer dimension, social scientists preferred data that have been produced by an institution rather than an individual researcher. In language used in the data sets, English were more favored because researchers preferred English than any other languages. In terms of data type, quantitative and survey data types are preferred. For the procedure of data, researchers preferred original raw data with plenty of metadata and demographic information for analysis. For accessibility, there was less preference for restricted data. Lastly, for size/currency, researchers showed a preference for big size data and current data. These preliminary findings can provide better understanding about data reuse and guide improved data reuse services.
Structure and Evolution Patterns of Contents of Chinese Children’s Bestsellers
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of China
Children’s books involve a large number of topics. This poster focuses on that in China, which is the fastest growing market for children’s book in the world. This poster chose Dangdang.com, the biggest Chinese online bookstore, for data source to obtain children’s bestsellers. The topic words of children’s bestsellers were extracted from their brief introductions of the content on the website. With the aid of co-occurrence theory and tools of social network analysis and visualization, the distribution, correlation struc-tures, and evolution patterns of topics were revealed and visualized. This poster shows that topics of Chinese children’s bestsellers are broad and rela-tively concentrated, but their distribution is unbalanced. There are four dis-tinguished topic communities (Living, Animal, World, and Child) in terms of centrality and maturity, and they all establish their individual systems and tend to be mature. The evolution of these communities tends to be stable with powerful continuity.
How Policy Tools Utilized in Open Data Policies in China
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
The aim of this poster is to investigate which policy tools are used in open data policies in China. 98 Chinese national open data policy documents were investigated in this research. We found that Chinese open data policies emphasized on the use of environmental and supply-oriented policy tools, with particular attention to information support, regulations and standards. However, the use of demand-side policy tools was insufficient, and the combination of policy tools remained to be optimized. This poster provides suggestions for the improvement of open data policies in the future.
Diversifying Citation Recommendation by Combining semantics and time of academic papers
Southwest University of China, China, People's Republic of
Abstract. In this paper, we present a study of a novel problem, i.e., diversifying citation recommendation by combining the semantics and time of academic papers, and we seek to generate a list of recommended citations that consist of relevant ones covering diverse semantics, and the the same time, being related to different time periods. Two major tasks are involved in our work. In the first task, a unified graph model is used to generated candidate citations for each query manuscript. In the second task, candidate citation diversification is carried out by combin- ing semantics and time of academic papers in an implicit diversification way. Preliminary experiment on ANN dataset demonstrates that our proposed method beats the baselines in terms of metrics used in citation recommendation ranking and diversification.
Understanding the gender disparity of expressed emotions in communications in health-related online support groups
1Nanjing University, China, People's Republic of; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Data Engineering and Knowledge Service; 3Central China Normal University
Online support groups offer a new way for users to communicate with others regarding certain health issues. Taking autism-related support groups on Facebook as an example, we examined whether the expressed emotions differ between female and male users in online health-related support groups and whether such gender disparity varied based on the topics of the groups. Experimental results revealed a significant gender difference of expressed emotions in the groups. We found that female users tended to express more positive emotions in group discussions than the male group members did. In addition, users appeared to express different sentiments in the groups focused on various topics. Male users tend to convey more negative emotions in the group related to treatment, while female users were more positive when posted in the research-related group than male users were. This study is beneficial for tracking and moderating the emotional environment in online support groups.
Snapchat Abandonment among Self-Identified Millennial Women: A Proposed Research Project
1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2University of Washington; 3Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis; 4The College of Westchester; 5New York University Shanghai; 6University of Maryland; 7The iSchool Inclusion Institute (i3)
Despite its quick rise to popularity after its launch in 2011, Snapchat’s user base has been declining in recent years. This is of particular interest given that the number of U.S. social media users overall continues to climb. Though users continue to adopt social media platforms, many studies examine social media usage alongside harmful and negative side effects, like increased anxiety, depression, and lowered self-esteem. Though some users may be experiencing these negative side effects and others, few studies have focused on why users leave social media platforms, like Snapchat. This study intends to focus on that abandonment among a large population of Snapchat users: Millennial women. This submission reviews relevant literature surrounding social media and outlines a proposed research plan to fill the gaps identified.
Trends in Incivility and Intolerance: An Analysis of Political Facebook Comments During the 2016 Election
1Syracuse University, United States of America; 2University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
This study focuses on incivility "below the line" in the context of the U.S. Presidential elections by investigating qualitative trends in uncivil and intolerant public comments left on Hillary Clinton's and Donald Trump's Facebook profiles. We leverage a sample of 1,501 Facebook comments that were previously categorized as uncivil or intolerant, and conduct a qualitative discourse analysis to identify patterns in these types of expressions to provide a better understanding of the rhetorical or argumentative roles of incivility, as well as to examine the targets of this type of discourse. Notably, intolerant discourse occurs much less frequently than incivility, and the latter is routinely directed at the candidates and used to express reasoned opinions. We also find that the public adopts insults similar to those used by the campaigns, both when posting uncivil comments and when making intolerant threats, such as "grab her by the pussy". Taken together, these findings suggest that public comments on candidates' Facebook profiles often adopt a critical stance towards politicians and their positions, and that negative campaign rhetoric appears to have an influence on how people express incivility.
An Initial Study on the Importance of Archiving to Queer Filipinos
University of the Philippines - Diliman, Philippines
The poster presents the results of a study on the establishment of an archive as a venue for the LGBTQIA+ community in the Philippines to express their identity and their desire for complete acceptance. This would be accomplished through documentation and collection of life histories, events, and activities that showcase their uniqueness and similarities. More specifically, it sought to lay down the groundwork for creating a queer community archive within the University of the Philippines – Diliman (UP Diliman). A community archive stands apart from other archives be-cause of its emphasis on identity and empowerment rather than a need to preserve a certain heritage. Thus, it is necessary to understand the queer community in UP Diliman and its stance on the importance of an archive, assuming it is important at all.
Bee Survival: An Applied Network Analytical Strategy
Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
In the interactive educational game, Pollinator Panic!, players learn crucial information about why pollinators are in peril, and actions to prevent community collapse. We will be presenting the many sophisticated threats to pollinator populations in the form of a game that will help players become more engaged and personally invested in existing conservation efforts. We hope to bridge the learning gap amongst differing learning styles through utilizing text, audio, and visual means of communicating these ideas in-game. The game will be publicly available online to promote ease of access and circulation via sharing on social media platforms. To accomplish this, we plan to utilize D3.js to build bipartite network models to most accurately illustrate how threats to a population can have severe ripple effects throughout a nested community structure. Players will have to overcome various environmental challenges defined by empirical research to win the game and save the pollinators.
An Investigation Study on the Mental Disorder Related Topics in the Subject Directory of MedlinePlus Portal
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States of America
We examined a subject directory system related to Mental Disorder in the MedlinePlus portal. According to the comparison between the link connection net-work and the semantic connection network among the 99 collected health topics, 55 bi-directional as well as 23 single directional connections were identified and proposed to be added to the corresponding health topic pages. In addition, Mental Disorder related topics were found to be linked to Youth & Child related topics and Daily Health related topics in the subject directory. A mixed research method combining social network analysis and inferential statistics was applied. The recommended connections were evaluated by domain experts and visualized from various perspectives. Suggestions for optimizing and enhancing the current link network among Mental Disorder and related groups of health topics were provided. Future research directions on other fields were also discussed.
Peer-to-Peer Information Exchange Platform for Academic Publishing Experiences: A Prototype
Pratt Institute, United States of America
Across multiple domains and online platforms, consumers have an opportunity to review products, services, businesses and people and benefit from the information shared by others. However, within the scholarly communication domain, such opportunity is not available due to a lack of reviewing platforms. To close this gap, we propose a peer-to-peer online platform for informal reviews of scholarly publications. We develop and test a prototype of a website where scholars could share their publication experiences and rate different publication venues across a variety of dimensions.
Infringement and innovation: a critical analysis on participatory culture from the perspective of microeconomics
Wuhan university, China, People's Republic of
This paper pays attention to the symbiotic nature of "infringement" and "innovation" emerged in the process of participatory cultural production. From a micro-economic perspective, we conducted a concrete analysis of the economic value contained in the participatory culture and explore how will it impact on the rights holders under different levels of copyright protection. The result shows that there is a state of interest intersection between participatory cultural producers and the right holders, and holding a "tolerance and acceptance " attitude towards participatory cultural production will help the right holders to improve the level of cultural works innovation and thus obtain greater economic benefits from the existing market. On this basis, rational choices which aim to attract such creative groups to become the creative sources of cultural product production and the booster of market expansion should be made by the right holders.
Specificity and Exhaustivity of Bibliographic Classifications – A Cross-cultural comparison with Text Analytic Approach
1University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; 2University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
The current study aims to detect sociocultural differences implied in the classification systems, employing text analytic techniques. By comparing Korean Decimal Classification (KDC) and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), this study probes the gaps in exhaustivity and specificity in the two classification systems developed in distant social and cultural contexts. A computer-aided quantitative approach in cross-cultural comparison of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) is a relatively new attempt. Besides the finding of the study will demonstrate how to utilize classification as a large textual data set and an automated classification reading.
The impact of evidence type and message framing on promoting HPV vaccination in online health communities
1Nanjing University, Nanjing, China, People's Republic of; 2Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing, China, People's Republic of
Message features and type are crucial in health-related communication, especially due to the potential impact these messages can have on an individual’s health. This study uses a 2 × 2 experimental design (evidence type: statistical evidence vs. narrative evidence; message framing: gain-framed message vs. loss-framed message), to investigate how evidence type and message framing affect the attitudes, health beliefs, and intentions of college students in online health communities, regarding getting the HPV vaccination. Preliminary results (N=300) indicated that; (1) evidence type and message framing both influence attitudes and intentions significantly; Statistical evidence will lead to more favorable views than narrative evidence, and loss-framed messages will lead to more favorable views than gain-framed messages. (2) Concerning the interactions, we used construal level theory and found that, for gain-framed message, narrative evidence will lead to more favorable attitudes, free intentions, perceived benefits and barriers of HPV vaccination than statistical evidence; for loss-framed message, statistical evidence will lead to more favorable attitudes, intentions, perceived seriousness, benefits and barriers of HPV vaccination than narrative evidence.
How do the movement patterns of homeless youth affect their information seeking behaviors withinthe systems provided to them
1Texas State University, United States of America; 2Bowie State University, United States of America; 3The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America; 4La Roche University, United States of America; 5ISchool Inclusion Institute
This work provides a reflection on the relationship between movement patterns, homeless youth, and their information seeking behaviors within the information systems they have access to in order to find help. While understudied, the relationship between the movement patterns of the homeless youth population could be used to build information systems that are customized to the way this population looks for and uses resources. We propose a two phase user study focused on homeless youth that consists of a semi-structured interview as well as a user study on a tool they use to locate resources for help.
Optimizing the Neural Network Training for OCR Error Correction of Historical Hebrew Texts
Bar Ilan University, Israel
Over the past few decades, large archives of paper-based documents such as books and newspapers have been digitized using Optical Character Recognition. This technology is error-prone, especially for historical documents. To correct OCR errors, post-processing algorithms have been proposed based on natural language analysis and machine learning techniques such as neural networks. Neural network’s disadvantage is the vast amount of manually labeled data required for training, which is often unavailable. This paper proposes an innovative method for training a light-weight neural network for Hebrew OCR post-correction using significantly less manually created data. The main research goal is to develop a method for automatically generating language and task-specific training data to improve the neural network results for OCR post-correction, and to investigate which type of dataset is the most effective for OCR post-correction of historical documents. To this end, a series of experiments using several datasets was conducted. The evaluation corpus was based on Hebrew newspapers from the JPress project. An analysis of historical OCRed newspapers was done to learn common language and corpus-specific OCR errors. We found that training the network using the proposed method is more effective than using randomly generated errors. The results also show that the performance of the neural network for OCR post-correction strongly depends on the genre and area of the training data. Moreover, neural networks that were trained with the proposed method outperform other state-of-the-art neural networks for OCR post-correction and complex spellcheckers. These results may have practical implications for many digital humanities projects.
Resilience to Health Shocks: How do Family Information and Support Networks Respond to Unexpected Negative Health Events?
University of Michigan, United States of America
Social networks can respond to outside shocks by “turtling up” (clustering around strong ties) instead of adapting by activating more weak ties to obtain new information, however this has not been shown in smaller, personal information and support networks. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether these networks respond to shocks similarly. To do this, we evaluated the impacts of health shocks, unforeseen and disruptive health events, on the structure (e.g. network size/transitivity and tie strength/type) and function, i.e. ability to provide resources like information and social support, of information and support networks for families managing chronic illness. Using clustered sampling methods, families managing HIV/AIDS or type 2 diabetes were recruited. Longitudinal interview, survey and network data were collected from 28 families over a period of 2.5 years, with up to five contacts per family. We report descriptive statistics and random effects models using family-level data for network change in relation to health shocks. Health shocks were not significantly associated with changes in structure or function of family networks. Some change, however, was observed, with most measures trending down from one time to the next including proportions of weak ties and informational support ties, indicating these networks are not adapting by accessing novel information channels. Although further work is needed, the patterns of change observed did not match network responses to shocks found in prior work implying a possible difference in the ways that these networks respond to shocks and in what is actually driving observed changes.
Bilingual Sentence Alignment of Pre-Qin History Literature for Digital Humanities Study
1NanJing University; 2Nanjing Agricultural University
Sentence aligned bilingual text of history literature provides support of digital resources for related digital humanities studies, but existing studies have done little work on sentence alignment of ancient Chinese and English. In this study, I made a preliminary attempt to align the sentence of ancient Chinese and English. I used the bilingual text of the Analects of Confucius and Zuo's Commentaries of the Spring and Autumn Annals, extracted features and adopted the classification method to divide the bilingual candidate sentence pairs based on probability scores. The bilingual sentence alignment model based on SVM had the best performance on a larger amount of data when using three features and confirmed the impact of candidate dataset.
How Open Data Movement Drives Digital Scholarship Services in Chinese University Libraries? An Environmental Scanning
1School of Information Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the United States; 2School of Information Management, Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
This study aims to identify factors affecting Digital Scholarship Services (DSS) in Chinese university libraries in the context of global open data movement. Firstly, the study adopted an inductive literature analysis ap-proach combined with PEST analysis. The analysis pointed to 14 factors that would influence the DSS under four categories: political factors, economic factors, educational factors and technical factors. Secondly, an exploratory case study was adopted, at which 11 librarians at Shanghai Jiao-tong Univer-sity Library were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions. Fur-ther conceptualisation pointed to 11 factors that will have an effect on the Chinese university libraries, among which 4 have been proposed as core fac-tors. This poster is of interests to not only library and information academics, but also to librarians and open data professionals.
The Importance of Emotional Information in Online Health Support Groups to Support People with Type Two Diabetes
1University of Sheffield, United Kingdom; 2Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University
People with chronic conditions face psychological, social and cultural challenges when they control and manage their condition. Online health support groups (OHSGs) play an important role in providing emotional information for people with different conditions to overcome such challenges. The aim of this study is to explore the importance of using OHSGs for emotional information for people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This qualitative analysis of 814 threads and posts from three OHSGs examined the emotional information exchanged within OHSGs for people with T2D. The analysis showed that emotional information shared in OHSGs provided members with T2D with sympathy, encouragement love and affirmation that helped them to overcome challenges and control and manage their condition more effectively. The findings have implications for in-formational, social and emotional support for patients.
Academic and demographic characteristics as predictors of scholarly productivity in the Israeli academia
1Bar-Ilan University, Israel; 2Jerusalem College of Technology
In this study we investigated the influence of various researchers' characteristics, such as faculty, department, gender and seniority, on their scholarly productivity. A quantitative research was conducted with 601 professors with tenure from two leading Israeli universities, in order to construct a comprehensive model for assessment and prediction of the scholarly productivity. We found a great variability in seniority and productivity of the examined professors. In addition, a multivariate linear regression showed significant differences between the examined faculties. The faculty of Life Sciences was the most scholarly productive, while Social Sciences was the least scholarly productive faculty. Overall, there was a positive influence of academic seniority on scholarly productivity, however, scholars with over twenty years of seniority appeared to be less productive than those with the middle level seniority. One of the most interesting findings was gender differences of the scholarly productivity distribution. Contrary to the past research, we found that women were more productive than men. This is a first large-scale quantitative research of senior scholars in Israel which sheds some light on the productivity evaluation and its influence factors in the Israeli academia.
“The real library world is dirty and you don't learn that at all in schools”
1School of Information Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61820, USA; 2College of Media, Communication and Information, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309, USA
This poster presents findings of a content analysis based on survey responses collected from 51 librarians who provided vehemently critical feedback on the disconnection between their job realities and their library and information science (LIS) education. The study aims to understand why these librarians are vehemently critical in hopes of seeding an honest conversation about how to improve future LIS education. This is also part of a larger research project based on a survey among 759 currently working librarians and information professionals. Through this study, we found that real-life situations of librarianship, such as challenging social work, security concerns and job prospects, are very important, but they are usually not frequently talked about in LIS programs, which left students unprepared for their real jobs. This poster sheds light on this problem and provides suggestions on how to enhance the effectiveness of education of LIS programs through joint efforts of educators and students.
Cost-Effective Learning for Classifying Human Values
1Kyushu University, Japan; 2University of Maryland, USA; 3The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Prior work has found that classifier accuracy can be improved early in the process by having each annotator label different documents, but that later in the process it becomes better to rely on a more expensive multiple-annotation process in which annotators subsequently meet to adjudicate their differences. This paper reports on a study with a large number of classification tasks, finding that the relative advantage of adjudicated annotations varies not just with training data quantity, but also with annotator agreement, class imbalance, and perceived task difficulty.
Collective Territoriality as a Major Barrier to Interagency Government Data Sharing in China: A Literature Review
School of Information Management, Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
This poster presents a research study, which aims to study how territoriality hinders interagency government data sharing (IDS) in China. Aiming at es-tablishing a theoretical basis for future studies, this study employed a struc-tured literature review approach, which consisted a systematic literature search, a literature screening and a thematic analysis. A total of 1,495 arti-cles were retrieved from the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (CAJD) and the China Science Periodical Database (CSPD). After screening, 55 articles were included and analysed using a thematic approach. The literature analysis identified that government agencies presented collec-tive behaviours of territory marking and defending, which are resulted by a TIAO-KUAI government structure and a proprietary data ownership. This poster provides a perspective on the IDS development in China and offers useful insights which can be shared across international borders.
Building Sustainable Digital Communities: A Five-Pronged Social-Informatics Research Approach in Bangladesh
Monash University, Australia
In a developing society, critical issues highlighted are not just about the technology, but with social factors such as culture, institutions, organizational issues, and individual identities. Understanding such factors is significant to illustrate how best to create sustainable communities using technology. Researchers at Monash University have collaborated with Oxfam International and developed a 5-year international development project known as PROTIC. This paper aims to give readers an overview of the PROTIC project and describe how the five doctoral research students are designing their research to achieve a common goal of developing sustainable digital communities in Bangladesh. The students follow different research methods in their respective projects, targeting overall long-term sustainability for the vulnerable communities identified in each of their studies. Although using five distinct research project approaches, the PROTIC project aims to use the exploratory study to make information and communication technologies (ICT) more sustainable for underserved communities. The findings from these researchers will impact on design and implementation of ICT-based socio-economic development projects undertaken by international development organizations.
Understanding Information Resources for College Student Mental Health: A Knowledge Graph Approach
University of North Texas, United States of America
Many universities and colleges have not provided well-organized and easy to use mental health related information resources to their students although mental illness has become a significant barrier to college student success. This study aims to understand the information resources important to college student mental health (CSMH). We conducted a content analysis of two CSMH websites as the first step to build a knowledge graph for CSMH. Two site maps are developed based on the analysis. Seven types of information are therefore identified and considered important for colleges to provide to their students: Appointment, Mental Disorders, Self-help Resources, Information for Parents, Local Referral Sources, Substance Abuse Prevention, and University Policies on Mental Disorders. The next step of this study is to develop ontology by verifying the seven types of information and establishing their relationships. More CSMH websites will be examined to achieve reliable results.
The Effect of Personality Traits on File Retrieval
1Bar-Ilan University, Israel; 2University of California, Santa Cruz; 3The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya
File retrieval is important for Personal Information Management (PIM). If retrieval fails, people cannot re-use files that they created or other people shared with them. In this paper, we examined the effect of personality traits on retrieval success and efficiency in two studies. Study 1 (n = 60) examined the effect of the Big Five personality traits. Study 2 (n = 300) evaluated the effect of other personality traits that we hypothesized would improve retrieval: need for control, orderliness, memory, computer literacy, minimalism, stress resistance, sociability and empathy. None of the tests we conducted were significant, meaning that even if future effects are identified, they will most probably be weak. In contrast, significant effects on retrieval success and efficiency were previously found for factors such as: sharing method, file collection size, number of collaborators shar-ing the file, file versions, recency since last retrieval, folder depth and workload. Nevertheless, the null-results we report here are important because the failure to publish non-significant results can have a negative influence on research. Other-wise these effects may be repeatedly studied until significant results emerge and are published, possibly because of a type I error.
Climate science communication on Twitter: A topic modeling analysis of U.S. federal government agencies
Wayne State University, United States of America
Government agencies have a strong role in communicating science and climate change information to the public. However, the characteristics, factors and impli-cations of this behavior have been scarcely examined in the academic literature. In this brief study I address two research questions. First: Can topic modeling analysis via LDA provide valid topics from the Twitter posts of U.S. federal government science agencies? Secondly: How and to what extent is climate change and climate science information being communicated by these agencies under a political administration hostile to climate change science? This study contributes to the literature on the use of topic modeling analysis of social media information in the government context, and to the literature on the politicization of science communication and government communication.
Access to information during a recurring crisis: a study of university students' information behaviour during rain periods in Cambodia
University of Borås, Sweden
The purpose of this study is to bring knowledge about student’s information be-haviour and access to information during rain periods and floods in Cambodia. The poster will showcase the findings of a master’s study in library and infor-mation science conducted in Cambodia for two months. In this study, 15 students at university-level were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The inter-views were recorded, transcribed and the data were analysed with a thematic analysis method. The conclusions were that students change their information be-haviour during rain periods, they communicate and share their resources and in-formation with peers and that they formulate creative strategies to access infor-mation during rain periods and floods such as using social media and messaging applications to disseminate information. The conclusions led to the discussion of increased information searching techniques for students as well as a suggested practical kit for the students to use during rain periods. The proposed kit includes pocket-WIFI, power bank, rain gear and a water-resistant kit that could shield a laptop or book during travels in rain.
Analyzing Opinion Conflicts in an Online Group Discussion: From the Perspective of Majority and Minority Influence
Peking University, China, People's Republic of
Online community and groups often experience heated discussion. This pa-per examines a WeChat group discussion from the perspective of majority and minority influence to explore the evolvement of the discussion and the behaviors of group members. Content analysis of 515 messages suggests that opinion conflicts between majority and minority evoke discussion engagement and knowledge exchange. There are different patterns of knowledge construction expressions between majority and minority groups. The majority prefer egocentric expression, while the minority prefer allocentric expression. Majority opinion holders have different conflict handling styles compared to minority opinion holders, who are more likely to avoid. Minority group is under great pressure in social interaction, they are easier to receive unfair comments and personal attacks.
Who’s in Charge? Discovering the Autonomy in an Institutional Data Repository for Research Data Curation and Sharing
1Indiana University Bloomington; 2University of Washington; 3National Taiwan University
To facilitate data sharing, more and more research data infrastructures have been built. However, less attention is paid to the needs of researchers’ au-tonomy as data producers in the context of traditional OAIS-compliant in-stitutional data repositories. Meanwhile, researchers usually complete data management tasks themselves throughout the research data lifecycle and express a desire to control the data ingestion process. The contradictory be-tween the design and reality suggests a potential need for autonomy in terms of data curation along with a potential friction between researchers and professional data curators.
In this study, we explore important features of an ideal institutional data repository through the design of the X System prototype. It is a researcher-centered system that helps integrate the early phases of the data lifecycle in-to the process of data curation and thus encourage data sharing. Nine participants in the information science field were recruited for a usability test in which the DCP Toolkit was adopted. The results show that researchers prefer to initiate and perform the whole data submission process themselves. They are also concerned about the interoperability to link the X System to external resources and the interpretability of text labels within this repository. As for their needs towards autonomy, two perspectives with regards to curating and sharing data can be observed, respectively.
Who published in Chinese predatory journals? A study on the authorship of blacklist journals
This poster reported a study which examined 93,653 authorship records of 67 predatory journals listed in a well-known blacklist in China. By collecting and analyzing each author’s full name and affiliated institution information, their organization distribution were studied. Then the authorship dataset was compared and matched up with the records in the biggest full-text academic literature database China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) to identify each authors’ publishing productivity (number of publications) and influence (number of downloads). The results showed that those who publish in predatory journals are young and inexperienced researchers from teachingintensive universities all over the country, and most of them are from eastern coastal and developed areas of mainland China. The study also showed that some productive and influential researchers had the experience of publishing in predatory journals.
A Content Analysis of Popular Diet, Fitness, and Weight Self-Tracking Mobile Apps on Google Play
1University of California, Irvine; 2University of California, San Diego
Mobile health applications, especially diet, weight, and fitness apps, have become increasingly popular over the years. However, the content and quality of these apps is not well understood. In order to address this, we performed a preliminary content analysis of the diet, weight, and fitness mobile apps on the Google Play Store to better understand the features of such apps. We conducted a descriptive analysis of 159 relevant apps and analyzed the top free 15 for tracked indicators, goal setting, types of input, reminders and notifications, social and community features, and connecting to experts. Based on these preliminary findings, we identify gaps and discuss their importance to future research in this space.
Peer Influence on Public Information System Development Decisions: taking the municipal OGD platforms in China as an example
Sun Yat-sen University, China, People's Republic of
This paper mainly discusses how governments make decisions by using reference groups in the development of open data. Hypotheses are proposed based on prospect theory and institutional theory, and data collection and hypothesis verifi-cation are conducted based on previous research models. It is concluded that mu-nicipal governments tend to take the principle "doctrine of the mean" to direct the development of OGD platforms when facing the trait-based reference group, while it will take the radical route when facing the institution-based reference group. The two reference groups play different regulatory roles, prompting the government to dynamically adjust the development direction of OGD.
How are Cloud-Based Platforms Changing Cultural Services: Towards a New Service Integration Model
School of Information Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou,China, People's Republic of
As a new strategy for public digital cultural services in China, cloud-based cultural platforms are developing rapidly and becoming increasingly important. Nevertheless, there is also a great gap between their operation status quo with expectations stated in various policy documents, especially in the aspects of resource fusion across cultural institutions, on-line and off-line interaction and smart services. This research builds a new theoretical service integration model for the application of cloud platforms in cultural services, and explores interactions between cloud-based cultural platforms, physical cultural venues and smart individual spaces.
Archives and Fake News: Trust Reconstruction in the “Post-Truth” Era
School of Information Resource Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872
The Purpose of this paper is to establish the mechanism of archives in the Trust Reconstruction in the “post-truth” era. Through literature research , it is supposed to do some further analysis on the issues of archives, fake news, and trust. This paper may also take the external environment, technology, policy and other factors into account. Study found that fake news continuously erodes objective facts and makes us lose independent thinking, which is bad for our wellbeing. Archives can re-construct trust though two ways, one is archival management, the other is Big Archival Data.
Sentiment Analysis of the Saudi Digital Library (SDL) Tweets Interactions
Florida State University, United States of America
In July 2011, the Saudi Digital Library (SDL) created a Twitter account to serve as a primary means for customer interaction, support, and a Q&A page. The SDL account actively tweets about SDL news, recently-added data-bases, and training venues, dates, and times. It is interesting to see SDL us-ers interact with the SDL account on Twitter, but how beneficial is it? This study investigates the reactions of people who use the SDL to SDL tweets via Twitter, using a manual sentiment content analysis approach to analyze the interactions. The content analysis consists of counting the number of likes and retweets, whether the questions posted receive answers, and lastly categorizing the sentiment expressed in tweets as “positive,” “negative,” and “neutral.” The students’ interaction with SDL through Twitter ranges between positive and neutral. Students seem to like tweets about news and instructions about the SDL. However, students do not seem to find solu-tions to the problems they are having; instead, they are directed elsewhere to find help.
Chinese Ph.D. Students’ Perception of Predatory Journals
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
The aim of this study is to investigate Chinese Ph.D. students’ attitudes towards predatory journals. An online questionnaire was distributed and 332 respondents from various disciplines and institutions shared their opinions. The result showed that the majority of respondents (n=271; 81.32%) never heard about predatory journals. Among those who knew what predatory journals are (n=61, 18.68%), thought that predatory journals had bad reputation, low quality and poor peer-review process. They agreed that such journals charge high APC but published quickly. The results also indicated that the awareness of predatory journals was influenced by respondents’ gender, research experience and publishing experience. Male respondents knew more about predatory journals than female respondents. Respondents who had rich research and publishing experiences were more likely to identify predatory journals. Regarding further publishing intention, 124 respondents (37.35%) said they might try predatory journals to achieve assessing requirements, and 208(62.65%) respondents refused.
Designing Technology for All: Exploring How eLearning Platforms Support Students with Low Vision When Designing their Web Content
1New York University, NY; 2University of Pittsburgh, PA; 3Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; 4California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA; 5Microsoft Research
eLearning platforms have become an integral part of education across the United States, from changing how students learn to finding course assistance right from home. However, an important aspect to consider in the design and development of these websites is accessibility and usability. According to the United States’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the U.S. alone, 16 million people have cognitive impairments. Considering these platforms are a growing resource for students who seek educational support, companies behind these platforms should ensure their web content meet standards of efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction for all potential users like those with cognitive disabilities. In this poster paper, we discuss how eLearning platforms have designed their web content and question whether they have implemented a universal design that is user-friendly for all. We will analyze the results from our surveys, user-testing, and semi-structured interviews to help define the issues experienced by people with cognitive disabilities when navigating our three chosen eLearning platforms: Khan Academy, Udacity and SoloLearn. These results will in turn provide guided insight on how eLearning platforms should improve their web design.
Scholars’ Data Reuse Behaviors in Disciplinary Context A Meta-Synthesis Study
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of China
Data reuse plays a pivotal role in science research in the data era. Given that the impact of discipline culture on data reuse is deeply rooted, we explore da-ta reuse behaviors of the two groups of scholars with significantly different qualities, the nature science and the humanities and social science. Relying on the meta-synthesis and inductive coding approach, information about in-tentions, influence factors, data processing and using and data reuse barriers were extracted from 37 qualified articles and then analyzed. Results show: 1) informal channels perform a vital role in data reuse in both two communi-ties; 2) there is a distinct correlation between data reuse and disciplinary con-text. 3) clear distinctions exist between two fields in data reuse barriers, dis-ciplinary practice degrees and data reuse patterns. The results imply the ur-gency to establish data managers, link publications and data, and enhance data organization.
From authority data, to linked open data and Wikidata The case study of a Hebrew manuscript catalogue
Bar Ilan University, Israel
Traditionally, library catalogues have served as a tool to manage library collections and as a bibliographic tool for information retrieval. Eventually this caused library catalogues to be data silos. In order to break down these metadata silos, the information must be accessible and free to use. The semantic web, and in particular, linked open data, are initiatives that can turn library catalogs into a real part of the Internet. Today libraries are an important player in the linked data arena. Converting catalogues to large linked data enables large-scale analysis of cultural heritage Big Data. By implementing linked data initiatives open library data is available for reuse in the information space. Libraries can share their open metadata with non-library communities.
Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is one central database of human knowledge which contains structured and linked data. If more collections will be added to this huge linked open network it will enable researchers to investigate and find new discoveries thereby revitalizing our cultural heritage data, which has been persevered in closed silos for hun-dreds of years. The potential in Wikidata for the information world in general and for libraries in particular is illustrated by research done on the National Library of Israel Hebrew manuscripts catalogue.
Are They Efficient? An Evaluation of Cloud-based Cultural Service Platforms with Data Envelopment Analysis
Sun Yat-sen University, China, People's Republic of
This poster reports on the result of efficiency evaluation of China's new cloud platform for public cultural services. Specifically, the poster shows the result of applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to provincial cloud platforms in operation. The findings indicate that 33.3% of the platforms are strongly effective while 40% are weakly effective, which means that the provincial cloud cultural platforms are in low operational efficiency, and the scale efficiency is the main aspect that restricts the operational efficiency. For those non-DEA effective public culture cloud platform, how to simply and efficiently organize the information resources on these platforms, how to innovate the content of cultural service from the user's point of view, how to manage and maintain the user data in a better way, and expand the influence of the platform itself are several aspects that need to be considered in the future. We have also analyzed correlations between the efficiency value of cloud platforms and macro-environmental factors in different provinces and find that the efficiency value of cloud platforms are positively correlated with the proportion of higher education population, financial investment on culture, and residents' cultural consumption level.
Smartphones Usage at Workplace: Assessing Information Security Risks from Accessibility perspective
Florida State University, United States of America
Innovations in technology have created opportunities for employees to be increasingly efficient, productive, and always connected to both inter-nal and external customers as they go about their everyday lives using consumer IT tools and resources. This leads to increasingly employee’s use of such resources at hand while performing their routine activities at the workplaces due to inherent features of connectivity that allow ease of access to information assets. Building on the significance of effort expec-tancy (ease of use) in earlier research on smartphone adoption at work-place, this study seeks to examine from the aspect of accessibility (ease of access) as a key feature of smartphone usage. It adapts key constructs of Routine Activity Theory (RAT) in the premises of information systems security, viewing the construct of accessibility (ease of copying/transfer data) as a risk associated with the smartphone usage at workplace. That is, focusing on the probability of convenience (opportunity) as a motivation to commit a crime. Through analysis of extant literature and theoretical assertions, it presents a theoretical model that can help identify the rela-tionship between smartphone usage and occurrence of insider fraud inci-dents in the presence of certain situational stimuli. This study assumes that there are possible implications at the workplace in terms of ease of access which a smartphone device provides to an employee allowing them to copy/transfer sensitive information assets conveniently, the prac-tice that may increase the occurrence of detrimental security behaviors in the absence of management controls.
Towards Modeling Civilian Behavior During a Natural Disaster
University of Pittsburgh, United States of America
This work presents a literature review on civilian evacuation behavior and agent based modeling for disaster planning. The aim is to understand a regional response to a natural disaster. We propose a study to investigate our study area's disaster plan and civilian response at large during such an event. The implications of our proposed work include improved disaster planning and a framework for modeling civilian response to real government disaster plans.
Piloting a Workflow for Extracting Author Citations from Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States of America
Since the 18th century, English-language dictionaries have used quotations from written works to illustrate a word's use in context. These quotations form a link between language authority and literary authority. In this paper we pilot a workflow for identifying, extracting, and counting author citations in Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language to investigate how authors in a defined corpus are represented. We consider how these authors are distributed across the text and compare our results to past studies that used different methodologies. We find a consistency that encourages the broader application of our workflow on other dictionary texts, enabling further study of author citations in dictionaries across time.
Increasing Trust Through the Design of Algorithm-Based Lesion Segmentation Support Systems
1Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
The adoption rate of algorithm-based lesion segmentation support systems in clinical practice is very low. This is partly due to low trust levels radiologists have in such systems. To increase the trust, the design and validation of the support tools must comply with the needs and expectations of radiologists. We interviewed four clinicians who work with brain images on a daily basis to understand the needs, current methods and practices of image interpretation, and their opinion of automatic brain lesion segmentation tools. In the interviews, we identified the necessity to state the error of the automated decision support tool and its clinical relevance in a given context.
Factors Impacting Social Media Users' Information Behavior: The Concept of Social Noise
University of North Texas, United States of America
Social media communication involves the discussion and sharing of information in an environment subject to the influence of online relationships and perceived expectations of those in the social network. The ability to filter the resulting noise depends largely on our understanding of Social Noise and its underlying constructs. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Social Noise and investigate methods of identifying it using a quantitative, data analytics approach. With the growing use of social media for all types of information sharing and consumption, understanding this phenomenon has taken on increasing importance as it can influence attitudes and behavior surrounding social issues, political campaigns, and other core areas of society. While the results from the topic modeling and data clustering techniques used did not provide much information about the semantic context of the individual words, they did help us to identify general keywords and patterns related to the proposed four constructs of Social Noise.
Study on Information Avoidance Behavior in WeChat
1Political and Legal Affairs Commission, Maanshan, Anhui Province, 243011, P.R. China; 2Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P.R. China
Abstract. [Background] As the rapid prevalent of social media, the receiving, processing and utilizing of information is becoming extremely convenient. However, the problems of information overload and low information quality emerged at the same time also brings excessive social pressure on the social media platform. As a result, an increasing number of users are beginning to take negative attitudes towards all kinds of complicated information on social media. So, it is of great significance to investigate how information avoidance behavior was happened. [Method] The in-depth interview was adopted as the way of collecting original data in this study, the sample of which was from Beijing and Anhui Lushan County based on the convenience of snowballing. [Results] Based on the grounded theory, the author summarizes five main categories, namely environmental factors, personal factors, technical factors, negative emotions and information avoidance behavior, and clarified the relationship among them. Environmental factors affect personal factors and bad emotions; personal factors affect bad emotions; adverse emotions and technical factors affect the information avoidance behavior directly.
Knowledge transfer from a perspective of Quadruple Helix: Initial findings from the financial services sector in Bahrain
university of sheffield, United Kingdom
The study aims to explore the interactions involving key “Quadruple he-lix” actors in the financial services sector in Bahrain. As the study has an exploratory purpose, a qualitative methodological approach was employed using the key principles of “Grounded Theory”.
The initial findings show that the inter-organizational knowledge trans-fer between the diverse stakeholders is often considered problematic. The interactions were mostly perceived as a double and a triple helix, while lim-ited focus was given to quadruple helix interactions. Moreover, the net-working dynamics revealed many examples of unidirectional interactions and less of bidirectional interactions where all collaborating partners learn from each other. These interactions can offer valuable insights into power relations, as power differences emerge in exchange networks that are enor-mously in one direction.
This study sheds light on the tensions and gaps associated with quadru-ple helix interactions. The study has implications for policy makers and practitioners by identifying the need to implement interventions to over-come the gaps and tensions that affect the willingness to engage in knowledge transfer.
An Unholy Alliance: Christian Identity Extremists and ICTs
1University of Michigan -- Ann Arbor; 2University of Maryland, Baltimore County; 3Syracuse University; 4Dominican University; 5James Madison University; 6iSchool Inclusion Institute (i3)
The rise of extremism has been a global concern, but white extremism, in particular, has been expanding rapidly within the United States (U.S.). Even more concerning is how white extremist groups have utilized Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to broaden their reach and spread their ideologies to larger audiences. This research examines the Christian Identity Movement (CIM) subset within the larger white extremist community. The CIM has utilized Christianity to justify extremist actions, a problem notably reflected in recent white extremist shooter manifestos. As extremist propaganda continues making its way through the digital landscape, this study aims to understand how the CIM has infiltrated the greater white extremist digital communities. This is particularly relevant as extremist groups are proliferating across numerous social media platforms. Due to the lack of scholarly literature currently discussing the nexus between white extremists, Christian Identity, technology, and social media, this research is necessary to understand the information flow between these groups online.
In-Game Documents: Examining Document Experiences in Narrative Spaces
The University of Missouri, United States of America
This research proposal focuses on individuals’ experiences with documents in a 3D virtual environment. Using a qualitative approach, I propose investigating players’ interactions with in-game objects to better understand the relationship between information behavior and narrative spaces. Specifically, I will observe player actions in a story-rich virtual world followed by semi-structured interviews using virtual artifacts and stimulated recall. I will then conduct an interpretive phenomenological analysis of the interview transcripts. By better understanding how individuals experience information in a virtual story that affords agency, I may provide a new framework for investigating in-game actions or document experiences. Practical implications of this research may inform game designers of when to employ unguided information-seeking tasks or, instead, allow narrative and direct feedback to drive player behavior.