The Nordic Resistance Movement in the Digital Age
Stockholm University, Sweden
The Nordic resistance movement (NMR) is a pan-Nordic neo-National Socialist organization. It was first founded under the name the Swedish resistance movement (SMR) in Sweden in 1997. Today the movement is established in Sweden, Norway, Findland and it has members in Iceland. However, Finland banned the movement in 2019. In Sweden NMR is also a political party. The main goal of NMR is to replace the Nordic democracies through a revolution and replace these with a totalitarian state that is permeated by NMR:s national socialist ideology.
In the presentation I want to hold at your conference I would focus on describing the Swedish section of NMR and, more specifically, their main official webpages: Nordfront.se and Motståndsrörelsen.se. In other words, I will explain how NMR uses these webpages to forward their ideology, to unite the movement and to attract new members. I will also focus on the role of antisemitism in the movement and how antisemitic propaganda permeates the content that is featured on the websites. Additionally, I will give examples of how this propaganda has resulted in attacks directed towards NMR's alleged enemies. Finally, I will discuss NMR's use of digital technology, such as these webpages, from a broader societal perspective and in relation to other white power movements use of digital technology.
Hate Speech in Myanmar: State Media and the Rohingya Genocide
Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom
Myanmar’s Rohingya minority are victims of an ongoing genocide. In 2017, Myanmar’s Rohingya were victims of a forced migration of a scale not seen regionally since the Second World War. In the space of a few weeks more than 700,000 Rohingya fled Myanmar seeking refuge in Bangladesh. Despite a centuries-long heritage in Myanmar, the Rohingya’s collective rights have been denied by Myanmar’s authorities who have subjected this Muslim minority to decades of repression. This paper considers the role of the state authorities in perpetrating extreme and hate speech and the processes by which state power was used to normalize hateful expressions against the Rohingya community which enabled the 2017 forced migration. Drawing attention to Myanmar’s 2017 Rohingya crisis, a human rights and humanitarian catastrophe, the paper examines how Myanmar’s state media publication, the Global New Light of Myanmar newspaper, actively produced anti-Rohingya speech in its editions and influenced violent narratives about the Rohingya Muslims circulating on social media. It shows how official media contributed to a political environment where anti-Rohingya speech was made acceptable and where rights abuses against the group were excused. While regulators often consider the role of social media platforms like Facebook as conduits for the spread of extreme speech, this case study shows that extreme speech by state actors using state media ought to be similarly considered a major concern for scholarship and policy.
"We will eliminate you": The rise of hate speech against Hazaras on social media
The deteriorating situation in Afghanistan over the past few years has given rise to an alarming increase in attacks upon the country’s persecuted Hazara minority. The scale and intensity of these attacks have evoked memories of Taliban massacres of the late 1990s and early 2000s and have already been labelled genocide by the Hazara community. Since September 2020, the Government of Afghanistan and the Taliban have been engaged in purported peace talks in Doha, Qatar, talks which many Hazaras fear will result in a power-sharing deal with those responsible for genocidal violence against Hazaras. With no precondition of a ceasefire, this intra-Afghan dialogue has done nothing to stem the violence, nor the impunity enjoyed by those responsible. The deteriorating security situation and increase in attacks upon Hazaras have been accompanied by a rise in hate speech directed against Hazaras on social media platforms. Such hate speech is frequently directed toward denying that Hazaras are from Afghanistan or entitled to an identity within Afghanistan, and often explicitly calls for the elimination of Hazaras from the country. To date, efforts by Hazaras to have hateful content removed from social media platforms have been largely ignored, due in large part to a lack of linguistic and contextual knowledge on the part of social media companies. This paper will analyse patterns of hate speech against Hazaras online. It will argue that hate speech against Hazaras is widespread, sanctioned by authorities, and has the real capacity to incite genocidal violence. It will call for a genocide prevention lens for considering hate speech online.
Remove Kebab: Bosnian Genocide Triumphalism and the Global Far-Right
Institute for Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks, Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 2019, when the video of the New Zeland terrorist appeared in the news, a number of Bosniaks immeditaly recognized the music in the background. As the gunman drove to the Al-Nur mosque he was playing the Serb-nationalist, war-time song entitled “Karadžić, Lead Your Serbs”. A song used to boast moral for Serb soldiers. Now used to boast moral for a far-right mass murderer. This song became a sort of anthem for the global far-right. The shooters manifest sparked similarities with a earlier far-right terrorist - Anders Breivik, who killed 77 civilians in Norway in 2011. Both cited Serb war criminals and nationalists. Bosnia was considered a battle for Europe, to save it from the invading Islam. And these events clearly show that the genocide committed in Bosnia and Herzegovina can serve as an inspiration to far-right extremists throughout the world.Over the years, the Bosnian genocide slowly became an inspiration for the far-right. Genocidaires became heros. A meme was even formed called Remove Kebab. Kebab being Muslims. This meme and "Karadžić, Lead Your Serbs” better known online as "Serbia Strong", quickly spread througout the internet. The aim of this paper is to present how this triumphalism of atrocities committed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s serves as an inspiration for the global far-right via analysis of its presence on social media.