|8:30am - 10:00am||Workshop 2a: Workshopping a Data Equity Manifesto|
Workshopping a Data Equity Manifesto
The goal of this workshop is to generate a publicly shareable manifesto around data equity. Data equity refers to the degree of fairness in responsibilities and benefits, opportunities trade-offs that all members of society experience as a result of civic datasets. As a range of civic datasets about the government, environment, education and others become increasingly avail-able, it is important to understand how current technologically-mediated practices can be improved to achieve better data equity and accountability for all, irrespective of their data literacy skills. We reflect on these datasets and technical practices through hands-on activities that have been specifically designed to expose the barriers that prevent individuals, communities, businesses, nonprofits and governments from engaging with data. We pay particular focus to the differentials based on sexism, racism and other forms of structural oppression that tend to go under-examined within such settings.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Workshop 2b: Workshopping a Data Equity Manifesto|
Part 2 of 4
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Workshop 2c: Workshopping a Data Equity Manifesto|
Part 3 of 4
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Workshop 2d: Workshopping a Data Equity Manifesto|
Part 4 of 4
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 3: Concerns about “Smart” Interactions and Privacy|
Session Chair: Irene Lopatovska, Pratt Institute
Understanding the Role of Privacy and Trust in Intelligent Personal Assistant Adoption
1University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 2University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, United States of America
Voice-controlled intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) have seen tremendous growth in recent years on smartphones and as standalone devices in people’s homes. While research has examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of these devices for IPA users, few studies have empirically evaluated the role of privacy and trust in individual decision to adopt IPAs. In this study, we present findings from a survey of IPA users and non-users (N=1160) to understand (1) the motivations and barriers to adopting IPAs and (2) how concerns about data privacy and trust in company compliance with social contract related to IPA data affect acceptance and use of IPAs. We discuss our findings in light of social contract theory and frameworks of technology acceptance.
Eliciting Privacy Concerns for Smart Home Devices from a User Centered Perspective
George Mason University, United States of America
Smart homes are equipped with an ecosystem of devices that support humans in their everyday activities, ranging from entertainment, lighting and security systems. Although smart devices provide home automation features that are convenient, comfortable, and easy to control, they also pose critical privacy risks for users, especially considering their continuous ability to sense users' information and connect to web services. To elicit privacy concerns from a user-centric perspective, the authors performed a thorough analysis of 128 online reviews of consumers of smart home hubs – including Amazon Echo, Google Home, Wink and Insteon. The reviews, filtered from a set of 66656 selected reviews, expressed users’ concerns about privacy. The reviews were coded and classified according to four information security principles and temporal dimensions ranging from data collection to information sharing. A discussion on how to improve the design of smart home devices with privacy-enhanced solutions is provided.
A Study of Usage and Usability of Intelligent Personal Assistants in Denmark
Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
Intelligent personal assistants (IPA), such as Siri, Google Assistant, Alexa, and Cortana, are becoming an increasingly popular way of interacting with our smartphones and typically the only way of interacting with smart speakers. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on all aspects of IPAs in recent years, such as studies of usage of and user satisfaction with IPAs. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies have focused on English as the interaction language.
In this paper, we investigate the usage and perceived usability of IPAs in Denmark. We conduct a questionnaire with 357 Danish-speaking respondents that sheds light on how IPAs are used in Denmark. We find they are only used regularly by 19.9% of respondents and that most people do not find IPAs to be reliable. We also conduct a usability study of Siri and find that Siri suffers from several issues when used in Danish: poor voice recognition, unnatural dialogue responses, and an inability to support mixed-language speech recognition. Our findings shed light on both the current state of usage and adoption of IPAs in Denmark as well as the usability of its most popular IPA in a foreign-language setting.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 7: Collecting Data about Vulnerable Populations|
Session Chair: Amelia Acker, University of Texas at Austin
Documenting the Undocumented: Privacy and Security Guidelines for Humanitarian Work with Irregular Migrants
1University of Washington; 2University of Kentucky
Humanitarian organizations frequently do not fully address the implications of collecting, storing, and using data about vulnerable populations. We propose a conceptual framework for Humanitarian Information Activities (HIA), especially in the context of undocumented migration. We examine this framework in the light of both a survey of the literature and a pilot study that examines HIA activities in three distinct contexts: 1) higher education institutions that provide support to undocumented students, 2) non-profit organizations that provide legal support to undocumented immigrants, and 3) humanitarian organizations assisting undocumented migrants near the US-Mexico border. We discuss both technological and human risks in HIA, the limitations of privacy self-management, and the need for clear privacy-related guidelines for HIA. We conclude suggesting guidelines to strengthen the privacy protection offered to vulnerable populations by humanitarian organizations in the context of irregular migration.
Applying photovoice to the study of Asian immigrants’ information needs
1Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia; 2University of South Australia; 3City University of Hong Kong
Immigrants in their new country may have diverse and complex information needs. Appropriate methods are part of scientific discourse on how to effectively engage with immigrants to reflect their information needs and life experiences. This paper discusses the application of the photovoice method to study Asian im-migrants’ information needs as they settled in South Australia. As a participatory approach, photovoice allowed immigrants to take photos to actively record their own information needs and concerns. We reflected how photovoice can contrib-ute to a comprehensive understanding of immigrants’ information needs by overcoming language barriers and expressing personal feelings and emotions. Photovoice is considered to be a useful method for studying vulnerable or un-derrepresented populations.
Investigating Health Self-Management among Immigrant College Students with Depression
1University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; 2Indiana University, Bloomington; 3College of Westchester; 4University of Pittsburgh; 5University of Washington; 6University of Maryland, College Park; 7University of California, Irvine
Digital tools for health hold a lot of promise in terms of empowering individuals to take control over their health and improving access to care. This may be especially critical for marginalized individuals, such as immigrant college students, and those who face stigmatizing conditions, such as depression. However, research is limited on how these tools fit into users’ existing practices around health management. In order to address this gap, we first investigate existing practices by focusing on a specific population: college students with depression ranging from immigrant generation 1 to 2.5. This group is important to study as they are at an increased risk for depression but may be less likely to access traditional treatment. We present results about their practices around health self-tracking and digital tools specific to depression management. Based on a survey of 83 participants, we found that although students with depression across these various immigrant generations engage in health self-tracking (94%), few track mental health indicators and most do not use mobile apps (81.9%) or other online resources (86.7%) to help with their depression. Those that do use apps and online resources offer insights into their depression management needs.
Proposing “Mobile, Finance, and Information” Toolkit for Financial Inclusion of the Poor in Developing Countries
1University of Tennessee at Knoxville, United States of America; 2Central University of Gujarat, India
Since 2015, the Government of India has been designing policies for transforming the country with over 400 million unbanked adults into a cashless economy so that a majority of financial transactions can be carried over mobile devices, the most widely used information and communication technology in the country. However, over 200 million adults earning less than $2 a day have a low or little mobile, financial, or information literacy. This short paper reports a newly proposed interdisciplinary, six-step toolkit operationalized using a survey questionnaire, focus group prompts, and hands-on training for developing mobile, financial, and information literacy among the poor in developing countries like India. Implications for public libraries, governments, and the poor in developing countries and beyond are discussed at the end.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 11: Online Activism|
Session Chair: Colin Rhinesmith, Simmons University
Information Bridges: Understanding the Informational Role of Network Brokerages in Polarised Online Discourses
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Abstract. Social networking and micro-blogging sites such as Twitter and Weibo have provided new platforms of public discussions for Internet us-ers. As the number of online social movements has increased in recent years, the Chinese government has adopted new media and has strategically confronted online social movements with orchestrated campaigns, which lead to a dichotomy between the Chinese government and civil society. Us-ing a network analysis perspective, this research aims at studying the polar-ization of Chinese online political discourse, by examining who are playing the key roles in bridging different voices and exchanging various view-points in an online debate. I collected data from a conversation network in a massive online protest on Weibo, visualised the polarization between the Chinese government and civil society, and analysed the typological differ-ences between the two groups. This research demonstrated the structural role of brokers in information diffusion within conversation network by using Susceptible-Infected (SI) simulation, showing that brokerage plays a key role in bridging the polarized online opinions and facilitating infor-mation diffusion. Taking a social network analysis perspective, this re-search re-examined Chinese contentious social movement under its politi-cal regime and can shed lights onto the understanding of the structural and informational roles of network brokerages for the deliberative democracy.
Putting the “Move” in Social Movements: Assessing the Role of Kama Muta in Online Activism
UCLA, United States of America
Today the structure of social media movements online is moving beyond just a means for communication and more into space for growing the movement, developing a brand, and solidifying the network for group action. Thus individual posts on personal profiles and group and event pages become an increasingly important element of participation. Emotions may drive these posts, as well as the responses to them. This study seeks to enter into conversation with previous works in the areas of communication, information studies, sociology, and anthropology that investigate the intersection of social media and activism. However, this study takes a novel approach through the particular focus on individual emotional elements of social media posting, sharing, commenting, and other forms of engagement. Using ethnographic methods of digital participant observation of five major activist Facebook groups, this study will examine the prevalence of content expressing or intending to evoke kama muta.
Crowdsourcing Change: A novel vantage point for investigating online petitioning platforms
Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
The internet connects people who are spatially and temporally separated. One result is new modes of reaching out to, organizing and mobilizing people, including online activism. Internet platforms can be used to mobilize people around specific concerns, short-circuiting structures such as organizational hierarchies or elected officials. These online processes allow consumers and concerned citizens to voice their opinions, often to businesses, other times to civic groups or other authorities. Not surprisingly, this opportunity has encouraged a steady rise in specialized platforms dedicated to online petitioning. These include Change.org, Care2 Petitions, MoveOn.org and others. These platforms are open to everyone; any individual or group who is affected by a problem or disappointed with the status quo, can raise awareness for or against corporate or government policies. Such platforms can empower ordinary citizens to bring about social change, by leveraging support from the masses. In this sense, the platforms allow citizens to “crowdsource change”. In this paper, we offer a comparative analysis of the affordances of four online petitioning platforms, and use this analysis to propose ideas for design enhancements to online petitioning platforms.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 15: Engaging with Multi-Media Content|
Session Chair: Guo Freeman, Clemson University
"Looking for an amazing game I can relax and sink hours into...": A Study of Relevance Aspects in Video Game Discovery
1Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; 3Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences – Humanities Cluster, Amsterdam; 4Aalborg University, Denmark
With the rapid growth of the video game industry over the past decade, there has been a commensurate increase in research activity focused on a variety of aspects of video games. How people discover the video games they want to play and how they articulate these information needs is still largely unknown, however. A better understanding of video game-related information needs and what makes a game relevant to a user could aid in the design of more effective, domain-specific search engines. In this paper we take a first step towards such domain-specific understanding. We present an analysis of a random sample of 521 complex game requests posted on Reddit. A coding scheme was developed that captures the 41 different aspects of relevance and information needs expressed in these requests. We find that game requests contain an average of close to 5 different relevance aspects. Several of these relevance aspects are geared specifically to video games, while others are more general.
Moving Beyond Text: How Teens Evaluate Video-Based High Stakes Health Information via Social Media
1University of Pittsburgh, United States of America; 2The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
This paper qualitatively examines how teenagers in the US evaluate high stakes health information via social media. Through 30 semi-structured interviews with teens ages 13-18, we explore how teens interact with and make decisions about the quality of video-based exercise and nutrition content. Participants indicated that they are wary of advertisements and language that encourages extreme weight loss, yet prefer video content that is “fun” and engaging. Additionally, participants reported having explicit and implicit criteria for evaluating videos with health content that includes both graphic and content quality.
Engagement With Personal Music Collections
Waikato University, New Zealand
Over the past three decades, everyday music listening practices have transitioned from physical music media (vinyl, CDROM) to personally held digital (MP3, MPEG) to cloud-based streaming services (Spotify, Pandora). The impact of these media changes on personal attachment to music and on the concept of a personal music collection have been surprisingly neglected by the academic research community. This paper reflects on a series of studies on personal music collections / consumption in [Country X] dating back to 2002, focusing on the shifting concept of what constitutes a personal music collection and on the individual’s sense of engagement with that collection.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 18: Innovation and Professionalization in Technology Communities|
Session Chair: Lilia Pavlovsky, Rutgers University
The Innovation Ecology: Collaborative Information, Community Support, and Policy in A Creative Technology Community
1Clemson University, United States of America; 2Indiana University, United States of America
In this paper, we explore a network of distributed individuals’ collective efforts to establish an innovation ecology allowing them to engage in bottom up creative technological practices in today’s information society. Specifically, we present an empirical study of the technological practices in an emerging creative technology community -- independent [indie] game developers in the United States. Based on indie game developers’ own accounts, we identified four themes that constitute an innovation ecology from the bottom up, including problem solving; collaborative information seeking, sharing, and reproducing; community support; and policy and politics. We argue that these findings inform our understanding of bottom up technological innovation and shed light on the design of sociotechnical systems that mediate and support such innovation beyond the gaming context.
Professional Identity and Information Use: On Becoming a Machine Learning Developer
IBM Research, Almaden, United States of America
Recently, information behavior (IB) research has drawn attention to the broader life of information, noting its role in discursive practices around social and organizational identity. We explore information’s role in occu-pational and professional identity and identification. How information use figures into the ways that individuals become interested in certain profes-sions (and the barriers to entry they experience) can be helpful in develop-ing policy interventions to foster occupational diversity and inclusion, a particular concern in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This paper reports on a qualitative interview study of machine learn-ing (ML) developers, examining their accounts of how they became inter-ested in the ML field, the barriers they experienced when entering the field, and their patterns of information use in these processes. We discuss the im-plications of our findings, which reveal information use as an organizing principle that simultaneously defines and continually binds a professional community of practice together.
Whether the Evolution of iSchool Revolves Around "Information, Technology and People"?
Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China, People's Republic of
As the research topics and specialties of the Information Schools (iSchool) have always been evolving, the new trends in research are emerging constantly. Whether the evolution of iSchool is still pursuing its vision and focusing on specific tracks of the information, technology and people deserves to be investigated. In this paper, the literatures published on 86 Information Science and Library Science journals, included in the Social Sciences Citation Index database of Web of Science between 2006 and 2015 are selected as the dataset. A co-word analysis is conducted to study the research topics of iSchool first. Then, combined with temporal and longitudinal information from literatures, under the help of Citespace, we identify the evolution of each topic. Based on the knowledge evolution, we reveal that the information is the primary line of all topics in the studied period. Technology helps create innovative information systems and designs information solutions to promote the evolution of iSchool, and the evolution of iSchool aims to maximize the potential of humans. In such a comprehensive way of exploring iSchool, a clear identity about iSchool vision is not only can be made, an effective research framework and a reliable reference for real-time tracking research is also provided.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 21: Informing Technology Design Through Offline Experiences|
Session Chair: Carsten Oesterlund, Syracuse University
“Happy Rides Are All Alike; Every Unhappy Ride Is Unhappy in Its Own Way”: Passengers’ Emotional Experiences while Using a Mobile Application for Ride-sharing
Peking University, China, People's Republic of
Ride-sharing is a rising approach that provides more convenience and flexibility for road users. Previous research has examined the process, existing forms, and matching algorithms of real-time dynamic ride-sharing technology, but we know little about how users feel when they use a ride-sharing application. In this paper, we describe a study that investigates passengers’ emotional experiences when us-ing a ride-sharing application and examines factors related to passengers’ emo-tional experiences. We conducted a survey with 1,129 users of a major ride-sharing app from four cities in China. Results show that: (1) passengers feel more positive emotional experiences (75%) such as “satisfaction” (47%) than negative emotions; (2) negative emotional experiences (worry, disappointment, anger) differ from each other in causal agency, emotional outlet, and action ten-dency; (3) context of use, interaction, and user characteristics are related to pas-sengers’ emotional experiences. The results provide some preliminary under-standing of the passengers’ emotional experiences, and could be helpful to im-prove the design of such socio-technical solutions.
From Paper Forms to Electronic Flowsheets: Documenting Medical Resuscitations in a Time of Transition
1Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have a critical role in supporting continuity of patient care and effective clinical decision-making. Although EHRs are widespread today, many emergency departments (EDs) have been slow in adopting them for documenting time-critical scenarios such as resuscitations. Introduction of an electronic flowsheet for documenting medical resuscitations at our research site provided a unique opportunity for studying the nuances of the transition from paper to electronic documentation. We observed 44 medical resuscitations and conducted post-event interviews with 24 nurse documenters to examine their interactions and behaviors with the newly implemented electronic flowsheet. While our findings showed many advantages of electronic documentation, such as improved access to patient records and auto-population of flowsheet sections, we also identified several challenges associated with the flowsheet navigation, technical issues, and lack of practice and use opportunities. We observed different workarounds used by nurse documenters to overcome these challenges, including the use of paper-based mechanisms, free-text fields, and simultaneous documentation by two nurses. Based on our findings, we provide design guidelines for improving the electronic flowsheet to support its use during resuscitations.
Firefighters’ Strategies for Processing Spatial Information During Emergency Rescue Searches
1University of Pittsburgh; 2California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; 3Indiana University; 4La Roche College, United States of America; 5Oakwood University; 6ISchool Inclusion Institute
Firefighters face a unique wayfinding situation when they are in emergency situations. This study aims to examine the strategies that firefighters use when in an emergency situation with the goal being to use these insights in future research. In this study, we interview 12 firefighters from around the USA about the methodologies they use when in an emergency situation. After analyzing the results using grounded theory as a basis, we found that firefighters around the country use similar rules that allow them to either 1) build a path 2) use visual aids 3) use cognitive strategies and 4) use directional aids. From here, we hope we can link these strategies to actual tools that can help firefighters save lives.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 24: Addressing Social Problems in iSchools Research|
Session Chair Brian Butler
‘Berrypicking’ in the formation of ideas about problem drinking amongst users of alcohol online support groups
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Beliefs held by individuals about the illnesses or problems that affect them have been shown to impact upon the health and other outcomes that they achieve. Online support groups (OSGs) are one source of information used by those with health problems which may influence or determine what they think about their particular issue and how to resolve it. Problem drinking remains a major source of significant costs to society. This article explores whether the discussion forums of alcohol OSGs that do not follow the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous influence the formation of these beliefs, reporting on the outcome of thematic analysis of interviews with 25 users from five groups. It argues that Bates’ ‘Berrypicking’ model of information searching is helpful in illuminating group members’ information seeking activities. It looks at the four key aspects of berrypicking identified by Bates – the nature of the search query, the information ‘domains’ drawn on, the information retrieved and the search techniques used. The study finds that users are typically berrypickers, selecting information from different sources and forming their own interpretations.
LIS Job Advertisements: Seeking Inclusion and Diversity
1University of South Carolina, United States of America; 2Charles Sturt University, Australia
A growing body of literature is drawing our attention to on diversity in librarian-ship, arguing for improved diversity through better recruitment, retention, and ca-reer advancement of minority professionals. While much of the discussion about diversity in libraries is taking place in United States, this article attempts to extend the discussion, bringing attention to diversity in Australian librarianship through analysis of Australian library job ads. This article uses content analysis of 96 Australian job ads posted from 22 January to 3 February 2018 in key Australian library job search engines. The analysis focuses on how diversity is reflected in these ads, with a content analysis of wording focused on inviting diversity in terms of ability/disability, ethnicity and language, and gender and sexuality.
Unmapped Privacy Expectations in China: Discussion Based on the Proposed Social Credit System
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America
Privacy has become a global topic of concern. Meanwhile, it is a
concept that is deeply rooted in local cultures. This paper is conceptual
exploration of privacy in China, it proposes that privacy is a concept yet to be
fully mapped out in Chinese culture. Specifically, this paper uses the proposed
Social Credit System in China as an example of discussion, for this example not
only helps with capturing the urgency and significance of the topic, but also is
particularly provocative in revealing the scope of privacy as a cultural concept.
This paper begins with a brief introduction to the proposed Social Credit
System; then, it discusses what might constitute a cultural perspective to
understand privacy, and cautions the complexity of comparing privacy across
cultures. This paper could serve as a meaningful reflection for both countries
who are concerned with privacy issues in face of large scale application of big
data analytics, and for privacy scholars in cross-culture contexts.