|7:30am - 8:30am||Breakfast (meal provided by the conference)|
|Chesapeake/General Vessey Ballroom|
|7:30am - 5:00pm||Registration desk open|
|8:30am - 10:00am||Kentaro Toyama: Technology’s Law of Amplification, and What It Means for iSchools|
|10:00am - 10:30am||Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 1: Scientific Work and Data Practices|
Session Chair: Michael Lesk, Rutgers University
Surfacing Data Change in Scientific Work
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States of America
Data are essential products of scientific work that move among and through research infrastructures over time. Data constantly changes due to evolving practices and knowledge, requiring improvisational work by scientists to determine the effects on analyses. Today for end users of datasets much of the information about changes, and the processes leading to them, is invisible — embedded elsewhere in the work of a collaboration. Simultaneously scientists use increasing quantities of data, making ad hoc approaches to identifying change difficult to scale effectively. Our research investigates data change by examining how scientists make sense of change in datasets being created and sustained by the collaborative infrastructures they engage with. We examine two forms of change, before examining how trust and project rhythms influence a scientist's notion that the newest available data are the best. We explore the opportunity to design tools and practices to support user examinations of data change and surface key provenance information embedded in research infrastructures.
Understanding Hackathons for Science: Collaboration, Affordances, and Outcomes
Carnegie Mellon University, United States of America
Nowadays, hackathons have become a popular way of bringing people together to engage in brief, intensive collaborative work. Despite being a brief activity, being collocated with team members and focused on a task—radical collocation—could improve collaboration of scientific software teams. Using a mixed-methods study of participants who attended two hackathons at Space Telescope Science Institute, we examined how hackathons can facilitate collaboration in scientific software teams which typically involve members from two different disciplines: science and software engineering. We found that hackathons created a focused interruption-free working environment in which team members were able to assess each other’s skills, focus together on a single project and leverage opportunities to exchange knowledge with other collocated participants, thereby allowing technical work to advance more efficiently. This study suggests “hacking” as a new and productive form of collaborative work in scientific software production.
A comparative study of biological scientists’ data sharing between genome sequence data and lab experiment data
University of Kentucky, United States of America
This research aims to explore how the institutional pressure, resource, and individual motivation factors all affect biological scientists’ data sharing behaviors in different data types. This research utilized a combined theoretical framework including institutional theory and theory of planned behavior to examine institutional pressure, resource, and individual motivation factors influencing biological scientists’ data sharing intentions between different data types including genome sequence data and lab experiment data. A total of 342 survey responses from biological sciences were employed for a series of statistical analyses including Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, hierarchical regression, and t-test. This research shows that biological scientists’ data sharing intentions are led by institutional pressure, resource, and individual motivation factors, and the levels of those factors are significantly different between genome sequence data and lab experiment data. This research shows that biological scientists’ data sharing differs depending on the data they share, and different policies and support needs to be applied to encourage biological scientists’ data sharing of different data types.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 2: Methodological Concerns in (Big) Data Research|
Session Chair: Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Methodological Transparency and Big Data: A Critical Comparative Analysis of Institutionalization
1Princeton University, United States of America; 2Indiana University, United States of America
Big data is increasingly employed in predictive social analyses, yet there are many visible instances of unreliable models or failure, raising questions about methodological validity in data driven approaches. From meta-analysis of methodological institutionalization across three scholarly disciplines, there is evidence that traditional statistical quanti-tative methods, which are more institutionalized and consistent, are important to develop, structure, and institutionalize data scientific ap-proaches for new and large n quantitative methods, indicating that data driven research approaches may be limited in reliability, validity, gen-eralizability, and interpretability. Results also indicate that interdisci-plinary collaborations describe methods in significantly greater detail on projects employing big data, with the effect that institutionalization makes data science approaches more transparent.
Spanning the Boundaries of Data Visualization Work: An Exploration of Functional Affordances and Disciplinary Values
1University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Creating data visualizations requires diverse skills including computer programming, statistics, and graphic design. Visualization practitioners, often formally trained in one but not all of these areas, increasingly face the challenge of reconciling, integrating and prioritizing competing disciplinary values, norms and priorities. To inform multidisciplinary visualization pedagogy, we analyze the negotiation of values in the rhetoric and affordances of two common tools for creating visual representations of data: R and Adobe Illustrator. Features of, and discourse around, these standard visualization tools illustrate both a convergence of values and priorities (clear, attractive, and communicative data-driven graphics) side-by-side with a retention of rhetorical divisions between disciplinary communities (statistical analysis in contrast to creative expression). We discuss implications for data-driven work and data science curricula within the current environment where data visualization practice is converging while values in rhetoric remain divided.
Modeling the process of information encountering based on the analysis of secondary data
1School of Information Management, Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of; 2Center for Studies of Information Resources, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, People‘s Republic of
The critical incident technique (CIT) has been applied extensively in the research on information encountering (IE), and abundant IE incident descriptions have been accumulated in the literature. This study used these descriptions as secondary data for the purpose of creating a general model of IE process. The grounded theory approach was employed to systematically analyze the 279 IE incident descriptions extracted from 14 IE studies published since 1995. 230 conceptual labels, 33 subcategories, and 9 categories were created during the data analysis process, which led to one core category, i.e. “IE process”. A general IE process model was established as a result to demonstrate the relationships among the major components, including environments, foreground activities, stimuli, reactions, examination of information content, interaction with encountered information, valuable outcomes, and emotional states before/after encountering. This study not only enriches the understanding of IE as a universal information phenomenon, but also shows methodological significance by making use of secondary data to lower cost, enlarge sample size, and diversify data sources.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 3: Concerns about “Smart” Interactions and Privacy|
Session Chair: Irene Lopatovska, Pratt Institute
Understanding the Role of Privacy and Trust in Intelligent Personal Assistant Adoption
1University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 2University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, United States of America
Voice-controlled intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) have seen tremendous growth in recent years on smartphones and as standalone devices in people’s homes. While research has examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of these devices for IPA users, few studies have empirically evaluated the role of privacy and trust in individual decision to adopt IPAs. In this study, we present findings from a survey of IPA users and non-users (N=1160) to understand (1) the motivations and barriers to adopting IPAs and (2) how concerns about data privacy and trust in company compliance with social contract related to IPA data affect acceptance and use of IPAs. We discuss our findings in light of social contract theory and frameworks of technology acceptance.
Eliciting Privacy Concerns for Smart Home Devices from a User Centered Perspective
George Mason University, United States of America
Smart homes are equipped with an ecosystem of devices that support humans in their everyday activities, ranging from entertainment, lighting and security systems. Although smart devices provide home automation features that are convenient, comfortable, and easy to control, they also pose critical privacy risks for users, especially considering their continuous ability to sense users' information and connect to web services. To elicit privacy concerns from a user-centric perspective, the authors performed a thorough analysis of 128 online reviews of consumers of smart home hubs – including Amazon Echo, Google Home, Wink and Insteon. The reviews, filtered from a set of 66656 selected reviews, expressed users’ concerns about privacy. The reviews were coded and classified according to four information security principles and temporal dimensions ranging from data collection to information sharing. A discussion on how to improve the design of smart home devices with privacy-enhanced solutions is provided.
A Study of Usage and Usability of Intelligent Personal Assistants in Denmark
Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
Intelligent personal assistants (IPA), such as Siri, Google Assistant, Alexa, and Cortana, are becoming an increasingly popular way of interacting with our smartphones and typically the only way of interacting with smart speakers. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on all aspects of IPAs in recent years, such as studies of usage of and user satisfaction with IPAs. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies have focused on English as the interaction language.
In this paper, we investigate the usage and perceived usability of IPAs in Denmark. We conduct a questionnaire with 357 Danish-speaking respondents that sheds light on how IPAs are used in Denmark. We find they are only used regularly by 19.9% of respondents and that most people do not find IPAs to be reliable. We also conduct a usability study of Siri and find that Siri suffers from several issues when used in Danish: poor voice recognition, unnatural dialogue responses, and an inability to support mixed-language speech recognition. Our findings shed light on both the current state of usage and adoption of IPAs in Denmark as well as the usability of its most popular IPA in a foreign-language setting.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Papers 4: Identity Questions in Online Communities|
Session Chair: Denise E. Agosto, Drexel University
“Autsome”: Fostering an Autistic Identity in an Online Minecraft Community for Youth with Autism
Northwestern University, United States of America
Autism is a medical diagnosis that has attracted much attention in recent decades, particularly due to an increase in the numbers of children being diagnosed and the changing requirements for getting the diagnosis. In parallel online communities around autism—both those supporting individuals and families seeking treatment and those supporting embracing the autism identity—have grown. Previous literature has shown the positive impact support groups can have for those encountering hardship in their lives, such as depression. In this qualitative study of an online community for autistic children centered around a virtual world, we explore how the label “autism” can be not only a source of disenfranchisement, leading to harassment and violence—in both the virtual and physical world—, but also a source of empowerment and identity. We illuminate the tension in claiming the autistic identity within this community—having a sense of identity in the community, but, in doing so, also “othering” those with autism further. The walls of the community work to keep community members safe, but also set them apart from others on the internet. We see that the Autcraft community goes beyond being a support group for victims of targeted violence, to one that redefines and helps community members embrace their own autistic identities.
Skins for Sale: Linking Player Identity, Representation, and Purchasing Practices
1Stony Brook University, Long Island, New York; 2Penn State University, Pennsylvania; 3College of Westchester, White Plains, NY; 4University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 5N/A
Although understudied, microtransactions are becoming widespread in games, especially for the purchase of aesthetic variation in-game. In this paper, we review literature around representation in games and purchas-ing practices tied to player racial identity to provide insight on how in-game racial representational options and microtransactions may impact purchasing practices of players of diverse racial backgrounds. We select-ed articles which articulate racial identity, representation in games, and purchasing practices in ways that could be applied to the in-game pur-chases of non-white character representation in the form of “skins.” The diversity of both players and game characters is steadily increasing in the US. Several of the sources we review here examine this theme and how it is felt by players of color. In this review we thread together re-search that has focused on the state and effect of representation in games, with research considering the role of racial identity in consumer practice to better examine how players of color feel about purchasing self-representation in games
Looking for Group: Live Streaming Programming for Small Audiences
Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, United States of America
Live streams are used by some people to broadcast themselves doing creative work such as programming. To understand why individuals choose to stream themselves writing code, we interviewed eight streamers with small audiences of ten or fewer viewers. Several of these individuals were in a transitionary stage that supported a streaming lifestyle, and were seeking feedback and live companionship. These findings guide a discussion of the implications of creative live streams for people under-going life transitions, and how learners might use streams to support their learning objectives.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||SIE 1: Education for the Information Professions|
Education for the Information Professions
This session is organized by ALISE as the first inter-association (ALISE, ASIS&T, iSchools) session at the iConference. This follows on similar panels (different topics) presented at the 2017 ASIS&T conference, the 2018 ALISE conference, and scheduled for the 2018 ASIS&T conference, as well as earlier discussions on the topic of education for the information professions at various conferences. This session is intended to be one of several avenues for cooperation among these three disciplinary associations. This SIE session will consist of a focused discussion on education for the information professions, to identity areas of agreement, common challenges and issues, and to generate ideas and creative approaches to teaching and learning in the information fields. The purpose is to focus on high-level questions and issues, rather than specific pedagogical techniques or concerns.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||SIE 2: How do we promote public engagement with science?|
|Chasen Family Room|
How do we promote public engagement with science?
In recent years, information about science is becoming more easily obtained, circulated, and co-produced by the general public. The prevalence of online communication, including social media, offers resources for citizens seeking concise explanations of complex scientific issues. Similarly, the emergence of online citizen science projects provides ordinary citizens the opportunity to assist scientists in co-producing new scientific knowledge. These online platforms have created both opportunities and challenges for scientists and the general public when interacting with each other. This Session for Interaction and Engagement includes lightning talks by panelists and invites participants to discuss questions regarding public engagement with science as members of the iSchool community.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||iSchool Partnerships and Practices, Part 1 of 3|
Session Chair: Elke Greifeneder, Humboldt-University Berlin
Collaborating with Industry: Best Practices & Lessons Learned
Data-Driven Innovation: Managing a Project Including Multiple Business Partners
University of Borås, Sweden
The proposal describes an ongoing research project called Data-Driven Innovation which comprises 14 researchers and 13 business partners. The project is characterized by partnership, collaboration, and interaction between the involved researchers and the business partners. The purpose of the project is to identify tools that can support the business partners in their efforts to exploit data in order to enhance service delivery and to create competitive advantage. The project is applying a socio-technical perspective in order to avoid a too one-sided technical focus. The proposal ends with presenting a number of challenges due to the increased complexity concerning the management of multiple business partners and researchers. The challenges are: maintaining the balance between competing interests, managing the problem of generalization, mutual learning, and ensure partnership throughout the project.
Title of submission: Innovation recognition as a knowledge management practice in an iSchool: an ongoing experience from Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain
We present our experience of design and implementation of an internal system of recognition of innovation in our iSchool (Faculty of Computer Sciences,Multimedia and Telecommunication at UOC, Barcelona). The system retrieves innovations done by the faculty members, reviews them using a peer review approach, elicits innovation actions done every year and share them among faculty members. We discuss the impact of this experience as an internal initiative and practice of knowledge management in our academic department. We think this experience may be extended to our whole university or to other iSchools, with potential similar benefits we have tested in our iSchool.
Community and Industrial Partnerships for Improved Faculty Research and Student Experience in Biomedical Informatics
IUPUI, United States of America
The Department of BioHealth Informatics at IUPUI School of Informatics and Computing has successfully built strong collaborations and partnerships with local communities, research centers, and biomedical technology industries. The department drafted a 5-year strategic plan to foster the teamwork and practice, which benefit both faculty and students. The department also recruited members for the BHI industrial advisory boards with diverse backgrounds from local industries, which strengthen our programs to meet the industrial needs, promote faculty interactions with local communities, and increase student employment opportunities. BHI faculty have been successful to build new collaborative projects and secure joint grants. Students have enriched learning experience from professional oriented projects and internships with local companies. The practices can be easily extended to other informatics disciplines easily.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||Graduate Program Directors|
|Offsite: College of Information Studies Room 2119|
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||Lunch break (meal provided by the conference)|
|Chesapeake/General Vessey Ballroom|
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||SP1: Elsevier: Building Research Data Management Librarian Academy (RDMLA)|
|Chesapeake/General Vessey Ballroom|
Building Research Data Management Librarian Academy (RDMLA)
1Simmons University, United States of America; 2Harvard Medical School, United States of America
RDMLA is an English-language online training program for practicing librarians throughout the world. The curriculum focuses on the essential knowledge and skills needed by librarians to collaborate effectively with researchers to offer data management services. This is a unique partnership between a library school, health sciences libraries, academic research libraries, and a publisher. Partner institutions include: Harvard University, Simmons University (Simmons School of Library and Information Science and Simmons Online), Boston University, Tufts University, MCPHS University, Northeastern University, Brown University, and Elsevier, which financially supported the program. More than 15 librarians have been involved in developing the Academy units.
The RDMLA curriculum consists of eight units: Foundations of Research Data Management (RDM); Navigating Research Data Culture; Advocating and Marketing the Value of RDM in Libraries; Case Studies in Establishing Data Services in Libraries; Project Management and Assessment; Overview of Data Analysis and Visualization Tools; Python and Jupyter Notebook; and an Overview of Platform Tools. All Academy content will be open via CC-BY licensing. The RDMLA will be launched in Summer, 2019. The lunch presentation will provide an overview of the program and give a description of the course units planned for the Academy.
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||iSchools Meeting 4A: All Heads of iSchools, Part 1 of 2|
Session Chair: Sam Oh, Sungkyunkwan University
|Chasen Family Room|
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 5: Measuring and Tracking Scientific Literature|
Session Chair: Peter Darch, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Dead science: most resources linked in biomedical articles disappear in eight years
1School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, United States of America; 2School of Information Management, Nanjing University, China
Scientific progress critically depends on disseminating analytic pipelines and datasets that make results reproducible and replicable. Increasingly, researchers make resources available for wider reuse and embed links to them in their published manuscripts. Previous research has shown that these resources become unavailable over time but the extent and causes of this problem in open access publications has not been explored well. By using 1.9 million articles from PubMed Open Access, we estimate that half of all resources become unavailable after 8 years. We find that the number of times a resource has been used, the international (int) and organization (org) domain suffixes, and the number of affiliations are positively related to resources being available. In contrast, we found that the length of the URL, Indian (in), European Union (eu), and Chinese (cn) domain suffixes, and abstract length are negatively related to the decay of a resource. Our results contribute to our understanding of resource sharing in science and provide some guidance to solve resource decay.
Are papers with open data more credible? An analysis of open data availability in retracted PLoS articles
1Rutgers, United States of America; 2Villanova, United States of America; 3University of Missouri, United States of America
Open data has been hailed as an important corrective for the credibility crisis in science. This paper makes an initial attempt to measure the relationship between open data and credible research by analyzing the number of retracted articles with attached or open data in an open access science journal. Using Retraction Watch, retracted papers published in PLoS between 2014 and 2018 are identified. Of the 152 total retracted papers, fewer than 15% attached their data. Since about half of the published articles have open data, and so few of the retracted ones do, we put forth the preliminary notion that open data, especially high quality and well-curated data, might imply scientific credibility.
The Spread and Mutation of Science Misinformation
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
As the media environment has shifted towards digitization, we have seen the roles of creating, curating and correcting information shift from professional “gatekeeper” journalists to a broader media industry and the general public. This shift has led to the spread of misinformation. Though political “fake news” is currently a popular area of study, this study investigates an-other related phenomenon: science misinformation. Consistent exposure to science misinformation has been shown to cultivate false beliefs about risks, causes and prevalence of illnesses and disincentivize the public from implementing healthy lifestyle changes. Despite the need for more research, science misinformation dissemination studies are scarce. Through a case study that traces the spread of information about one specific article through hyperlink citations, this study adds valuable insights into the inner workings of media networks, conceptualizations of misinformation spread and methodological approaches to multi-platform misinformation tracing. The case study illustrates the over-reliance of media sources on secondary information and the novel phenomenon of constantly mutating online content. The original misinformant is able to remove misleading in-formation, and as a result, all of the subsequent articles end up referencing misinformation to a source that no longer exists. This ability to update con-tent online breaks the information flow process: news stories no longer rep-resent a snapshot in time but instead living, mutating organisms, making any study of media networks increasingly complex.
Exploring Scholarly Impact Metrics in Receipt of Highly Prestigious Awards
1University Libraries, Texas A&M University, United States of America; 2Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, United States of America
The authoritative data that underlies research information management (RIM) systems supports fine-grained analyses of faculty members’ research practices and output, data-driven decision making, and organizational research management. Administrators at Texas A&M University (TAMU) asked the University Libraries to develop institutional reports that describe faculty research practices and identify their research strengths. The library runs Scholars@TAMU (https://scholars.library.tamu.edu/) based on VIVO, a member-supported, open source, semantic-web software program, as the university’s RIM system. This paper explores the scholarly impact and collaboration practices of senior faculty members in the College of Engineering at TAMU and identifies relationships between their impact metrics and collaboration practices. Full professors were divided into three groups: (1) those who received highly prestigious (HP) awards, (2) those who received prestigious (P) awards, and (3) those who did not receive any awards categorized as either HP or P by the National Research Council. The study’s results showed that the faculty members with HP awards had significantly higher mean ranks for their total citation count, the citation count of their top cited article, their h-index, and their total number of publications than did the faculty members without any HP or P awards. The findings from this study can inform researchers, university administrators, and bibliometric communities about the use of awards as an indicator that corresponds to other research performance indicators. Furthermore, researchers could also use the study’s results to develop a machine-learning model that could identify those faculty who are on track to win HP awards in the future.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 6: Limits and Affordances of Automation|
Session Chair: Radhika Garg, Syracuse University
Automating Documentation: A critical perspective into the role of artificial intelligence in clinical documentation
1Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford. OX1 3JS, UK; 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
The current conversation around automation and artificial intelligence technolo-gies creates a future vision where humans may not possibly compete against in-telligent machines, and that everything that can be automated through deep learn-ing, machine learning, and other AI technologies will be automated. In this article, we focus on general practitioner documentation of the patients’ clinical encounter, and explore how these work practices lend themselves to automation by AI. While these work practices may appear perfect to automate, we reveal potential negative consequences to automating these tasks, and illustrate how AI may ren-der important aspect of this work invisible and remove critical thinking. We con-clude by highlighting the specific features of clinical documentation work that could leverage the benefits of human-AI symbiosis.
Toward Three-Stage Automation of Detecting and Classifying Human Values
1Kyushu University, Japan; 2University of Maryland, USA; 3The University of Texas at Austin, USA; 4National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan
Prior work on automated annotation of human values has sought to train text classification techniques to label text spans with labels that reflect specific human values such as freedom, justice, or safety. This confounds three tasks: (1) selecting the documents to be labeled, (2) selecting the text spans that express or reflect human values, and (3) assigning labels to those spans. This paper proposes a three-stage model in which separate systems can be optimally trained for each of the three stages. Experiments from the first stage, document selection, indicate that annotation diversity trumps annotation quality, suggesting that when multiple annotators are available, the traditional practice of adjudicating conflicting annotations of the same documents is not as cost effective as an alternative in which each annotator labels different documents. Preliminary results for the second stage, selecting value sentences, indicate that high recall (94%) can be achieved on that task with levels of precision (above 80%) that seem suitable for use as part of a multi-stage annotation pipeline. The annotations created for these experiments are being made freely available, and the content that was annotated is available from commercial sources at modest cost.
Illegal Aliens or Undocumented Immigrants? Towards the Automated Identification of Bias by Word Choice and Labeling
1University of Konstanz, Germany; 2University of Wuppertal, Germany
Media bias, i.e., slanted news coverage, can strongly impact the public perception of topics reported in the news. While the analysis of media bias has recently gained attention in computer science, the automated methods and results tend to be simplistic when compared to approaches and results in the social sciences, where researchers have studied media bias for decades. We propose Newsalyze, a work-in-progress prototype that imitates a manual analysis concept for media bias established in the social sciences. Newsalyze aims to find instances of bias by word choice and labeling in a set of news articles reporting on the same event. Bias by word choice and labeling (WCL) occurs when journalists use different phrases to refer to the same semantic concept, e.g., actors or actions. This way, bias by WCL can induce strongly divergent emotional responses from their readers, such as the terms "illegal aliens" vs. "undocumented immigrants." We describe two critical tasks of the analysis workflow, finding and mapping such phrases, and estimating their effects on readers. For both tasks, we also present first results, which indicate the effectiveness of exploiting methods and models from the social sciences in an automated approach.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 7: Collecting Data about Vulnerable Populations|
Session Chair: Amelia Acker, University of Texas at Austin
Documenting the Undocumented: Privacy and Security Guidelines for Humanitarian Work with Irregular Migrants
1University of Washington; 2University of Kentucky
Humanitarian organizations frequently do not fully address the implications of collecting, storing, and using data about vulnerable populations. We propose a conceptual framework for Humanitarian Information Activities (HIA), especially in the context of undocumented migration. We examine this framework in the light of both a survey of the literature and a pilot study that examines HIA activities in three distinct contexts: 1) higher education institutions that provide support to undocumented students, 2) non-profit organizations that provide legal support to undocumented immigrants, and 3) humanitarian organizations assisting undocumented migrants near the US-Mexico border. We discuss both technological and human risks in HIA, the limitations of privacy self-management, and the need for clear privacy-related guidelines for HIA. We conclude suggesting guidelines to strengthen the privacy protection offered to vulnerable populations by humanitarian organizations in the context of irregular migration.
Applying photovoice to the study of Asian immigrants’ information needs
1Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia; 2University of South Australia; 3City University of Hong Kong
Immigrants in their new country may have diverse and complex information needs. Appropriate methods are part of scientific discourse on how to effectively engage with immigrants to reflect their information needs and life experiences. This paper discusses the application of the photovoice method to study Asian im-migrants’ information needs as they settled in South Australia. As a participatory approach, photovoice allowed immigrants to take photos to actively record their own information needs and concerns. We reflected how photovoice can contrib-ute to a comprehensive understanding of immigrants’ information needs by overcoming language barriers and expressing personal feelings and emotions. Photovoice is considered to be a useful method for studying vulnerable or un-derrepresented populations.
Investigating Health Self-Management among Immigrant College Students with Depression
1University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; 2Indiana University, Bloomington; 3College of Westchester; 4University of Pittsburgh; 5University of Washington; 6University of Maryland, College Park; 7University of California, Irvine
Digital tools for health hold a lot of promise in terms of empowering individuals to take control over their health and improving access to care. This may be especially critical for marginalized individuals, such as immigrant college students, and those who face stigmatizing conditions, such as depression. However, research is limited on how these tools fit into users’ existing practices around health management. In order to address this gap, we first investigate existing practices by focusing on a specific population: college students with depression ranging from immigrant generation 1 to 2.5. This group is important to study as they are at an increased risk for depression but may be less likely to access traditional treatment. We present results about their practices around health self-tracking and digital tools specific to depression management. Based on a survey of 83 participants, we found that although students with depression across these various immigrant generations engage in health self-tracking (94%), few track mental health indicators and most do not use mobile apps (81.9%) or other online resources (86.7%) to help with their depression. Those that do use apps and online resources offer insights into their depression management needs.
Proposing “Mobile, Finance, and Information” Toolkit for Financial Inclusion of the Poor in Developing Countries
1University of Tennessee at Knoxville, United States of America; 2Central University of Gujarat, India
Since 2015, the Government of India has been designing policies for transforming the country with over 400 million unbanked adults into a cashless economy so that a majority of financial transactions can be carried over mobile devices, the most widely used information and communication technology in the country. However, over 200 million adults earning less than $2 a day have a low or little mobile, financial, or information literacy. This short paper reports a newly proposed interdisciplinary, six-step toolkit operationalized using a survey questionnaire, focus group prompts, and hands-on training for developing mobile, financial, and information literacy among the poor in developing countries like India. Implications for public libraries, governments, and the poor in developing countries and beyond are discussed at the end.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Papers 8: Supporting Communities Through Public Libraries and Infrastructure|
Session Chair: Rachel Ivy Clarke, Syracuse University
Intentionality, Interactivity, and Community: A Conceptual Framework for Professional Development in Children’s Librarianship
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2Kent State University, United States of America
Public libraries are increasingly being recognized as community anchors, sites of crucial and significant informal learning for children and families. Within children’s services, early literacy storytimes are perceived as a mainstay of public library programming. That said, there is increasing pres-sure on both formal and informal prekindergarten learning environments to significantly improve the literacy skills in young children. Moreover, there is an expansion of library programs being designed to incorporate early lit-eracy research. It is important for storytime providers to have a conceptual understanding of the purpose for the work they do. And yet they often lack a sufficient understanding of how to support learning for young children. Project VIEWS2, through its quasi-experimental intervention, provided a research-based framework—intentionality, interactivity, and community--that can support the work that storytime providers do to support children and families through early learning-rich storytime programs in the public library. Follow-up interviews and a survey of VIEWS2 participant sto-rytime providers demonstrates the impact of this framework in the field, through discussion of intentional and interactive practice and the effects of community on sustaining and growing the work storytime providers do to serve their communities.
The Role of Community Data in Helping Public Libraries Reach and Serve Underserved Communities
1Kent State University, United States of America; 2University of Washington, United States of America
Public libraries have recognized that children and families in underserved communities, who often need their services the most, are not coming into the library due to a variety of barriers. To reach and serve these children and families, libraries have been taking their programs and services out into community locations to meet families where they are. To do this effectively libraries need to collect data on these community groups to better understand their needs. Project LOCAL, an IMLS-funded grant that explored how libraries are going out into their communities to reach and serve families in underserved communities, found that libraries are collecting community data from a variety of sources to understand the needs of their communities. Furthermore, the libraries are using this community need data in the planning and development of their programs and services offered to these families.
Participatory Development of an Open Source Broadband Measurement Platform for Public Libraries
1Simmons University, United States of America; 2Open Technology Institute, New America, United States; 3Internet2, United States
Public libraries need access to reliable, automated, and longitudinal data on the speed and quality of service of their broadband Internet connections. Having such data at a local, granular level is essential for libraries to under-stand how their broadband infrastructure can meet their communities’ digital demands, as well as inform local, state, and national broadband planning efforts in the U.S. This paper contributes a participatory research methodology and an information system design proposal to investigate how public libraries can utilize broadband measurement tools to achieve these goals. The purpose of the research is to assist public libraries in gaining a better understanding of the relationship between their network infrastructure and digital services. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the expected findings from our project, which builds upon existing research that examined how broadband measurement tools can be utilized in public schools.
Rural Broadband and Advanced Manufacturing: Research Implications for Information Studies
Florida State Unviersity, United States of America
Advanced manufacturing (AM) is a key driver of the U.S. economy. It is also crucial in building U.S. competitiveness to strengthening the scientific and engi-neering enterprise and providing transformative science and technology solutions. In AM, an essential affordance of those technologies is broadband connectivity. Broadband technology will be a key enabler to successful U.S. competition with increasingly customized products aimed at increasingly segmented markets the re-ly on Internet-enabled “smart” production. However, our review of policy and re-search suggests that little is known about the extent to which the broadband envi-ronment in the United States is able to support and enable AM. In this paper, we will explore rural communities’ AM readiness. Specifically, we will provide a brief review of literature relating to the centrality of broadband Internet to AM; the state of broadband in rural communities; and the potential for AM transform rural communities. We will conclude with promising directions for research. Tak-en together, this paper will offer several promising directions for further investi-gation into the relationship between broadband and advanced manufacturing in rural communities.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||SIE 3: Playing around: Informing, including, and inspiring youth-centered information researchers|
Playing around: Informing, including, and inspiring youth-centered information researchers
This interactive session will bring together youth information scholars, graduate students who study youth and information, and practitioners who work with youth in a variety of information environments for a creative ideas exchange about youth-centered information research writ large. It will address methods for negotiating access to youth research participants, ideas for navigating the wild world of IRB, other institutional policies, and community-wide directions in information research both with youth and with the adult intermediaries who serve them. Ideas exchange will comprise creative interaction methods, including verbal, tactile, and visual activities that can be used with youth in youth-centered research projects or with students in academic settings, from preschool to graduate school. Above all, this session will serve to uncover research and scholarship synergies among iConference participants with interests in young people’s interaction with information.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||iSchools Meeting 4B: All Heads of iSchools, Part 2 of 2|
Session Chair: Sam Oh, Sungkyunkwan University
|Chasen Family Room|
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Blue Sky Paper 1|
Session Chair: John King, University of Michigan
Disrupting the Coming Robot Stampedes: Designing Resilient Information Ecologies
1University of Maryland, Baltimore County, United States of America; 2ASRC Federal
Machines are designed to communicate widely and efficiently. Humans, less so. We evolved social structures that function best as small subgroups interacting within larger populations. Technology changes this dynamic, by allowing all individuals to be connected at the speed of light. A dense, tightly connected population can behave like a single agent. In animals, this happens in constrained areas where stampedes can easily form. Machines do not need these kinds of conditions. The very techniques used to design best-of-breed solutions may increase the risk of dangerous mass behaviors among homogeneous machines. In this paper we argue that ecologically-based design principles such as the presence of diversity are a broadly effective strategy to defend against unintended consequences at scale.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||Graduate Program Directors|
|3:00pm - 3:30pm||Break|
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 9: Information Behaviors in Academic Environments|
Session Chair: Wu Dan, Wuhan University
From Gridiron Gang to Game Plan: Impact of ICTs on Student Athlete Information Seeking Practices, Routines, and Long-Term Goals
1Suffolk University, United States of America; 2Clemson University, United States of America; 3University of Maryland, College Park; 4Syracuse University, United States of America
Our qualitative study explores the lives of college student athletes and their use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as they plan their transition from student life to life after graduation. While ICTs such as social media, smartphones, and the internet are becoming more ubiquitous on college campuses and embedded within daily routines, student athletes contend with finding the appropriate information at the right time to navigate through critical life choices. In a thematic analysis of 15 interviews with U.S. student athletes, we uncover factors that affect ICT use in both their athletic and academic environments. We discuss ICTs as transition mediaries and present implications for college athletics programs to improve the holistic student athlete experience and the transition beyond college.
Mobile News Processing: University Students’ Reactions to Inclusion/Exclusion-Related News
Simmons University, United States of America
This paper presents the results of a diary study involving 49 university students reporting how they consume and react to news via their mobile phones. In their diary entries, participants used 23 pairs of semantic differential scales to express their reactions. Out of 265 political and society news items submitted, 68 were inclusion/exclusion-related news. The most frequent categories of inclusion/exclusion news were related to “ethnicity/race,” “gender/sexual orientation,” and “religion,” and these three groups of news items counted for over 85% of all inclusion/exclusion related news that were submitted. Significant differences were found in participants’ choices of semantic adjectives between inclusion news and exclusion news, as well as between inclusion/exclusion news and general news. Findings provide an insightful understanding of the interests, value judgment, and emotional attachments of university students in the US to inclusion/exclusion and to general news.
Sexual Information Behavior of Filipino University Students
1University of the Philippines, Philippines; 2University of California, Irvine
Having a better knowledge of sexual health could lead to having improved programs and projects in educating people who are sexually active, those who are curious about their sexuality, and those who are planning to engage in the sexual experience. Additionally, by learning more about sexual health and having an idea on what it is, it would help in letting people understand the concepts of sexuality, sexual relationships, and its role in creating better and efficient prevention pro-grams for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), teen pregnancy issues, and other concerns regarding sexual health.
This study aimed to find out the following: the sexual health information needs and seeking behavior of undergraduate students; as well as if user context played a vital role in affecting their sexual health information needs and/or seeking behavior. Through the use of an online survey among undergraduate students of the University of the Philippines Diliman, the study was able to present the sexual health information needs and sexual health information seeking behavior of the undergraduate students. It has also determined that various characteristics of undergraduate students have an association on whether they would seek sexual health information or not.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 10: Data-Driven Storytelling and Modeling|
Session Chair: Matthew Andrew Willis, University of Oxford
Engaging the Community Through Places: An User Study of People's Festival Stories
Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
People’s lived experiences, stories, and memories about local places endow meaning to a community, which can play an important role in community engagement. We investigated the meaning of place through the lens of people’s memories of a local arts festival. We first designed, developed, and deployed a web application to collect people’s festival stories. We then developed our interview study based on 28 stories collected through the web app in order to generate rich conversations with 18 festival attendees. Our study identifies three parallel meanings that a place can hold based on the following types of festival attendees: experience seekers, nostalgia travelers, and familiar explorers. We further discuss how information technology can facilitate community engagement based on those parallel meanings of place.
Understanding Partitioning and Sequence in Data-Driven Storytelling
1University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 2United States Naval Academy
The comic strip narrative style is an effective method for data-driven storytelling. However, surely it is not enough to just add some speech bubbles and clip art to your PowerPoint slideshow to turn it into a data comic? In this paper, we investigate aspects of partitioning and sequence as fundamental mechanisms for comic strip narration: chunking complex visuals into manageable pieces, and organizing them into a meaningful order, respectively. We do this by presenting results from a qualitative study designed to elicit differences in participant behavior when solving questions using a complex infographic compared to when the same visuals are organized into a data comic.
Modeling adoption behavior for innovation diffusion
1School of Information Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington,United States
Studying diffusion of innovation is getting critical given in the current AI era, an increasing number of new technologies have been developed to promote disruptive innovation. Unlike previous works which mainly consider direct influence between new technology adoption behaviors, a new model named as Adoption Behavior based Graphical Model(ABGM) is proposed by incorporating influence factor (i.e., homophily and heterophily) among users' adoption behavior towards new AI technologies. This model simulates the process of innovation diffusion and learns the diffusion patterns in a unied framework. We evaluate
the proposed model on a large-scale AI publication dataset from 2006 to 2015. Results show that ABGM outperforms start-of-art baselines and also demonstrates that the probability of individual user adopting an innovation is significantly influenced by the diffusion process through the correlation network.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 11: Online Activism|
Session Chair: Colin Rhinesmith, Simmons University
Information Bridges: Understanding the Informational Role of Network Brokerages in Polarised Online Discourses
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Abstract. Social networking and micro-blogging sites such as Twitter and Weibo have provided new platforms of public discussions for Internet us-ers. As the number of online social movements has increased in recent years, the Chinese government has adopted new media and has strategically confronted online social movements with orchestrated campaigns, which lead to a dichotomy between the Chinese government and civil society. Us-ing a network analysis perspective, this research aims at studying the polar-ization of Chinese online political discourse, by examining who are playing the key roles in bridging different voices and exchanging various view-points in an online debate. I collected data from a conversation network in a massive online protest on Weibo, visualised the polarization between the Chinese government and civil society, and analysed the typological differ-ences between the two groups. This research demonstrated the structural role of brokers in information diffusion within conversation network by using Susceptible-Infected (SI) simulation, showing that brokerage plays a key role in bridging the polarized online opinions and facilitating infor-mation diffusion. Taking a social network analysis perspective, this re-search re-examined Chinese contentious social movement under its politi-cal regime and can shed lights onto the understanding of the structural and informational roles of network brokerages for the deliberative democracy.
Putting the “Move” in Social Movements: Assessing the Role of Kama Muta in Online Activism
UCLA, United States of America
Today the structure of social media movements online is moving beyond just a means for communication and more into space for growing the movement, developing a brand, and solidifying the network for group action. Thus individual posts on personal profiles and group and event pages become an increasingly important element of participation. Emotions may drive these posts, as well as the responses to them. This study seeks to enter into conversation with previous works in the areas of communication, information studies, sociology, and anthropology that investigate the intersection of social media and activism. However, this study takes a novel approach through the particular focus on individual emotional elements of social media posting, sharing, commenting, and other forms of engagement. Using ethnographic methods of digital participant observation of five major activist Facebook groups, this study will examine the prevalence of content expressing or intending to evoke kama muta.
Crowdsourcing Change: A novel vantage point for investigating online petitioning platforms
Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
The internet connects people who are spatially and temporally separated. One result is new modes of reaching out to, organizing and mobilizing people, including online activism. Internet platforms can be used to mobilize people around specific concerns, short-circuiting structures such as organizational hierarchies or elected officials. These online processes allow consumers and concerned citizens to voice their opinions, often to businesses, other times to civic groups or other authorities. Not surprisingly, this opportunity has encouraged a steady rise in specialized platforms dedicated to online petitioning. These include Change.org, Care2 Petitions, MoveOn.org and others. These platforms are open to everyone; any individual or group who is affected by a problem or disappointed with the status quo, can raise awareness for or against corporate or government policies. Such platforms can empower ordinary citizens to bring about social change, by leveraging support from the masses. In this sense, the platforms allow citizens to “crowdsource change”. In this paper, we offer a comparative analysis of the affordances of four online petitioning platforms, and use this analysis to propose ideas for design enhancements to online petitioning platforms.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||Papers 12: Digital Libraries, Curation and Preservation|
Session Chair: Ricky Punzalan, University of Maryland College of Information Studies
Understanding Change in a Dynamic Complex Digital Object: Reading Categories of Change out of Patch Notes Documents
1University of Texas at Austin, United States of America; 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; 3University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Digital games are complex digital objects that straddle the line between leisure and work, and offer a unique source for contextualizing the role of change in engaging with digital objects. Understanding how complex digital objects evolve over time, and how such objects are framed as changing objects allows us to develop a more nuanced model for how different kinds of changes function in the lives of complex digital objects. This paper analyzes several years of patch notes for the digital game League of Legends through the methodology of reading to construct categories of kinds of changes and interpret the different roles of those categories. We propose a taxonomy of changes to a key part of the game ecosystem, and describe how the categories in this taxonomy limn a perspective on dynamic, complex digital objects that can lead to more nuanced and robust preservation efforts.
Save Point/s: Competing Values and Practices in the Field of Video Game Preservation
1University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 2University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines
This paper presents a Bourdieuvian way of understanding video game preservation as a nascent field with its discourse and praxis shaped by ontological differences and conflicting power structures. This is illustrated through a spectrum of valuation that treats video games as material artifacts on one end and embraces its ephemerality on the other. Video game preservation literature and initiatives are likely to lean towards one of these extremes which focuses either on ensuring the playability of games or documenting of gameplay and its expressions. These competing values and practices can be seen further by classifying and mapping out participants, illustrating power relations. There are points of overlap and tensions between industry players, cultural institutions, and fans given their respective conflicting nature, intent, and mechanisms when it comes to video game preservation. The shape and sustainability of this emerging field and frontier, the paper posits in the end, depend on how these tensions are addressed hopefully towards inclusion and collaboration.
Characterizing Same Work Relationships in Large-Scale Digital Libraries
University of Denver, United States of America
As digital libraries grow, they are prompting new consideration into same-work relationships. They provide unique opportunities for resource discovery but their scale and federated origins lead to challenges presented by duplicates and variants. Addressing this problem is complicated by metadata inconsistencies as well as structural/content differences. Following from work in algorithmically identifying duplicate works in the HathiTrust Digital Library, we present some cases that complicate our existing language for work entity relationships. These serve to contextualize the complexities of same-work alignment in digital libraries and ground future discussion around content similarity.
Prevalence and use of the term “business model” in the digital cultural heritage institution professional literature
1University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America; 2University College Dublin
We investigate how the term “business model" was used in the digital cultural heritage literature from 2000 to 2015 through content analysis. We found that discussion of business models is not prevalent and there is no observable growth trend. Analysis of how authors represented business models showed predominately positive uses of the concept although we found some discussion of tension between the concept of business model and traditional cultural heritage field values. We found that non- element representations of business models were more common than element representations. Within element representations the most common elements are income, customers, and partnerships.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||SIE 4: Undergraduate Data Science Education in iSchools: Current Practices and Future Directions|
Undergraduate Data Science Education in iSchools: Current Practices and Future Directions
Since Song and Zhu (2016) concluded that undergraduate data science programs are “at the beginning step” in 2016 (Song & Zhu, 2016), many iSchools have initiated diverse data science programs to meet the shortage of data scientists. Educators of iSchools may have questions regarding how to define, and cultivate data science programs in iSchools, which originally have grown from the combination of computer science, statistics, and mathematics disciplines. Participants from institutions with undergraduate data science programs will present undergraduate data science recruitment processes,
curriculums, barriers, and best practices through panel presentations. The session then has active discussion sessions with the audience. The session will conclude by initiating the development of a common repository of undergraduate data science curricula (syllabi, assessments, etc.), articulating a framework from which to build a successful undergraduate data science education model, and building consensus on possible future actions and venues for maintaining a network of undergraduate data science educators.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||SIE 5: Family Matters: Studying Information Phenomena Within the Context of the Family|
|Chasen Family Room|
Family Matters: Studying Information Phenomena Within the Context of the Family
In this session for interaction and engagement, participants will engage in small- and large-group discussions focused on the unique opportunities and challenges that arise in family-focused information science research. Situating research within the context of the family can impact the ways in which information phenomena are understood theoretically, the methods that are used to investigate said phenomena, and the findings of such research. Approaching the study of information phenomena in this way can also present a unique set of challenges. These and other topics will be part of small-group discussions led by the key participants, all who have experience conducting research that engages with the concept of the family in some way. This session will conclude with a large-group discussion that will center on the ways in which information science can both enrich and be enriched by family-focused research.
|3:30pm - 5:00pm||iSchool Partnerships and Practices, Part 2 of 3|
Session Chair: Marcelo Milrad
New Teaching Concepts at iSchools
Teaching Functional Coding Skills: Designing assignments that challenge, inspire, and support
University of Maryland - College Park, United States of America
Teaching programming-aided subjects in an iSchool where coding proficiency is, by design, not a prerequisite, is difficult. Challenges include:
- classes with students of varied experience with coding in general and the chosen language in particular,
- large class sizes complicating 1-on-1 support and troubleshooting,
- students struggling to focus on the classic, boring Code-Along,
- and problems guiding students in the transition from tutorials to writing original code.
This presentation will answer these difficulties by equipping attendees with pedagogical techniques for engaging students through active learning, explaining design principles for challenging students at all ability levels, and exploring methods of helping students develop the skill sets needed for programming independence.
Teachers and aspiring teachers at all professional levels will be able to benefit. The example exercise will focus on an undergraduate data science class and use Python, but lessons are applicable to subjects and levels across iSchool programs.
Relevance in Learning: connecting research and practice through participatory course design
Rutgers University, United States of America
“Relevance in Learning” is a curriculum development initiative adopted into practice in 2015 for the Master of Information (MI) Program at Rutgers University. It is an approach that engages participation of faculty, practitioners, students, alumni and instructional designers in an effort to balance theoretical, applied, pedagogical and pragmatic components of course design. This presentation will discuss project conceptualization, implementation and application. This initiative brings faculty and practitioners together to discuss content and learning objectives in a way that balances theory and practice. The overarching goal is to facilitate a stronger connection between the knowledge and skills students learn in an academic context in a way that will have greater relevance to the professional worlds they choose to enter.
INSiDR – a multi-disciplinary industrial graduate school in digital retailing
1University of Borås, Sweden; 2Jönköping University, Sweden
INSiDR is a multi-disciplinary industrial graduate school in digital retailing, consisting of 10 PhD students within business administration, textile management, informatics, and information technology. The graduate school will provide Swedish companies in the retail industry with highly skilled graduates, whose knowledge and competences will enhance their competitiveness in a market where digitalization has a profound impact. In the school, industrial and scientific challenges related to the digitalization of retail are addressed, spanning from new business models and markets logics to data management and data analytics. The graduate school is implemented in close collaboration with participating companies, from formulation of PhD projects and joint selection of candidates, and through shared supervision and management of each PhD project. The school setup also includes a number of activities for knowledge dissemination, within academia, participating industrial partners, and the wider retail sector.
|5:00pm - 6:30pm||Break / Banquet Travel|
1300 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20004
|6:30pm - 9:30pm||Banquet|
1300 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20004