The Social Media and Civic Engagement Matrix
1Kalamazoo College, United States of America; 2University of Michigan, United States of America
This poster presents a framework for classifying online civic behaviors expressed in social media. We draw attention to how engaged communities report high qualities of life, and then we argue prior research typically portrays engagements as positive and cooperative. We explain why prior studies seem to take the view they do and present findings from an interview study that suggests civic engagement often feels uncomfortable or negative. We propose a two-dimensional matrix of sociality and efficacy—the Social Media and Civic Engagement Matrix—that provides a useful theoretical tool for thinking about civic engagement activities. Finally, we conclude by outlining plans for future research using our framework.
Participatory Development of an Open Source Broadband Measurement Platform for Public Libraries
1Simmons University, United States of America; 2Open Technology Institute, New America, United States of America; 3Internet2, United States of America
Public libraries need access to reliable, automated, and longitudinal data on the speed and quality of service of their broadband Internet connections. Having such data at a local, granular level is essential for libraries to understand how their broadband infrastructure can meet their communities’ digital demands, as well as inform local, state, and national broadband planning efforts in the U.S. This paper presents a participatory research methodology and an information system design to investigate how public libraries can utilize broadband measurement tools to help achieve these goals.
Towards a Domain Ontology for Data Assemblages
Simmons University, United States of America
Critical data studies (CDS) is an interdisciplinary research area concerned with the critical, systematic investigation of socio-technical infrastructures involving data, called data assemblages. CDS scholars have expressed a de-sire for more empirical studies that compare data assemblages, trace their change over time, and that offer insights to inform their design. This poster describes the development of research infrastructure to support these stud-ies: a prototype, extensible domain ontology and glossary based upon Ma-nuel DeLanda's neo-assemblage theory (NAT). These knowledge representa-tion tools are intended to consolidate and codify shared knowledge about assemblage theory and ultimately to enable researchers to describe, model, and compare assemblages and their topologies. The prototype NAT ontolo-gy and glossary were developed using a lightweight version of the Unified Process for Ontology building (UPONLite). Future work will involve ex-tending the NAT ontology to support data assemblage concepts and rela-tionships using a method similar to Grounded Ontology (GO). It is antici-pated that scholars may also use these two tools to support work involving other types of assemblages or use the ontology construction method to de-velop an ontological model of their preferred social theory.
Algorithmic Accountability in Surveillance Regulation
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Washington, United States of America; 3University of Washington, United States of America
We conduct an ethnographic case study of the 2017 Seattle Surveillance Ordinance and place it in the context of recent and ongoing legal efforts in other cities. We evaluate these policies through the lens of sociotechnical interventions to prevent algorithmic harms. Our evidence suggests that ex-isting regulatory efforts do not fully anticipate analytic capabilities of algo-rithmic systems. We argue that finer-grained distinctions between types of surveillance systems would strengthen surveillance regulation by making their underlying methods more legible to political and community stake-holders.
How comprehensive is the PubMed Central Open Access full-text database?
Department of Information Science, Drexel University, United States of America
The comprehensiveness of database is a prerequisite for the quality of scientific works established on this increasingly significant infrastructure. This is especially so for large-scale text-mining analyses of scientific publications facilitated by open-access full-text scientific databases. Given the lack of research concerning the comprehensiveness of this type of academic resource, we conducted a project to analyze the coverage of materials in the PubMed Central Open Access Subset (PMCOAS), a popular source for open-access scientific publications, in terms of the PubMed database. The preliminary results show that the PMCOAS coverage is in a rapid increase in recent years, despite the vast difference by MeSH descriptor.
Decision-making processes for e-book products: mixture of institutional and rational actions
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
In this study, I examine the decision-making processes employed by academic librarians to purchase e-book products through interviews. I first investigate my participants' perceptions of the context in which they made their purchasing deci-sions. I then explore the mixture of institutional and rational actions found in the described decision-making processes. I conclude by discussing the driving factors that drove participants' adoption of these different actions.
The Economic Value of Personal Information Under the Situation of Information Leakage
1Center for Studies of Information Resources，Wuhan University; 2Aalto University School of Business，Finland
In recent years, there are increasing concerns on personal information leak-age. As a result, implementing differentiated protection according to con-sumers’ preferences is necessary. Based on discrete choice model, this paper seeks to quantify the economic value of different types of personal infor-mation by studying individuals’ willingness to accept compensations at dif-ferent situations of information leakage. The results show that individuals generally attach great importance to basic personal information, but have lit-tle concerns on their social network information. Individuals value all types of personal information differently based on their gender, age, education and frequency of Internet use. The results of which are expected to aid stake-holders in adjusting their information collection strategies.
Social Media Policy Analysis for Primary and Secondary Public Schools and Districts
University of Tennessee, United States of America
Social networking sites are ubiquitous channels for communication. Adoption and use are widespread, and demographic characteristics of adopters are diffuse. With social networking sites an indelible component of the contemporary communication and information landscape, information policies have been enacted to inform, guide and regulate adopters’ use in a variety of settings. Taking a census approach, this study investigates the state of social media policies in a particular setting: public schools and public school districts in the state of Tennessee. Public schools present a unique lens to examine social media policies as the contexts (intra- and extramural) and potential stakeholders addressed (e.g., students, teachers, administrators, parents, volunteers) are diverse. In particular, the age of minor students presents an interesting challenge as policies may address their social networking activities, even though students may be too young, per the terms of service agreements of social networking applications, to participate. The poster to be presented will report preliminary findings on the extent, scope and content of social media policies for 146 school districts and 1,744 public schools in Tennessee.
A Comparative Study on Data Science and Information Science: From the Perspective of Job Market Demands in China
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
With the development of big data, data science related positions are highly demanded in the job market. Since information science and data science greatly overlap and share similar concerns, this paper aims to compare them from the perspective of the job market demands in China. We crawled 2,680 recruitment posts related to data science and information science. Then we made a comparative study on these two domains about the skills, salary, and clusters of position responsibilities. The results showed that they had differ-ent emphasis on the skills, the qualification standard and the application ar-ea.
Improving information sharing in Chinese hospitals with Electronic medical record: The Resource-Based View and Social Capital Theory Perspective
Northumbria University, United Kingdom
This research implicates that in large Chinese hospitals, in the individual level, EMR is able to make clinicians get access to more sources of information and knowledge to increase their working efficiency and make the right decision; in organisational level, EMR helps Chinese hospitals achieve effective cross-boundary information sharing and integration and promotes organisational learning and organisational memory in these hospitals.
Leaving No One Behind: Preparing China’s Public Librarians for Providing Multicultural Services to Ethnic Minorities
1Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of; 2University of Derby, UK
This research aims to develop a guideline for training China’s public librarians for the provision of multicultural services to ethnic minorities. This poster reports on the findings drawn from a pilot study, in which a qualitative case study approach was employed. Yanbian Library, the regional central library of China’s Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, was selected as a case study. 10 library professionals were interviewed using a semi-structured interview script. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The analysis pointed to six core capabilities for multicultural services, namely, library professional capabilities, multilingual capabilities, minority culture awareness, special collection development capabilities, technological capabilities, and service management capabilities.
Exploring Design Coursework in Graduate Library Education: iSchools vs. non-iSchools
Syracuse University, United States of America
The information field has often struggled with identity. Recently, design has been proposed as one aspect that might unify the information fields, especially the divide between librarianship and other information areas. To explore this possibility, we investigated what, if any differences exist between the number ar character of design courses offered in U.S. MLIS programs housed in iSchools vs. those housed in non-iSchool settings. A review of course titles and descriptions that included the word “design” revealed that iSchools offer approximately twice as many courses, and a classification of courses by topic reveals that although computing topics dominate, design is found across a broad variety of curricular topics. These findings suggest that design is indeed present in graduate library education, potentially positioning iSchools to better unify what may have previously been considered more disparate fields.
Yes, You Can Still Touch This: Playtesting Interactive Prototypes for Museum Spaces
1University of Michigan, United States of America; 2College of Westchester, United States of America; 3Penn State University, United States of America
Museums around the world work to collect, manage, and preserve culture and information. One obstacle these institutions face is the challenge of effectively disseminating this information to their visitors. It is speculated that museum spaces incorporating interactive technology could invite museum visitors to engage in experiences that make exhibit content more memorable. While several museums in the United States are in fact implementing interactive technology in their exhibits, they are not always executed to the best of their ability. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ways game design and interactive media can engage museum goers and improve information retention. Additionally, this project aimed to determine the aspects of interactive media design that make it effective and ineffective, and used this criteria to develop an interactive augmented reality application and a 2D trivia game application for the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian.
Collaborative information seeking in library makerspaces: An exploratory study
Rutgers University, United States of America
The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand the situations that trigger young people to collaborate in information seeking as they participate in makerspace activities. A total of twenty-one young people at two library makerspaces were recruited. Data collection methods included field observations, individual interviews, photovoice, and focus groups. Findings show four situations that trigger young people to seek information collaboratively, including situations of finding materials for shared projects, solving problems together, figuring out how-to questions, and generating ideas for potential projects. This study addresses the gap in the extant literature with empirical evidence to show that young people switch from individual information seeking to collaborative information seeking fluidly and naturally. For practical implications, library professionals can provide additional support to help young people seek information together in these identified situations.
Analyzing topic and stance in fake news stories
University of Maryland College Park, United States of America
The term “fake news” gained traction during the 2016 US presidential
election and campaign cycle. Previous work on this data set identified seven
themes in fake news articles, including positions opposing or favoring groups or
individuals, conspiracy theories and racist messaging. This work analyzed hundreds of those fake news articles (N=272) in order to better understand the topics covered and stances taken. Seven main topics were identified in the articles. The majority of articles took a stance against an individual, group or topic. Among the articles that took a stance, the majority of them were pro-Trump.
Beyond Being Human: The (In)Accessibility Consequences of Modeling
VAPAs After Human-Human Conversation
1UMBC, Baltmore, MD, USA; 2UC Irvine, CA, USA
Voice-Activated Personal Assistants (VAPAs) like Amazon’s Alexa and Google Assistant have rapidly become pervasive, with users spanning from the youngest young to the oldest old of our society. However, little is known about the nascent VAPA interaction paradigm: what are the fundamental metaphors and guidelines for design, and how do they constrain potential uses and users? This poster begins to answer these questions through a qualitative document review of VAPA design guidelines published by Amazon and Google. Initial results show that human-human conversation is considered the gold standard of interaction. We present an argument that troubles this assumption by adopting a lens of accessible interface design for blind individuals. We advocate VAPA design that moves beyond being human.
Keyword-Citation-Keyword Network：A new method for Discipline Knowledge Structure Analysis
School of Information Management,Wuhan University
As an important analysis method in bibliometrics, co-word analysis is used to map knowledge domain and discover the discipline knowledge structure based on the co-occurrence relationship between keywords in articles. In view of the problem existed in the traditional methods that the importance of keywords is not distinguished by the article and the co-occurrence of keywords is limited to the same article, the citation network is combined with the co-word analysis in this paper and a Keyword-Citation-Keyword (KCK) network is constructed. Then an empirical study is conducted in the computer science domain and the Mapping Knowledge Domain is generated by Gephi. The results indicate that compared with the traditional co-word network, the proposed method not only shows a better clustering performance but also discovers the important intellectual structure.
Engagement in Facebook learning groups
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Facebook groups have become a popular tool and are often used for educational purposes. In the current study, a Facebook learning group was created as a sup-port to a course in the university with the participation of the students and the management of the researcher, in order to better understand what makes the stu-dents be more or less engaged in the group. By the end of the semester, 44 stu-dents have answered an open question in an online questionnaire about their en-gagement. Their answers were analyzed into six factors behind active engagement or lurking in the Facebook learning group: getting help with the learning material, the quality of the group leader's response, students’ sense that they were not cop-ing alone with the difficulties of the material, the group's interactive nature, the prizes and the gameplay and accessibility. This action research shed a light on the students’ motivation to participate actively in learning Facebook groups and en-rich their learning experience.
Lessons Learned from the Investigation of Academic WeChat Official Accounts
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America
This poster reports the issues we encountered in the investigation of WeChat Official Accounts. The goal of our study is to explore how scientific articles are communicated on WeChat, with a particular focus on whether it can be a promising source of altmetrics. WeChat is different from other influential social media tools in many aspects including the technological affordances, user groups, languages used, among others. This poster describes and discusses findings of the WeChat specific features regarding technical barriers (based on the infrastructure and affordances), language barriers (mainly between English and Chinese), cultural barriers (about commenting and sharing behavior of users), and policy barriers.
Data Dashboards as Infrastructures for Data Literacy
Georgia Institute of Technology, United States of America
Community indicator data dashboards are a class of free, publicly accessi-ble websites, usually built by city administrations or non-profits to help a community monitor or keep track of issues that are of common concern. Such dashboards typically contain data about a community’s de-mographics, education, health, public safety, workforce, transportation etc. and are designed to be as intuitive and straightforward as possible, so their insights are accessible to novice as well as expert users. For certain commu-nities though, this vision of data availability, access and analysis is hin-dered by numerous barriers which have led to widening the gap between the data have’s and the have nots. A lack of data literacy is one such barrier that prevents certain underserved communities from participating in this data revolution. My research is concerned with taking an infrastructural ap-proach to operationalizing a data literacy program for leaders within such communities, in a way that will reveal the various socio-technical factors that are critical to the creation, conceptualization and use of data dash-boards. Knowledge of these socio-technical factors will, I hope, lead to more critically informed use of the dashboard’s data for advocacy and other civic purposes.
Community Health and Wellness: Rural Library Practices, Perspectives, and Programs
1Wayne State University, United States of America; 2University of North Carolina Greensboro, United States of America; 3University of Oklahoma, United States of America
This poster outlines a collaborative research work in progress that seeks to answer the overarching research question: How do small and rural public li-braries address health and wellness through public programs? In the face of the increasing disinvestment in rural communities and their access to health care, public libraries are developing innovative programs to support health and wellness. These programs include cooking/nutrition, gardening, exercise, and health fairs. This research project is designed to better understand cur-rent practices in small and rural public libraries with regards to community health and wellness programming and to disseminate that information to assist other libraries to become even more robust catalysts of community health. The poster also suggests new ways to include rural libraries in the research of iS-chools, thus inspiring and informing new collaborations.
Sustaining Multilinguality: Case Studies of Two American Multilingual Digital Libraries
University of North Texas, United States of America
Language barriers have greatly limited information access for many digital libraries. Only a few digital libraries currently provide multilingual services because maintaining a multilingual digital library requires tremendous financial support and considerable technical capabilities. There are no studies exploring the successful multilingual digital libraries. And it is unclear what factors have contributed to their success. Through a case study of two American multilingual digital libraries, this study attempts to investigate the technical and practical challenges digital libraries encounter in building and sustaining multilinguality, in order to identify the factors contributing to their successes and thus develop a model for sustaining multilingual services. Qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and content analysis will be employed to collect and analyze the data. The outcomes of this study are expected to provide useful guidelines and insights for the digital library community to provide multilingual services.
Beyond “Too much information” : Constructing a Scale for Measuring Information Overload
University of Maryland iSchool, United States of America
Information overload represents stress resulting from voluminous or complex resources. Though often discussed, it is seldom measured. To encourage empirical examinations of information overload, the researcher created a literature-derived scale that consists of behavioral, qualitative, and quantitate constructs. Based on preliminary results from a study investigating information overload among immigrants in the U.S., the scale is an adequate instrument for measuring information overload. Specifically, validity and reliability analyses demonstrate that the scale is sound, but can be strengthened.
Information use and information behaviour of graduate students at Kuwait University
Public Authority of Applied Science, Kuwait
The study investigates the information use, information behaviour and information needs of Kuwait University (KU) graduate students, to gain a deeper understanding of the supporting role of KU libraries for research. In-depth semi-structured interviews, thematic analysis, and cross-case analysis was used to gain insight into the information activities of 48 graduate students in four colleges: Engineering, Science, Arts and Law. Whitley’s theory was used as a framework to help understand the influence of disciplinary cultures in shaping the information activities of the graduate students along their research process.Significant factors related to cultural context of the discipline were found that influence the students’ information use and behaviour.
Question topics on social Q&A sites: A multi-field analysis of Zhihu
Center for Studies of Information Resources，Wuhan University
While studies examining user participation, question types or answer charac-teristics on social question and answer (social Q&A) sites, this corpus has lacked concern about question topics. Based on 68,273 questions of five dif-ferent fields on Zhihu, this study analyzed the topic distribution and com-pared the differences. The results showed that most questions have five or three topics. One topic appeared more frequently than two and four topics, expect the health field. In addition, there is a significant correlation between the number of topics and the number of followers and answers of the ques-tion. The study sheds light to question topics selection for users and provides implications for user information behavior on social Q&A sites.
A Study of the Information Behaviors of African Refugees
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States of America
We provide preliminary findings of a study of the information behaviors of Afri-can refugees living in an urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Twenty-six participants completed a questionnaire of their information needs and seeking behaviors, participated in an interview regarding these behaviors and/or partici-pated in a focus group session. Data collected from these three data sources were analyzed to better understand the challenges recently arrived African refugees en-countered. Participants’ information needs centered around housing, health care, employment and education. The participants were not necessarily satisfied with the information they were able to find, and they reported initially relying heavily on their case workers as sources of information when they first arrived in the United States until they were able to establish larger networks of contacts, which expanded their information sources and behaviors.
How Do People Perceive Facebook Features on Health-related Facebook Posts?
1University of South Florida, United States of America; 2The Catholic University of America, United States of America
Social media has become one of the main health information channels that can provide real-time information in a cost-effective way for the public. Facebook is known to be the most popularly used social media. This preliminary study examined how Facebook users perceive the influences of Facebook features on their cognitive outcomes of Facebook reading, which includes Attention to a Facebook post, Understandability, Credibility, and Rememberability of a Facebook post. An online survey was conducted and data from 41 undergraduate and graduate students was analyzed. According to participants’ self-reports, Caption is most influential on overall cognitive outcomes; however, their selections with sample Facebook posts showed that well-designed infographics give positive influences on overall cognitive outcomes and for Credibility, post creators and links to the original sources were also important. This study results contribute to recommendations for how health professionals can make optimal use of Facebook for effective health information communication.
Graduate Archival Education at iSchools
1Catholic University of America, United States of America; 2Drexel University, United States of America
This poster reports the preliminary findings of ongoing research on archival courses offered by North America graduate archival programs. It compares and contrasts the graduate archives course offerings of iSchools and non-iSchools. The findings will help the Society of American Archivists’ (SAA’s) Graduate Archival Education Subcommittee (GAES) assess the SAA Guidelines for a Graduate Program in Archival Studies (GPAS) and make appropriate recommendations for revision.
Processes and Challenges for the Adoption of Blockchain Technology in Food Supply Chains: A Thematic Analysis
1Nanjing University, China, People's Republic of; 2Durham University
Blockchain technology has become increasingly popular and at-tracted interests from many innovators, technologists and scholars in recent years. Beyond the financial sector, the blockchain technology is promising in addressing the current limitations in food supply chain management. As the adoption of blockchain in food supply chain is still in an early stage, it is significant to have a thematic framework for understanding the processes and challenges. This paper aims to exploring the adoption of blockchain technology in food supply chains with a thematic analysis. A desktop re-search is conducted and all the data is collected from online databases, in-cluding Factiva, Nexis, and Google scholar. Then we carry out a qualitative thematic analysis, according to the investigation processes suggested by Creswell. The findings illustrate that business processes, characteristics of blockchain related technologies, and IT governance are very important fac-tors in the process of blockchain adoption in food supply chains. We also identify both four main categories of challenges for the adoption of block-chain technology.
Assessing Project-Based Learning in Harmony Public Schools’ STEM SOS™ Model
University of North Texas, United States of America
Harmony Public Schools, a K-12 Charter School network in Texas, designed a project-based learning model titled STEM S.O.S.™ to increase student knowledge and interest in STEM and produce self-motivated and self-regulated learners. Grade 9 MAP and STAAR assessment results were quantitatively analyzed with a quasi-experimental approach using bivariate analysis and linear regression for a preliminary analysis to-wards establishing the effectiveness of this model. The results demonstrated consistency with previous research for success of project-based learning and produced new findings in terms of gender and ethnicity.
Assistive technologies and dementia: Exploring professional caregivers’ attitudes toward the use of assistive technologies in providing care for people with dementia
University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States of America
This paper examines professional caregivers’ perceptions of the use of assistive technologies in providing care for people with dementia. Five professional caregivers were interviewed and a combination of grounded theory and Discourse Analysis was used to analyze the data. All interviewees viewed dementia as a disability, demonstrating the dominance of the disease as a social concept. Findings indicate caregivers operate under discourses of assistance and disability. While caregivers acknowledged technologies can assist in the care of people with dementia, responses also indicated benefits are minimized or negated due to complications of implementing technologies. Results indicate that professional caregivers' perceptions of the use of technologies in providing care for people with dementia are mixed. Despite the benefits, assistive technologies can only be one part of providing effective care for people with dementia.
Does Diversity of Team Members Affect Scientific Success of a Team? A Preliminary Study
1Indiana University Bloomington, United States of America; 2Qiqihar Institute of Engineering, China
This study investigates how the diversity of team members influences the scientific success of a team. The diversity of a team is measured by the entropy of team members’ scientific ages when conducting the collaboration, their citation numbers, and their publication numbers, as well as the similarity of their research topics. A team’s scientific success is quantified by the average number of citations per year the collaborative publication has received. We find that the diversity on team members’ productivity (publication numbers) and the diversity on members’ career statuses (scientific ages) will increase the team performance. On the contrary, the diversity on the team members’ research topics and their personal impact (citation numbers) will decrease the team performance. These findings help understand the essential characteristics of team diversity and provide guidance on building successful research teams.
Understanding Landmarks in Spatial Information: Does Sentiment Provide Enough Context?
1Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; 2University of Pittsburgh; 3The University of Michigan; 4Northern Illinois University; 5La Roche College; 6ISchool Inclusion Institute
This literature review focuses on combining spatial information communi-cated about a landmark and sentiment analysis techniques. In spatial infor-mation processing literature, the definition of a landmark remains elusive. We propose to have a study apply sentiment labeling models to landmark definition. However, instead of seeking an umbrella definition for the intan-gible landmark, it may be more relevant to classify individual landmarks re-cursively, using a methodology that accounts for its subjectivity. A goal to apply sentiment labeling models to the landmark definition.
Which questions are valuable? The knowledge diffusion in technical online forum
Nanjing University, China, People's Republic of
Technical forums serve as important tools for diffusing knowledge for specific subjects. The factors affecting knowledge diffusion through technical forum need to be better understood. In this study, we examine knowledge diffusion in the context of an online technical forum. We explore why some problems are paid more attention in this context by shifting perspectives to focus on knowledge network embedded in problems rather than knowledge seeker-problem-knowledge provider relationships, since in online technical forum the knowledge seekers are seeking immediate, customized responses efficiently. To explore the reasons, we examined the impact that characteristics of question tags had on popularity and quality of questions by collecting data from a programming-related Q&A site —— Stack Overflow. For our analysis we collected data of ten years which spans from 2008 to 2017, which includes 6,833,276 users and 34,857,917 questions and answers. Our study contributes to conversations about how the knowledge is diffused in an online technical forum and further implies if these types of online forums promote knowledge sharing and innovation efficiently.
Designing for Separation: Participatory Design with Military Veterans
Syracuse University, United States of America
Our research focuses on designing ICTs for US military veterans who are undergoing the transition from military to civilian life. Veterans are a unique case to explore transitions as they often experience several transitions at once—they often suffer from PTSD, become homeless, change occupations, and more. Amongst other challenges, veterans also experience identity crises as caused by the lack of continuity between military and civilian social worlds. Our work focuses on the initial phase of veteran transitions, or the separation phase, which is the period directly following a transition, and how we can best design new ICTs to help veterans manage life changes while also connect to and access critical resources that can help them regain a foothold in their daily lives. To help veterans learn how to manage conflicting rules and norms, and locate resources that can help aid them in their transitions, we describe an ongoing participatory design study through which we are empowering veterans in designing ICT resources that adhere to their unique values and needs.
Bridging the Information Gap between Structural and Note-level Musical Datasets
1University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States of America; 2Oxford e-Research Centre, Dept. Engineering Science, University of Oxford, UK
While there are an increasing number of datasets containing various features of musical information, the lack of connections between them remains a barrier to their use in research. For example, one dataset might encode the identification of structural segments by musicologists in audio recordings, while another dataset could contain a symbolic encoding of the music notation being played in that audio recording. Without explicit connections, there is a significant extra work in realizing their potential for musicological study. In this paper we investigate how Linked Data can be used to implement such connections, specifically between the McGill Billboard corpus of structural annotations and the MIDI Linked Data Cloud (MIDI-LD). Firstly, we republish structural information from Billboard as RDF. We then align this structural data with matching symbolic encodings in MIDI-LD; before finally linking individual structural annotations from Billboard to note-level sections in the MIDI-LD. Our alignments enable cross-referencing and combined queries for musicological analysis across the enriched union dataset, and serve as a model for the creation of information resources comprising musical structures at varying granularity.
The Black at the End of the Rainbow: Online Discrimination Among LGBTQ African Americans
1Rutgers University, New Brunswick-Piscataway, NJ; 2University of Mount Union, Alliance, OH; 3James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA; 4University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; 5University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO
Both the LGBTQ and African-American communities are marginalized and at greater risk of both online and offline discrimination when compared to the non-LGBTQ and white communities; yet little is known about the LGBTQ and African-American intersectional community’s online experiences with discrimination. Extant literature indicates that this discrimina-tion has negative consequences on mental health and identity. In this literature review, we present a synthesis of the existing research at the intersection of these identities to inform how online community-based sites and social media platforms serve as both spaces of victimization, as well as environments of support. Altogether, we found that past research has primarily focused on these communities separately, and the research that exists about African-Americans in the LGBTQ community mainly studies the in-tersectionality of these identities offline and information seeking behaviors around HIV. Our literature review indicates that further research is necessary to study the online experiences of these online users and the potential effects on mental health.
Towards Identifying and Classifying Navigation Strategies Among Individuals with Diverse Disabilities
1UMBC, United States of America; 2UC Irvine, United States of America
In this paper, we describe a study examining navigation practices of individuals with disabilities––including people with visual, mobility, and cognitive disabilities, as well as older adults––towards identifying and classifying the common features they utilize in unfamiliar environments. Analysis of initial data reveals previously-undocumented commonalities and departures amongst users from different populations. For example, we found that natural light sources are an important navigation cues for not only blind and low vision individuals, but also for older adults and mobility-impaired individuals. This suggests novel design features for assistive apps to better support navigating indoors in absence of windows. Our work aims to inform design of more universally-usable navigation solutions that address collective needs of a wide range of users.
Health Data on Data.gov: A Research on Status Quo of Open Health Data
1Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of; 2University of North Texas, USA
A growing number of agencies and local governments are now making health data freely available to the public. The goal of this paper is to understand the current status of the open health data. This will provide guidance to the public and researchers for making better use of them. We collected 1,942 datasets from the health catalog on Data.gov and performed a preliminary analysis of them on their subject areas, data formats, data providers, availability, and other attributes. We found that the overall usage of the datasets on the plat-form was not high and suggested that providing certain interactive functions or feedback mechanism might help to boost the usage of open health data.
Library of Congress Subject Headings and Controversial Perspectives: Mapping Relationships to Reveal Meaning
Syracuse University, United States of America
Language has increasingly emerged as a tool to obfuscate problematic topics. Given the role of language in resource description, we explore how controlled vocabularies contribute to or refute the obfuscation of controversial perspectives. This exploratory project uses information visualization to identify links and pathways between two Library of Congress Subject Headings: White supremacy movements and Racism. The interactive visual presentation will exhibit these maps, which support identification and analysis of key concepts and recurrent relationships to reveal embedded meaning.
Augmented Reality – Spatial Context and Power in Design
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2eLaw – Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University Law School, the Netherlands; 3TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Tilburg University, the Netherlands; 4Digital Security group, Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Augmented Reality (AR) will have important effects on the ways in which spaces and places take meaning for both users and non-users of AR. As the market penetration of AR increases, new claims will be made on certain spaces, superimposing AR contexts on the meanings and functions tradi-tionally associated with these spaces, not only by AR users but also by AR designers and service providers, raising important questions about regulato-ry approaches to mitigating information and power asymmetries. We em-ploy the case of the popular AR smart phone game Pokémon Go to interro-gate and comment on the potential effects of AR use and design on the con-struction of spatial meaning, the orientation of social relations, and distri-butions of social power.
Metadata for Diversity: A Field Scan of Current Trends in Describing Library Resources
Syracuse University, United States of America
Although laudable strides have been made to highlight and provide access to diverse library materials about and made by traditionally marginalized communities, current approaches are curatorial, non-scalable, and non-systematic. In this project, we conducted a field scan of knowledge organization tools to better understand metadata elements, values, and organizational structures needed to enable more systematic and scalable access to diverse library materials. Findings show that gender, geography, audience, and age are represented across most schemas, as well as a “basket element” that pools many identity-specific values into one element. While findings are promising, more analysis and consideration around metadata expressing diversity is needed.
Analyzing a Fake News Authorship Network
University of Maryland, United States of America
This project synthesizes a set of 246 fake news websites previously identified in three earlier research projects. From this dataset, we extract a set of all authors who have written for these sites in 2016. This author-centric dataset is itself a contribution that will allow future analysis of the fake news ecosystem. Based on the data we collected, we construct a network of fake news sites, linking them if they shared a common author. Our analysis shows a tight cluster of author-sharing sites, with a small core set of sites sharing dozens of authors.
Too Much Information? Identifying Meaningful Concepts from Online Reviews to Achieve Better Access to Children’s Books: A Preliminary Analysis
Valdosta State University
With the increasing popularity of online reviews at social networking sites, online reviews have become a primary information source for the decision before making the purchase. Although several studies have been conducted to study online reviews in the domain of business, there have been no studies done on online reviews of children’s books. This study is part of a larger research project which aims to investigate whether sentiments in online reviews on children’s books would represent essential factors which are useful for selecting appropriate books for children and whether positive, negative, or neutral attitude would be directly associated with the overall ratings of books. The promising results of the study show that the latent topics extracted from online reviews would achieve better access to children’s books by easily identifying points of a book and by gaining insights into people’s opinions about the book. The findings of this study also require further validation with an increased number of books and reviews in future studies.
The Evolution of the Theme of Chinese Library Science Education Research in the Past 40 Years of Reform and Opening-up
wuhan university, China, People's Republic of
This paper aim to find the theme structure and evolution of the gathered materials on library science education in China since the reform and opening up for 40 years. Using co-word analysis methods and visualization tools, this paper analyzes the research literature on library science education after 1978.These analyzed literatures are from 18 library and information science CSSCI journals. This paper finds that the current research has the following characteristics and trends: First, “Library" and "Library Information Science Education" are the most important and mature development topics in library science education research in China; Second，Library and Information Science Education, Teaching Reform, and Library Secondary Professional Education are the four main theme, and they are closely related.
Assessing the practicality of ARK identifier usage in a catalogue of medieval manuscripts
1School of Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America; 2Oxford e-Research Centre, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford, UK
In data management, the use of identifiers is essential for disambiguation and referencing. The scope of the use of identifiers varies. For example, disambiguation within an institution using integer identifiers may be sufficient for operational procedures, whereas digital scholarship using global resources relies on universally unique identifiers. In this paper we investigate practical routes to globally unique identifiers for the medieval manuscripts of the Bodleian Library. The Oxford Linked Open Data (OxLOD) and Mapping Manuscript Migrations (MMM) projects require unique identifiers for the transformation of the medieval manuscripts catalogue into linked data, in an effort to increase discoverability and consistency across platforms. We consider how Archival Resource Keys (ARKs), a type of URI, can be applied to the Medieval Manuscript catalog as well as determining how ARKs can support MMM’s research goals. We begin with examining the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) catalogue records to under-stand the data provided and identify and describe entities which do not presently have identifiers. Further, we evaluate ARKs for producing identifiers, prioritizing those which are required to answer common research questions.
Defining Virtual Reality: Insights from Research and Practice
1Washington State University, United States of America; 2La Roche College; 3Babson College; 4The College of Westchester; 5University of Maryland, College Park; 6University of Maryland
Virtual reality (VR) technology is an increasing portion of the consumer technology market. As such, VR is a fruitful area for the focus of information science research. Researchers have begun to explore running simulated laboratory experiments in VR, using VR to treat medical conditions, and are studying the security and privacy risks of this uprising technology. Prior work has typically considered ``virtual reality'' to be any experiences that are created by a tool, marketed as a VR product. However, such product-driven definitions of virtual reality may limit our ability to study and innovate within this field. As such, in this poster we present a work-in-progress study in which we extract information regarding the advancement of goals for VR, components of virtual experiences, and definitions of VR obtained from a body of academic literature and marketing materials for VR products from the 1960s through today. We use an affinity diagramming analysis to distill a comprehensive set of definitions for VR from this data. In future work, we will collect users' definitions of VR to further empirically inform our understanding of what makes up a VR. Such an understanding can serve as the foundation for future research and innovations in VR.
The Shield and the Sword: Expanding Learning in Cyber Defense through Competition
Florida State University, United States of America
The cyber chess game between offense (i.e., attackers or hackers) and defense (i.e., system administrators) is ongoing and dynamic. As the complexity of cyber-infrastructure increases, the complexity and creativity of cyber-threats also increases. This research employs the lens of activity theory to study the in-teraction between the cyber attackers and the defenders. A pedagogical learn-ing-based conflict was introduced in a cybersecurity classroom, and cyber de-fense exercises were simulated in the cyber security virtual lab at Florida State University in Spring 2017. Natural language process (NLP) techniques were adopted for data analysis, which affirms the effectiveness of students’ learning about securing networks through the introduction of simulated conflict.
Why are some studies more popular in social media?
1Nanjing University, China; 2Indiana University, United States of America
Most previous studies of Altmetrics focused on the correlation between alt-metric scores and citation scores of publications. In this study, we proposed Altmetrics as a measure of the popularity of scientific research. Based on 15,321 articles in Physics published in 2008-2013 and the regression analysis on the dataset, we concluded that journal impact factor, average citation impact of the authors, and the number of citations are positively associated with a paper’s popularity in social media, whereas publication year and authors’ average academic age had negative correlation with its altmetric score.
A Systematic Review of the Literature in Nature on Human-Computer Interaction: Preliminary Results
University of Texas at Austin, United States of America
For the past three decades, computers have been dominating the way many people create, manage, and use information. Subsequently, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) became an essential area of Information Studies. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, HCI has been defined loosely by what its constituting fields, such as Information Studies, Computer Science and Psychology, perceive as HCI research. A broader view of HCI remains unclear. One way to formulate such a broad view is to examine how scientific journals that represent a wide range of disciplines portray HCI. One comprehensive and prestigious scientific community that mentions the term “human-computer-interaction” as a field of study in its published body of articles is the Nature publications and journals. Through multiple rounds of screening, we identified 53 relevant publications across the Nature database and analyzed these articles using the Qualitative Analysis of Content method. The preliminary results show an exponential increase in the use of the term “human-computer-interaction” over the past six years in Nature publications. Our results also suggest that the scientific community represented in Nature views HCI as an independent field of research.
The Practices of Reading Promotion in Chinese Public Libraries
Wuhan University, Wuhan, HuBei Province, People's Republic of China
Reading promotion is becoming increasingly significant in China since it concerns the cultural quality of Chinese people and the future of the country. Apart from laws and regulations made by the government, from the central to the local, various methods of reading promotion are carried out. Case study was used in the research, and 5 types of specific activities were listed for analysis. Besides, 2 national brand activities are introduced representing national practice of reading promotion. The purpose of this research is to re-veal the popular practices of reading promotion in Chinese public libraries so as to envisage the future of reading promotion in China, and the countries that have the similar situation can also extract the essence and discard the dross from Chinese practices.
Increasing Visibility of Culture through on-line Information Services: The case of Småland
Linnaeus University, Sweden
Abstract. Increasing the interest of a region through culture has been a major driving force for developing quality information services to support cultural events in Småland, a region in Southeast Sweden. This paper focuses on the exploration and identification of requirements to design a mobile application and a website as an initial step towards achieving the purpose above. Our methodological approach involved three major phases. First, an interview with cultural events providers was conducted, in order to identify initial needs and requirements for building two types of interfaces. Then, initial mock-ups of those interfaces were designed and implemented, followed by another round of interviews to gain insights and feedback on those. Themes in the interviews focused on requirements, functionalities, cultural event providers in the different regions and user groups. The information gathered from the interviews was then used when creating a new round of refined mock-ups. Future research efforts will focus on developing an interactive prototype and to gain feedback from content providers and a range of potential end user groups before moving towards the implementation of a fully functional system.
Lonely Collaborative Information Behavior (CIB) of Youth
Dongduk Women's University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The study investigated the information behaviors of middle and high school stu-dents during collaborative school projects. The researcher wanted to explore how students collaborating with their peers collect, use, share, and create information, and how social and cultural factors influence their behavior. Radical change theo-ry was applied to analyze Korean middle and high school students' information behavior. This study found students do not study together. They separated the collaborative project into parts, with each student completing his or her part indi-vidually. Those parts were then combined. They were very prudent in evaluation information and express opinions about others. This study shows that middle and high school students, who are expected to use various multimedia media with their group members, are engaging in lonely collaboration, usually by themselves. The results show that the participants’ principles of the digital age are quite frag-mented. Follow-up research will look at their behavior changes and the factors re-lated to lonely collaboration.
Organizational Structure and Support for Diversity in Video Game Design Work
The University of Texas at Austin, United States of America
This poster presents preliminary results from research into the role of diversity within collaborative video game design work. First, I explain why an examination of the daily work within this field is needed, especially one that considers the relationship of organizational structure to diversity. Next, I briefly review previous research on diversity, video game design, and organizational structure in order to contextualize this work. I then outline my qualitative research approach, including a description of my methodological orientation, sampling and participation strategies, and data collection and analysis strategies. Finally, I present two emerging themes from my in-depth, semi-structured interviews with video game designers about their work and design organizations: the conundrum surrounding the hiring process and the importance of sympathetic and engaged decision-makers. This research aims to make actionable suggestions for better supporting diversity that may be applied by individuals, design organizations, and educational programs.
Continuous Evaluation: Background Investigations, Classified Information, and Informing in the 21st Century
University of Arizona, United States of America
I conduct a hermeneutical review of the continuous evaluation element of the US government’s background investigations program through the lens of the 2019 iConference theme word “inform” to highlight the importance of perspective when considering the meaning of informing in the 21st century.
Acquisition Process Improvement and System Audit: a Prerequisite for the Development of an Online Tracking System in the College of Science Library, University of the Philippines Diliman
1National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Library, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines; 2College of Science Library, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
This study documented and compared actual collection development processes vis-à-vis organizational policy with the formulation of possible implementable solutions for a collection development information system solution. A process mapping tool was used to examine the deviation between the current acquisition process of print book materials and what is written in the policy/procedure. The study used a questionnaire to obtain the participant’s knowledge and involvement in the acquisition process, strengths and weaknesses of acquisition process, requirements of both indirect and external customers of the College of Science library, and suggested improvement activities from the people performing the actual process. As a result, the current acquisition approach was seen as refreshing and strategic as College of Science faculty are involved in making collection development decisions, compared to past acquisition processes. In addition, the current acquisition process puts more emphasis on the preliminary activities as it provides temporary solutions on the requestor’s immediate needs and demands. The study also revealed both business and functional requirements needed to be addressed to improve indirect and external customer experience and eventually customer satisfaction.
Development of MOOCs in Library and Information Science education
1Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of; 2Central China Normal University, China, People's Republic of
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are gaining popularity in Library and Information Science (LIS) field. Some LIS schools have offered content for learners and practitioners worldwide. Little comparable data of MOOCs in LIS education is existing. In order to predict the feature and the trend of MOOC practice in LIS education, a total of 146 MOOCs provided by iSchool members were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of number, content and continuity. The results suggest that compared to the academic community, LIS faculty are hesitant to offer MOOCs, and less than one third of iSchools have involved in the practice. LIS MOOCs put more emphasis on the pragmatic content regarding the topics. ISchool MOOCs suffer unavailability issues, which may negatively impact their long-term development. The findings provide insights for the new entrants who are developing or plan to offer MOOCs, as well as the learners who are in pursue of diverse and flexible education in LIS field.
Inspiring and Informing Citizens for Citizen Journalism to Fight Corruption Using Social Media: Insights from US Diplomacy Lab
1University of Tennessee at Knoxville, TN, USA; 2University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN, USA
Corruption is one of the major deterrents to socioeconomic development in developing counties. The US Department of State is in search of effective ways for fighting corruption with the help of citizens in developing countries. We propose citizen journalism to be an effective tool for fighting corruption by bringing social change in developing countries. This poster presents findings from the secondary research conducted in early 2018 under the directives of the U.S. Embassy in Kenya. In particular, we illustrate the role of Snapchat for responsible citizen journalism for fighting corruption in developing countries. This poster also presents 10 barriers to using social media for citizen journalism in developing countries.
Using data journeys to inform research design: socio-cultural dynamics of patient data flows in the UK healthcare sector
The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
The uses of personal patient data collected in the healthcare is a growing concern for the society as it can raise serious issues of privacy and power. Currently there is little known about how social and cultural dynamics shaping health data flows between different sites of practice. This research examines socio-cultural dynamics shaping the journey of selected types of personal patient data produced within the UK healthcare sector, from the initial creation of the data through to its re-use for secondary purposes in different contexts. Data Journeys approach is used to inform the research design of this study. This research intends to generate knowledge about the ways in which socio-cultural factors influence the movement of patient data, and consider what this means for how data flows bring patients into different forms of relation with other social actors. The aim is to devel-op recommendations for implementing “just” practices in data sharing and make patient data flows more clear and transparent. This poster describes how Data Journeys is used to inform the research design of this study and reports preliminary findings.
User Sentiments towards Intelligent Personal Assistants
Pratt Institute, United States of America
This paper reports the findings of an ongoing study of user adoption of Intelli-gent Personal Assistants (IPAs, i.e. Amazon Alexa, Apple Siri, Google Assis-tant, etc.) and focuses on user sentiments towards IPAs. The data on factors that attribute to user attitudes regarding IPAs were collected via interviews and fo-cus groups. The findings suggest that users mainly like IPAs for convenience and the hands-free interface; and dislike IPAs for the poor technical quality (such as speech recognition and responses), usability issues, and lack of trans-parent data management practices.
Development and Utilization of Digital Genealogy with Spatiotemporal Data
Sun Yat-Sen University, China, People's Republic of
Genealogy, namely, the study of family origins and history. In essence, genealogy is firmly entwined within both the temporal and geographical dimensions. The complexity of spatiotemporal information in Chinese genealogy calls for a better solution for digital curation. Specifically, this research will have a new look at spatial-temporal study of genealogy and propose a paradigm emphasizing the spatiotemporal analysis of genealogy, the formulation of standards that allow interoperability, promoting network-accessible resources, realizing the visualization of family migration routes, and community-building. An online query system would be developed to use Shanghai Library Genealogical Database after being granted access to this database through the application programming interface (API) by Shanghai Library Open Data Platform. The query results are then analyzed with spatial statistics to display on a Web page template complete with Baidu Echart. Some elements are expected to be realized, including content searches, filtering, analysis, interactive viewing and dynamic presentation, incorporation of larger volumes and more complex data, flexibility in integrating content for specific authors goals and intended audiences, possibility of online community input of information, including comments, annotations etc.
Widget Design as a Guide to Information Modeling
1University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States of America; 2UCONN Health, Farmington, United States of America
A typical approach in software design is to create the information model first, and subsequently build a user interface (or view) to expose and allow interaction with that information model. A drawback of this approach is that the information model is often complicated and non-intuitive to the users of the application and to the consumers of that information. Applications whose function is primarily display or search are not typically hindered by non-intuitive information models; a customer searching for an airline ticket or an online movie will be sufficiently motivated to muddle through and learn the system by trial-and-error. Applications which are designed for data curation, however, cannot afford to have either an enigmatic information model or a confusing user interface. This poster discusses results of an iterative approach to information modeling, in which rapid prototyping of graphical user interfaces is used to augment the information modeling process. The domain of biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is highlighted in this study.
Exploring Photo Sharing to Engage Intergenerational Families on Health
The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
Sharing photos is a common practice for family members to inform and connect with each other. Sharing photos inspires recollection, reminiscence, and feelings of connectedness. Could it also be an effective channel for sharing health information and supporting healthy activity? In this paper, we examine how photo-sharing practices can help family members, specifically elderly parents and adult children, share health information. We present preliminary results from an interview study investigating photo-sharing benefits for non-collocated elderly parents and their adult children to encourage healthy lifestyles within the family. We discuss photo sharing as a viable strategy to engage family members in sharing health information.
A Novel Computer Vision Based Method for PDF Academic Literature Structure Understanding
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
The PDF format plays a crucial role in the field of electronic academic literature publishing, but due to its complicated technical rules, PDF cannot be directly read by machines, which has caused a lot of inconvenience to the research work on academic literature. This poster proposes a computer vision-based PDF document structure understanding method. This method maps visual objects and text objects in PDF academic papers and obtains geometric and text attributes of content objects, supplemented by a heuristic algorithm. The algorithm performs type classification on the content object to obtain the physical structure and logical structure of the PDF document. This method overcomes the shortcomings of other PDF analysis methods that require a large number of artificial feature construction or large-scale corpus training, difficult to identify formula tables, and success-fully constructs a structure understanding and full-text extraction of ACM's collections.
The Use of Social Media by Saudi Ministries: A Preliminary Study
Florida State University, United States of America
Social media platforms are increasingly being used by various govern-ments to promote information sharing and to communicate with vast numbers of citizens. In the light of these changes, the Saudi Arabian government ministries have realized the importance of social media and given it special attention. The existing literature has not emphasized on social media use in the Saudi ministries. It has also been observed that some Saudi ministries are using social media to share information but are still not fully engaged in conversation with the public.
This study is the first attempt to analyze the adoption motivations and challenges associated with social media incorporation by Saudi ministries. This study uses face-to-face interviews with government account managers from different Saudi ministries and seeks to gain a deeper understanding of how different Saudi min-istries use social media. This study aims to evaluate what influence the stake-holders in the Saudi ministries to adopt social media and to address the limitations and challenges of using social media.
The results showed that top-management decisions, ease of use, and the popularity of certain social media platforms are the most influential factors in social media adoption among these ministries. However, the lack of existing usage policies, internal communication deficiencies, and subpar department capabilities represent challenges that limit the effective use of social media.
Examining the role of public library as access venues for information and communication technologies (ICTs) in developing countries: A case in Namibia
1University of Washington Information School; 2Technology & Social Change Group, University of Washington Information School
The role of public libraries in the Global South as information and communication technology (ICT) access provider has been highlighted among scholars—in terms of its potential to stimulate human capital development of broad populations and overcome the limitations of telecentres with libraries’ expertise in managing information, providing tailored services, and interacting with communities. However, major stakeholders in the development field have been largely skeptical about the significance of libraries as ICT public access venues. To resolve the gap, we address the question, “how are public libraries in the Global South meeting the needs of patrons through the provision of ICT access?” We analyze and present the case of Namibia regional libraries through a combined approach of examining both patron and library service provider perspectives. We present how the combined approach helps us: (1) understand how the regional libraries are addressing the needs of surrounding communities, and (2) identify and suggest long term strategies to be taken at the organizational level to better serve the needs.
Investigating the Role of Social Media during the Transition of International Students to the UK
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
It is well known that international students’ transition from their home to the host country is accompanied by many challenges. During the transition period, students are more likely to be depressed, anxious, lonely and socially disconnected. Social media, with its informational and communication characteristics, may be an increasingly important aspect of the experience. During the student’s life in the host country, social media may help them to maintain well-being and provide them with necessary information. Combining qualitative interviews with social media data analysis, this study investigates the role of social media in Saudi students’ transition to the UK by focusing on its impact on their social connections.
Information Seeking Behaviors of Transitioning USAF Officers When Job Hunting in North Texas
University of North Texas, United States of America
This explores a segment of under-served veterans who are seeking employment in North Texas. By understanding the information seeking behaviors of segments of the veteran population, improvements can be made to the systems that support their transition and training provided to improve their abilities to find information that is useful to their success in locating and maintaining employment. Using Dervin and Khulthau’s information seeking models, Prell’s Social Network Analysis methods, and Turkle’s interview and content analysis methods, a mixed-methods approach to this study will yield answers that will be useful to the Veterans Administration (VA), to the veterans themselves, and to the agencies that support their transitions. All of society benefits when veterans can successfully integrate back into society after their service.
Visualizing periodicals published in Guangdong during the Republican Era
1Sun Yat-sen University, China; 2Drexel University, United States of America
How to better apply computing technologies in humanities research has be-come very important in today’s information-rich environment. Previous work on digital humanities in China has demonstrated the significance of the Republican era in Chinese history. However, periodicals published in the Republican era still need to be further investigated. In this study, we systematically organized and analyzed official periodicals in Guangdong, explored the history of publishing industry from the perspective of histori-cal records, and visualized periodicals according to the publishing organiza-tions, forms, timelines, and archiving locations. We contributed to creating the directory of periodicals (#4569) in Guangdong during the Republican era, categorizing periodicals into publishing organizations, forms, timelines, and archiving locations, etc., and applying visualization techniques to il-lustrate our analyses. We also contributed to preserving and protecting the historical and cultural heritage of the Republican era in Guangdong. Future work includes semantic analyses of periodicals from the content perspec-tive with a focus on publication prerequisites, processes, and ideologies.
A Design Approach to a Wicked Problem: Designing Data Service Training for Pre-Service Information Professionals
1Texas Woman's University, United States of America; 2University of North Texas, United States of America
Responding to user needs for data services in libraries poses a complex challenge. Programs preparing pre-service information professionals to provide these services for library users, staff, and the organization must address multiple competencies related to these levels and in multiple contexts. In this study, researchers investigated a design approach as a method for developing an effective and innovative response. The Design Thinking for Libraries method was simulated to evaluate its effectiveness as a process for developing a pre-service professional preparation program in data service at two partner institutions. Results suggest that this method produces more insight into nuances of the problem and enhances effectiveness and innovation.
Geoparsing Biodiversity Heritage Library Collections: A Preliminary Exploration
1University of Arizona, United States of America; 2Smithsonian Institution, Biodiversity Heritage Library
A short pilot study was conducted to provide recommendations on methods and workflows for extracting geographic references from the text of Biodiversity Heritage Library collections and disambiguating these references. An initial survey of the literature was conducted, and a variety of possible techniques and software were subsequently explored for natural language processing, machine learning, document annotation, and map visualization. A test corpus was evaluated, and preliminary findings identify challenges for a full-scale effort towards automated geoparsing, including: varying OCR quality, diversity of the corpus, historical context, and ambiguity of geographic references. The project background, approaches, and preliminary assessment are described here.
Measuring scientific buzz
Information School, University of Washington, United States of America
Keywords are important for information retrieval. They are
used to classify and sort papers. However, these terms can also be used
to study trends within and across fields. In this poster, we describe preliminary
analysis where we measure the burstiness of keywords within
the field of AI. We examine 150k keywords in approximately 100k journal
and conference papers. We find that nearly 80% of the keywords die
off before year one for both journals and conferences but that terms last
longer in journals versus conferences. We also find time periods of burstiness
in AI – one where the terms are more neuroscience inspired and one
more oriented to computational optimization. Our goal is to extend this
analysis to other fields in order to better understand the dynamics of
buzz within science.
Libraries and Intangible Cultural Heritage: Documenting and Disseminating Abel Iloco
University of the Philippines, Philippines
The traditional abel weaving process is one of the Philippines’ Intangible Cultural Heritage that is at risk of being lost and forgotten. This project focused on documenting the traditional weaving pro-cess and the knowledge that the weavers hold. The output is a video documentary to serve as means to disseminate the process to a wider public. It showcases the collection of narratives and in-terviews bearing the knowledge of the weavers about the process, history, and significance of abel. The aim of the project is to be able to capture the pure essence of the craft and help in reviving the craft of abel weaving.
Updating Medieval Manuscript Metadata using Supervised Classification: A Preliminary Process
1University of Wisconin-Milwaukee, United States of America; 2The Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, University of Pennsylvania, United States of America
This poster presents work done to automatically update a digital repository with an adopted set of target keywords from the Walters Art Museum. A crosswalk was created relying on input .csv files containing the target keywords, regular expression strings to be matched in text, and the location of each target keyword in free text TEI elements and Library of Congress Subject Heading strings. A pipeline was designed in R to take the input crosswalk files and automatically align target keywords to the existing TEI. Initial output showed approximately 65% coverage, which was improved by using an iterative process to verify terminological locations and unclear terms within the text.
C^2 index: a community-aware model to evaluate an author’s academic impact
Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
Academic communities and familiarity may cause citation bias in research work, while indicators in citation analysis cannot detect and avoid these biases, which decrease fairness in academic evaluation. Therefore, we propose a new model: c^2 index, which integrates citation analysis with collaboration network analysis, in order to distinguish within and cross-community citations, and highlight citations from high-impact authors. C^2 index evaluates an author’s academic impact in a community-aware and a comprehensive citation network. Experiment on real datasets shows that c^2 index outperforms h index and degree centrality in academic evaluation and ranking precision.
An Exploratory Study of (\#)Exercise in the Twittersphere
1University of South Carolina, United States of America; 2University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Social media analytics allows us to extract, analyze, and establish semantic from user-generated contents in social media platforms. This study utilized a mixed method including a three-step process of data collection, topic modeling, and data annotation for recognizing exercise related patterns. Based on the findings, 86% of the detected topics were identified as meaningful topics after conducting the data annotation process. The most discussed exercise related topics were physical activity (18.7%), lifestyle behaviors (6.6%), and dieting (4%). The results from our experiment indicate that the exploratory data analysis is an effective approach to summarizing the various characteristics of text data for different health and medical applications.
Comparative Survey of Ontology Editors for the Semantic Web
Kent State University, United States of America
With the evolution of the Semantic Web and its supporting technologies, ontologies support intelligent information retrieval. They facilitate ex-change of information and provide a commonly agreed on understanding of a domain by classifying information and the creation of explicit domain conceptualizations using knowledge representation languages. The development of ontologies requires the use of customized tools. This paper aims to identify free or open source ontology creation and management tools which can be applied to various stages of the ontology life-cycle. Further it seeks to provide a review of features and comparison of their functionality
Knowledge Transfer and Management During and Beyond New Employee Training: The Experience of Academic Library Student Workers.
Simmons University, United States of America
Knowledge management (KM) emerged as an explicit field of scientific inquiry in the 1980s and quickly drew research interest from a wide range of academic areas, as knowledge is increasingly recognized as the driver of productivity and innovation of an organization in today’s knowledge-based economy. Academic libraries have been adopting KM strategies and tools to improve operational efficiency, and to support continuous innovation in service provision. KM in this context is broader than the traditionally recognized role of libraries in managing explicit knowledge. The more intricate aspect of KM involves managing the creation, organization, and sharing of tacit knowledge possessed by all library staffs in the library environment. This study studies the problem from the perspective of student workers, who often staff public service points as the first contact for patrons, and are increasingly taking on more sophisticated roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured interviews are conducted to exam academic library student workers’ perception and experience of KM practices and tools in their work setting and identify opportunities where they can contribute positively to improving knowledge sharing and library service provision. Preliminary findings show that student workers generally lack an understanding of their job tasks, tools they use and the broader implications of how they deal with knowledge and information in the context of KM, thus making them less motivated to share actively. Many students express discontents with the KM tools used in the libraries, meanwhile, believing that their libraries could benefit from a more formalized KM practice.
Comparing the Cited Subjects and Author Affiliations of MIS and LIS from a Research Evaluation Perspective
1National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, Taipei, Taiwan
The Information Science & Library Science (IS-LS) category in Journal Citation Report (JCR) has been criticized for its collocation of library and information science (LIS) and management information systems (MIS) within one single category, which has resulted in numerous research evaluation problems. In this poster, we present an analysis based on four leading journals, one representing MIS and three representing LIS. Papers and citation data of the journals between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed to reveal the similarities and differences in the distributions of cited subjects and author affiliations of the four journals. The results show observable differences among the subject fields and the possible negative consequences of the inappropriate collocation was discussed for future research evaluation and development.
Examining MEDLINE Search Query Reproducibility and Resulting Variation in Search Results
1University of Kentucky, United States of America; 2University of Michigan, United States of America
The MEDLINE database is publicly available through the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed but the data file itself is also licensed to a number of vendors, who may offer their versions to institutional and other parties as part of a database platform. These vendors provide their own interface to the MEDLINE file and offer other technologies that attempt to make their version useful to subscribers. However, little is known about how vendor platforms ingest and interact with MEDLINE data files, nor how these changes influence the construction of search queries and the results they produce. This poster presents a longitudinal study of five MEDLINE databases involving 29 sets of logically and semantically consistent search queries (five search queries for each set). The goal is to understand whether it is possible to reproduce search queries by: a) analyzing search query syntax per database, and b) controlling for total search results. We also highlight the barriers to creating reproducible queries across MEDLINE databases.
Visual Models of Privacy Experiences on Facebook
University of Washington, United States of America
In spite of efforts by social media designers to help users understand their privacy settings, research has shown that there is a disconnect between how users understand and make choices related to privacy and how digital infrastructures manage access to posts. Our project uses Facebook posts to investigate how people might visually represent their lived experiences of privacy concern. We utilize a participatory design method using paper tokens to help people sketch these experiences. From these preliminary sessions, our participants surfaced the costs of a lack of support for specific privacy tasks, such as coordination between friends about content visibility. Participants also suggested that visualizing their social network affords tasks beyond privacy, such as professional networking.
Extracting POIs for Navigation based on Analyzed User Residentiality using SNS Photos
1Yamaguchi University, Japan; 2Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan; 3Osaka University, Japan
his paper presents a novel POI (Point of Interest) extraction method based on the residency characteristics of SNS users. Our goal is to present SNS photos of extracted POIs with high visibility and high awareness for each user on their navigation routes. In our method, we first determine the residential region of each user using geo-tagged tweets and then extract POIs at the nonresidential locations by calculating the residential users' appearance frequency based on geo-tagged tweets. This allows us to present the SNS photos of the extracted POIs by each residency characteristic on the navigation routes.
Biomedical compound figure detection using deep convolutional neural network
School of Information Management, Wuhan University, China, People's Republic of
Scientific figures contain significant amounts of information but present different challenges relative to image retrieval. One such challenge is compound figures or images made up of two or more subfigures. A deep convolutional neural network model is proposed for compound figure detection (CFD) in the biomedical article domain. Our architecture is inspired by the success of VGG16 and uses large-size convolution kernel in first layer. The proposed model obtained a best test accuracy of 97.08% outperforming traditional hand-crafted and other deep learning representations on the ImageCLEF2016 CFD subtask datasets.
Implications of Data Sharing on Formal Data Citation in Biomedical Fields
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, United States of America
Formal data citation recognizes data sharing sources and is itemized in the refer-ences section of published bibliographies. Current practice of formal data citing is becoming problematic because its use is not widely adopted. This study examined research data sharing in data repositories within the biomedical field. The study also explored how research data are documented and formally cited (i.e., formal references in the published bibliographies). Data were collected from major data sharing repositories commonly used in biomedical fields. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) were found more widely used as data identifiers rather than Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) which is concerning since URLs are less stable than DOIs. The rate of data sharing in the Data Citation Index (DCI) and the rate of formal data citation in bibliographic references in the Web of Science (WoS) corresponds to the most practices in data repositories in biomedical fields. The contribution of this study is providing insight into the form and use of formal da-ta citation in scholarly communications so that data sharers receive appropriate acknowledgment and formal scholarly credit consistently.
Publicly Reporting Educational Data: An Analysis of Current Practices
Quality Information Partners, United States of America
Educational institutions and programs have a responsibility to provide current, accurate, and easily accessible information—including program performance, quality, and achievement data—to stakeholders. This study examines how library and information studies (LIS) education programs in the United States communicate program data. An iterative content analysis of 52 LIS program websites will identify the types of data LIS programs publicly report as evidence of student achievement. Specific data characteristics will be analyzed, including frequency, currency, accessibility, format, and utility in program decision-making and improvement. The results of this study will be of interest to stakeholders with an interest in improving data quality, reporting, and transparency practices in higher education settings.
Can Educational Background Affect Citation Counts? From the Perspective of Bourdieu’s Cultural Capital
School of Information Management, Nanjing university, China, People's Republic of
In Cultural Capital Theory, embodied cultural capital refers to the habitus that is developed from educational environment. Habitus and education have been proved to affect economic activity, political participation, as well as students’ academic achievements. The environment where a scientist pursues higher education helps to build scientific habitus. Less is known, however, about the effect of education and habitus on scientific impact. The present study focuses on the relationship between educational background of scientists and their citation impact. Educational backgrounds are measured by disciplinary background, academic degree, and alma mater rank, while citation impact is crassly operationalized as citation counts. Article samples are collected from leading library and information science (LIS) journals. Two negative binomial regression models are run: the first model incorporates six control variables, while the second includes both control and independent variables. When educational background is added to the second model, pseudo R2 rises from 0.0545 to 0.0813, indicating that the educational background of authors exerts an impact on citations. We find that significant relationships exist between disciplinary background, academic degree and citation counts, while higher alma mater rank could not affect a scientist’s future citation impact.
Health information seeking behaviors among mothers of young healthy children: A comparative study of U.S. mothers and Korean immigrant mothers
UW-Madison, United States of America
The goal of this study is to compare health information seeking behaviors between two groups: U.S. mothers and immigrant Korean mothers living in the U.S. With a nonprobability sampling method, data were collected from five online communities via an online survey; 480 completed responses were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and independent t-tests were implemented in analyzing the data. Nearly all mothers (U.S. mothers = 93.0%; immigrant Korean mothers = 94.2%) had sought health information in the past 6 months. Also, among 14 information sources, the World Wide Web was the most frequently used source in both groups. The findings confirm that mothers are active health information seekers considering their roles as caregivers or health managers for their children. This implies that appropriate usages of a few social media platforms (e.g. online communities) have great potential for information professionals who try to provide health information to mothers with high information needs.
An Autoethnographic account of Innovation at the Department of Veterans Affairs
University of Maryland, United States of America
What is influencing the direction of innovation at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)? I explore challenges at the VA Center of Innovation (VACI) as the US Government Accounting Office (GAO) has designated the VA at high-risk for being susceptible to waste, fraud, and mismanagement. My autoethnographic lens is applied to the VACI open source software application, the Radiology Protocol Tool Recorder (RAPTOR) that my team and I designed and developed from 2010 to 2017. RAPTOR is designed to work with the VistA Electronic Health Record (EHR), considered one of the most important open source healthcare software applications ever. The failure to launch RAPTOR is representative of these susceptibilities and an appropriate example to illustrate VA institutional issues. This poster advances a novel approach of understanding institutional culture and change, using autoethnographic methods to retrospectively analyze over ten years of experience at the VA. I propose three new research questions based on my understanding of VA innovation. The poster provides a structure to understand the major issues influencing information directions; identifies sources and determinants and categorizes attributes into organization, process, technology, and culture. My research is supplemented by the information literature, and I use a conceptual framework explaining the relationships between these factors and the direction of VA IT innovation. The proposed framework serves as a means by which government and public sector information systems managers / Chief Information Officers / Technology and business managers can conduct an introspective exercise within their organization.
Multilingual Access Support Evaluation Guideline in the Website of Public Library
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, United States of America
Multilingual access in public libraries is vital in serving diverse populations and has been discussed along with the rise of online websites or digital libraries. There are a variety of support-levels in providing multilingual access in practices of public libraries but only few researches have been conducted to identify components of multilingual access, especially for public libraries websites which can be the first gate to users. Our study aims at examining a current status of multilingual access in public library websites by reviewing literatures on the multilingual issues and case studies selected by demographic data. The conclusion of this study suggests a general frame-work which leads guidelines to evaluations of multilingual access in public library websites.
Smart Home Technologies: A New Source of Social Support or Just Another Gadget?
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
This paper describes a pilot field study of the extent to which the current smart home technologies (SHoT) could provide social support to individuals and families including emotional support, companionship, information support and instrumental support. Data includes interviews with 6 households (15 people including adults and children) who used SHoT. Results suggest that SHoT can provide a low/medium level of information and instrumental support and a low level of emotional support and companionship to adults. However, child users reported more emotional support and companionship from SHoT.
Personal music management: Usage habits in streaming
1Bar-Ilan University, Israel; 2Jerusalem College of Technology
In this exploratory study we examine personal information management within music streaming applications and the possible influence of streaming service use on musical information management. Also, we investigate the sense of ownership over songs being played on music streaming applications and whether the use of these services may be considered a social activity. In a later stage, we intend to test privacy related issues in music streaming applications and the factors that influence privacy concerns when using these services. This is examined by using a mixed methodology and consists of two phases: qualitative and quantitative: The qualitative stage includes semi-structured interviews with three music streaming application users in order to explore the possible change in personal information management, following the emergence of these applications (e.g. change in song retrieval process); The quantitative phase includes the distribution of closed ended questionnaires among 200-250 users of music streaming applications, aiming to explore personal information management issues and privacy related issues that emerge while using these applications (e.g. privacy concerns). Currently, only the qualitative phase is completed. We found that users still rely on traditional methods of personal information management, rather than making use of the newer features available by the innovative music streaming applications. The same applies to the use of these applications as part of a social activity. In addition, it seems that the emergence of music streaming applications has caused a change in the sense of ownership over songs in personal music libraries and made it ambiguous among music consumers.
Towards More Transparent, Reproducible, and Reusable Data Cleaning with Openrefine
1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America; 2University of Waterloo
We study provenance features of OpenRefine, a popular data cleaning tool. In OpenRefine, provenance is available through operation histories and recipes. The former provide users with an undo/redo capability; the latter represent histories in JSON, so recipes can be reused. The model implicit in histories and recipes exhibits both prospective and retrospective provenance features, but is incomplete in at least two ways: (i) functions resulting in mass edits, and (ii) single cell edits are not captured, thus missing important prospective and retrospective provenance information, respectively. We propose to complete the missing information by capturing names and parameters of user-invoked functions, and by exposing retrospective provenance hidden in internal project files. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated with an early prototype.