Online & Oslo, Norway
21-23 June 2021
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Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 29th July 2021, 04:00:14am CEST
Session 13: IAQ in dwellings
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1:00pm - 1:12pm
Healthy Home – Taking health into the design and use of (Dutch) dwellings
Avans University of applied Sciences, Tilburg, The Netherlands
Currently, the Dutch building construction sector generally does not yet consciously deal with the theme of health in homes. The government, the construction sector and residents appear more focused on reducing energy. As a result, in practice, there is a lack of awareness. Health in homes, apart from the building decree requirements, is not yet part of the design process and usage.
Some innovative Dutch construction companies do acknowledge the importance of health when building houses and try to develop concepts for that. They, however, are not always aware how to translate ‘health’ best into design solutions for dwellings, and their performance is not always considered consciously.
In this research, the so-called ‘Healthy Homes’ concept was investigated in more detail. The objective was to identify the potential for optimization of the concept, by providing advice for building physical and architectural interventions, and by providing guidelines, also in the use phase.
A literature study has been performed to explore definitions and guidelines concerning health in homes which accumulated in a trend report. The results of this part of the research are divided into four themes: outdoor environment, indoor environment, design and communication. In the second phase of the research a survey, analysis of available measurement data and interviews with experts in the field of building physics and architecture have been performed.
The outcomes identify that residents can influence a healthy indoor climate to a certain degree. This may be further supported by creating awareness among residents through a positive and activating promotion pamphlet. Construction companies then are challenged to implement design considerations to support healthy living conditions in dwellings. In this research, optimization options are elaborated in design guidelines. Apart from known physical indoor environment parameters such as temperature, air quality, ventilation, acoustics and sun/daylight, they include topics such as: view, privacy, orientation, possibilities for social interaction, spatial experience, contact with nature, materials and the possibility of minimalism. Three different variants have developed for the ‘Healthy Homes’ concept. These have been assessed against the design guidelines and compared based on radar charts. The optimized variant shows promising outcomes.
Finally, the research has also identified that the Dutch building decree currently scores very poorly concerning health. Concepts such as ‘Healthy Homes’ may provide a significant improvement in that case.
1:12pm - 1:17pm
Architectural Design Modification Study for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality for Alleviation of Aeroallergen Sensitization in the Standard Naturally-Ventilated Urban Dwelling
De La Salle - College of Saint Benilde, Philippines
An increase in prevalence of chronic allergic disorders allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and itching skin allergic disorder atopic dermatitis is observed in the urbanized regions of Asia due to the rapid changes in the region’s ambient air quality and environment. 25%-34.5% of Asian individuals are affected by one or more allergic disorders. This Asia-specific statistic is consistent with prevalence rates in the Philippines, where allergic rhinitis and asthma affect between 20-27.4% of Filipinos, while atopic dermatitis continues to steadily gain new cases every year at an average growth of 3.7% in the city of Manila alone. Low to middle-income countries in the Asian region such as the Philippines are significantly affected by air pollution due to large concentrations of traffic emissions, and a lack in more renewable sources of energy as traditional solid and fossil fuels widely used in the domestic unit and industrial hubs expel hazardous gases. 69% of the Philippines’ ambient air pollution in 2016 is attributed to vehicle emissions according to the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR), where 90% of which is concentrated in the country’s urban capital Metro Manila. Management of allergic disorders can negatively affect the patient’s life because of the urban environmental pollutants the patient is exposed to daily. Existing clinically advised environment modification studies have shown direct correlations in the suppression of air pollutants, using mechanical air filtering and home behavioral and sanitation practices, with the alleviation of allergic symptoms — but there is a lack of research on whether similar results can be achieved in a naturally ventilated indoor environment, which is more sustainable and economically accessible compared to the installation and maintenance of mechanical ventilation systems. This study aims to provide a means for allergic symptom alleviation through the design of spatial elements that can naturally suppress air pollutants from entering the indoor environment, namely an air filtering building façade and a cross-ventilated space plan, as guided by architectural design practices and indoor air quality methods. The design will then be tested in a standard-sized dwelling unit using Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations.
1:17pm - 1:29pm
How to transform European housing into healthy and sustainable living spaces using a Belgian case study? – the RenovActive principles tackle climate and renovation challenges
1VELUX A/S; 2Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium; 3Humboldt University, Germany; 4Daidalos Peutz Belgium; 5VELUX Belgium
THE RENOVACTIVE CONCEPT: The RenovActive concept seeks to offer affordable, easy to reproduce, scalable solutions – these were the main criteria set up for the RenovActive project in Anderlecht, Belgium . The aim of the renovation project was to test the Active House principles in social housing and single-family homes where cost, comfort and energy efficiency have to go hand in hand. A key aspect of RenovActive is to prove the financial viability of Active House renovation in social housing schemes across Europe. The affordability is based on the proven quality of each element as well as the different solutions’ ability to be reproduced, allowing economies of scale to take effect. To investigate the concept, the house has been tested by the first family to move in and monitored post occupancy to evaluate how the elements function in practice.
RESULTS: From an occupant perspective , the results show that the family is very satisfied with the level of indoor comfort. In both the questionnaire, the time diary as well as during the interviews, the family stated that they were very happy with the indoor temperature, the indoor air quality and the natural light. From a monitoring perspective , the results show that the indoor air quality is very good. For more than 95% of the time, the CO2-concentration in the house, in general, is below 900 ppm. Slightly higher values were measured in the sleeping rooms. The temperatures stay for more than 95% between 21°C and 26°C, while the have slightly higher values, but stays under 28°C. Energy consumption for heating is higher than the estimated value, mainly due to higher indoor temperature than the setpoint used in the calculation.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, home satisfaction is therefore very high. The family indicated that they are very happy with the indoor climate, such as the indoor temperature, air quality and natural light. During the daily life, not many adjustments are needed to the automatic system. The family does indicate that they were sometimes dependent on others to solve technical problems. The health and sleep quality of the family have improved considerably since they moved in the RenovActive house. They also report that their family life as well as social contacts outside the family have greatly improved.
1:29pm - 1:41pm
Perceived indoor environment in social housing with different ventilation principles
1Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark
The need for renovation and energy retrofitting of Danish social housing from the 1960s and 1970s is substantial. Such energy retrofits often include the installation of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery to fulfil the current standards for energy efficiency. These systems typically ensure a more constant and higher ventilation rate than previous systems. Therefore, there is potential for residents to perceive a higher air quality and a reduction in problems due to condensation on cold surfaces and mould growth after retrofits. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if this potential is realised for residents in social housing complexes. A questionnaire survey was performed among residents in dwellings with ventilation categorised within one of the five ventilation principles: natural ventilation, bathroom fan, exhaust fans in the kitchen and bath, decentralized balanced mechanical ventilation and centralized balanced mechanical ventilation. Compared with residents without balanced mechanical ventilation, residents having such systems perceived less often problems with unpleasant odour from their own apartment and less visible mould, but more often perceived the air as dry. Residents with decentralized mechanical ventilation tended to experience more often problems with noise from their ventilation system. However, results show that nuisance are avoidable with correctly designed decentralized ventilation.
1:41pm - 1:53pm
Chemical characterization of ultrafine particles released from 3D printers
BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany
Previous studies have shown that desktop 3D printers (Fused Filament Fabrication) emit high numbers of particulate matter, mainly as ultrafine particles (UFP, particle diameter less than 100 nm). However, the chemical composition of emitted particles has been less extensively investigated. In this study, we therefore focused on the chemical composition of particles emitted from 3D printing. The measurements were conducted in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. Emitted particles were sampled by a 13-stage low-pressure cascade impactor onto aluminum foils and then analyzed by TD-GC/MS to identify their organic compounds. Nine commercial filaments made from basic polymers such as Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA), Polycarbonate (PC), Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Nylon, High Performance Polystyrene (HIPS) and a copper-filled Polylactide (PLA) were investigated. The results show that the organic components of the particles are primarily plastic additives such as plasticizer, antioxidant agents, lubricants, UV-absorbers and UV-stabilizers from the filaments.
1:53pm - 2:05pm
Research on Thermal Comfort of Activity Space under Viaduct in Mountain City — Take Chongqing Egongyan Bridge as an example
1School of Architecture and Urban Planning Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China; 2Chen Qigao Building Science and Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400044, PR China; 3Key laboratory of new technology for construction of cities in mountain area, ministry of education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China
Rapid development of cities has led to the shortage of land for residents' activities, while rational use of the space under urban viaducts can effectively alleviate this problem. The thermal environment of the space under the viaduct is a key factor that affects human comfort during activities. In this paper, the thermal comfort under the Egongyan Bridge in Chongqing was evaluated by winter thermal environment test, thermal sensational voting (TSV) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). It was found that the sky view factor (SVF) had a stronger linear correlation with UTCI than the spatial height width ratio (H/B). Furthermore, pedestrians pay attention to environmental thermal parameters mainly in the aspect of sunshine. This study provides a reference for the thermal environment optimization of the space under viaducts in the future, and provides a basis for the sustainable development of the city.
2:05pm - 2:17pm
Research on industry-spatial relationship of existing industrial zones in Beijiao, Shunde based on comparison of data Point of Interest
School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Architectural Design & Research Institute of SCUT
Spatial distribution characteristics of existing industrial zones in cities are important to research on their functional upgrading, optimization and transformation. So is the correlation with surrounding functional facilities which providing business supporting and life safeguard. The methods of Kernel Density Estimation, Standard Deviation Ellipse and Spatial Autocorrelation were used in this study, based on comparison of data Point of Interest (POI) of existing industrial zones in Beijiao. The study discussed the changing of characteristics and influence factors of industrial enterprises and surrounding facilities. It made a comparative analysis of the space correlation among the enterprises and facilities, and determined configuration status of facilities. And it provided the optimization strategy which should follow principles of utilization and proper demolition, and a regional centre should be planned. The building density in the area should adjusted in order to restore the ecological environment. A low-carbon and energy-saving urban form could to be constructed by optimizing the facility allocation. Tracking industrial-spatial dynamics by establishing a transformation database.
2:17pm - 2:22pm
Study of the thermal environment construction technology of the traditional residential of the Bai nationality
Chongqing University, China, People's Republic of
The Bai nationality is concentrated in Dali Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Its special geographical location and terrain--low-latitude plateau, formed the unique architectural form of the Bai nationality. Through the test and evaluation of indoor thermal environment in traditional Bai buildings, the paper analyzes the correlation between indoor thermal environment and spatial form of the traditional Bai nationality’s residence, and analyzes the formation mechanism of indoor thermal environment by numerical simulation method. The study found that the traditional Bai residence has a good thermal comfort, and it responds to the local climate characteristics through the enclosed courtyard and the courtyard technology formed in the building, so as to realize the climate adaptability of the building.
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