Athens, Greece, 11 - 13 October, 2017
Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).
|Date: Wednesday, 11/Oct/2017|
|8:15am - 9:00am||Conference Registration|
|9:00am - 9:30am||Opening Session|
|9:30am - 10:30am||Opening Lectures|
BENGT-ÅKE LUNDVALL: “The Learning Economy and the Economics of Hope“ (video presentation)
RICHARD NELSON: “On the Organization and Governance of Economic Activity”
|10:30am - 11:30am||Freeman Lecture|
Session Chair: Judith Sutz
“Innovative Enterprise and Sustainable Prosperity”
by WILLIAM LAZONICK
|11:30am - 12:00pm||Coffee Break|
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||SpS-1.1: Democracy, development and innovation|
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||SpS-1.2: Financial markets, financialization of corporations, and technological Innovation|
|12:00pm - 1:30pm||SpS-1.3: A discussion about frameworks for promoting innovation, mutual learning and collaboration among donor agencies|
|1:30pm - 2:45pm||Lunch Break|
AfricaLics Meeting: “AfricaLics outreach event open to all”
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.01: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 1|
Session Chair: Gabriel Yoguel
Discussant: Isabel Bortagaray
Who spends more on Innovation in India? Public versus Private sector enterprises and the effect of external borrowing
Centre for Development Studies, India
The current study empirically investigates the difference of innovation spending between public and private sector. Using data on public and private sector enterprises listed on the National Stock Exchange of India, the study attempts to find if public ownership has an impact on research and development (R&D) expenditure. The study also attempts to contrast the effect of external borrowing on R&D spending for the two set of firms by taking interactions between public sector dummy and external debt for each firm. The study employs propensity score matching and regression methods to capture the effects. The results suggest that listed public sector enterprises spend more on R&D than the listed private sector enterprises in India. Further, external borrowing acts as a strong and strict tool to increase innovation spending for private firms more than the state owned enterprises.
An Evolutionary Model of Changes in Industrial Leadership and Catch-up by Latecomers: Knowledge Spillover, Endogenous Innovation, and the “Incumbent Trap”
Korea Institute of S&T Evaluation and Planning (KISTEP), Korea, Republic of
"Incumbent trap" is a situation in which incumbent firms stick to the established technology that they have mastered while latecomers adopt a new technology when the radical innovation appears. If the new technology takes off, industrial leadership tend to shift from the incumbents to the latecomers. Although the incumbent trap phenomenon has been observed repeatedly in various industries, this phenomenon is not universal. The literature insufficiently explores the conditions in which incumbent traps and thus changes in industrial leadership occur. By developing a Nelson–Winter-like model, we show that leadership change from incumbent firms to latecomer firms is more likely to occur when 'the basic productivity of the new technology' (parameter A) is low and 'the expected proportion of firms adopting the new technology in the industry' (parameter B) is high and vice versa. Our findings can be an answer to why some new radical innovations lead to an industrial leadership shift to latecomer firms and others don’t. We conduct an extra simulation experiment to show the role of firm's R&D in the incumbent trap phenomenon: When firms can do R&D, incumbent firms defend their leadership more easily by improving their productivity of the technology they are employing than when firms are allowed only to adopt exogenous innovation and not allowed to do R&D.
System Dynamics modelling in the Innovation Systems literature
1Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Industrial Engineering, Stellenbosch University AND DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Scientometrics and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (SciSTIP), South Africa
Current developments within the innovation systems field are calling for less static and descriptive approaches and more dynamic and forward looking ones. In this article, we focus on a particular modeling and simulation approach known as system dynamics modeling. This methodology has been widely used for modelling complex socio-economic systems. However, little is known about its use in the innovation studies domain in general and in the innovation systems field in particular. By systematically analyzing a total of 34 studies we present the current state-of-the-art in the use of system dynamics in the innovation systems field. Our main results are that most studies have been used to explore assumptions, hypotheses and policy at the conceptual/theoretical level, as exploratory modeling tools. Second we have identified six main dynamics that have been modeled using system dynamics: i) R&D, ii) diffusion, iii) absorptive capacity, iv) science and technology, v) learning processes and vi) regional agglomerations, in both qualitatively (through causal loop diagrams) and quantitatively (through stock and flow diagrams). We conclude by reflecting on the current and future challenges for more inclusive system dynamics modeling within the field of innovation systems.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.02: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 2|
Session Chair: Erkki Karo
Discussant: Michiko Iizuka
Assessing The Effect Of Public Funding On Private Innovation Investment In Uruguay
Instituto de Economía, Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Despite the recent research efforts and methodological improvements, empirical evidence on the additionality effects of public innovation programs shows heterogeneous results by firm, sector, country and type of innovation. This paper assesses input additionality of public funding on private innovative investment of Uruguayan firms by applying a longitudinal analysis from 2001 to 2012. During this period, there was a dramatic increase of public innovation funds. However, the number of innovative firms remains stable and the amount of public funding for innovation at firm level is still very low. In this context, previous innovation experience appears as the most significant determinant of access to public innovation support. Moreover, we find evidence of a moderate substitution effect between public and private funds. We analyzed heterogeneous effects according to type of innovation, finding significant effects only for innovation based on acquisition of artifacts (embodied). We conclude on the main challenges of the current policy mix in Uruguay, stressing the relevance of further research lines on behavioral additionality to contribute to improve policy results.
Innovation Barriers and the Role of Institutional Context in Emerging Economies
1Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary's University, Canada; 2UNIDO, Austria; 3Ege University, Turkey
Understanding innovation barriers is critical for innovation policy to design better incentives to innovation. On line with previous studies by Hadjimanolis (1999), this study conducts an analysis of innovation barriers in two emerging economies, Mexico and Turkey. In addition, we evaluate the institutional context to determine if it plays a role in the innovation barriers for firms located in Mexico and Turkey. We conduct our analysis using three sources of data to then build a comprehensive database. For Mexico, we use data from the ESIDET, 2010; for Turkey, we use data from TurkStat, 2010; while the institutional country context indicators were gathered from a set of international databases. Our results suggest that firm and context characteristics matter to tackle innovation barriers, and there are also differences between successful innovators and unsuccessful innovators. This paper contributes to the literature on innovation barriers in providing a comparative analysis of barriers in two emerging economies, Mexico and Turkey. The paper also contributes to the discussion on the role of the institutional context on innovation barriers.
Efficiency, innovation, and imported inputs: determinants of export performance among Indian manufacturing firms
1Sant' Anna School of Advanced Studies, IBIMET-CNR; 2University of Bologna; 3Sant' Anna School of Advanced Studies
This paper investigates the determinants of export behavior among Indian manufacturing firms, focusing in particular on the role of technology, cost and imported intermediate inputs. Our evidence suggests that innovation, in particular R&D, positively affects both firms’ probability to export and firms’ export volumes. We also find that imported intermediate inputs, incorporating foreign technology, play an important role in expanding export activities of firms. On the other hand, we find that higher productivity or lower unit labour costs are not systematically associated with the probability to enter export market, but they do positively affect export volumes.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.03: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 1|
Session Chair: K J Joseph
Discussant: Mario Scerri
From Global Value Chains (GVC) to Innovation Systems for Local Value Chains
1Seoul National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
This paper has forwarded the N-shaped curve hypothesis that while at the initial stage of growth more GVC is desirable for learning from outside, functional upgrading requires some effort or stage of seeking separation and independence from the existing foreign-dominated GVC, and that the latecomer firms and economies might have to seek again for an opening to integrate back into the GVC after building up their own local value chains. This paper has tried to verify this ‘N-shaped, In-Out-In again’ hypothesis first by looking into cases of ‘upgrading and independence’ in Korea and Brazil, and second by checking the national level data of the share of foreign value-added (FVA). It is shown that the trends of FVA in successful catching-up economies, like Korea, Taiwan, and recently China, is consistent with this N-shaped or In-Out-In again pattern. The paper has also presented some regression results that confirms some correlations between the degree of local creation and diffusion of knowledge and the values of FVA. This can be regarded as an important contribution because it illustrates the linkage between the innovation system variables (knowledge localization) to the GVC variable of the FVA. This finding implies that building local innovation systems is the key to make upgrading and local value creation possible while being integrated in the GVC.
Paths of Technology Upgrading in the BRICS Economies
1University College London, United Kingdom; 2University of Bremen; 3Copenhagen Business School
Technology upgrading of BRICS is explored based on a three-pronged approach to technology upgrading which distinguishes between the intensity of technology upgrading, structural change and technology integration. The analysis is based on seven types of patent indicators which depict different dimensions of technology upgrading. The paper shows that there is no single path of technology upgrading within the group of BRICS economies. Instead, we find evidence of several unique profiles of technology upgrading with different trade-offs between intensity, structural change and nature of interaction with the global economy.
All BRICS have increased frontier technology intensity of their economies while only some have also increased the intensity of their behind technology frontier activities (China and Russia). We find evidence of structural change in selected BRICS economies regarding diversification of the technology knowledge base and entry into dynamic frontier areas. Finally, we observe for all BRICS economies shared features in the pattern of global interaction. With very low intensities of frontier technology, foreign actors and international collaboration have relatively high importance, which declines with more substantial scales of frontier efforts. The BRICS economies (including China) seem to lack the organisational and complementary capabilities to match the extent of technology sourcing from abroad observed in high-income countries.
Middle Innovation Trap: Transition Failure from Implementation Capability to Concept Design Capability as a Source of the Middle Income Trap
Seoul National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The middle income trap has become an important keyword in the policy discussion regarding growth issues. The standard explanation focuses on the latecomer’s advantage. This paper considers the concept of innovation capability to explain the source of middle income trap and the strategies to overcome it. First, the paper describes the middle income trap as a failure of transformation of core capabilities from implementation-based to that based on concept design. Secondly, it discusses the differences between the two innovation capabilities and explains the evolutionary process of accumulating concept design capability. The study also compares a coherent innovation system supporting implementation capability and that supporting concept design capability, and investigates the reason why it is so difficult to transform the core of innovation capability from implementation to concept design. It shows three different ways to accumulate experience of creative trial-and-error based on cases: time, space, and policy for the cases of advanced countries, China, and Korea, respectively. Lastly, the study introduces the concept of four pillars of innovation commons, such as advanced manufacturing base, strong learning capability, cultural framework for trial and error, and consistent innovation policy.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.04: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 2|
Session Chair: Raphie Kaplinsky
Discussant: Ismael Rafols
Grand challenges: a new type of innovation policies? Or old wine in new bottles?
University of Quebec, Montreal, Canada
The paper discusses two concepts that are used to make reference to government oriented R&D programs: “mission-oriented” and “grand-challenge” ones. The paper shows the second is displacing the first, but that both could be used as synonyms, as both make reference to innovation programs that are supported from the very basic fundamental research, to incentives for adoption.
Innovation system, dialogue processes and STI policymaking: Stylising Evidence on Latin America and the Caribbean
1Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico; 2Cátedras CONACYT, UAM, Mexico; 3Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mëxico; 4Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico; 5Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico
This paper aims at discussing the dimensions, attributes, and challenges to the dialogue processes in order to contribute to public STI policy-making within innovation systems in Latin America and the Caribbean. The evidence is based on 15 cases from this region. An analytical framework is proposed to analyse these dialogue processes, based on three dimensions: object, space, and temporality; each dimension is made up of various attributes. We outline three major policy recommendations: (i) it is crucial to understand the object of the dialogue and who are the communities and actors participating in it; (ii) it is important to clearly identify the three dimensions of the dialogue process and the specific attributes of each one; and (iii) it is advisable to identify differences in capabilities between the participating communities and any asymmetries of power, in order to take corrective action and encourage the generation of agreements.
Finding The Escape Shaft. From Resource Curse to Industrial Growth
Stellenbosch University, South Africa
This paper considers the opportunities for innovation by firms and entrepreneurs in
the SADC region. It recognizes that despite the commodities boom of the past
decade, economic dependency remains the dominant condition of the fifteen-member
Southern African Development Community . Economic diversification through import-substituting industrialization, let alone export orientation, remains elusive, giving credence to an ongoing ‘resource curse.’ The working hypothesis of this paper is that the weight of dependency coupled with the entry of South African and Chinese transnational corporations crowds out the ‘innovation space’ so that domestic entrepreneurs are unable to compete and gain market share. Even so, against expectation, a number of large domestically owned firms have emerged in the SADC periphery. Friedrich List’s idea of 'kicking away the
ladder’ provokes the idea of an ‘escape shaft’ as the mechanism for firms in
resource-rich countries to break the path dependencies of their colonial bequest. Three case studies serve to illustrate how emergent entrepreneurs have found such
escape shafts through seizing opportunities in the innovation space. Implications for policy are discussed
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.05: Intellectual property rights, open innovation and development 1|
Session Chair: George Hondroyiannis
Discussant: Cristiano Santos
International Collaboration and the Likelihood of Obtaining a Patent
Universtity of Piraeus, Greece
We examine whether patent applications with international inventor collaborations are more likely to be awarded a US patent than applications without. We focus on the 28 EU member countries and explicitly distinguish between countries with high and low number of patent applications. Of special interest is the collaborations between innovative laggard countries and top innovative countries as evident by patent applications. We draw data from various patent datasets available from the Office of the Chief Economist at the USPTO. Preliminary results show that for certain countries, collaborations are associated with increased likelihood of a patent grant.
IPRs, Level of Technology and Exports: Empirical Evidences
IIT Indore, India
Since the passage of agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) under the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, the policy makers and researchers have been focusing on the study of the potential impact of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) on international trade and investment. IPRs regime is a significant policy tool that drives innovations by firms and subsequently the technological change in an economy. This study proposes an alternative perspective concerning the channel through which countries gain from IPRs as it influences the level of technology of a country that further stimulates its exports. Therefore, it is interesting to study the relationship between IPR and exports, by the level of technological activities of the source countries and examine the effect of IPR protections on the level of technology and concomitantly on high-technology exports. This study computes a technology index through principle component analysis to analyze the level of technological activity across countries. This study uses two-stage least square equation models during 1996-2014 of 67 countries. The empirical results exhibit that the host countries’ IPR positively influences the level of technology and that further stimulates exports.
Exploratory time-trend analysis of ‘electrical engineering’ and ‘chemistry’ technological domains patents in Brazil: Lessons for developing countries
1National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Federal University of Alfenas, Varginha, Brazil; 4National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
This paper presents data on the patenting practice in Brazil and contributes to the understanding of some characteristics of the Brazilian National System of Innovation that possibly other countries with the same level of industrial development share with it. In particular, the paper throws some light on the fact that in Brazil there is a dominant share of patents on the hands of non-residents, almost all non-residents are transnational companies (TNCs) and most of them are from the USA, Western Europe and Japan. Besides this, we show that indigenous companies’ strategies are not straight forwardly translated into patents and those indigenous companies, which were acquired by TNCs, reduced their patenting activities. This article focuses on ‘electrical engineering’ technological domain – electrical components, audiovisual, telecommunications, information technology and semiconductors – and ‘chemical’ technological domain – organic fine chemicals, macromolecular chemistry,
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and biotechnology – using data from PATSTAT.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.06: Gender innovation and development 1|
Session Chair: Ann Njoki Kingiri
Discussant: Alexandra Kontolaimou
Gender Productivity Differentials in South Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria: A Case Study of Drought Tolerant Maize Variety Farms
1University of IIorin, Nigeria; 2Department of Statistics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria; 3International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, oyo State Nigeria; 4SARChI, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria South Africa
Gender differences matter not only for food production, but also for entire food system. From a broader perspective of food systems, women are income earners and guardians of household food security. Women play a crucial role in the distribution of food and non food household resources that determine the food security of the household. Despite the important role women play in agricultural production, they remain disadvantaged in numerous respects. Closing the gender gap in agriculture can improve agricultural productivity with important additional benefits through raising the incomes of the farmer, increasing the availability of food and reducing food prices, raising women’s employment and real wages and hence transform the agriculture sector. This study therefore investigate gender differences in maize productivity using panel data collected from on-farm trials from 2012 to 2015 in South Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: (i) compare maize productivity by gender; (ii) evaluate the determinants of the gender productivity differences. and (iii) determine the technical efficiency of the maize farms by gender.
A Two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to select farmers’ fields in Kwara State, Niger State and Oyo State of the South Guinea Savannah of Nigeria, using on-farm trial approach through men and women groups. The primary data for the study were collected through the use of well-structured questionnaires administered to ninety (90) women and ninety (90) men farmers in on-farm trial of the DT maize variety. This analytical employed Descriptive statistics, Ranking, Propensity score matching, Farm budgeting analysis regression analysis and stochastic frontier.
Results indicate that lower productivity is persistent from female-owned on-farm trial plots, accounting for a range of socioeconomic variables, agricultural inputs, and crop choices. These results are robust to the inclusion of household-level unobserved The result of the analysis showed that both the men and women farmers were all married with about 23% of the women farmers having no formal education which was higher than the men counter parts. The result of varietal preference differs in some locations by gender. The women farmers ranked the DT maize variety as the best at two of the locations. The profitability of the maize varieties also differs per location and per gender with the DT maize varieties having the highest profit at all locations. It is therefore recommended that women farmers, their needs and preferences should be inclusive in the development of agricultural innovations in order to attained sustainable growth through enchanted agricultural productivity.
The Role of Women's Entrepreneurship Orientation in Achieving Sustainable Development: Case of Algeria
University of M'sila, Algeria
Purpose: This study aims to identify the possibility of the contribution of women
entrepreneurship in sustainable development.
Methodology: In order to achieve our objective, we used the descriptive and analytical method,
through reviewing the related literature to the research variables and also analyzing the content of
some studies which tackled this topics.
Findings: the study concludes that the women entrepreneurship contribute remarkably to the
achievement of goals, which are directly related to the fundamental dimensions constituting of
Predictors of Innovative Work Behavior in Software Industry of Pakistan: Role of Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Commitment
COMSATS Institute for Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan
The aim of this study is to explore the predictors of innovative work behavior in the software industry of Pakistan. Particularly, the role of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment in predicting the innovative work behavior is examined. Data was collected from 310 software developers working in the software companies. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis in SPSS. Regression analysis results revealed that psychological empowerment and organizational commitment are strong predictors of the innovative work behavior of software developers. The results also revealed that the respondents exhibited higher levels of psychological empowerment organizational commitment and innovative work behavior, particularly, among male employees was scored higher than the female employees. In addition, local companies’ employees scored high on these three constructs as compared to the foreign companies. For the sake of generalization, a future study of cross-industry analysis would be helpful.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.07: Sectoral innovation system, systemic industrial policy and development 1|
Session Chair: Yuan Zhou
Discussant: Nicholas S. Vonortas
Export performance, innovation, and sectoral efficiency: an approximation from manufacture companies in Argentina 2010-2012.
CONICET, Argentine Republic
The aim of this work is to explore the differential role of innovation in different sectors of manufacture industry. We consider sectors and its characterization according to Ricardian, Keynesian and Shumpeterian efficiencies in a double sense. First, they define the productive structure of an economy, which is the main cause of external constrain to growth. Secondly, they also affect dynamics of innovation through industry biases that influence the innovative activity. We used anonymized microdata base from National Survey of Employment Dynamics and Innovation (ENDEI, for its acronym in Spanish) which sample 3691 Argentine industrial companies during 2010, 2011 and 2012. Results suggest export performance is conditioned by sector, and innovation has a positive impact on export performance all over the economy, but this impact varies according to the sector. We also find out defining a dynamic sector is a complex task, at least regarding to the role of innovation in exports, since for sectors expected to have a similar behavior as they are characterized with the same efficiency (Ricardian, Keynesian, or Schumpetarian), the impact of innovation on export performance varies considerably. This is our specific contribution as it had not been addressed previously, and it gives open the challenge of finding a better sectoral taxonomy, particularly for sectors with more than one efficiency. In fact, our more relevant finding is that only sectors simultaneously endowed with Keynesian and Schumpetarian efficiency are homogenous regarding export dynamism resulting from innovation.
Discourse and Practice of Brazilian Industrial Policy in 2005-2014: an evaluation of the sectorial distribution of resources from BNDES and FINEP
1Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The article evaluates the alignment between the discourse and the practice of the Brazilian Industrial Policy in the period from 2005 to 2014. For this, it analyzes refundable resources for innovative projects granted by the Funding Authority for Studies and Projects (FINEP) and the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), which are the most important federal institutions in charge of the implementation of industrial and innovation policy in Brazil. The priority sectors from Industrial, Technological and Foreign Trade Policy (PITCE), Productive Development Policy (PDP), and Greater Brazil Plan (PBM) are compared with the sectorial distribution of the refundable resources released by these institutions. In general lines, it is possible to observe that there was a real increase in refundable resources from FINEP and BNDES over the period. A convergence between discourse and practice was observed for the pharmaceutical and information and communications technology sectors that were prioritized in the policies and received a significant amount of refundable resources by the institutions. In turn, the automobile sector received a considerable amount of resources and was prioritized only in PDP policy.
The Role of Industrial Associations in Shaping Innovation through Systemic Integration: the Cases of India and South Africa
1Open University, United Kingdom; 2University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Integrating political, bureaucratic, industrial and healthcare systems has been a major challenge for innovation and development policy in low and middle income countries. This challenge has so far been understood in terms of separate industrial and health related innovation policies without paying adequate attention to the institutional roles of intermediary actors such as biopharmaceutical and other umbrella associations. This paper seeks to examine such roles in the developmental contexts of South Africa and India. The argument put forward is that in both countries biopharmaceutical and umbrella associations have evolved from lobbying organisations to institutional partners who influence the policies of innovation and development, and therefore the degree of integration and fragmentation of political, bureaucratic, industrial innovation and health systems.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.08: Innovation systems, networks, global value chains and foreign direct investments 1|
Session Chair: Roman Jurowetzki
Discussant: Bernhard Truffer
Impact of Food Value Chain Governance Determinants on Innovation competitiveness: Evidence from Kenya Horticultural Exporters
Riara University, Kenya
The objective of this work is to reassess Global Value Chain (GVC) determinants largely used in global value chain governance trade through interfirm relationship. These relationships rely upon external institutional frameworks on whose partner or cluster of firms have little influence other than their internally devised administrative mechanisms such as formal contracts and relational governance developed by the exchange partners. This paper is based on a survey of 83 horticultural exporters of fresh fruits and vegetables accessed out of 120 exporters registered with Fresh Produce Association of Kenya and exporters who outsource their pack house activities at Horticultural Crops Directorate pack house. It employs categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) to deal with the multicollinearity problem among categorical explanatory variables used. From the CATPCA output, five components were extracted and named as standards & certification, nature of transactions, level of supply chain integration, nature of contract and external contingencies; these components were considered to be the key food value chain governance determinants affecting the export oriented horticultural value chain in Kenya among other horticultural exporters in developing countries. Through multiple regression these components were regressed on the dependent variable of competitiveness by product, process, marketing and organisational innovation. It is emergent and novel to this research that standards & certification schemes are taking a critical position in determining food value chain governance especially through remote governance or governance from a distance, the findings as well affirm the determinants of nature of transactions the level of value chain integration and the administration through contracts as critical; standards & certification have as well been impactful in competitiveness of the horticultural exports by creating competitive positioning through product, process and marketing innovations.
The knowledge transfer from local parent firm to the joint-venture in the South: examining the determinants factors
1University of Lille1, France; 2Ecole supérieure de commerce of Tunis - Tunisia
Today, more North-South Joint-ventures are initiated mainly to gain greater competitive advantages that will lead to improve performances. A considerable amount of knowledge flows takes place within the joint-venture making it a formidable learning experience within which innovation and competence take place to different degrees. Nevertheless, knowledge transfer in North-South Joint-ventures is not well known and has attracted little interest on the part of researchers both in the North and in the South. This research proposes to fill the gap and explores the knowledge transfer from local parent firm to joint-venture. It addresses the question of what are the determinants of a successful knowledge transfer within a North South joint venture? Using a sample of Tunisian companies, it examines four case studies from various manufacturing sectors, it uses the lexical intensity approach in direct interviews and calculates ratios. The findings indicate four major determinants of successful knowledge transfer: Openness of managers, Intention to learning, size and experience The parent firm and the joint-venture must have them in order to make a success of the transfer of knowledge.
Bridging the gap: Exploring the relationship between citizenship diversity of the employees and global innovation networks
Lund University, Sweden
Recent literature stresses the increasing importance of international and global innovation networks as a mechanism to organize innovation processes. This paper investigates why and to what extent citizenship diversity of the firm´s employees relates to the engagement of firms in international and global innovation networks (GINs). Diversity on the citizenship of employees provides larger social networks to build GINs, a broader search space, and knowledge about the institutional context of other countries. Further, the paper examines how the absorptive capacity of firms mediates the relationship between citizenship diversity and global innovation networks. The empirical study is based on a linked employee-employer dataset with 7,921 observations of innovative firms in Sweden. It provides strong evidence that the engagement in international and global innovation networks is positively related to citizenship diversity, depending, however, on the absorptive capacity of firms.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.09: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 1|
Session Chair: Rodrigo Arocena
Discussant: Spyros Arvanitis
Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship: Going Beyond the Schumpeterian Entrepreneur
1Bocconi University, Italy; 2University of Gothenburg
This paper presents a definition and stylized process model of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship. The paper proposes an integration of the Schumpeterian tradition with evolutionary theory and the innovation system approach. There is a clear need to go beyond the Schumpeterian entrepreneur, in order to properly take into account the diffusion, use and creation of knowledge in innovation and entrepreneurship, and its dynamic, evolving and systemic perspective. The modern economy is knowledge intensive, and hence knowledge intensive entrepreneurship can occur in all sectors and countries. The paper also presents empirical evidence of the empirical relevance of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship in the economy, based on a large scale survey. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.
Heterogeneity in Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship: an Exploratory Exercise in Young European Firms
Laboratory of Industrial and Energy Economics, National Technical University of Athens
This paper empirically explores the heterogeneity of young firms in Europe based on the notion of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship (KIE). In doing so, it attempts to shed new light on questions related to the phenomenon of KIE, which is understood here to involve new ventures that are highly innovative as a consequence of their being engaged in knowledge-intensive activities. Our findings suggest the presence of three groups of firms. The first one, termed “world-class KIE”, emphasizes new-to-world innovation based on in-house knowledge which in turn draws on high quality human capital, while the second, labelled “all-around KIE”, exhibits a more balanced focus on different aspects of innovation and relies primarily on external knowledge seeking. The group of firms, called “modest KIE”, seems to mainly pursuing new-to-firm innovation based on industry knowledge sources while it generally lags behind the other two groups both in terms of knowledge search and innovative activities. Moreover, empirical findings suggest that there are variations in firms within a particular institutional setting or industrial sector, which can be explained as a function of the diverse models of action chosen by entrepreneurs through the acquisition, combination and recombination of resources to exploit profit opportunities.
Patterns of Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Growth Driven by the Fit between Micro and Macro Environments
Coventry University, United Kingdom
Based on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship literatures, this paper investigates whether the fit between micro environment and macro environment of firms help to generate optimal firm growth rates in sales and employment. A cross-case analysis contrasts knowledge-intensive young entrepreneurial and established intrapreneurial firms to established conservative firms. Both entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial firms are able to grow faster than conservative firms. Consistent with previous findings, we find that entrepreneurial firms are able to exploit available opportunities in the technology and market domains to the best as empowered by their intra-organisational competences. They are followed by intrapreneurial firms that possess lower degrees of technological competences, but grow almost as high as entrepreneurial firms. We conclude that firms’s high growth rates are driven by the fit that they can generate between their micro and macro environments. Conservative firms, which fail to create the fit, grow less.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.10: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 2 (social entrepreneurship and development)|
Session Chair: Rasigan Maharajh
Discussant: Guannan Xu
Social Technologies for Inclusive Innovation: Investigating development of affordable healthcare technologies for low income populations in developing countries
The Open University, United Kingdom
Healthcare systems all over the world increasingly rely on healthcare technologies for accurate diagnosis and effective cure in the treatment of diseases. In low-income countries, availability of essential medical devices, diagnostic equipment and biological drugs has emerged as a key part of healthcare policy and area of grave concerns for ensuring effective and inclusive healthcare. Yet, majority of developing countries struggle with access to affordable and appropriate healthcare technologies and rely on imports to satisfy local needs. In this context, this research explores the role of social technologies in the development of inclusive innovative health technologies targeted at low-income populations. Using case studies based in India, Kenya and Tanzania, this paper shows that the emerging new institutional arrangements and partnerships linking local needs, local institutions with global resources can pave the way in resolving unequal access to affordable and appropriate healthcare technologies. However, it also reveals that lack of adequate supportive infrastructure, absence of appropriate regulations and missing sustainable collective action may limit the ability of inclusive innovations and social technologies to meet local healthcare needs.
A Buddhist Economics Approach to Innovation and Capacity Building: The Case of Siam Hands
1Mahidol University, Thailand; 2Babson College, USA
Western managers often focus on processes as the way to deliver a certain result. Social innovation and capacity building are usually conceived of in this way, as processes aimed at relieving suffering and improving well-being. Their motives are of course often compassionate, but their effects are often measured in utilitarian terms such as impact investing or return on investment. As a result, acts of compassion for their own sake are increasingly viewed as mindless and wasteful of resources.
By contrast, Buddhist economics, with its mindful focus on the present, does not separate tools from the goals we aim to achieve. Buddhism emphasizes compassion and interdependence. The principle of “dependent origination” implies that a process cannot be separated from a goal. In Buddhist economics capacity building is not separate from an event on which its origin depends such as an instance of compassionate awareness. An act of compassion for its own sake can simultaneously be an act of capacity building by stirring in others recognition of the principle of interdependence. By this logic, the conventional view that utilitarian measures have the greatest effect may at least sometimes be mistaken. In other words, it may be that innovation and capacity building are sometimes most highly maximized by not attending to them but, instead, focusing simply on compassion.
The prevailing view is summed up in the adage: “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” This paper will explore an alternative hypothesis. By practicing compassion as a virtue in its own right as did the Buddha you may arrive at a different aphorism: “Give a man a fish, and he may help you build a fish farm.”
Our exploratory case study is a Thai garment manufacturer founded as an act of compassion to a group of workers unhappy with their previous employer. The new company offered benefits far in excess of competitors – free meals, cheap dormitories, free toiletries, air cooled working conditions, clean and comfortable amenities, a beautiful view of the outdoors for all workers, weekend educational programs, and in some cases international travel. Workers responded generously and interdependently, taking a holistic and multifaceted role in the company by often assuming managerial responsibilities not only in production but in distribution and marketing. The result has been an agile, innovative, competitive, and productive firm which can afford high wages and generous benefits while building one of Thailand’s most successful brands.
The evidence of this exploratory case study justifies further investigation of the potential of Buddhist economics to offer a workable alternative to the conventional, utilitarian approach to innovation and capacity building. But a caveat is in order. Compassion and interdependence are unlikely to be successful as stratagems. In Buddhism, the process and the goal are the same – compassion for its own sake.
Social Entrepreneurship and Inclusive Growth: Attributes, Perceptions and Roles of Business Incubators and Intermediaries in Malaysia
1Department of Development Studies, FEA, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Business Administration, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, China; 3Freelance Consultant, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Social enterprises are considered to be at the heart of inclusive growth due to their emphasis on people and social cohesion and help effect social and economic transformation. Malaysia’s New Economic Model (NEM) set out three objectives -- high income, sustainability and inclusiveness, as the foundation for transformation to advanced nation by 2020. In the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015) 2 out of 10 objectives are on achieving inclusive growth. This paper explores the eco-system for social enterprises in Malaysia, particularly focusing on the following research questions: 1. What are the attributes (features) of business incubators and intermediaries operating in the social enterprise sector in Malaysia; 2. What are the perceptions of business incubators and intermediaries about various aspects of social enterprise ecosystem in Malaysia? And 3. What is the role of business incubators and other intermediaries in fostering social entrepreneurship in Malaysia general and meeting the inclusive growth objective of the country in particular?
The study employs qualitative approach to analyse six cases of business incubators and intermediaries. It uses primary data gathered through interviews of eight business incubators and intermediaries, and seven social enterprises. The study found that the current social enterprise ecosystem is weak and still emerging and yet to take a concrete shape. The absence of legal status for social enterprise is the single most important obstacle in unlocking the potential growth of this sector and is seriously affecting the private sector participation such as coupling of CSR related funding with the development of social businesses. The study suggests that the government initiate policy measures to give legal status to social enterprise in the country in order to develop the ecosystem and facilitate greater participation of the private sector.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.11: Technological infrastructure and technological capabilities 1|
Session Chair: Roberta Rabellotti
Discussant: Shyama Venkata Ramani
Technological capability in Indian manufacturing firms: A study of the determinants of R&D
Ambedkar University Delhi, India
This paper explores determinants of R&D, an important indicator of technological capability, of Indian manufacturing firms. The manufacturing firms are grouped according to their technology level. We employed Probit and Tobit regression models respectively for each technology group to analyse the relation between the determinants and R&D activity. We consider the period from 1994 to 2010 for our study. We find variation in relation between explanatory variables and R&D activity across different technology groups. Among the explanatory variables size of the firm, age of the firm, export status of the firm and imported disembodied technology are playing an important role in determining domestic in-house R&D activity of manufacturing firms. Among them, from a policy perspective, disembodied technology is playing a crucial role by working as a catalyst for the domestic R&D and also helping in-house R&D activities to assimilate and adapt the imported technology according to local conditions.
The Challenge of Technological Upgrading: The Development of Integrated Circuits Manufacturing in Malaysia, and Thailand
UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA, Malaysia
The redeployment of export-oriented production by giant Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) expanded the contribution of integrated circuits manufacturing in the economic development of Malaysia and Thailand since the 1970s and 1980s respectively. Giant integrated circuits (IC) firms and industrial component firms (e.g. disk drive and electronics components for the automotive industry) dominated MNC relocation to Malaysia and Thailand since the early 1970s and late 1990s respectively. It also offered both countries the opportunity to connect with global value chains to enable exports of high tech products. This paper seeks to analyse the extent of technological upgrading achieved in the IC industry following an increasing shift in MNC strategies to upgrade to modular production systems. The evidence shows that significant widening and deepening has taken place in both countries, especially since the MNCs began upgrading their assembly and test plants in the host countries and host-site institutions responded to upgrade the embedding high tech infrastructure. Albeit institutional change in both countries have not been effective enough to stimulate massive technological catch up and leapfrogging a la South Korea and Taiwan, the evidence shows that a combination of policy initiatives, networking between MNCs, and national firms and support organizations have spearheaded technological upgrading in the industry. However, significant efforts must be taken to strengthen the high tech infrastructure to stimulate IC firms’ participation in new product development and other frontier technological activities in both countries.
Global Value Chains and Indian Manufacturing Industries: Pattern, Determinants and Policy Perspective
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Innovation in the field of ‘information and communication technology’ (ICT) and ‘transportation’ has changed the pace of ‘globalization’ massively over the recent years. The waning borders has made the ‘production process’ fragmented spanning different parts of the world. The ‘production function’ has assumed an international character. The indigenous ‘endowment of resources’ are no longer be considered as ‘sole’ determining factor of ‘production’ and ‘international trade’. These issues are being increasingly dealt within the literature concerning ‘global value chains’ (GVCs). The major issues concerning GVC are the share and nature of participation of different entities- countries, industries and firms in global value chains that could lead to their respective growth and sustainable development. In this context, the aim of the present study is to examine the nature and share of Indian manufacturing industries in GVC. Specifically, the objectives are to examine (i) how much different Indian manufacturing industries are contributing in GVC? (ii) To compare the share of High-technology (HT) intensive industries and Low-Technology (LT) intensive industries from India in GVC and (iii) to determine the factors contributing to the global value generation emanating from Indian manufacturing industries.
Based upon the ‘Trade in Value-Added’ (TiVA) and ‘World Input-Output Data’ (WIOD) data-base, along with the other secondary data-bases for Indian manufacturing industries, the descriptive analysis show that (i) the contribution of Indian manufacturing industries to GVC has increased over the years, although the rate of increase is somewhat lower than other developing countries (ii) the share of Indian High technology (HT) industries were relatively more than that of the Low-Technology (LT) intensive industries.
Next, System GMM method was used to examine the factors determining the participation of Indian manufacturing industry to GVC. It was found that for all the industries, the impact of ‘medium-skilled’ labour and ‘forward linkage’ were dominant factors determining their participation in GVC. For HT industries, the ‘high-skilled’ labour rather than ‘investment in R&D’ and ‘royalty’ payments played an important part in determining the extent of ‘domestic value-added in exports’ emanating from Indian manufacturing industries. But for LT industries, factors like ‘medium-skilled’ labour along with ‘forward’ and ‘backward’ linkages were the dominant factor.
Thus, the paper concludes that in order to increase the share of Indian manufacturing industries in GVC, emphasis should be made to (i) increase the share of medium and high skilled labour force in place of low-skilled labour force trough ‘targeted’ policy perspective for enhancing skills; (ii) more emphasis should be directed to enhance the participation in both forward and backward linkages that could lead to an increase in value-generation in the process.
|3:00pm - 4:30pm||PS-1.12: Agricultural innovation systems 1|
Session Chair: Andrew Roberts Cummings
Discussant: Olga Mikheeva
Linkage of Food Security: Social Network Analysis and Stakeholder Analysis in Agricultural Innovation Systems in North Eastern India
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), India
For better efforts in development of the farming community, agricultural extension services have always focused on farmers’ resources, activities and capabilities. And this has proved to be an important standing point in the rice growing state Tripura of North East India for attaining self-sufficiency in food grain and developing the economic condition of the farmers. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been a boon to the rice farmers and also has posed as an example especially in similar other conditions around the world. This paper seeks to understand how the stakeholders involved in the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI influence the spread of the technology not only among the farmers but at an organizational level in the Tripura state of India. A descriptive research design was followed to study the position of stakeholders in the SRI Innovation Systems. Modified power/interest matrix of Mandelow was used to study stakeholder positions in the innovation system and social network analysis using UCINET 6 software to understand the flow of information and strength of linkage among the actors. The farmers, though had very high interest, were perceived to have low to medium power in terms of decision making in policy issues and implementation. Department of Agriculture, Government of Tripura, State Agriculture Research Station, and Krishi Vigyan Kendras (Farm Science Centres) were the key actors maintaining strong linkage with other actors. Farmers were primary stakeholders in the network. Knowledge management, sharing and learning in SRI has been effective because of the integration of stakeholders in the state and this can be applied for other crops/technologies to enhance innovation and promote development.
Diffusion of innovations in the sectors based on biological processes. The case of sugarcane in Tucumán, Argentina
National University of Quilmes, Argentine Republic
The power of innovation diffusion to create productivity improvements and strengthen regional economies has been briefly explored, especially in developing countries. Basing on a systemic model of diffusion of innovations, it is suggestedin this work that it is possible to hold broader and diversified productive structures, in terms of the number of producers that make up a value chain in the agricultural sector, even within the framework of significant advances of productivity in the primary sector. Applying the case study methodology, the process of diffusion of innovations in the sugarcane sector in the province ofTucumán, Argentina is analyzed. The results show that when the generation and diffusion of innovations is concentrated in public R&D institutions there is a broad producers´ access to the technology. Therefore, producers increase their productive capacities, one of the pillars of productivity improvement is solved and the concentration of production as a way of gaining productivity through economies of scalein the production of raw material is attenuated. In this way, one of the main implications of our work for the theory is that a systemic approach is required for the study of the diffusion of innovations, due to the fact that it is a process and not a unilateral action. The second contribution is that the presence of public R&D institutions is a fundamental basis of the technological dynamics in systems with a wide base of small and medium producers.
The Genetically Modified (GM) Food Debate in India: A critical Introspection
1National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies (CSIR-NISTADS), India; 2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), India
In the past few years the government of India has taken a strong pro-active stance towards introduction of new technologies for improving agricultural productivity and sustainability. Genetically Modified (GM) crops is one such technology with high economic and social stakes, as evident from debates about the utility of technology after the introduction of Bt cotton in 2002. Strong positivistic approach underscores the potentiality that GM technology can help address for food security, agricultural productivity, sustainable agriculture, etc. On the other hand, opposition has ranged from extreme stance (a strong precautionary approach) of disallowing GM technology in India to calling for a long-gestation period before scientific evidence emerges to strengthen the regulatory process. Issues of high royalty of Bt cotton, seed unavailability for non-GM cotton growers, and field trials being too restricted to properly assess the impact of this technology on environment, health, and food supply have further complicated this debate. Due to extensive public criticism, Bt brinjal in spite of getting regulatory approval was finally not introduced. An episode of regulatory failure, which is visible again in the indigenously developed GM mustard recently.
This study has revisited the GM debate in India by examining some of these issues through the lens of systems approach, social constructionism, and strategic management. The examination was based on close reading of literature and a focused field study. India epitomizes to a large extent the emerging/developing country’s challenges and thus the study has a larger relevance for innovation and policy. The study underscores that policy articulations should be made simultaneously with strong institutional changes in the regulatory process. This, the study argues can provide a useful platform for resolving the conflicting stance among the different stakeholders, including bench-level scientists for improved decision making, and helping address the information asymmetry in the regulatory process.
|4:30pm - 5:00pm||Coffee Break|
|5:00pm - 6:00pm||Keynote Speech|
Session Chair: Franco Malerba
“Rebuilding the Greek Economy: Progress, Puzzles and the Need for a New Policy”
by NICOS CHRISTODOULAKIS
|6:00pm - 7:00pm||Book Presentations|
|7:00pm - 8:00pm||Poster Session Presentations|
|8:00pm - 9:30pm||Welcome Reception|
|9:30pm||Buses leaving to the Hotels|
|Date: Thursday, 12/Oct/2017|
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.01: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 3|
Session Chair: Alex Vera-Cruz
Discussant: Theo Papaioannou
R&D profiles in manufacturer firms in Argentina: the role of capabilities.
1Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Argentine Republic; 2Interdisciplinary Center for Science, Technology and Innovation Studies (CIECTI). Argentine Republic
The purpose of this article is to analyse the relationship between Research and Development (R&D) activities, capability building, and economic performance of manufacturer firms in Argentina. Within this framework, the relationship between what we call the "R&D profile" - formal, informal, not linked to R&D and without innovation efforts- and three dimensions of firms' capabilities: productive, organizational and absorptive, are analysed. Accordingly, the study of how these profiles impact on three aspects of performance -productivity, employment and exportation- is then carried out. Empirical evidence emerges from the National Survey of Employment Dynamics and Innovation (in Spanish ENDEI) composed by more than 3000 Argentinean manufacturing companies for the period of 2010-12. Results suggest that the performance of R&D activities is positively associated to the existence of higher capabilities. This association is also related to the firm's economic performance: the formal and informal R&D profiles are associated with higher levels of productivity, employment and external insertion. Nevertheless, in both cases the relation is not linear. Discrete changes between R&D, capability levels and economic performance are observed.
Incumbent Latecomer Firms’ Strategy During the Emergence of New Technology Trajectories: Four Cases from China
1University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China, People's Republic of; 2University of Manchester, UK; 3University of Sheffield, UK
How do successful (‘incumbent’) latecomer firms in large developing countries compete during the emergence of new technology trajectories? What choices of technology strategy are available to them, and what factors shape their choice and performance outcome? Drawing upon Freeman’s technology strategy framework and Whitley’s theory of institutional conditioning of technological innovation, we extended existing theoretical insights into latecomer firms’ strategy in radically changing environments. By conducting comparative firm-level case study in four firms in different sectors during emergence of technology trajectory change in China, we found that the performance of incumbent latecomer firms during the emergence of new technology trajectories is primarily shaped by: speed of trajectory change, availability of new knowledge and associated intellectual property blockade, corporate governance of the firm and its access to finance, and the role of the state. We developed a framework to understand how the four influential factors interact with each other and how they shape incumbent latecomers’ strategy.
Impacts of Firm size on Innovation Based on Quality Data from a Developing Context
1The Research Institute of Science, Technology and Industry Policy (RISTIP); Sharif University of Technology; Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Iran University of Science and technology (IUST); Iran, Islamic Republic of
The debate over innovativeness of large firms and SMEs, which was bolded by Schumpeter, still continues under mixed empirical evidences. The present study has explored the proportionality of increase of innovation activity versus firm size over 522 Iranian knowledge-based firms categorised in eight industries. Distinctively, a first-time nation-wide, external, and specialised four-stage evaluation including site visits was conducted by industry experts for verification of financial figures and their attribution to innovative products and services.
Innovation activity was defined as R&D expenditure and sales of innovative products and services (two runs), while number of employee stood for firm size. Using log-log regression, significant more-than-proportionate relationships were found for both input and output measures of innovation for all industries, with two industry exceptions that were justified. Yielding similar satisfactory explanatory powers of about 10-50% and a very low standard error, the proportionality coefficient was found to be greater for innovation output measure of sales when compared with R&D expenditure measure, i.e. 1.35-2.04 versus 1.08-1.41 respectively. As result, it is advocated that large firms should not be underestimated in innovation policies in a start-up atmosphere. Networking of SMEs around innovative large firms is reemphasized here to take the power of both and move toward capability building, especially in developing states with a large body of government such as Iran. For generalisation purposes, the relatively small-sized population and the rigorous operationalisation of innovation output measurement should be taken into consideration as the limiting and strength features of the present research, respectively.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.02: University relationships with industry and society 1|
Session Chair: Birgitte Gregersen
Discussant: Glenda Kruss
Backbones of the Knowledge Economy? Universities and the Dynamics of Technology Upgrading in a Developing Country
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2George Washington University, U.S.A.
Due to its ability to create and disseminate knowledge, the modern university is understood as a central agent in innovation systems and technology upgrading dynamics. Nonetheless, assessments on the mechanisms involving universities and their impacts on catching-up processes could definitely use additional empirical appraisals. Accordingly, the goal of this research is to assess the evolution of universities’ embeddedness within the innovation system of an emerging economy. To do so, we explore evolution of patenting activity and linkages to industry over the past decades and how these dynamics may fit into technology upgrading and catching-up processes. The study is based on information for the twelve most prominent universities in Brazil for the years 1994, 2004 and 2014 analyzed through Social Network Analysis. The most preeminent research-oriented universities in Brazil are responsible for a substantial amount of Brazilian patents – with an upward trend over the years - and these institutions have demonstrated a progressive embeddedness to the innovation system in the form of co-patenting. This behavior seems to be attached to a co-evolutionary pattern along with improvements in the institutional environment, leading to expectations that academia can become strategic in shaping the catching-up conditions in Brazil for the coming years. However, deeper connections with foreign agents and multinationals hosted in the country are needed in order to accelerate the pace of technology upgrading.
Universities in Innovation Systems: Connectedness and Alternative Research Evaluation Metrics
Universidad de la República, Uruguay
The roles that universities play in the innovation system are conditioned by the structure, the functioning and the present orientation of such system, and by internal features of the academic institutions. During the last decades, a process towards marketization of academic knowledge production has been taking place. Part and parcel of this process is the academic incentive regime that functions as a main legitimator of what university people do. Research evaluation metrics explicitly and implicitly influence how universities regard themselves, their connectedness with external stakeholders and thus the role they play in innovation systems.
The paper systematizes the different attributes through which the prevailing research evaluations systems give rise to uncertain outcomes at individual as well as at collective level, and explore explanations for their resilience amid the increasing criticism they receive.
Finally, the idea of developmentally oriented research evaluation systems and metrics is put forwards and justified, identifying and discussing the characteristics of some of its main features.
What is beneath Singapore’s integration to the global HE system?
1CONICET, Argentina; 2ENS-Cachan, Université Paris Saclay, France; 3Université Paris 13, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, France
The diverse literature on Singapore’s Higher Education and Research (HER) transformations share one feature: all authors place public policy as the main responsible of Singapore’s HER transformations. Our article goes one step further and asks: what is beneath Singapore’s integration to the global HER system, in terms of global dynamics and sustainability perspectives?
In order to do so, we have relied on the analysis of a wide range of literature including scientific articles on the Singaporean HER system, governmental plans and reports, as well as internal documents from the main universities. We have also interviewed various actors in the country and used different available databases to analyse and illustrate the rise and limitations of the Singaporean HER system.
We first analyse the policies followed by the Singaporean government for HER defined as an industrial policy strategy. We find three factors beneath Singapore’s integration to the global HER system: (i) the need of global capitalism, particularly the need of Global Value Chain leader companies to outsource and offshore part of their production and innovation processes, (ii) the particularities of Singapore’s capitalist society (a business-friendly country and a Confucian model of HER) and (iii) Singaporean government’s industrial policy. Being aware of the previous conditions (i and ii), industrial policy highly encouraged Singapore’s integration to the global HER system as part of the government’s knowledge economy strategy. Hence, we suggest that the industrial policy was not the trigger but a highway that encouraged an ongoing process.
Lastly, we discuss if Singapore’s integration to global HER is sustainable in the long term. We raise some doubts on this respect as we find that foreign companies are still the main responsible of the Research and Development (R&D) performed in Singapore and the main beneficiary in terms of incomes coming from R&D activity.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.03: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 3|
Session Chair: Ioanna Kastelli
Discussant: Erkki Karo
Assessment of Quality Performance of Public R&D in India and the Strategic Role of Knowledge Management: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study
1Institute of Management Technology, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2Essex Business School, University of Essex, Essex, United Kingdom
We investigate the relationship between the structure and functioning of scientific and technical personnel and the quality R&D performance output record in laboratories functioning under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the primary umbrella for such laboratories in India. Our objective is to examine how rapid economic and social changes and the demand for better accountability are addressed by R&D institutions in a specific developing economy. We explore whether the knowledge and capabilities of knowledge workers are critical to the meeting of goals in such contexts. We draw on the role of tacit knowledge and thus organizational learning, and empirical research on managing R&D which encompasses the innovations that result from it. We use the functions performed by the scientific and technical manpower as indicators of their tacit knowledge. We use data from 27 different CSIR laboratories to analyze the specific functions carried out by these sets of knowledge workers in order to gauge the internal strengths and weaknesses of individual laboratories in different functional areas adopting the methodology of correspondence analysis, and relate this information to the quality performance output record of these laboratories over an extended period of eleven years (2003-04 to 2013-14). Our research highlights the importance of strategic management of technology practices including carrying our research and development work, supporting pilot plants, experimental field stations and engineering and design units and how tacit knowledge in these areas impact the performance of these laboratories, and the stability of such impact over time. The paper has particular implications for public R&D management leadership for innovation in a developing economy context. The paper provides critical insights into our understanding of public R&D management for innovation in an emerging economy, a relatively under researched area, in the field of innovation management. This work should be of value for planning and decision making for practitioners and policy makers engaged in global R&D based projects, innovation management and entrepreneurial outcomes.
Research and Innovation Capabilities : Insights on India’s plunge into Nanotechnology
The Energy and Resources Institute, India
The promise of the socio-economic benefits that could be derived from nanotechnology has resulted in both developed and developing country investment and engagement with nanotechnology. However, the capabilities to successfully engage with nanotechnology and carve out a niche in this emerging technological field would vary across countries. The paper attempts to understand nanotechnology developments and reflect on research and innovation capability in the context of nanotechnology in India. First, the constituents of the conceptual framework are introduced and discussed. Then an investigation of the extent and trend of nanotechnology development in India scoping the actors, infrastructure, development of human and financial resources, the public policies bearing on nanotechnology research and innovative activity, business sophistication is made. For mapping main events and key actors, a variety of sources related to nanotechnology development and diffusion was retrieved. The data set encompassed articles published in journals, official statistics, reports from industry associations, research organizations, etc. and news items from newspapers, government and company websites, etc. The data were used to understand the evolution of trajectory of nanotechnology in India. Further, interactions with stakeholders in India from the academia, research laboratories, industry, policy making, civil society, and the media was undertaken. An attempt has been made to provide an explanatory account of the capacity building, documented by the data on publications and patents.
Analysis indicates the development of scientific capabilities and the potential of India to be an important player in this emerging field. But this opportunity may or may not materialise. With regard to the dynamics, the study inferred that the Indian government’s S&T push in this emerging field acted as the main motor of capacity building. Strong government commitment to engage with the technology and harness its potential benefits resulted in establishing centers of excellence, education and research institute for nanotechnology and funding for several research projects. The expansion in the knowledge base in universities and public laboratories has given rise to a few start-ups and has resulted in some technology transfer to established firms. The activities of start-ups and large firms which have incorporated nanotechnology based processes in their production systems is yet to gain momentum in terms of generating products and services, despite the hype about nanotechnology. It is suggested that, through collective action relevant actors might well be able to substantially shape and coordinate the build-up process of an emerging technological field, and that collaboration in formal networks can be a crucial means in this regard. Towards this, there is a need to incorporate a wider set of actors such as global, informal, user and social. Also, instead of focusing on the firm as a driving force, a focus on non-firm actors such as the community of practice, user, public sector, and the individual is important to effectively harness the potential of emerging technologies in the context of developing countries like India. Furthermore, the influence of cross-border international research and innovation linkages suggest that national policies on science, technology, and innovation also need to be international in orientation.
Knowledge Spillovers and Their Impact on Innovation Success- A New Approach Using Patent Backward Citations
ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, Switzerland
We propose a new patent-based measure of knowledge spillovers that calculates technological proximity between firms not just based on a firm sample, but on all firms that can be identified via patent backward citations links. We argue that this measure has a couple of advantages as compared to the “standard” measure proposed by Jaffe: First, it reflects spillovers from both domestic and foreign technologically “relevant” firms, second, it is more precise because it only takes into account knowledge relations with “relevant” firms.
Our empirical results indeed show that the measure performs better in an innovation model than the standard measure. We find that knowledge spillovers measured in this way have a positive and significant impact on innovation success. However, the knowledge spillovers appear to be localised as spillovers from geographically distant areas such as the USA and Japan matter, if at all, less than spillovers from near destinations such as Europe and particularly Switzerland itself. Moreover, the spillover effect on innovation performance increases with decreasing number of competitors on the main product market so that this effect would appear only in niche markets or oligopolistic market structures.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.04: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 4|
Session Chair: Jose Borello
Discussant: Nanditha Mathew
Shaping of Science in India: Role of the Indian Science Congress Association, 1914-1947
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
The Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) occupies a unique place among various scientific institutions in India during late nineteenth and early twentieth century. It has been a pivotal organisation in shaping science in India. The paper aims at assessing ISCA’s role in progress of science from the time of its inception in 1914 until India’s Independence in 1947. It will analyse ISCA’s contribution towards institutionalisation and professionalisation of science in India. ISCA occupies a centre-stage in the establishment of various scientific institutions, societies, academies of science and specialised laboratories, etc. Its members have played a crucial role in advancing scientific knowledge. At the same time, it has been the only all-India platform catering to numerous specialisms of science as well as showcasing their progresses and needs. It enabled the shaping of a viable scientific community which increasingly became internationally recognised for its contributions. ISCA has also provided a medium for greater realisation of the social responsibility of science in advancing and applying science and technology for national reconstruction.
Dialogues for the generation of indicators of STI in Costa Rica
CINPE-UNA Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica, Costa Rica
This paper systematizes the experience of the dialogue process for the generations of indicators of STI in Costa Rica and rescues the perspective of a series of actors playing an important role in the process. It starts from a theoretical framework that enables to better understand the dialogue process and from a methodology that allows identifying the lessons learned and the challenges for the dialogue to have better results. Moreover, the paper enables to view that the objective of generating indicators has been achieved, but there is much more to be done before the system provides better results regarding the generation of STI policies.
The Impacts Of The International Political And Economic Orders Into The National Systems Of Innovation: A Tentative Approach
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/RedeSist, Brazil
The recent trend into Globelics’ research agenda relates to how incorporate the world perspective within the National Systems of Innovation (NSI) framework (LUNDVALL, JUROWETSKI, LEMA; 2014). This paper argues that one starting point to establish a framework to analyze national or regional systems of innovation is related to the understanding of the evolution of both the military and economic disputes of the central nation states. In other words,based on the critical assessments proposed by Latin American scholars, we explore in which extent the inter-capitalist and inter-state conflict could bring an analytical framework to better understand some of the main characteristics of NSI (related, mostly, to the direction and pace of the technological development).
The geopolitical and geoeconomic relations, notably from the central nations, constitute an “international political and economic order” that affects the way each nation-state conduce its strategy. The financial liquidity cycles and the commercial patterns of the different international orders constrain national strategies through balance of payment accounts; the military tensions influence national strategies through the threat of war and are a key aspect to the sovereignty and goals of the different nation states. It is important, then, to map, in each “international order”, which are the specific interests, conflicts, strategies and political goals that drive the most import actors at both national and international level. We argue that this could bring important analytical tools to understand some of the key features from different NSI, especially why some of them profit from greater public expenditures and investments and why they developed some set of militaries technologies. We also investigate in which extent this analytical framework could help us understand some of the key NSI’s characteristics of some of the non-central BRICS countries (Brazil, South Africa and India).
This paper starts investigating the main economic and political challenges for the US in the 70s and we show that the way it dealt with its political and economic challenges shaped the international political and economic order of the end of the XXth century. We explore the extent in which the evolution of its NSI is related to this broader strategy. We show, then, how the national strategies undertook by Russia and China, notably into the beginning of the XXIth century, twisted some of the key features of the international order and of their NSIs. Once the most important economic and political characteristics of the international orders after the 70s are established, we then explore in which extent they, alongside with the history of each nation-state, give us analytical explanations to some of the most important features of the NSI of the BRICS peripheral countries (Brazil, South Africa and India). Finally, at the conclusions, we review the most important trends of the referred NSIs that can be seen as directly related by the changing international political and economic orders.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.05: Indigenous knowledge, informal sector, innovation and development 1|
Session Chair: Dinesh Abrol
Discussant: Abdelrasaq Suyuti Na-Allah
Inclusive innovation: definition framework
Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain), Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Inclusive innovation has emerged in the last decade as an option for development. In this paper the inclusive innovation has been developed within a theoretical framework analysis that examines the definition of inclusive innovation as such. The systematic review methodology has been used to identify relevant literature for subsequent theoretical analysis. Within this analysis four categories of study have been evaluated: central elements, typology of studies, geographic coverage, and finally, the conclusion threads within the literature. In addition, it has also been identified which authors referred to inclusive innovation as homonymous with other similar currents or concepts. Once the systematic review in the four categories of research has been concluded, certain actions have been suggested in relation to the subsequent work for researchers within this field, since it has been explained the definition still requires some consolidation to establish its patterns of action and work in a medium term.
A notion of Innovation System the quality we need it: addressing the problem of blind spots
1University of Twente; 2Universidad Externado de Colombia
This paper discusses conceptual reach of Innovation Systems approach (IS) at the core of innovation policies and discusses concepts about alternative views to tackle the challenges of epistemic diversity in multicultural countries. This alternative view builds concepts such as Ecologies of Knowing (EK) and Knowledge, Research and Innovation System (KRIS).
It is argued that IS approach poses risks as an analytical tool in multicultural contexts, regarding its underlying disciplinary backgrounds and its impact as heuristics for policy-making. The paper proposes an alternative view attempting to realistically aboard the structure, dynamics and governance of knowledge, research and innovation in multicultural countries.
Governance, Skilled Migration and Human Capital Formation: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa – OECD Migration
University of Maroua
Although migration, particularly skilled migration is generally considered as a first consequence of income differences across countries, it remains a fact that the quality of institutions seems to be the most important determinant. From a theoretical perspective, the explanation of migratory flows seems therefore ambiguous. An ambiguity which is also apparent in the empirical literature. To solve it, this paper examines, on the one hand, the effects of governance on skilled migration and on the other hand, the impact of this migration on human capital formation in countries of origin. Our empirical strategy is based on a simultaneous equation model which consists of a gravity equation and a nonlinear one. We estimate this model for 33 sub-Saharan Africa/OECD countries between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that strong institutions tend to reduce emigration of skilled Africans. And that skilled migration tend to have a short-term negative impact, but positive and low for the long term, on human capital formation. These results imply that skilled Africans seem more prompt in migrating, especially if the perception they have about their total involvement in societal choices does not appear to be guaranteed. Similarly, although, in the long run, remittances from African migrants would contribute to strengthen human capital formation in their countries of origin. The acquisition of human capital (education and health) in sub-Saharan countries is, over the short-term, negatively affected by the absence of “breeding stocks”.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.06: National, continental and regional innovation system 1|
Session Chair: Mammo Muchie
Discussant: Marc Guislain Humbert
The Viability Of Systems Of Innovation
Institute for Economic Research on Innovation, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
The main aim of this paper is to develop the concept of viability as an assessment tool which can be applied to systems of innovation, defined broadly, at three main levels of aggregation – national, supra-national and sub-national. The specific application of this tool in this paper is located in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), with a proposed evaluation of the national systems of innovation of individual member states and that of the SADC system of innovation as a whole. South Africa is used as the case for the evaluation of the viability of sub-national systems of innovation at the provincial level. Following the biological metaphor inherent in evolutionary economics, we can assess the viability of systems of innovation in terms of their ability to survive outside a host system, i.e. to be self-sustaining, to reproduce, to grow, and to mutate and evolve. The specification of the parameters of these several viability categories depends to a large extent on the type of juridical/territorial space with which a particular system is linked. The original, and still the most common, formulation of the system of innovation is tied to the sovereign (multi)nation state which forms the basic delineation of governing authority over a clearly specified political economy. Following the end of the Second World War and the end of the imperial state, the modern mosaic of sovereign states emerged and with that the increasing relevance of a wide range of interstate associations which led to the consideration of the supra-national system of innovation as an object of study. The other level at which systems of innovation may be considered is the sub-national one which may or may not be legally defined. The national system of innovation has to be assumed as given in the case of the sovereign state, as long as that sovereignty is not threatened by internal strife or cross-border military interventions. In the case of both supra and intra-national systems, the legal enforcement of the system is significantly less binding.
The conceptual framework underlying the various possibilities for the viability of systems of innovation is developed in the first section of the paper. The section after that looks specifically at the viability of national systems of innovation within the SADC group; that is followed by an exploration of the implications for the viability prospects for a SADC system of innovation. The following section then looks at the viability conditions for sub-national systems of innovation and applies this evaluation tools to South African provinces. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the interpretative implications of this approach.
Open innovation platforms in regional innovation policy Ecosystems and emerging business lead policy framework in the case of Tampere, Finland
University of Tampere, Finland
This paper aims to clarify the concept of “open innovation platform” (OIP) as a new mode of innovation intermediaries resulting from the socio-technical change drawing its dynamics from increasing efforts to adjust, deploy and enhance the opportunities that digitalization provides. Theoretical and conceptual base is developed by literature discussing about regional innovation system (Morgan 1997; Cooke 1998), ecosystem (Moore 1993), platform (Gawer 2009) and open innovation (Chesborough 2003) in the context of the most recent socio-technical change, characterized by digitalization.
OIPs as innovation intermediaries that foster the renewal of the ecosystems may be assumed to have some specific qualities based on discussion above. To functions or services of innovation intermediaries OIPs bring some new elements, but maybe more significant change may be found from the logics how and to whom they provide these services. Key aim of the paper is to define the OIP and understand it role in regional economic development, as orchestrator’s tool to facilitate and foster open innovation activities. We may assume OIPs to have at least (some of the) following qualities.
• Global knowledge flows: Serving globally linked ecosystems and not only locally embedded clusters or individual firms to execute the open innovation
• Diverse knowledge sources; Acquiring knowledge from citizens, cities (“open data”) users, and other non-usual suspects to foster innovation processes, in addition to universities and other firms
• Digitalization: Using digitalized platform to enhance the platform business model (e.g. multisided market place) and network effect, in addition to increased accessibility among the local actors
• Private funding for the service: Facilitating the open innovation process by providing an actual value creative co-creation with recognizable outcome and with external third party, by deploying MSP mode and thus becoming a part of the business ecosystem.
• Viable role in the ecosystem: What is the role of the actual open innovation service in the whole innovation ecosystem in the region and how it is linked to other parallel services as a whole.
After defining the OIP, the definition will be put into a test in action research based cases study, focusing on implementation of regional strategy to foster OIP approach among the traditional innovation intermediaries. Empirical study gathers data and analyses case of Tampere in Finland based on experiences from two years of intensive action research.
Then we dwell into the case of an innovation platform network that is strongly initiated as a bottom-up development, but recently gained support also from the national policy. The study discuss the also more broadly as a change in logic of knowledge based regional development. Paper aims to increase the understanding concerning the evolving practices in increasingly open and user driven innovation processes that emphasis the role of companies in the policy process, instead of research institutes.
Local Production and Innovation Systems in Brazil: A Balance of 20 years
1Globelics Board, Brazil; 2RedeSist, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
In 1997, a research network, RedeSist (Resarch Network on Local Innovation and Production Systems) was formally set up at UFRJ, in Brazil, aiming at investigating and understanding local processes of learning and capability accumulation, as well as putting forward propositions for their mobilization At the top of the research agenda was the analysis of how the changes brought by globalization were affecting the evolution trajectory of local Brazilian productive systems; and how these systems were managing to survive and eventually transform in increasingly complex global and national environments.
The paper reviews some of the most important achievements both in analytical and normative terms revealed by the set of studies undergone by RedeSist scholars. It presents the main different conceptual frameworks that have been used to analyze transformations of productive activities at local level.and explains RedeSist’s focusing device of LIPS, a combination of the SI framework with the contributions of the Latin American Structuralist school (LASA). It also summarizes some of the most important achievements of this endeavor and concludes with a speculation on the challenges faced by Brazilian production structures.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.07: Sectoral innovation system, systemic industrial policy and development 2|
Session Chair: Klas Eric Soderquist
Discussant: Cecilia Tomassini
The role of the government sector in the breakthrough and growth of the Finnish telecom industry
1University of Tampere, Finland; 2Aalto University
This paper is dealing with the role of the government in building the base for the breakthrough of Finnish telecom or more specifically telecommunications equipment industry. Because of a dominance of one giant company, Nokia, in this sector, the focus is on relationships and linkages between Nokia and the various actors of the Finnish public sector. The fabric of policy instruments has been manifold. In addition to better-known science, technology, innovation and education policies, public procurement, regulation, standardization, liberalization, privatization, and trade policy have contributed to the developments.
Understanding the role of knowledge creators in emerging innovation ecosystems: A case of 3D printing in China
1Beijing University of Posts and Telecommumications, China, People's Republic of; 2Peking University; 3Tsinghua University
In fast growing economies, governments attempt to develop emerging industries to compete in global innovation race. Specifically, policy makers stimulate S&T (science and technology) knowledge creation to cultivate the emergence of innovation ecosystem within the national boundaries. It is implicitly assumed that the knowledge can be translated into business values for growing this ecosystem. However, some opponents argue that local knowledge creation may not necessarily contribute to the prosperity of business ecosystem especially in latecomers due to the weak links between science and industries. The research on this debate still remain sparse. This paper, therefore, proposes a framework to analyse the technology-based innovation ecosystem in emerging economies, particularly in order to explore the roles of local knowledge creators and their influences on the future growth of emerging innovation ecosystem. This framework examines three sub-ecosystems: science, technology, and business ecosystem, as well as the interplays in-between. Based on the network methods, this framework integrates quantitative literature-based methods together with qualitative in-depth interviews with leading domain experts in China. The 3D printing industry in China is selected as a case study. This study finds that China’s 3D printing may have a unique edge in S&T knowledge ecosystem, but may be inherently flawed when local universities play too much roles in the emergence of innovation ecosystem; by contrast, the lack of keystone firms for business platforms may undermine the potential of the new industry. This study will contribute to the innovation ecosystem literature, and will be of interest to 3D printing and emerging industry researchers.
The Dynamics Of The Food & Drink Industry And Their Environmental And Social Implications In Selected European Countries
National Technical University, Greece
Industry has been going through a period of changes worldwide, in response to global challenges in all three dimensions of sustainable development; the economic, the social and the environmental one. The Food & Drink (F&D) sectors are traditional manufacturing branches that are often considered to have more difficulties in coping with the requirements of sustainability in a highly competitive globalised market. However, in the EU, F&D remains at the top of all manufacturing sectors, while at the same time significantly reducing its total CO2 emissions and maintaining an almost stable employment level. The scope of this paper is to implement a decomposition analysis in the EU’s F&D industry, in order to identify the driving forces behind these changes. Decomposition analysis is widely recognised as a powerful tool for detecting the driving factors behind changes in various aggregate indicators over time. Moreover, it aims to identify whether and how the economic crisis has affected the impact of each separate driving factor. The decomposition method used in this study relies on the Log Mean Divisia Index I and the developed models comprise some common or closely related drivers, in order to offer useful insights into relevant complementary and/or antithetical effects on the examined sustainability indicators.
The obtained results indicate that although the developments in the F&D sector seem to have a more or less stable evolution, the economic crisis has significantly influenced the relative contribution of the determinant factors. Specifically, in times of economic prosperity it was mainly the resource (energy or labour) intensity and the consumption intensity effects that overbalanced the augmenting effect of growth. During the recent economic crisis, the technological improvements of the previous period continued and helped the sector enhance its competitive advantages at the global market and significantly increase its exports. Thus, it is shown that tradition and technological progress through innovations are not controversial and that their combination in the case of the F&D sector has been quite successful.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.08: Innovation systems, networks, global value chains and foreign direct investments 2|
Session Chair: David Ellis Kaplan
Discussant: Jorge Niosi
National Innovation Systems, Openness and Global Value Chains: Towards a taxonomy
1CERGE-EI, Charles University, Czech Republic; 2Center for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK), University of Oslo; 3IKE, Department of Business and Management, Aalborg University; 4Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University
This paper deals with an issue that has attracted considerable interest from scholars and policy-makers, namely the roles of global value chains (GVC) and other aspects of “openness” for economic development. To analyse the issue a comprehensive framework, i.e., one that allows for the inclusion of a range of relevant factors including not only different form of “openness” (e.g. GVC participation) but also technological and social capabilities, is developed. The analysis is based on information from 114 countries, including many least developed nations, over the 1997-2013 period. The paper explores, using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and econometric methods, the available evidence on the matter. It is shown that for developing countries GVC participation is not the potent driver of growth that for example international organizations tend to assume, and that most of the upgrading that takes place among developing nations occurs in other ways.
Global Value Chains and Local Sourcing: An empirical analysis on Sub-Saharan Africa and Vietnam
1Università di Pavia,; 2Aalborg University; 3IMF; 4Università di Bari
The paper empirically investigates the impact of host countries' GVC participation on the local sourcing of intermediate inputs by foreign investors. We combine two firm-level data sets—the Africa Investor Survey (AIS) on 19 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and the Vietnam Investor Survey (VIS), which have been administrated by UNIDO. The model estimated is a standard model for the determinants of local sourcing at the firm level added with two measures of involvement in GVCs, computed at the country-sector pair: (a) an index of GVC participation, summarizing the importance of global production chains in country (and sector) exports; and b) an index of GVC position, which assesses the international specialization of countries (and sectors) in more upstream (i.e. production of intermediates used by other countries) or downstream (i.e. use of intermediates produced by other countries to manufacture final goods for exports) stages of the GVC. These are calculated from internationally comparable I/O tables at the sector/country level, retrieved by the EoRA database. Our findings show that GVC participation and an upstream specialization have a positive and significant impact on the share of inputs locally sourced by foreign investors.
How Overseas R&D Centre to Maximize the Benefits after cross-board M&A: Case of CEVT of Geely Group
1Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of; 2University of Gothenburg, Sweden
With the global market development, more and more Chinese companies conduct overseas M&A and set up their R&D centres in advanced countries in order to access the latest technology, to develop products for local market demand, transfer technologies to China, and improve their innovation capabilities and competitiveness. However, it is still a critical and urgent problem faced by those Chinese companies to achieve and maximize their benefits after M&A and from the overseas R&D centres. The development of China Euro Vehicle Technology Company (CEVT), a wholly subsidiary of Geely Auto after the M&A of Geely Group and Volvo Cars, is taken as a case to explore how an overseas R&D centre play roles and contribute to the benefits of company after M&A. The fast growth of CEVT and Geely Auto and Volvo Cars illustrates that CEVT is as the broker, the promoter, and the creator to maximize the benefits after M&A. The paper reveals that the overseas research centre can provide benefits to Chinese MNEs at the strategy and governance, the new product development, the market diffusion, and the revenues. The paper suggests that the activities for the new brand and the development of new CMA platform work as two channels of the technology transfer and cooperation among CEVT, Geely Auto and Volvo Cars, and the technology spill over based on the win-win of Geely Auto and Volvo Cars. It is a unique and novel mechanism for bridging and building between the merged companies. The paper will provide ideas to the theories and practices of international R&D centres, and the global R&D strategy management, especially for companies in mature industries.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.09: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 3 (social entrepreneurship and development)|
Session Chair: Rigas Arvanitis
Discussant: Manuel Gonzalo
Determining factors and nature of Innovation in the process of a paradigmatic mexican innovative social entrepreneurship
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico
The process of a social entrepreneurship based on innovation, from identifying a social need to implementing a novel solution, is an unattended subject by the literature on social-purpose entrepreneurship and innovation. This paper analyzes the factors that brought about the evolution of this process and discusses the nature of its innovations. Based on a detailed case study of Isla Urbana AC —one of the most successful and renowned Mexican social entrepreneurship cases— this paper deduces that these factors are divided into two levels, which can not be analyzed in isolation: internal (associated to characteristics of the entrepreneur as an individual and strategy of the organization) and external (conditions imposed by the context). It is shown that these set of factors bring about certain types and distinctive attributes of innovation, which is an essential tool for the creation of social value and sustainability of the entrepreneurship. It points out that innovations, radical and/or incremental, are not only technological and tangible (of products, services, etc.), but has a strong non-technological and intangible component (eg. business model and social inclusion strategy).
Institutional entrepreneurs: An evolutionary approach
Universidad Catolica Boliviana San Pablo, Bolivia
This paper suggests that institutional entrepreneurs -acting in small groups- follow an evolutionary approach characterized by interactive learning, interactions with other actors and the leadership of promoters. These micro-trajectories are explored on the institutional endeavors of two groups that are fostering the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Bolivia. The evidence of this paper provides new insights of the distributed view of agency and shed lights on how actors can influence the social system. This is relevant at a time characterized by the Anthropocene.
Beyond the Impasse of the State-Market Dichotomy: Social Entrepreneurship and New Institutional Actors for the Underserved
1International Institute of Information Technology Bangalore, India; 2Clark University, USA
Large sections of the world’s population have limited or no access to social and physical infrastructure such as education, healthcare, all-weather roads or power. Empirically, the lack of such access reflects the failure of both states and markets; conceptually, it exposes the limits of the accepted distinctions between these institutions in terms of the division of labour in providing public/private goods. The conceptual limits are exacerbated by the double-edged prospects of globalization and the increasing prominence of global public goods, whose jurisdiction of production and consumption are unclear. To overcome the conceptual and empirical impasse, new institutional actors are needed and it is on two such that this paper focuses: social enterprises and transnational social enterprises (TSEs). What is novel about social enterprises and TSEs is their keenness to overcome the state-market duality by pursuing a dual objective of increasing social value as an outcome of product/service delivery, while remaining sustainable financially. Their ability to do so reflects the concurrent emergence of new forms of financing, particularly venture philanthropy and impact investing which seek not just a financial returns but also social and environmental returns to any investment. The paper then presents two cases that show how a social enterprise in health care, and a transnational enterprise in urban infrastructure attempt to remain financially sustainable while delivering socially value.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.10: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 4|
Session Chair: Abdelkader Djeflat
Discussant: Annemarie Østergaard
Organisational resources and capabilities relating to ICTs utilisation by local authorities: An empirical testing in Greek municipalities
National Technical University of Athens, Greece
This paper aims at exploring the applicability of the Resource-Based View (RBV) and Dynamic Capabilities View (DCV) in public organisations. Until now, the theoretical approaches of RBV and DCV have been mainly developed and applied to private for-profit organizations operating in turbulent market environments (i.e. high-tech industries), therefore the applicability of this theoretical framework to the public sector context is quite under-researched. This study attempts to develop a conceptual model so as to explore those organisational resources and capabilities that contribute to the functional-productive utilisation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by local authorities. Our attempt was guided by the fact that: a) ICTs constitute a General Purpose Technology which may have a critical impact on the productiveness and performance of organisations, and b) local government can play a significant role in the quality of life of citizens and the effective operation of businesses. A large-scale survey was carried out in almost the total population of Greek municipalities. Empirical testing supports the developed research hypotheses suggesting that the proposed conceptual model can be useful in identifying the fundamental factors for the beneficial implementation of eGovernment in local authorities.
Roles of Top Management Characteristics, Human Resource Management, and Customer Relationships in Innovative Firms in Southeast Asia
1Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, Indonesia; 2Institute of Developing Economies, Japan
This study explores non-R&D determinants of innovations. Following findings from innovation literature, this study focuses on customer relationships, human resource management (HRM), and top management characteristics as possible determinants of innovations. For empirical analyses, this study conducts a questionnaire survey in Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam in the beginning of 2017. The results of the questionnaire survey and regression analyses present that customer relationships are significantly correlated with product innovations, whereas HRM practices have significant associations with process innovations. Top management contributes to product innovations only by developing mentoring relationships with their engineers. However, top management may make a significant contribution to innovations, by playing a key role in creating customer relationships to promote knowledge transfer.
Comparative Analysis of Formal and Informal R&D for Innovation in Firms in ASEAN Countries
1Kobe International University, Japan; 2Kindai University, Japan; 3ERIA, Idonesia
Many ASEAN SMEs successfully achieve innovation without owning specific R&D facilities. Firms that do not own specified in-house departments or sections to conduct R&D are defined as non-R&D firms. The aim of this study is to identify factors promoting innovation in the framework of R&D activity based on surveys on firms in five ASEAN countries including Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The method of analysis is to divide sample firms into two categories, namely “the R&D group” and “non-R&D group.” The analysis attempts to identify which of the internal capabilities, consisting of technology, human factors and organization factors, promote innovation. In addition, top management leadership is postulated as an important factor in small SMEs based on the field surveys. The results of the estimation procedure indicate that the two groups pursue product innovation differently. The R&D group promotes innovation by (i) cross-functional teams of production, engineering, manufacturing, and sales & marketing for innovation of all types and (ii) IT use, while non-R&D group by (iii) HRD program for workers, (iv) Group award for suggestions or QC, and (v) ISO9000 series. These differences are due to their innovation or knowledge environment such as types of products and production methods, seeds of innovation, learning process, and so on.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.11: Science, technology, innovation and sustainable development goals 1|
Session Chair: Joanna Caroline Chataway
Discussant: Baskaran Angathevar
Innovation Systems for Transformations towards Sustainability? A Normatively Infused Reflection
1University of Hohenheim, Germany; 2University of Oslo, Norway; 3De Montfort University, UK; 4Wageningen University, The Netherlands
This paper contributes to the refinement of an innovation systems (IS) framework for better understanding and governing sustainability transformations on a systemic and global level. In our understanding, the discussion must be guided by two assumptions: (i) transformations involve systemic innovations, (ii) transformations involve a normative dimension. Following this impetus, we can identify a “normativity gap” in prior approaches, particularly in transitions research and IS research. More specifically, we argue that the current discussion lacks a focus on directionality and legitimacy. Improving the capacity of an IS framework for dealing with transformations towards sustainability requires taking these normative issues or “the ethical dimension” of sustainability transformations more seriously into account. This also entails focusing on the complexity of paradigmatic normativity and probing into (in-)compatibilities between different sustainability-relevant norms, beliefs, and value systems to support a shift towards a sustainability-oriented paradigm. Based on these deliberations, we fathom how an extended concept of IS can help to govern transformations towards sustainability and explore the implications for and from research on innovation policy. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward: dedicated innovation systems as an IS framework dedicated to better understanding and governing transformations towards sustainability.
Innovation and Sustainability: a Contribution to an Integrated Approach
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal
More than two decades ago, Christopher Freeman wrote about the emergence of a new green techno-economic paradigm (TEP), concluding that: “It is therefore not soon to start thinking about and designing and building institutions and technologies which are likely to combine in a sixth (environmental) TEP” (Freeman, 1992: 207). In the debate which followed the MIT models of the 1970s on the limits to growth, two opposing parties were formed: the ‘pessimists’ (arguing for the ‘zero growth’) and the ‘optimists’ who included the SPRU and the author himself. The latter claimed that growth could and should continue into the 21st century provided two conditions were met: the implementation of a set of institutional changes favouring a different world development path; and the reorientation of the R&D system with a shift in the rate and direction of technical change to secure the first objective.
In response to increasing greenhouse effects, much progress had been made mostly due to institutional change rather than to technological change (Freeman, 1992:191). Important outcomes had been already achieved. In Freeman’s view, however, a much bigger effort had to be carried out regarding the improvement and development of new technologies, ICT being a good starting point.
However, we wish to emphasize now two basic ideas: the centrality of a set of institutional changes; and the reorientation of the R&D system with a shift in the rate of direction of technical change. It is rather significant that Freeman did not emphasize radical technological innovations to underpin the transition, since his stress was on the general conditions to pave the way for the new green techno-economic paradigm.
In fact, and in spite of a remarkable progress in new energy technologies, the transitions to sustainability as analysed by the transitions scholars do not seem to be pushed by radical technological innovations. Radical innovations (and not so radical) make them viable. Transition is analysed from the perspective of the planet and civilisation sustainability – the driving force - and has been gradually making its way via major shifts at institutional, policy and values levels (Unruh, 2000 and 2002; Van den Bergh and Kemp, 2006; Geels, 2010), resorting to ongoing technological progress.
At the present day, the role of technological innovation as a major tool rather than the driver of shift to a sustainable world seems a relevant and subtle distinction within innovation studies scholars. Maybe here too we are facing again the existence of two sides: the optimistic party and the prudent party, though both of them are determined supporters of transformative action.
The two groups could be organized according to two criteria: the role of technological innovation in the transition process; and the vision on the new world we are going to transit to.
Sustainability transitions and technological catch-up: Guidance of search as a strategic mechanism for leapfrogging
1Eawag, Switzerland; 2Utrecht University, the Netherlands
The challenge of preparing for more sustainable futures increasingly finds resonance outside OECD countries. One salient development is that manufacturing bases for clean-tech industries are shifting to emerging economies. So far, the question how latecomers may achieve leapfrogging in sustainable technologies has not yet been clearly spelled out in the two most important literature streams in the field: Transition studies are just about to address issues of globalization, whereas catch-up studies have given scarce attention to the specific challenges of clean-tech industries. This paper states that one of the major challenges is the elaboration of a more systemic understanding of how windows of opportunity for leapfrogging can be addressed. To achieve this, we draw on recent insights on industry emergence from transition studies. In particular, we argue that the concept of “Guidance of Search” provides a fruitful starting point for analysing how actors may influence the selection environment in an industry so as to support the emergence of a new dominant technology. The framework is illustrated with a case study on China urban water management. Over the past twenty years, a number of radical transformations in the sectoral selection environment led membrane bioreactor technology to become the dominant choice, a development unmatched in any other country in the world. Despite entering the industry as a latecomer, China caught up with multinational players in a tremendous speed. Drawing on 44 in-depth interviews with triangulation of secondary reports and data, this paper argues that this framework is able to account for explaining the observed shifts and ultimately enables the identification of a broader set of leapfrogging strategies compared to those proposed by the extant catch-up literature.
|9:00am - 10:30am||PS-2.12: Agricultural innovation systems 2|
Session Chair: Chandra Sekhar Bahinipati
Discussant: Yamila Kababe
Agricultural Research and Innovation Regional and Global Forums
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2University of Campinas, Brazil; 3University of Campinas, Brazil
Supranational initiatives to promote agricultural research and innovation have been under way for many decades and continue to interest countries and national and international organizations. This manuscript sets out to describe and analyze the characteristics and purposes of a subset of these initiatives – the Regional and Global Agricultural Research Forums, as well as their prospects for the future. In addition, it presents an in-depth study of one such forum, the Forum for the Americas on Agricultural Research & Technology Development (FORAGRO). The general analysis of the Forums was mainly based on secondary information obtained from the Internet and also on interviews with their managers. The findings from FORAGRO derives from two complementary studies conducted in 2015 and 2016, one oriented to diagnose the status of FORAGRO, and the other concerned with the proposition of a plan for its restructuring. FORAGRO was analyzed throughout official documents, a web-based questionnaire answered by more than 35 stakeholders from various countries in the Americas and several interviews with members of FORAGRO’s Executive Committee. The main findings were discussed in the context of recent trends and conceptual evolution in agricultural RDI domain. The analysis of Regional and Global Agricultural Research Forums and particularly of FORAGRO show their disconnection from innovation systems approach (and of productive and value chains concepts) and their feeble recognition of the gradual weakening of the role of public research and the strengthening of the leading role played by private research. As a consequence, there is a quasi-absence of non-research – particularly from industry and producers – and non-agrarian centered agents in these Forums, which block a more innovation-driven perspective and threatens their high potential to influence RDI agendas. A complete rearrangement of the regional and global agricultural Forums, taking into account systems of innovation approaches, is needed in the near future to redeem their original focus as a place where interconnections among stakeholders may occur and evolve.
Linking The Agricultural Innovation System And Sustainability Approach Within Horticulture Sector Of Kashmir Valley
CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF GUJARAT, India
In most of the developing countries including India, the agriculture stays the main economic backbone of the nation and an important source of food, income, and livelihoods for the majority of rural people. Science, technology, and innovation led the green revolution in order to combat the poverty and hunger by improving production and productivity values within the agricultural sector. Innovation systems approach on agricultural research and technological change are fast becoming a popular framework to the study of how society generates, disseminates and utilizes knowledge, science, technology, and innovation. Within the agriculture sector, horticulture considered as one of the most important subsector based on high-profit value outputs relying on intensive technology and labor inputs. This paper attempts to understand the impact of innovation and technology on the sustainability within the horticulture sector of Kashmir valley of India. Three dimensions of sustainability to be analyzed are social, economic and environmental. Agricultural Innovation System approaches used as the analytical framework to trace the actors and networks responsible for innovation and technology generation and dissemination. Farmers from various areas of Kashmir valley of India selected to carry out this research study on the primary data basis helped to understand the technological impact on their behaviour and their concerns with the sustainable development. It is observed that horticulture fulfills the criteria of sustainable development in economic and social dimensions but to environmental dimensions, it lags far away. It needs policy suggestions like empowering the eco-innovations, organic farming, high-density plantation, less use of chemicals but standardized only, strengthening the formal and informal linkages within the sector.
Keywords: innovation, agricultural innovation system, horticulture, sustainable development.
Interrogating agricultural innovation system from small farmers’ perspective: China, India and implications for theory and Policy
1Centre for Development Studies, India; 2Centre for Innovation and Enterprenuership, Tianjin University of Finance and Economics
There is a growing consensus that for the agrarian economies in the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental for poverty reduction, livelihood security, economic growth and environmental sustainability wherein innovation plays a key role. However, the paradigm governing the agricultural R&D and innovation has been evolving over time. The new paradigm, Agricultural Innovation System (AIS), drawing insights from the National System of Innovation (NSI), perceives that in agriculture innovations emerge from interaction and knowledge flows between research and entrepreneurial organizations in the public and private sectors engaged in the agricultural value chain. This is in contrast to the earlier view that research organizations produced new knowledge that the farmers blindly adopted. It has also been argued that since more than nine out of ten farms in the world are small farms, their innovation capability is crucial for achieving food security and sustainable rural development A newly emerging literature on small-scale farmer (SSF) innovation articulates small farmers as innovators themselves rather than mere implementers of innovations as often viewed. In this context this paper explores how small farmers are integrated with the AIS and how conducive are the institutions for enhancing and harnessing their innovation capabilities for addressing varied issues pertaining to agricultural development. The paper examines this issue by taking case studies from China and India with a view to draw lessons for informed policy making. It is argued that that the small farmers, like small firms, are confronted with numerous challenges and have an inherent capacity to innovate. Yet, within the AIS perspective, small farmers’ innovation capability is yet to receive the attention that it deserves. The study makes the case for promoting and harnessing small farmers’ innovation capability to evolve a more inclusive AIS towards addressing the pressing needs of food safely, rural employment, livelihood and environmental sustainability.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.01: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 4 (innovation indicators)|
Session Chair: Gabriela Dutrénit
Discussant: Tilman Altenburg
Innovation Indicators: towards a users’ guide for developing countries
UNU-MERIT, Netherlands, The
Innovation is becoming more and more important as a driver of economic growth. In developed countries, a diverse set of innovation indicators has been developed to monitor innovation performance and the impact of innovation policies. Developing countries have been late to jump on this bandwagon and are now faced with a set of well-established innovation indicators that might not be that well suited to measure innovation in their economies.
However, innovation indicators have been developed to better understand the particularities of developed economies, and due to their design, these indicators might not generate the information needed for designing policies that meet the different socioeconomic structures of developing countries.
This paper argues that, for innovation indicators, and for innovation survey indicators in particular, data collection has to be customized to the different socio-economic structures of developing countries. For this, the definition of innovation has to become more inclusive by recognizing the multitude of innovation actors and processes in developing countries. Developing countries also need to build competence regarding innovation indicators, not only within their statistical systems but also among their policy makers.
Innovation Indicators: Their Relevance For Assessing Innovation Performance, Advancing Theory Development, And Assisting Policy Formation
Institute of Economics, CERS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
The choice of indicators to measure innovation processes and assess performance is of vital significance. This paper argues that those economic theories give a more accurate, more reliable account of innovation activities that follow a broad approach of innovation, that is, consider all knowledge-intensive activities leading to new products (goods or services), processes, business models, as well as new organisational and managerial solutions, and thus take into account various types, forms and sources of knowledge exploited for innovation by all sorts of actors in all economic sectors. In contrast, the narrow approach focuses on the so-called high-tech goods and sectors. The broad approach is needed to collect data and other types of information, on which sound theories can be built and a reliable and comprehensive description of innovation activities can be offered to decision-makers to underpin public policies and company strategies.
Dynamic and Innovative Enterprises: Is it Possiple to Measure their Contribution to the Economy
1PhD Candidate at Economics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Information Analyst at Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Legislative Advisor at the Brazilian Federal Senate; 4Professor at Brasilia's Institute of Public Law; 5Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications, Brazil; 6Data scientist at OLX Inc.
A new family of indicators that aims at capturing the output of innovative and high growth firms was proposed in this paper. The DINNOV family of indicators was developed as an alternative to the Innovation Output Indicator (IOI) conceived for the Europe 2020 strategy (European Commission, 2013). Brazilian data were used to calculate the values of the new family of indicators for several years. and a methodology was proposed on how to explore the Eurostat´s Micro-Moments Dataset - MMD in order to compute them for several European economies as well. The paper argues that the proposed family of indicators provides a better way to gauge the impact of innovation and entrepreneurship in the economy than the IOI alternative.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.02: University relationships with indystry and society 2|
Session Chair: Marisa dos Reis A. Botelho
Discussant: Esin Yoruk
Spreading the “Gospel” of Science, Technology and Innovation Research in Ghana: A Two-Case experience of the CSIR-Science and Technology Policy Research Institute
1University of Ghana; 2CSIR-Science and Technology Policy Reseach Institute, Ghana; 3CSIR-Science and Technology Policy Reseach Institute, Ghana
There is an urgent need to link Research and Development (R&D) to Private Sector’s technological needs for business growth, as well as linking research to policy for socio-economic development of the Ghanaian economy. It is against this backdrop that two projects were implemented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) –Science and Technology Policy Research Institute (STEPRI). These projects were the CSIR-Technology Development and Transfer Center (instituted to strengthen the linkage between Research and the Private Sector), funded by the World Bank, DANIDA and the Government of Ghana (GOG); and the second, Development Research Uptake in Sub Saharan Africa (DRUSSA), funded by DFID to link research to policy. The CSIR-TDTC intervention strategies involve capacity building of researchers to effectively develop and transfer the much needed technologies for private sector growth, creation of platforms for research-industry interactions and development of effective research-industry partnerships among others. DRUSSA interventions also involved policy fellowships, policy symposia and capacity building of policy makers in using research evidence. This paper shares experiences with the CSIR-TDTC and DRUSSA projects, the achievement and strategies for more sustainable research-industry/policy linkage in Ghana.
Universities And Their Involvement In Industrial Invention As Seen Through Academic Patents
University of Gothenburg, Sweden
The paper focuses on the descriptive empirical overview of academic patents in Sweden. The contribution of this paper is to present facts and empirical overview of academic patents in Sweden in a straight-forward manner, in order to impact on going discussions related to public policy.
Innovation and entrepreneurship have been seen as powerful tools in Sweden during recent decades, in order to stimulate economic and societal transformation. The metaphor of the ‘Swedish paradox’ is based upon the idea that the extensive investment into research and development by companies and the Swedish state have not been translated into business innovations and economic growth. Moreover, the metaphor has become a powerful one to instigate changes in society and public policy, such as stimulating ‘excellence’ in universities, stressing that universities should contribute to economic growth and societal change (third mission), stimulating entrepreneurship, developing tools so that public policy can stimulate innovation in business, and so forth. However, much of this debate and the underlying metaphor are based upon particular and not so firm assumptions about the relevant empirical facts.
The developmental university in the time of crisis. The case of Greece
National Documentation Centre, Greece
After an about ten-year period of rather high rates of economic growth, Greece has experienced in the 2010s a rapid deterioration of macroeconomic indicators; thus the Greek State has engaged an ongoing economic adjustment that entailed fiscal consolidation that contributed to the vast reduction of the General Government deficit, from 15,2% of GDP in 2009 to 3,5% of GDP in 2014. At the same time, however, even if the ambitious medium-term fiscal targets established in the 2015 MoU between Greece, the ECB, the EU and the IMF were met and growth was to recover, the debt-GDP ratio would remain high in the foreseeable future.
Nevertheless, during the 2000s, economy has achieved significant –but unsustainable– growth performance, which was not driven by innovation or knowledge-intensive production. On the other hand, nor state intervention in Greece used to follow strategic, long-term goals for growth, paying little attention to factors that contribute to sustainable growth, such as well-educated human capital and new technology’s integration within the production process. In other words, national priorities had to do with achieving high growth rates in the short-run, although experts highlighted the need for changes in productive structure and growth model. Current situation has indicated Greek state’s and political system’s failures, as well as some of the longstanding features of its economic model.
In this context, the manner in which universities, research centers and the industry interact in terms of knowledge- and technology-coproduction as well as human capital education and flow has been standing as a hot topic of (policy) attention for a long time in part because such co-habilitation sustains economic growth. While the issue of achieving an optimum interaction remains an open question, given the divergent institutional mandates between the public and private sector and a variety of country-specific characteristics, the purpose of this paper is to show off the R&D context in Greece amidst crisis, and to analyze linkages between universities and the business sector in Greece before and after crisis. For this reason the paper examines quantitative and qualitative data; the latter mainly dealing with respective institutional settings and mechanisms employed to boost (and, sustain) such a collaboration, laying emphasis on the impact that the context of current economic crisis has on academia-business sector linkages.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.03: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 5|
Session Chair: Alexandros Andreas Kyrtsis
Discussant: Susan Cozzens
On Power Inequality, Innovation Systems and Development Strategies
University of the Republic, Uruguay, Uruguay
Development is studied by combining normative, theoretical-factual, prospective and propositional approaches. Sustainable Human Development is the normative basis. Agency connects values and proposals. Evaluating its possibilities leads to the study of power. For that the proposed tool is a Marx-Mann conceptual scheme that considers technology, social relations and the interactions between them. It is used for analyzing the role of power in National Innovation Systems as well as the rise of inequality. Strategies for fostering knowledge democratization in the context of Innovation Systems are considered. Problems and possibilities of developmental coalitions are discussed.
Thirty Years of European Collaboration in R&D: The Role of FPs in Research, Technological Development and Innovation.
Laboratory of Industrial and Energy Economics, National Technical University of Athens,Greece
EU-funded research activity has been characterized by a considerable growth across Framework Programmes (FPs) resulting in substantially large networks. In this paper we examine the structure and evolution of research collaborative networks funded by the EU FPs during the last 30 years. Our analysis provides an in-depth picture of important aspects of the longer-lasting and more sustainable contribution of EU research public policy the so-called ‘behavioural additionality’ i.e. fostering collaborative learning, strengthening linkages among different types of organizations engaged in the innovative process and facilitating an extensive transmission of knowledge. Furthermore, we have also collected data on the characteristics and innovative performance of young firms that participate in these networks in order to better understand their exact network role and how their future growth and performance may be affected by their participation.
R&D offshoring and its effects on the innovation performance of Chinese firms
Grenoble Ecole de Management, France
Involvement in R&D offshoring can result in loss in the ability of the offshoring firms to innovate. To prevent this, firms can design strategies to foster technology transfer by enhancing possibilities to re-adapt and re-invent the foreign-developed technologies. This paper examines the effect of two different modes of governance of R&D offshoring –market and hierarchies - on the innovation activity of indigenous firms, as well as how strategies for enhancing re-adaptation, innovation around and re-invention moderates those effects. We examine this issue empirically using data from 2011 to 2014 for a sample of 312 firms, classified as 'high and new-tech enterprises' located in the Hebei Province of China. Results suggest that governing R&D offshoring through market influence positively firms’ innovation activity, while vertically integrating R&D offshoring though the establishment of R&D labs in industrialized countries has a negative effect on firms’ innovation. Collaboration with domestic universities and public research organizations seem to support reinvention of foreign-developed technologies, accessed either through market or hierarchies, and in this way it enhances the effect of R&D offshoring on firms’ innovation activity. On the contrary, employment of foreign staff moderates negatively the effect of R&D offshoring, especially of the vertical integration mode, suggesting that foreign staff may foster knowledge transfer and adaptation but not necessarily re-invention or innovation around the foreign-developed technologies. Our study extends the debate of R&D offshoring to domestic independent firms and suggests boundary conditions for reaping benefits from R&D offshoring.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.04: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 6|
Session Chair: Basudeb Chaudhuri
Discussant: Clément Bert-Erboul
Innovation Behaviour of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria
1Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria, Nigeria; 2Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
The increasing emphasis on innovation as driver of manufacturing competitiveness has brought to the fore the question of what factors influence its outcome in national industries? For Nigeria especially, where the objective of promoting manufacturing has recently been reinvigorated, the relevance of this question can hardly be more timeous. Using data from a Survey of innovation activities in the country’s manufacturing firms we estimated a probit model of innovation behavior in the sector. Our findings reveal a positive impact of training, education level and incidence of collaboration with other innovation actors on a firm’s propensity to innovate. On the other hand, poor physical infrastructure and large size are discovered to be two forms of hindrances to developing technological capability in the sampled firms. Strategic interventions to promote SMEs and upgrade their technical capability as well as improve the quality of infrastructure are some of the key policy messages that emerge.
Innovation Policy for the less developed economies: lessons from the developed economies
University of Patras
As society evolves constantly, more and more elaborate tools are required to meet its changing needs, expectations and goals. Generating growth, raising income and creating employment have become by now the universal objectives but not all countries are able or willing to do what it takes to implement Innovation Policy to its fullest extent.
For those countries that wish to use Innovation Policy extensively, the recipe is straightforward. It consists of possessing (building, ameliorating and maintaining) an NSI (National System of Innovation) consisting of the whole research community, i.e. universities, research institutions and organizations, plus the hopefully enterprising business firms, finance and the state. When accompanied by appropriate policies and regulations this system becomes an ecosystem conducive to the generation, diffusion and commercialization of innovation. Furthermore, it is rendered hospitable when supplemented with IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) and appropriate policies on skilled immigration, steady and low taxation, an efficient civil service, and a low level of corruption, while a balance is sought between variety and selection. The productive sector of the ecosystem is expected to be internationally competitive and able both to withstand external threats such as globalization and to take advantage of the opportunities generated. Diffusion of the benefits from innovation is expected, and steps are taken to guarantee the system’s perpetuation.
Literally, dozens of NSIs have been built, and they concern mostly developed economies and a few developing ones. The economic profession’s attitude used to be that “to apply the concept of a national innovation system to the South may in some cases be seen as something of a provocation” (Johnson et al, 2003:14). While in broad lines such an assessment may still hold, here we shall argue that nevertheless some lessons for the developing economies may be drawn from Innovation Policy as applied in the developed world.
In addition, a number of lessons or suggestions on Innovation Policy are warranted due to the changes brought about on the Innovation scene. Indeed, over the last several decades Innovation has revolutionized the world economy, the innovation ecosystem has been shaken to its roots, and Innovation Policy has been struggling to keep up with all these changes.
Here, we shall first provide a glimpse of the distinctive features of Innovation Policy in a few developed economies, plus a successful developing one, namely Israel. From which we shall then draw at first a few lessons on characteristics, then on constituent themes of Innovation Policy for the developing economies. Finally, we shall offer some suggestions as to Innovation Policy for developing economies in the direction of meeting the new prerequisites, challenges, and opportunities created on the evolving Innovation scene.
Innovation policy evolution: The Indian experience
University of Tampere, Finland
Recent years innovation policy studies focus on inclusive development in increasing degree. An appearance of inclusivity as part of economic development agenda is connected to contradicting results of economic advancement in emerging economies of global South. Increasing disparities and inequalities, social and economic exclusion as lack or absence of access to resources, goods, and services for large groups of rural and poor urban population, which reside in informal settings in many developing countries - all these factors attracted the attention of scholars, policymakers, and international organizations. Inclusivity is perceived mainly in dual mode: poor as consumers and poor as producers. From policy perspective, the ways of addressing these needs evolved from idea of reducing the costs and increasing the availability of goods and services for the poor. The concept is expanding to the wider idea of promoting sustainable livelihood and income-generating opportunities for the poor. In reality, the research works of both ways lack holistic approach and provide part of the picture referring specific products, or marginalized groups, or innovation system stakeholders. Another gap is underestimating the roles, which the actors of innovation system are playing in policy formulating and implementation. In most of the studies, roles and stakeholders are considered separately, in different research domains (policy studies and innovation studies, for example). And last missing part of innovation policy studies is investigating policy dynamics in coherence with other relevant dynamics – electoral, budget, economic or organizational. Innovation policy exists in space-time manifold, which means that policy goals, rationales and instruments may transform, institutional context is changing, and new stakeholders and new roles of old actors may appear. Embracing the listed gaps is possible by strengthening interdisciplinary approach and incorporating a historical view. The proposed paper is an attempt to contribute these gaps by telling ‘policy story' of the specific country in the specific historical period. The narrative approach is seen the most appropriate for this purpose, as it allows crossing boundaries of innovation studies and policy studies, provide material for reflection exercise for scholars from innovation policy field, and discover new insights and dimensions of further studies of inclusive innovation policies. The paper focuses on Indian innovation policy for inclusive development, and its metamorphosis connected to changing the political, economic and social environment.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.05: Indigenous knowledge, informal sector, innovation and development 2|
Session Chair: Erika Kraemer-Mbula
Discussant: Edward Lorenz
What role for innovation in sustainable and inclusive water systems: an exploration of the recent policy trajectories in South Africa and Uruguay.
1University of the Republic, Uruguay; 2Human Sciences Research Council
Water is one the fundamental pillars of socio-economic development at all levels. It is essential for life, health, food, energy, employment, as well as for protecting the environment. Water security is of concern to almost all corners of the world, and constitutes one of the main global risks in terms of it’s impact on development in general, and in the achievement of the sustainable development goals in particular.
Water is certainly a complex systemic and multi-dimensional theme. In this paper we analyze the role of innovation, sustainability and social inclusion in the water policy sector, in two contrasting countries: South Africa and Uruguay. More in particular, we ask how are these three core principles conceptualized in the water policy domain, and the extent to which they are seen as mutually reinforcing in the quest for sustainable development of South Africa and Uruguay.
In spite of large differences between the two countries, both countries share a process of policy transition towards reaffirming a sustainable governance of natural resources. The two countries’ economic production is largely water intensive: approximately 70% of South Africa’s GDP is maintained by water from four rivers (the Limpopo, Inkomati, Pongola and Orange Rivers) that together drain two thirds of the land area; Uruguay heavily relies on agricultural related exports such as meat, cellulose, dairy, irrigated rice and forestry, which also put strong pressure on water.
We hypothesize that the complexity and uncertainty related to water and climate change, and the pervasiveness of water throughout the different SDGs call for a policy rationale in which innovation is placed vis a vis sustainability and social inclusion. Innovation is called to play a crucial role in these processes, not only because water services are still missing for large groups of the population, but also because water quality and water management impose fundamental technological and institutional challenges. The role of innovation is even larger when taking into account the urgent need for placing sustainability at the core of solutions’ design and implementation. However, we find that while in South Africa, innovation is explicitly connected to water sustainability and inclusion which are guiding principles for water policy in the country, in Uruguay innovation appears only very marginally, with a more elusive role, and when it does it is seen as instrumental to other goals.
In sum, the paper attempts to explore the question of system transformation, and how do innovation, sustainability and social inclusion integrate (or not) in the policy rationale towards water in South Africa and Uruguay.
These case studies draw on secondary data analysis, mainly based on policy and regulatory documents and other sources of secondary data.
Promoting an innovation policy for inclusive development in South Africa
Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa
Innovation and inclusive development is being widely promoted as a policy objective in the global South, but the challenge is that there has been little design and implementation of new, context-appropriate instruments and incentives to achieve these goals across government. One critical foundation for an effective IID policy is network alignment - that STI policy should be aligned with the network goals, objectives and instruments of cognate government departments responsible for promoting development (von Tunzelmann 2007). The paper contributes by analysing policy in South Africa using qualitative software tools, to map these policy networks and identify where there can be stronger alignment. The empirical focus was on policy texts promoting livelihoods in informal settings, whether urban or rural. The paper analyses the nature of shared goals and instruments in the current policy networks, and assesses how these goals and instruments are aligned with each other and with the goals of IID. Based on the analysis, three main spaces for strategic policy intervention are identified, to promote IID across government in a way that goes beyond the aspirational and the rhetorical. Such analysis of formal policy documents can only indicate government’s strategic intent. It does not take into account the political will to enact these policy instruments, nor the capabilities and resources to implement policy instruments effectively and efficiently. However, it does provide a more systematic evidence base to effect strategic change.
Effectiveness of Indigenous Beliefs as Innovative Strategy to Conservation of Natural Resources in Nigeria
University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Rural people depend almost entirely on local innovation in form of specific skills and knowledge essential for their survival. The innovation in this study is the local belief that the forests serve as habitat to some gods and deities worship by the people for protection and healing. This study therefore investigated effectiveness of such indigenous beliefs as innovative strategy to conservation and protection of cultural heritage. The two sacred forests selected for the study include Igbo Igunnko (meaning Igunnuko sacred forest) and Igbo Oro (Oro sacred forest) located at Balogun and Ososun respectively. Respondents for the study were sampled from households in the two villages. Through the local belief system, fear of entering into the sacred forests was created in the mind of the villagers. Firewood collection and hunting of wild animals as well as fishing are not permitted in the sacred forests. Two major activities carried out in the sacred forests include religion or cultural activities. People in need of consultation to the gods are accompanied into the forest by the Chief priest or local herbalists who then carry out the necessary cultural or religion activities. Sacred landscapes may not be specifically designed for nature conservation where they exist, yet they can play a key innovative strategy in protection of threatened and endangered forest diversity. This needed to be adequately integrated in modern science to facilitate development of local economy.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.06: National, continental and regional innovation system 2|
Session Chair: Bo Uno Goeransson
Discussant: Claudia De Fuentes
A Systematic Approach to Studying Support Initiatives for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in a Crisis Economy
Athens University of Economics & Business, Greece
We propose a conceptual framework for studying support initiatives for innovation and entrepreneurship and discuss how it can be applied in the Greek crisis context. The research question addressed relates to what factors are put forth in the extant literature as potentially influencing and shaping effective support initiatives for innovation and scalable entrepreneurship, and how can these be linked in a conceptual framework for analyzing and assessing such initiatives. By integrating coevolution theory, innovation systems literature, open innovation, innovation and entrepreneurship policy, and public-private partnerships literature, a framework is developed that also aims at integrating the innovation and entrepreneurship support research streams as both are directly linked to economic and social development, and the one needs and reinforces the other. The underlying rational of programs and initiatives that intend to foster, canalize and support innovation and entrepreneurship is to achieve economic development, hence a deep crisis context, like the one that has characterized Greece since 2010, seems particularly relevant for studying how this objective can actually be achieved.
Domestic businesses, Multinationals and the State: an essay on the dynamics underpinning the ‘low-innovation trap’ in Brazil
1Cedeplar/UFMG, Brazil; 2National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The essay problematizes the role of large private corporations in the configuration of the Brazilian National System of Innovation (NSI). Our question is: to what extent are the strategies and practices adopted by large companies (both domestic and MNCs) able to shape the Brazilian NSI? Our claim is that policy makers treat actions that benefit them as a sine qua non remedy to foster innovation, given that they are the main innovators in many countries that were able to catch up. However, large companies (both domestic and MNCs) may shape in a negative fashion the NSI because they are not interested neither in expanding their investments in R&D beyond a certain limit nor in cooperating to innovate beyond a certain limit, leading to what we called ‘low innovation trap’. We validate our argument using R&D data and cooperation arrangements from large businesses in Brazil. The ongoing disarticulation of the main institutions of the Brazilian NSI may be a sign that the big players of the system do not care about building institutions to provide national public goods.
Evolution of NIS in a developing context: historical study of the role of institutions in Iran
Sharif University of Technology, Iran, Islamic Republic of
The central issue of applying national innovation system as an analytical tool in the context of developing countries has been scrutinized. A mixed framework has been developed to study the institutional roots of Iran’s falling further behind in a historical perspective. Four possible ways of hindering institutional adaptions were highlighted and tested in this specific context since two centuries ago. It has also showed how the institutional set-ups of the country could not respond properly to the requirements of technological changes differently in each period of time. Although the main literature of NIS concentrated on rules and regulations, this study shows how the cognitive institutions played a determining role in hampering technological catch-up of the country. Some theoretical and policy related remarks are presented at the end.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.07: Sectoral innovation system, systemic industrial policy and development 3|
Session Chair: Aggelos Tsakanikas
Discussant: Jeong-Dong Lee
Opportunity vs. Complex Learning Processes: Sectoral Classification Criteria Based on Technological Regimes
1Universidad Nacional de San Martín / Conicet, Argentina; 2Universidad Nacional de San Martín / Conicet, Argentina
In this paper, we propose to analyze sectorial innovation profile of manufacture industry in Argentina. We followed Malerba and Orgsenigo (1997) technological regimes. We operationalized and estimated different indicators for innovation efforts, appropriation strategies and learning sources. Then, we applied a multilevel model to evaluate the differences among sector in the association between those indicators and the introduction of successful innovation. This exercise allowed us to estimate sectorial indicator for opportunity, appropriability, cumulativeness (learning based on experience) and technological base (learning based on interaction with universities or other firms). A first observation that emerges from the results is that the different sectors show differences both in the efforts they make and in the degree to which they are associated with innovation results. While some sectors systematically show a greater relationship between their efforts and the introduction of innovations, others only show association in some indicators and in other cases the efforts do not seem to have a clear incidence. From this we can show that although the opportunity, understood as the association between R&D expenditure and innovation results, is present in a large number of sectors, even in traditional sectors, such as food or apparel. Other elements of technological regimes such as appropriability or cumulativeness, only appears in sectors frequently characterized as knowledge intensive. This could lead to propose that the opportunity is a more sensitive attribute to the technological and productive context than the rest. From the results obtained, we propose a sector taxonomy of the Argentine manufacturing industry in terms of the consistency between these four elements of the sectoral systems and the levels reached in the four indicators.
R&D Intensity and the Classification of Manufacturing Technology in South Africa: An Indigenous Taxonomy
Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa
This paper determines technology classes relevant for South Africa using source data, as opposed to adopting technology classes developed specifically for OECD countries. It establishes a concordance between OECD and SA technology classes; and goes on to determine the industry groupings that fall into various technology classes directly from this concordance. One outcome of this is a ranking of SA industries in terms of their technology intensiveness, within a classification scheme consisting of high, medium-high, medium-low and low technology classes different to that obtained from OECD technology classes. The ‘flavour’ of the SA high-tech industry profile is thus made apparent quantitatively and is not based purely on individual expert opinion as has been common practice up to now. The point is made that, since its conception, technology class has been context and country specific - dependent on the choice of industrial subsectors, which may vary, especially between developing and developed world contexts. An indigenous determination of technology classes allows for the identification of future R&D performers especially among the lower-technology enterprises; something which the application of the standard OECD technology classes does not allow. The results afford policymakers with the opportunity to track South Africa's competitive knowledge economy subsectors with respect to potentially any macro-economic quantity.
Solar Energy Sector in India: Exploring Actors, Knowledge Production and Innovation
Jawaharlal Nehru University JNU, India
This paper presents the current solar energy scenario in India and explores the ways in which various actors, agencies and policies shape the solar energy sector in the country from different perspectives on the system of innovation literature. To make the country as one of the leaders in terms of solar energy generation and to promote ecologically sustainable growth, addressing the nation’s energy security challenge is one of the visions of the National Solar Mission. The paper explores the role played by the significant presence of productive R&D institutions, universities and supportive policy initiatives. The study also highlights the increase in research outcomes in context to the patents, research publications and R&D investment which has become an essential need post the announcement of the solar mission in the country.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.08: Innovation systems, networks, global value chains and foreign direct investments 3|
Session Chair: Cristina Chaminade
Discussant: Semih Akçomak
The Changing Models of International Technology Transfer in China
1Tsinghua University, China, People's Republic of; 2Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, People's Republic of
In recent years, there have been some changes in technology transfer and cooperation activities that are different from traditional unidirectional technology transfer paradigm. This paper aims to explore the changing models of international technology transfer in China. This research examines the transfer of technology in three aspects: scientific knowledge, explicit technology, and tacit technology. Based on the network methods, we adopt a framework that integrates quantitative bibliometrics and patent analysis methods, complemented by qualitative enquiries with domain experts. Specifically, the research selects two emerging industries as representative cases: wind turbine and dye-sensitized solar cell. We find that the technology transfer models have experienced significant changes when considering scientific knowledge flows and industrial technology cooperation – the technology transfer models are different between these two emerging industries. The newer technology transfer models of dye-sensitized solar cell signify the rising innovation capacity of Chinese institutions which allows them to play more central roles in global innovation network.
Combining innovation systems and global value chains for development: Towards a research agenda
Department of Business and Management, Aalborg University, Denmark
This paper contributes to ongoing work which seeks to bring together the innovation systems and global value chain literatures for the study of economic development. We depart from the view that such a new combination will be helpful both in enhancing the understanding of socioeconomic processes in poor countries and in building a more useful knowledge base for action. To this aim, we combine bibliometric analysis with a qualitative review of work from both bodies of literature. The purpose of the paper is to inform efforts to build a new combination which is suited for policy-relevant analyses of economic development in the global economy
Global Innovation Networks, Regions and Knowledge communities: A Case of Hyderabad Biocluster in India
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
The Indian Biopharmaceutical landscape interests scholars from innovation studies, economic geography and policy learning to understand various regional dimensions that fuel knowledge production in relation to emerging technologies. Globalization has a strong influence on such high technology clusters, wherein ‘local’ also play a significant role. With this prelude, the study attempts to understand the nature and typology of Global Innovation Networks (GINs) of firms and non-firm entities, located in India’s Biosciences R&D cluster, Hyderabad. These entities are categories in different knowledge soruces and have been further analyses on the basis of their degrees of globalness, innovativeness and networkedness. The paper contends that firms have an export-oriented objective and are competing with their global competitors; innovation seems to be mostly incremental in nature; the sector is battling due to the absence of linkages with funding agencies and basic research institutions. However, the locus of innovation in this cluster lies amidst knowledge communities within academic institutions and public research labs, which are significant, involved in basic as well as translational research activities, thereby making the cluster a potent site for innovation. Also, this paper opens up the scope for future research, by aligning socio-economic aspects of networks and linkages, in terms of the health outcomes or social relevance derived out of the networks and linkages across the globe.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.10: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 6|
Session Chair: Ionna Sapfo Pepelasis
Discussant: Hiroki Idota
Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship in Greek high-technology sectors: myth and reality
Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship (KBE) is a very important socio-economic phenomenon that drives innovation, economic growth and development. This kind of entrepreneurship is characterized by high potential for technology upgrading. Moreover, KBE is an effective mechanism for the transformation of knowledge into innovation and new economic activity.
The present paper focuses on the Greek knowledge based enterprises, their innovative performance and growth. Assuming that KBE is a high-potential entrepreneurship, we study different factors which shape this type of entrepreneurship as it may represent a new source of development for the Greek economy. More specifically, we are interested in the educational attainment of founders and employees, the main areas of expertise of founders and the factors influencing the creation of new ventures. We also explore the sources of knowledge for the exploration of new business opportunities and the importance of networking in different firm operations. Therefore, this research focuses on both the founder or the founding team as well as on the overall operations of the firms.
Analysis is based on a structured questionnaire circulated to a representative sample of new firms that have been established between 2000 and 2010 and belong to various high-technology sectors. The examined sectors have been classified according to the EC - NACE Rev. 1.1 in three groups: (1) high-technology manufacturing, (2) medium-high-technology manufacturing and (3) high-technology knowledge-intensive services. To understand the exploitation differences on sources of knowledge and the networking among the founders, depending on their educational background, we performed analysis of variance.
Knowledge-based entrepreneurs in Greece are not “gazelles” (i.e. high growth young firms which have the potential to reshape the industrial landscape). They consist of distinct types of companies. The key factor in these firms’ growth is most often firm specific capabilities which do not always involve R&D. Therefore, this research focuses on both the founder and the founding team as well as on the overall operations of the firms. Finally, we explore how these characteristics affect the performance of firms which in turn can generate economic growth, especially in the crisis period. KBE perspective in exploring innovativeness and growth of newly established Greek firms, we derive useful conclusions for both the management of firms as well as for the public policies to promote innovation and entrepreneurship in general.
Innovation Outcomes and Partner-type Selection in R&D Alliances: The Role of Simultaneous Diversification and Sequential Adaptation
1University of Zurich, Switzerland; 2University of Maastricht, Netherlands
This study focuses on how firms form and sequentially adapt their interorganizational knowledge sourcing structures within research and development (R&D) alliances and how this process impacts their innovation performance. In contrast to the previous literature that mainly ignores the dynamic aspects of how firms adapt their search strategies, our approach accounts for sequential adaptation. Our proposed framework explores the role of simultaneous diversification and sequential adaptation of collaboration partners within R&D alliances according to specific innovation outcomes. The results emphasize that firms should not remain within the same search activities indefinitely, as non-adapting interorganizational knowledge transfer structures lead to inferior performance. Notably, this study highlights important partner-type selectivity and identifies appropriate simultaneous diversification and sequential adaptation strategies in relation to specific innovation outcomes and firm sizes.
Knowledge Resources, Spinouts And Exit Through Acquisition
1UNIVERSITY OF PAVIA & ICRIOS-BOCCONI UNIVERSITY, Italy; 2Stillman School, Seton Hall University; 3ICRIOS-Bocconi University
Research suggests that successful acquisitions begin with the selection of the ‘right’ target firm. Our study offers new insights for the literature on acquisitions by focusing on spinouts as a unique subset of target firms. Spinouts have increasingly been identified as attractive targets for acquisitions in high technology industries where the pace of innovation and new product development often involves large and highly uncertain investments. Spinouts are recognized for their unique resources that distinguish them from established firms and other new entrants into industries. This study adopts a resource perspective to examine the impact of the knowledge heritage and product strategies of spinouts from different knowledge contexts on the their potential to be acquired by firms in both the focal industry and downstream industries. Overall, our findings support our proposition that the knowledge heritage of spinout ventures represents an important resource that affects evaluations concerning acquisitions.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.11: Science, technology, innovation and sustainable development goals 2|
Session Chair: Mariela Bianco
Discussant: Maria Gabriela Podcameni
When access to drugs meets catch-up: insights from the use of compulsory licensing threats to improve access to ARVs in Brazil
UNU-MERIT, Netherlands, The
Access to affordable lifesaving medicines is considered a human right. This leads to a question largely understudied in the catch-up literature on accumulation of industrial capabilities. Can the drive to improve access to an essential commodity impact the sectoral catch-up trajectory of the corresponding industry? In 1996, Brazil initiated a policy of universal and free access to highly-active ARV therapy (HAART), which put an enormous pressure on the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In order to ensure an adequate supply of ARVs in the public healthcare system with a limited budget, MoH started negotiating price reductions for high-cost patented drugs, often deploying the threat of using compulsory licensing. Through a scoping review of the literature and construction of the Brazilian case study, the paper explores how the drive to access is impacted by prior catch-up in the pharmaceutical sector and triggers in turn future sectoral catch-up. It shows that price negotiations may or may not impact both catch-up and access positively. Catch-up can provide bargaining strength in price negotiations and have a positive inter-temporal impact on both future catch-up and access. However, results suggest that only successful catch-up can lead to long term access, as the capabilities accumulated in aborted catch-up are not sufficient for large scale production of low cost essential medicines. Thus, industrial policy and health policy can impact one another and twining between catch-up and access can be helpful.
Acceptance and resistance towards low-carbon mobility: Empirical results in Southern France for e-bikes adoption
University of NIce Sophia Antipolis, France
This article emphasizes the role of users in the development and diffusion of eco-innovation products, focusing on the main triggers pushing the adoption of e-bikes. User practices appear to be critical for eco-innovation especially in the emerging market phase when an understanding of users’ needs is required to shape the future product or service (Lazaric et al., 2014). Users are rarely isolated; their needs are intertwined within institutions, business strategies, technologies, and ecosystems. In France, the development of e-bikes is in its infancy and adoption remains at an early stage. Traditional bicycles have been used for leisure activities in France since the Second World War. Bicycles were considered to be exclusive to weekend and sport activities. However a shift occurs in cities and municipalities have introduced policies to promote the reintroduction of bicycles in city centers. Despite some interest from users, and the incentives provided by some municipalities, take-off of e-bikes is confined to specific uses. We explore this paradox in France with an original French survey. Our empirical study is based on an original dataset: an original dataset conducted in 2013 inside a population of students located in Sophia Antipolis (in Southern France) that had the opportunity to adopt e bikes during a temporary period where a fleet of e-bikes for self-service use was implemented in their campus. 91 students were surveyed in order to investigate their main motivations about transport issues and their practices and habits during the adoption of e-bikes. Empirical results of this study will been presented and discussed in order to explain the source of the French Paradox. As shown in the literature targeting younger such as students in extremely relevant as the variable Age alongside with gender remain of the most significant explanatory factor for understanding. Moreover renting e-bikes -and not buying them-, has been targeted as a critical issue too. Our empirical results will illuminate the difficulties of overcome current habits and practices, main challenges to promote this eco-innovation with environmental values impeding the real take off of e-bikes. Implications for policy making will be discussed in order to promote diverse sources of transport and decipher current values and social norm associated with this eco- innovation. Thus, e-bike products and services are linked to position of e- mobility in the National Innovation System which also delineates the interactions between vehicles and energy systems, and the interface between the production of innovative electric vehicles and urban mobility planning. These elements show how much the exploration of the French paradox is needed for having a better overview of futures challenges and potential next windows of opportunity for e-mobility in France.
In Search of Local Innovation Networks in the South: Evidence from Tourism Firms in South Africa
Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa
This paper contributes to emerging global South perspectives on the importance of innovation for local economic development and poverty reduction in urban, as well as rural areas. In this respect, attention is focused on local innovation systems or networks. Innovation which ensures certain social and/ or pro-poor benefits and environmental projection is underscored in line with line with notions concerning innovation as a change agent towards sustainability. There is limited empirical evidence concerning nature and dynamics of local innovation networks in South Africa, and also the global South. Whilst the concept of a National System of Innovation has existed in the South Africa policy domain for about two decades, local innovation systems or networks are poorly conceptualised and understood. From a conceptual perspective, the paper draws on evolutionary economic geography and analysis case examples of local tourism innovation networks. The spatial dynamics of the systemic relationships vis-à-vis networks are interrogated to illuminate the nature and dynamics of identified local innovation networking in tourism as a service sector within South Africa as an emerging market economy in the global South. Policy recommendations following from the findings are distilled.
|10:40am - 12:10pm||PS-3.12: Agricultural innovation systems 3|
Session Chair: K J Joseph
Discussant: Abdenasser Maaref
Interaction of Small Growers with Formal and Informal Institutional Arrangements: Case of Dissemination of Knowledge in Tea and Natural Rubber
Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
Using agricultural innovation system perspective, the paper has analysed the types of information sources involved in the dissemination of knowledge as well as the factors influencing the decision to interact with these sources taking the case of two plantation crops – tea and natural rubber. Interaction with various sources and getting information from them is particularly important for small growers who are resource poor and faces uncertainty over the cultivation of these perennial crops due to long gestation lag in production. Moreover, these crops have historically received considerable attention of the State. This had led to the establishment of formal institutional arrangements for the generation and dissemination of knowledge to these growers. The analysis showed that in the dissemination process of knowledge despite the presence of formal institutional mechanisms, the small tea growers seemed to have greater reliance on informal sources on account of unavailability of services from formal sources as well as due to certain farm and farmer characteristics. On the contrary, institutional intervention which seemed to adjust as per the need of the NR growers, seems to have resulted in greater interaction of the growers with formal source. Though their interaction with informal source was also high, but it was not due to lack of supply of such services from the formal source rather on account of farm, farmer and crop specific characteristics.
Determinants of Agroforestry Innovations Adoption among Small-Scale Farmers in Nigeria: An Agricultural Innovation System Approach
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, Nigeria
Agroforestry innovations are said to be induced innovations developed in a bid to address problems associated with reckless land use practices and climate change. Agroforestry innovations are among the land-based economic development strategies with potentials of enhanced rural livelihoods. Using a logistic regression model in a cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 110 households, this study explores the influence of factors affecting the adoption of agroforestry innovations. The study finds that access to credit, access to extension services, membership in farmers groups and organizations, and distance to input and output markets are the variables which significantly affect the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the study areas. It is recommended that government policies that would facilitate financial credit services and incentive scheme be put in place which will bring about improvements in the agricultural system of the country.
Can Wide Scale Diffusion of Resource Efficient Technologies Reduce Groundwater Utilization? Evidence from Water Scarce Regions of Gujarat, India
1GUJARAT INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, India; 2Amrita University, India
Anticipating that a large scale adoption of micro-irrigation could reduce potential use of groundwater, a higher incentive has been given to the farmers in the dark-zone talukas since 2012 for rapid diffusion. While one can expect that extra subsidy can enhance adoption, the impact on water utilization has been less explored at the irrigation system-level in India. The objectives of this study therefore are: (a) to examine the effect of additional subsidy on diffusion of micro-irrigation in the water deficit areas, and (b) to evaluate impact of adoption on groundwater extraction at the tubewell level. Information about adoption were collected for 8,073 villages and towns between 2006-07 and 2014 to validate the first objective, and around 430 micro-irrigation adopted tubewell owners were surveyed for the second one. The findings reveal that additional subsidy and social learning positively influenced the adoption, and the latter has higher impact. For instance, a 10% additional subsidy enhances the likelihood of adoption rate by 1.2% to 1.8% and area by 0.7% to 1.3%. On other hand, adoption alone found as statistically insignificant to decline pressure on groundwater. However, a combination of adoption with electricity meter connection leads to a reduction in groundwater extraction. This study supports for the continuation of additional subsidy policy for large scale adoption, and suggests for compulsory metering of unmetered connections to achieve the desired goals of sustainable use of groundwater. From a larger policy perspective, we emphasize for accounting water at the depletion point, rather than drawing policy conclusion based on measurement at the application point.
|12:10pm - 12:30pm||Coffee Break|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||SpS-2.1: Public policies for innovation, economic and industrial development: Lessons learned, new possibilities combined with some re-emerging trends in the new global context|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||SpS-2.2: Towards STI indicators for inclusive development|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||SpS-2.3: Transformative innovation for creative reconstruction of the Africa-Europe relation for mutual benefit|
|2:00pm - 3:15pm||Lunch Break|
Eurolics Meeting: “Meeting to discuss the organization and future activities of Eurolics” (Room 6)
Meeting of the Lalics Network (Room 26a)
|3:15pm - 4:15pm||Research and Innovation Policies in Greece and Europe|
COSTAS FOTAKIS (Alternate Minister for Research & Innovation)
ELISABETH LIPIATOU (European Commission, DG Communications Networks, Content and Technology & DG Research and Innovation)
|4:15pm||Buses leaving to the Cultural Events|
|5:15pm - 8:30pm||Cultural Events|
1) New Acropolis Museum
2) National Archaeological Museum of Athens
3) Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center
4) Guided Walk: Sites of historic and cultural interest in the centre of Athens
|8:30pm - 11:59pm||Gala Dinner|
at “Ecali Club” located in the northern suburbs of Athens
|11:59pm||Buses leaving to the hotels|
|Date: Friday, 13/Oct/2017|
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.01: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 5|
Session Chair: Aimilia Protogerou
Discussant: Anastasia Constantelou
Using Knowledge For Better Health: Building Bridges Between Innovation Studies And Health Disciplines
1CONACYT - Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico
There is a widespread use of knowledge concept in innovations studies and health disciplines, without establishing a direct dialogue. The objective of this paper is to develop a comparative analysis of frameworks coming from innovation studies and health disciplines. We propose a set of analytical dimensions that could serve as starting point to construct a unified framework, aiming at fostering health knowledge application. We present a revision of influential models of health knowledge use: (i) from innovation studies, considering two models focused on health innovation nature and two others that orient health innovation to solve inclusive development issues; and (ii) from health disciplines, namely Translational Research and Knowledge Translation models. We explore the tensions between these two approaches, pointing out the excessive focus on basic science research as the main consequence of having different visions of the same phenomenon; we use knowledge outcomes of diabetes research in Mexico as empirical evidence. We present four analytical dimensions that combines the best features of each vision, in terms of actors, interactions, process and institutional framework. We recognize that our theoretical vision is only one component of such a task: defining a unified framework requires multidisciplinary collaboration, in which actors from both bodies of knowledge could dialogue and negotiate their proposals and concerns.
Interaction networks in research projects: what they can tell us about the dynamics of knowledge production and its link with Brazil’s health system
The concern about the link between the STI and the health necessities of the population has had a long history in Brazil (Morel 1994). On the first decade of the 21st century, the country has been through an active period in terms of the promotion of the STI policies within the health system and the area has been renowned for its ability of systemic articulation (Gadelha et al., 2012; Szapiro, Vargas & Cassiolato 2016). The objective of this paper is to approach one of the dimensions of this process by studying the knowledge production dynamics with application in the health area in the period 2000-2014. For this purpose, the interaction networks within projects of group research leaders with application in human health is analyzed. The analysis of networks focuses on the evolution of the institutional, territorial, knowledge disciplines and financial interactions. The paper defines the interactions within the perspectives of the National Innovations System (NIS), Knowledge and Innovation for Social Inclusion (KISI) and some new approaches on the social impact of STI. The empirical base for the analysis comes from the Lattes Platform, where data from 12,209 researchers and 108,035 projects has been retrieved and processed. Specifically, when analyzing networks in research projects, it is interesting to understand what the interactions can tell us about the link of the science and technology subsystem with the health system. In order to accomplish this goal, we are proposing to explore the interactions from diverse cuts from the analysis unit. This will allow those actors and institutions more directly linked to the health system and its necessities, to emerge. Apart from discussing the results, this work reflects on the operationalization of the interactions, the available data sources, their limitations and their potential.
South-south collaboration on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment: when birds of a feather rarely flock together
1Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Saúde (CDTS), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil; 2Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, Netherlands
South-south collaboration on health and development is a critical mechanism for social and economic progress, allowing sharing and replicating experiences to find a “southern solution” to meet specific needs. In this paper, bibliometric and social network analysis methods were used to assess the 10-year (2006-2016) scientific contribution of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to HIV/AIDS prevention and/or treatment, one of their shared health challenges. Four dimensions oriented the analysis: knowledge production, collaboration, research themes/types, and funding sources. We have shown a substantial increase in LMIC contribution, but a small expression of south-south collaboration, stressing the need for strategies to foster these partnerships. Research interests differed according to author income profile and funding source, suggesting a tendency of LMIC- based researchers and funders to embrace a “linear model” of innovation. It is expected that the evidence presented here can be used to strengthen a knowledge platform to inform future policy, planning and funding decisions, contributing to the development of enhanced collaboration and a common research agenda between LMICs.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.02: University relationships with industry and society 3|
Session Chair: Judith Sutz
Discussant: Charalampos Chrysomallidis
Combining Universities Third Mission and Place-based Industrial Development
1University of Firenze, Italy; 2University of Padova, Italy
Drawing on the two models of the University centric industrial district (Patton and Kenney, 2009) and the Civic University (Goddard and Vallance, 2013), the paper develops a framework on the role of universities in local development processes. Such framework develops around three concepts: first, the degree of synergy between the different activities that are promoted by the university in relation to its third mission, from the implementation of single technology transfer activities to the organization of system-based actions; secondly, the degree of alignment between the goal of the university third mission and projects of local development, from a complete misalignment to a complete alignment that can lead to a sustainable local growth; third, the degree of disciplinary specialisation of university research and third mission activities, from a complete specialisation to a multi-disciplinary attitude. The paper includes some exemplification and a tentative application of the framework on the problems of industrial recovery in Italy.
Empirical Study of Industry-Science Linkages in the Russian Manufacturing Sector
Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation
Using the firm-level data on innovation strategies of 805 manufacturing enterprises in Russia, we reveal company profiles that prefer R&D and technology transfer-oriented interactions and also to S&T services that not directly imply R&D. We investigate a broad range of intramural and external determinants, including absorptive capacity, technological opportunities, competition regime, appropriability conditions, public support, as well as barriers to the practical application of R&D results. Findings provide partial support for the general theory, revealing that the likelihood of cooperation and technology adoption is higher for large and technologically advanced companies with higher absorptive capacity and effective intellectual property management mechanisms. Still the influence of various factors on the probability and subject of cooperation is heterogeneous.
Catching-up and the Role of University-Industry Collaboration in Emerging Economies: Case of Turkey
1METU-TEKPOL, Turkey; 2TAI - Turkish Aerospace Industries , Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
In the last century, universities have played a significant role in stimulating technological change and innovation. The recent decades have witnessed a change in the mission of the universities, namely their social mission in disseminating knowledge and interacting more broadly with the surrounding society, in addition to conduct education and research. This dissemination and interaction is often realized in the form of successful university-industry collaborations (UICs) in the developing countries. Nevertheless, this sort of realization still lacks comprehensive view. Beside, such comprehensive view is also required to address gaps and types of barriers to economic development and some possible mechanisms which could lead to catching up on the basis of UICs. Academic studies deviate such possibility of catching up is due to the balance between barriers and resource usage among institutional actors. In order to address this gap, first, we implemented a review on literature on UICs. The review provided an overarching process framework, which are distilled from the analysis. However, as current research on this issue points to, different types of university-industry interaction with government intervention and with a strong emphasis on education programs that may have high pay-offs for developing countries. In this context, we administered the concept of UICs in the case of Turkey as a developing country by which we provide a substantial contribution by creating an integrated analysis of literature and further mitigations for research topics distilled from our analysis.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.03: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 7|
Session Chair: Rasmus Lema
Discussant: Dinesh Abrol
Procurement as Innovation Policy and its Distinguishing Effects According to Firm Size: the case of Brazilian oil and gas sector
Instituto de Economia - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Using microdata from labor social indicators database (RAIS), the paper elaborates an indicator of innovative intensity represented by the ratio of personnel in scientific and technological occupation to total personnel. The paper then tests the hypothesis that procurement policy increases suppliers’ innovative effort. After identifying treated firms, the paper creates a control sample through propensity score matching. Using treated and control samples, the paper tests the hypothesis that treated firms have higher innovative effort, concluding that, on average, the impact of procurement policy would be an increase of 2.6 percentage points. The paper then uses a two parts model to decompose the effect of procurement into (i) the incentive to begin the performance of innovative effort; and (ii) the increase in the intensity of the innovative effort. The paper finds that, in SMEs, the first effect on treated companies tended to be substantial, but the second effect seemed to be inexistent, while in larger firms the opposite has happened. The paper then concludes that one important cause for defending procurement policy may be a greater participation of SMEs in innovative activities.
Emergence and organization of challenge and mission oriented STI policies in Japan and Taiwan
Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
In this paper we are interested in how the processes of justifying, drafting and implementing societal challenges oriented STI policies are co-evolving in two East Asian economies – Japan and Taiwan – given their specific politico-economic legacies and contexts. We identify three key challenges regarding the design of such STI policies and use these as an analytical framework for our analysis. We show that especially since the GFC, both Japanese and Taiwanese national strategies have introduced STI policy justifications and directions based on the definition of specific societal challenges/needs. Yet, these justifications are not fully accepted by all politico-administrative actors and have been brought to the arena during specific chance events or windows of opportunities. As a result, and as opposed to Western trends, the institutional designs to implement the new policy directions seem to lead towards further centralization of key STI policy functions. While we see rather similar developments to global trends on the level of policy ideas/rhetoric and the design of specific instruments, an alternative form of governance seems to be emerging in East Asia that is influenced by the politico-administrative elite centred legacies of ‘developmentalist’ policy making.
Policies To Support High Performance Firms: A Brief Guide
University of Cape Town, South Africa
This paper defines and identifies high performance firms and the centrality of innovation for their development. The paper explains why such firms, as opposed to small firms in general, merit particular policy attention. The system in which these firms are embedded is then sketched and the constraints faced by these firms at each point in the system are outlined. A quick suggestive guide as to the overall need for intervention and the areas that require intervention is then provided. The main policies that governments could adopt to address each of the constraints and some of the principal difficulties that they are likely to encounter are briefly outlined. A number of concrete policy initiatives to support the entry and development of high performance innovative firms are illustrated. By way of conclusion, a few general but important guidelines are provided for the policy maker.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.04: Intellectual property rights, open innovation and development 2|
Session Chair: Marina Szapiro
Discussant: Kyriakos Drivas
Open Source Foundations as Social Innovators in Emerging Economies: The case study in Brazil
1UNICAMP INSYSPO, Brazil; 2GEICT - Grupo de Estudos Interdisciplinares em Ciência e Tecnologia; 3The George Washington University
This paper highlights the social innovators’ organisation through an open source community. Our goal is to understand if the institutional origins matter in terms of involvement? With social network analysis we study the institutional and structural heterogeneity in a community. The case study of Brazilian social innovators in the Open Knowledge Foundation gives us the very opportunity to study over time a full community with contributors’ real identity consistent with their offline occupation. Our analysis is based on data from a mailing list archive to rebuild each year the community social network. We contribute to the open source field by studding interactions in an open community's contributors from different organisations such as academics, companies, non-profit institutions and individual involvement. Our results show the importance of groups’ centrality degree. We distinguish two types of institutional contributors: insiders and outsiders. Insiders represent a community of belonging deeply involved in the online activities. The outsiders contribute in a more silent way. Even if their demography is important, their community of belonging do not have a strong collective structural online presence. The implication of these results completes the point of view concerning the core/periphery management in distant communities.
The Left’s opposition to intellectual property rights: Gleaning insights from parliamentary debates in India and Portugal
1Jawaharlal Nehru University, India; 2Jawaharlal Nehru University, India; 3Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Despite weakening influence in the global political landscape, during the post-Soviet era, the Left political groups have been able to shape the discourse on intellectual property rights in a significant way in many countries. There have, however, not been many studies, which analyse the “narratives” used by the Left to oppose intellectual property rights in a systematic way. An analysis of this is important given that much of it has happened at a time when their dominance, and therefore the acceptability of their traditional argument, in global politics has been on a steady decline. This paper makes an attempt in this direction analyzing the Left responses in Parliament of India and Portugal since the onset of the debates on the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights. Besides collecting records of parliament debates, we interview many left politicians in these two countries. In addition, we use the viewpoints of communist policy makers in Cuba on IPR to contextualize our arguments. Our analysis focuses on patent and copyrights related debates. While in India, the patents and access to medicine has been the core issue, in Portugal the copyrights on music and open source dominated the discourse. However, in both countries, we observe that in addition to their conventional argument to oppose private property on grounds of ‘equality’ and ‘access’, the left opposition to intellectual property has quite often been based on the narratives of “individual autonomy” and “national interest”, the terms traditionally linked to the Libertarians and the Right wing groups respectively. Analyzing the usage of these terms by the Left, we argue that these narratives were essential to build a broader alliance in support of their cause in situations of declining political influence, where their traditional narrative of “equality” through “active state” have often been believed to be ‘outdated’ and, hence, counterproductive.
Not Patents but Trademarks-based Path of Technological Development: Evidence from the Korean data
1seoul national university, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hanyang University
In contrast to the vast literature on verifying the importance of formal R&D activities measured as patent registrations, this paper explores the possibility of not patent but trademark-driven path of latecomer firms’ technological development. The study is motivated by the evidence from the Korean data showing the existence of two groups of sectors where firms in the one group tended to file more trademarks than patents throughout the long period of time or more than four decades. We find that in the first group of sectors, like food, apparel, and pharmaceuticals, trademarks have been the dominant form of the IPRs with a much large number of their registrations than patents from the initial stage of development until recently, whereas in the second groups of sectors, like electronics and automobiles the main IPR form has been patents during the 1990s, the 2000s, and until today. Regressions on the determinants about this bifurcation find that the trademark dominant groups are those sectors involving more tacit knowledge and/or domestic market orientation associated with slow progress in technological capabilities. The results are important because it implies the existence of alternative path of economic development by the latecomer firms in different sectors, beside the patent-driven path which is already verified in Kim et al. (2012).
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.06: National, continental and regional innovation system 3|
Session Chair: Mika Raunio
Discussant: Andrew Boddan Tylecote
Subnational Innovation Policies in an adverse political an institutional landscape: the case of the Innovation System of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The objective of this article is to analyze the innovation policy of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the context of its specific political and institutional environment. The analysis departs from the recognition that the State of Rio de Janeiro has a great potential to develop a diversified set of ST&I activities, especially in connection to the Oil and Gas industry given the great concentration of this sector and connected S&T institutions in this State. Considering the potential that many scholars assign to natural resource sectors as drivers of development, it is critical to understand in how far the state institutions seek to address this potential and implement consistent strategic policies. We find a great distortion between the emphasis given to national and global issues in opposition to an incapacity to tackle local and regional ones on a systemic way and implement long run development strategies. A fragmentary and clientelistic logic present in the political habitus reproduces itself in the scope of ST&I policies. These characteristics have to be understood from a perspective deeply rooted in the historical process of creation and evolution of the state's institutions. This does not allow conclusions in the direction of “system failure” diagnosis. It’s not about getting institutions right, based on some imported benchmark. Rather, the challenge to effectively benefit from the potentialities connected to natural resources in developing countries calls for a deeper and broader understanding of power structures and the historical processes that shaped them.
Emergence of Territorial Systems of Innovation in El Salvador, Central America
Universidad José Simeón Cañas, El Salvador
This paper is part of a collaboratory research effort to develop a common theoretical framework and stimulate analysis of the emergence and development of territorial systems of innovation (TSI) within the GLOBELICS research community. The contribution of this article is to further strengthen the conceptual framework for the emergence and initial development of TSI in developing country contexts, with special emphasis on the conceptualization of emergence. And then, to apply this conceptualization to discuss initial research results as to the dynamics by which TSI are emerging in El Salvador. This application exercise is based on evidence gathered from key source interviews related to recent developments in the rural territory of the Jiboa Valley, with a sectoral focus on the territory´s main product of panela (raw non-industrialized sugar). The article concludes proposing a research methodology to be used in a comparative research effort to identify and analysis the emergence of STI in Central America and other regions within the GLOBELICS research community.
Bridging Or Bonding? A Multilevel Study On The Effect Of Regional Civic Engagement In Firms' Innovation
Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia
Firms increasingly are relying on external information from economic agents outside the organizations. We argue in this research that localized civic engagement through active memberships in civil associations affect a firm’s ability to generate product innovations. Combining data from a large-scale data set on innovation activities and performance of more than 5,000 Colombian manufacturing firms (Encuesta de Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica – EDIT) with data on active memberships in civil associations at the regional level (Barometro de Capital Social – BARCAS) and employing a multi-level regression analysis, we find no empirical evidence of a direct effect of civic engagement on the firms’ innovation performance. Relying on the differentiation between Olson- and Putnam-type civil associations, however, we observe that the effectiveness for relying on external information sources is contingent upon the region’s civic engagement. We find empirical evidence that firms which do not rely on external information sources benefit to a greater extent being located in regions with a high degree of memberships in Putnam-type organizations, hinting at a potential substitution effect between bridging networks at the regional and the firm-level. At the same time, the negative effect of bonding civil associations is larger for firms which rely on external information sources, hinting at a potential lock-in effect. Our research provides important insights for future research: external information can be obtained at different level (e.g. firm and region) and these effects should simultaneously be considered.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.07: Sectoral innovation system, systemic industrial policy and development 4|
Session Chair: Jun Jin
Discussant: Tarmo Lemola
The Long March to Catch Up: a History-friendly Model of China’s Mobile Communications Industry
1Bocconi University, Department of Management and Technology; 2Tsinghua University, School of Public Policy and Management; 3IUSS–Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia; 4Bocconi University, ICRIOS
This paper develops a history-friendly model of the process of catch-up by Chinese firms in the mobile communications industry. It aims to explain how the sectoral environment in terms of segmented markets and generational technological change facilitated the catch-up of domestic firms with respect to foreign multinationals. Segmented markets provided a nurturing environment in peripheral (rural) markets for the survival of domestic firms starting with low level capabilities in their infant stage. Generational technological change opened windows of opportunities for domestic firms to catch-up with foreign multinationals in new product segments. Segmented markets and generational technological change allowed domestic firms to leverage their initial advantages in rural markets to catch-up in urban markets. This paper contributes to the literature on catch-up and industry evolution by illustrating the role of technological change and market regimes in the process of catching-up.
Mid-tech trap: The case of Automotive Industry in Turkey
1Middle East Technical University, Turkey; 2Yaşar University, Turkey
This paper uses a novel methodology to argue that Turkey has fallen to a mid-tech trap on the borders of a weak innovation system (IS) and a strong global value chain (GVC). We use detailed information from one of the main R&D and innovation funding agency (TTGV) to show that the technological sophistication of the funded automotive R&D and innovation projects remained fairly stable over the 1990-2010 period. For the robustness of this finding we designed two case studies. We first selected a group of beneficiary firms, then a selected a group experts on automotive industry in Turkey and conducted semi-structured interviews. The findings of the TTGV project level data are cross-validated by findings in the firm and expert interviews. Analysis at the project, firm and expert level indicate that despite extensive learning and technological upgrading in manufacturing Turkish automotive industry cannot build innovation capabilities that demand sophisticated technologies. Turkey’s delegated position in the well-defined GVC and the joint venture (JV) structure seems to impede further technological development.
Elaborating the innovative behavior of Low-Medium-Tech sectors in the context of a developing country: a comparison with High-Medium-Tech sectors based on Innovation Survey
1Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Iran
The interesting question of innovation in LMT sectors is taken into account in order to find out the differences between the contexts of developed and developing countries. This analysis has been made possible by very new data sources from the first round of Innovation survey in Iran containing information of about 2500 firms in different sectors. We developed 3 hypotheses from the literature, that could also been tested by the available data. We found that while similar to other parts of the globe, these sectors are heavily introducing innovations based on buying machines from their suppliers; however they have not been considered as their main source of knowledge and information. Moreover, they are not more innovative in terms of process innovation in comparison to the HMT companies while on the contrary, the latter are more product and organizational innovative than LMTs. We discussed some context specific factors that could help explaining this pattern of behavior.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.08: Innovation systems, networks, global value chains and foreign direct investments 4|
Session Chair: Jorge Niosi
Discussant: Xiao-Shan Yap
‘New Issues’ in Innovation and Trade: A Study with Reference to Information Economy in India
School of International Relations and Politics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India
In an information economy, ‘information’ is exchanged explicitly as a commodity or the ‘information’ is embedded in some product good or service. Information as a commodity in an information economy has all properties of other economic goods that are traded in the framework of the conventional world trading system. This study argues that if a piece of information is produced within the boundaries of a nation using its own resources, it would be considered as the product of that nation and any kind of cross national profit generation based on that particular piece of information should come under the purview of the rules and regulations of international trade. However, current global trading policies disregard this fact due to the prevailing structural disorder in the economies of peripheral regions in the world system. This structural disorder is exogenously generated and rooted from the core nations as an outcome of capitalistic innovations and its higher level diffusion in the peripheral economies. For instance, the rapid pace of the diffusion of capitalist internet information tools in emerging information economies like India creates an economic vagueness in their innovation systems, and implicitly contributes economic underdevelopment in peripheral economies. In other words, Information is the key factor of production in an information economy and the production of such information is a knowledge and cost-intensive activity. The present world trading system and trade policies in the peripheral region ignores these factors due to a prevailing ambiguity in the conventional wisdom of international trade. For instance, information economy-driven capitalist innovations like Facebook, Google, YouTube, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. accumulates huge profits from peripheral regions by enabling the multilateral trade of ‘information’ which generated within the national boundaries of peripheral economies using their own economic resources. This systemic error leads emerging economies like India to underdevelopment. Emerging market economies in the world should adopt appropriate policy measures to raise these issues in the venues of trade policy formulating bodies and forums.
Do Regulations and Standards in Global Value Chains Support Upgrading and the Sustainable Development Goals?
Science Policy Research Unit, Sussex University, United Kingdom
Regulations and standards have become an increasingly important factor affecting the capacity of producers to participate in global markets. Directly and indirectly, they not only determine the terms of market-entry but also affect the extent to which different producers are able to position themselves in global value chains in a manner which provides for socially and environmentally sustainable income growth. Standards compliance can enhance producer capabilities and assist in meeting many of the SDG objectives. But it may also involve trade-offs between different SDG goals. Standards compliance is simultaneously inclusive (facilitating the participation of low and middle income countries producers in global production and spreading incomes more widely globally) and exclusive (barring small producers from market access and displacing unskilled labour from supply chains). What policy measures will best lead to the most positive outcomes as standards diffuse through global value chains?
Global Innovation Systems – A conceptual framework and typology from various cleantech industries
This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of technological innovation processes in transnational contexts. By drawing on existing innovation system concepts and recent elaborations on the globalization of innovation, we develop a multi-scalar conceptualization of innovation systems. Two key mechanisms are introduced and elaborated: the generation of resources in multi-locational subsystems and the establishment of structural couplings among them in a global innovation system (GIS). Based on this conceptualization, we introduce a typology of innovation modes in four GIS configurations, building on the knowledge base and valuation system in different industries. The analytical framework is illustrated with insights from four emerging clean-tech industries. We state that a comprehensive perspective is instrumental for developing a more explanatory stance in the innovation system literature and developing policy interventions that reflect the increasing spatial complexity in the innovation process.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.09: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 7|
Session Chair: Ana Urraca-Ruiz
Discussant: Antigone Lyberaki
Second Discussant: Yasushi Ueki
Innovation Versus Leadership In Entrepreneurial Growth
Aalborg University, Denmark
Entrepreneurial growth is a current aspiration in most continents. However, entrepreneurial growth demands learning from experiences, which requires collection of knowledge based on practitioners. Accordingly, this paper present empirical data from active entrepreneurs in relation to innovation and leadership attitudes measured by a standardized personality test (Østergaard, 2017). These results indicate that the amount and the combination of innate attributes of innovation and leadership prompt diverse categories of entrepreneurs that provide different kinds of growth. Hence, the entrepreneurial category described as self-employed retain growth in the local environments, where the business owners sustain leadership in a company and manage a number of employees with diverse background and education, and finally the core entrepreneurs are the most innovative with continuously launching of new ideas, projects and enterprises. The notion is that the impact of political supported entrepreneurial initiatives as for relevance and outcome would benefit from using a distinction between entrepreneurial categories in relation to ensure growth.
Drivers of High-Growth Firms: Strategic Modes of Growth and Knowledge Processing Capabilities
1National Technical University of Athens, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Industrial and Energy Economics; 2University of Peloponnese, School of Economy, Management and Informatics, Department of Economics; 3Centre of Planning and Economic Research (KEPE), Greece
This paper explores the factors that are most likely to drive high-growth firms (HGFs) in times of crisis. In an attempt to open the black box of this special type of firms, we examine the role of strategic modes of growth and knowledge processing capabilities of firms. We consider different forms of firm growth based on five alternative growth metrics, i.e. relative employment growth, absolute employment growth, birch employment growth, relative sales growth and absolute sales growth. For the analysis of HGFs, a particularly rich dataset is utilized based on a two-wave survey of 1,500 Greek firms conducted in 2011 and 2013. Our findings indicate that adopting an internationalization strategy significantly increases the likelihood of becoming a fast-growing firm in adverse economic conditions irrespective of the growth metric used. Specialized knowledge of employees, in-house R&D and diversification strategies are also found to play a relevant role in some cases.
Institutional complexity and Corporate Environmental Strategy: Based on the Institutional Logic Perspective
Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, China
Under the institutional pressure for sustainable development, environmental practices (EPs) can form a basis for defining the corporate environmental strategic (CES) orientation, substantive or symbolic. Awareness of the institutional logics, guiding and shaping organization behavior, varied among fields. A cross sector analytical framework for understanding influence of different dominant logics, formed in Chinese institution transition, on CES was build. The empirical study on 372 listed companies showed that: despite all firms have to respond to environmental pressure, they responded differently due to heterogeneous logic. Specifically, in state logic dominant field, corporate preferred substantive strategy that represents lot public interest; in market logic dominant field, performance played an important role in affecting CES, which is not significant in state logic field. Poor performance was often accompanied by symbolic strategy.
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.10: Innovation, financialization and the global crisis 1|
Session Chair: Helena Lastres
Discussant: Rasigan Maharajh
Outward FDI, Innovation strategies and Cross-Border M&As: Indian Evidence
Centre for Development Studies, India
The implementation of new trade regime, financial liberalization and agreements on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) and the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) under WTO have limited the scope and content of new industrial policies adopted by the Government of India since the early 1990s. As part of this new industrial policy, restrictions relating to licensing for expansion of enterprises, Amalgamations and Takeovers of business enterprises under Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act, and Acquisition of foreign technology and foreign investment have been removed and replaced with the Competition Commission Policy Act (CCPA). This was done on the assumption that the restrictions under the MRTP regime hampered the expansion, diversification and upgradation of technology required for international competitiveness, which had become imperative with the opening up of the economy. Indian companies and business houses responded to such changes by adopting various growth strategies including Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As). The macroeconomic policy changes in India initiated during 2000 have facilitated another form of acquisition movement i.e, overseas acquisitions by the Indian companies. Corporate alliances may be regarded as the new growth strategy that aims at increasing corporate global competitiveness by pursuing related diversification and by integrating affiliates into global production networks and technology, to move up in their production value chain and secure international brand names. This study analyses the trends and determinants of outward FDI by Indian firms during the period, 2004 to 2017. According to our exploratory analysis, almost 50 per cent of OFDI through CBM&As is attracted by US and UK. In contrast, according to RBI data base, 50 per cent of OFDI is mainly attracted by Mauritius, Singapore and Netherlands. Majority of such investments are made in the manufacturing and service sector. Export intensity ratio is relatively higher than import intensity. Firms which are investing abroad through CBM&As is preferring to invest more on in-house R&D and the intensity of technology purchases have declined significantly.
Our econometric exercise failed to find any empirical evidence to validate the hypothesis developed by the theories on MNEs related to market seeking motivations. Strategic assets such as technologies were found to be the major determinants of outward FDI through CBM&As by Indian firms. Indian currency depreciation against dollar would have given enough incentives for Indian firms to engage continuous outward investment in those host countries. The study argues that Indian firms have invested abroad through CBM&As in order to support their export activities. The association is complementary rather than a substitute for exports. To speak of control variables in the home country i.e., India, ownership-specific advantages developed by the firms through inward FDI have played a significant role to facilitate such deals. Strong political stability which is measured in terms of rule of law of the host countries could have facilitated such deals in spite of having weak institutional set up. Institutional set up of India must have played a significant role in facilitating such deals.
The history of industrial finance in Continental Europe and beyond: towards ideal types of national development banks
Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
Post-crisis literature tends to revitalize the role of state in facilitating economic recovery through countercyclical policies, especially in credit provision. In this regard, national development finance institutions (DFIs) often become the institutional tools for such countercyclical measures. Meanwhile, the importance of state-backed, long-term finance in facilitating development and innovation has been reinforced within the concept of ‘entrepreneurial’ state. In post-austerity policy and economic practices, the notion of a dedicated financial institution that operates at the nexus of developmental targets and financial profitability becomes relevant. Yet, very few empirical studies exist, apart from financial history of early industrialization in Continental Europe and Japan, and even less scholarly works discuss development finance institutions from conceptual point of view. Existing literature refers to a great heterogeneity of DFIs, their design and policy tasks, funding structures, etc. A few recent surveys refer to a great variety and the need to look closer at DFIs. (World Bank 2012, Deutsche Bank 2015)
Following financial history, financialization, to some extent, benefits economic development and innovation: silver coins were issued to finance construction of infamous Roman roads; speculative investments in canal- and railroad building; various regulatory and financial innovations in financing of public works in main European cities during 18-19th centuries, to name a few. In other words, Schumpeter-Minsky framework for looking at financial innovation as indispensable from economic and technological innovation and development, allows to treat industrial and financial structures as co-evolving in a dynamic environment.
Banks were an essential source of capital provision for industrialization in Continental Europe, most notably France and Germany, with first industrial investment institutions emerging in 1830s-50s. Following these developments, we trace the main aspects of evolution of industrial banking institutions, from roughly mid-19th century onwards, in order to identify ideal types of industrial and later development finance institutions, both private and public. Through extensive review of both historical accounts and contemporary cases we identify four general phases of such evolution: from very first private industrial investment banks of the mid-19th century through mixed ownership during inter-war period and a wave of reconstruction efforts after WWI to predominantly state-owned development banks of post-WWII period and gradual ‘commercialization’ of development finance following liberalization reforms of 1980s and related diversification of their activities.
Following historical periodization, we construct three ideal types of development banks: Continental European, Asian and Emerging Market types. Each type reflects a distinct mix of institutional linkages, and organizational forms, which enables to position a development bank within a wider institutional context, mainly national in scope. Construction of such typologies would allow for certain contextual generalizations, which can facilitate further development of comparative studies. In addition, capturing institutional dynamics would allow for more informed conceptualization of national development finance institutions since its theoretical foundations continue being vague and highly fragmented. Our definition of a development bank is related to the type of financing it provides rather than ownership patterns (state vs private): tasked with medium- and long-term financing to underfinanced or priority segments of a national economy.
From Development (1949) to Still Uneven Development- An Endeavour to Track the Hiistory of an Obvious Mismatch
university of Rennes 1, France,LiRIS, EA 7281, Universty Rennes 2, France
This submitted paper presents an attempt to find a way to ask, perhaps more than a way to answer, a terrible question. Why, after 70 years of international fight against underdevelopment, by politicians, activists and with the help of scholars to contribute “to economic and sustainable development ”, the actual world is still characterised – as it is in the title of this 2017 conference- as a context of “uneven development”? My hypothesis is that there is some confusion of what is exactly the issue.
I will try to retrace main periods of the evolution of economic thought, not in itself, but in relation to the evolution of the real world with the actions of Governments and Firms, showing their inter-relations, as far as this difficult issue is concerned. I will make explicit the threads that have been woven to build and to keep alive this mysterious phenomenon. This journey offers a clear conclusion: to understand something and to be successful, it is absolutely necessary to take into account that this issue is not simply a complex technical and economical one, it is a political one, it belongs at least to the field of geo-economics, and certainly to the field of geopolitics…
|9:00am - 10:40am||PS-4.11: Science, technology, innovation and sustainable development goals 3|
Session Chair: Mika Kautonen
Discussant: Michael P. Schlaile
SDG -6 in India: Challenges and Innovation for Sustainable Sanitation
Millennium Development Goal (MDG) stipulated cut-off date expired in December 2015 but inadequate sanitation is remains a big challenge in India. Inadequate sanitation has a multidimensional negative impact on children health, education for girls, environment, social dignity and national as well as individual economic growth. In children Inadequate sanitation gives rise to infectious diseases like diarrhea, typhoid and regular illness resulting in chronic malnutrition, stunting ,physical and cognitive disorder. Sustainability is one of the key features to win universal access of sanitation that has social, technical, financial and institutional challenges at every step of the way. Present pathway to improve sanitation is only limited on constructing the toilets with little consideration of collecting excreta, transportation and its treatment. The innovation systems framework gives us an effective way to view the systemic linkages and processes, to understand the global challenges in sustainable sanitation. Sanitation is not merely about technology innovation to inducing technology but about social innovation “adopting” and “using” the technology with stronger emphasis for sustainability. Social innovation will lead behavioral change and combat with structural rigidities that are present in the society such as caste, social class, gender disparities, power, prestige, beliefs, superstitions etc., can be combated by consistent and continuous advocacy to sensitize the masses/communities particularly on the deleterious effects of lack of sanitation on their children health, women dignity, pride and privacy etc. to bring the mass transformation of mindset slowly and consistently. Sustainable sanitation requires the integration of social, environmental, technical, financial and institutional sustainability and innovation. Unfolding the background of sustainability with allusion to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by studying and analyzing the current situations in India, this paper systematically explore multidimensional impact of inadequate sanitation, structural and functional challenges that may hampers the expected outcomes of Sustainable Development Goal-6 and attempts to propose a theoretical framework to represent pathway of sustainability and answer the challenges of sustainable sanitation with the lens of innovation system, and put forward recommendations with practically achievable solutions useful for government, policy making agencies and private sector practitioners. Increased sanitation coverage will have significant positive spillovers on many of the other SDGs and targets.
Characteristics of National Innovation Systems In Latin America To Transmit To Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico
The knowledge-based bioeconomy, is a recent proposal by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Union, consists of transforming economic systems into knowledge-based (such as biotechnology) economies to create novel and efficient forms of biomass utilization, in order to overcoming dependence on fossil resources, and provides solutions to global problems such as food shortages and climate change, among others.
This paper presents a multivariate cluster analysis based on socio-economic, environmental and scientific-technological indicators to compare the different capacities of Latin American countries and to identify strengths (qualified human resources, infrastructure, among others) and weaknesses low investment in R&D, etc.) in the region to promote the transition to a knowledge-based bioeconomy. Once the countries with the greatest potential are identified, the economic sectors in which these nations have focused their bioeconomy strategies are analyzed and some examples will be given.
Among the results obtained, it was found that Argentina, Brazil and Mexico are the countries with the greatest potential in the region to move towards a knowledge-based bioeconomy. Argentina has focused its efforts on the agro-industrial sector, Brazil on biofuels, and finally, in the case of Mexico, no defined strategy is detected, but there are efforts in biofuels and in the new materials sector, but the potential of Mexico comes from the broad possibilities of developing goods and services in different sectors (such as health and new materials) of the knowledge-based bioeconomy, thanks to the infrastructure it has and its human resources in science and technology. These countries have superior capacities compared to other nations, mainly in human resources training, public and private expenditure on R&D and available infrastructure.
It was concluded that the bioeconomy in Latin America is a process that is only beginning following the trend of what is happening in other parts of the world, but some countries in the region have comparative advantages and potential that will allow them to migrate towards a knowledge-based bioeconomy. Other countries will require a significant effort to transform public policies and institutions to achieve this.
Three main areas of improvement are identified for the least potential countries. The first is the generation of highly qualified human resources in areas and sciences related to the knowledge-based bioeconomy. The second is that these countries have not developed specific government support programs (financing, infrastructure building, etc.) for the development of capacities in science and technology. Lastly, there is the pre-eminence of institutional and political deficiencies to promote a bioeconomy in the region that allows countries to insert themselves into the highest links of international value chains.
The Evolution of Sustainability Transitions and Technological Innovation Systems Research: a bibliometric analysis
Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
In recent years, a growing interest on quantifying the innovation systems research field has been evidenced. However, little has been done to quantitatively study specific streams such as the technological innovation systems and in a broader sense, the sustainability transitions literature, due to their importance to the scholarly community and to society as a whole. This paper consolidates the intellectual production and evolution of this research field, based on a bibliometrics study on literature published over the past 20 years. The results are discussed under the following perspectives: i) authors, organizations and country relevance, ii) journals relevance, iii) keywords, and iv) articles and cited references of relevance. In doing so, we provide a comprehensive view and state-of-the-art review of the field of technological innovation systems and sustainability transitions by identifying the core knowledge base of the field. The paper ends with a discussion of the main implications and limitations of the study.
|10:40am - 11:40am||Keynote Speech|
“Europe is still Possible - Political Adventures in the 21st Century” (Central Auditorium)
by MARIA JOÃO RODRIGUES
|11:40am - 12:10pm||Coffee Break|
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.01: Innovation studies, different approaches and methodologies 6 (innovation indicators)|
Session Chair: Martin Srholec
Discussant: Nazeem Mustapha
Measuring non monetary innovation in firms. Cases from Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) firms of Argentina
1CIECS-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentine Republic; 2Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentine Republic; 3Universidad Nacional de Rafaela, Argentina
This paper presents a critique of the Olso Manual based innovation surveys designs in the software sector, upon a series of Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) firms case studies. The main objective of this paper is to contribute to identify the specificities that acquire innovation in FLOSS firms that traditional innovation surveys usually omit, to improve actual innovation measures and metrics in the software. We applied a qualitative analysis, through a 5 FLOSS case studies of Argentina, aimed to elucidate the nature and particularities of their innovation processes and outcomes, and the characteristics and role of the collaboration with the community in the business model and their innovation strategy.
Measuring the Technological Coherence of Environmental Technologies with the Industry Knowledge Base
1Universidade Federal Fluminense, (UFF), Brazil; 2Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), Brazil
This paper evaluates the importance of environmental technologies (ET) in the base pf knowledge of 21 industries by using a new methodology based on analysis of networks. To do that, we consider that industry base of knowledge must consist not only in the addition of the technological competences of the firms, but also in the specific way by which industries combine and develop new knowledge. Inspired in the Patel and Pavitt’s (1997) seminal work, we elaborate indicators of centrality and relatedness to build a hierarchical taxonomy that classifies environmental technological classes in four categories by industry: central (core), niche, background and marginal. The paper uses data from patent applications filed at European Patent Office in the 1980-2012 period by industrial companies from 21 industrial sectors. The main results are the following. First, the main creators of ET are also the main pollutant industries: agriculture, coke and petroleum, chemical and motor vehicles. Second, concentration, diversification and specialization indexes point out that investments in environmental innovation are still very low and concentrated in few technical fields, highlighting technologies related to pollution abatement and biofuels. Third, the methodology based on network analysis reinforced previous results, but extend the set of central-knowledge to which the ET are linked in, including also technologies related to renewable energy sources and GHG emissions mitigation. Thus, it reveals that knowledge relatedness matters and must be taken into account in the analysis of the industrial technological profiles.
Anticipating Future Growth Potentials A Policy-oriented Consolidation of Key Methodologies
German Development Institute, Germany
Innovation and structural change towards diversification and competitiveness are important to make our economies productive, wealthy and sustainable. In market economies, innovation and structural change are essentially driven by private entrepreneurs who challenge incumbents with new business ideas and take risks to implement them. While public policy cannot fully anticipate the outcomes of such market-driven search processes, it does have important roles in directing structural change: it can facilitate stakeholder processes meant to overcome coordination and information failure and thereby smoothen the transformation; it can make pre-competitive investments in infrastructure and innovation systems for the future; and it can help align structural change with broader societal objectives, such as environmental sustainability or job creation. To fulfill these roles, policymakers need to have an idea about future competitive patterns of specialisation. The challenge is to anticipate trends and facilitate action towards promising futures in ways that are as evidence-based as possible and effectively synchronised with market forces.
Our paper makes three essential contributions to addressing this challenge: (1) We identify five influential methodologies for anticipating future competitive advantages, analyse their strengths and weaknesses, and suggest ways to consolidate their most valuable features in one synthetic approach. (2) In doing so, we emphasise the importance of disruptive change, stemming in particular from decarbonisation as well as the digitalisation of economic processes and products. Such game changers are require innovations in virtually all economic sectors, thereby reducing the predictive power of methodologies that essentially extrapolate from the past. (3) We highlight the need to contextualise the various analytical tools, and caution against using them as technocratic blueprints. To be of practical use, evidence-based assessments of future competitive advantages need to be embedded into a political economy framework that takes account of both societal objectives (normative level) and implementation capabilities (institutional level).
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.02: University relationships with industry and society 4|
Session Chair: Glenda Kruss
Discussant: Attila Havas
The evolutionary nature of innovation in the health sector in developing countries: an analysis of the university-organisations collaboration in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
1Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil; 2Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Brazil; 3University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Brazil; 4Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)
Following the innovation systems approach, this paper's goal is to analyse the interactions established between universities - as to their research groups - and other organisations - in particular hospitals, but also industrial firms - focusing on the development of products and/or processes that are innovative for the human health, as well as on advances in medical services. Thus, this paper aims to contribute to the characterisation of processes that generate knowledge and innovation in the health sector in emerging countries, such as Brazil. In order to do so, the interactions of five research groups from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) were analysed. In addition to the field research conducted with these investigated groups, through in-depth interviews, the study was based on secondary data collected from the Directory of Research Groups of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). This exploratory study identified important characteristics of the interactions established between the involved actors and seeks advances in medical care and in innovation development: multidisciplinary researcher teams qualify the process of generating knowledge and innovations; the teaching hospital is the key actor; patients are relevant actors in the establishment of interactions and generation of knowledge by the groups, whereas clinical research constitutes an important way of creating new ideas; other researchers from research centres or universities in Brazil and abroad participate in the process of generating knowledge; disconnection between scientific and technological production, since the investigated groups have high scientific production and very low interaction with the manufacturing industry. These characteristics corroborate at large other findings that have been already published in specialised literature.
Connecting SMEs of Low and Medium Innovation Capability to Research Base: Challenges, Enablers and Supporting Policies
University of Brighton, United Kingdom
Although the literature has discussed strategies and policies to support SME with the research base (e.g. Universities, RTO etc.), most of the relevant discussion has focused on the the high end of SMEs usually high-tech SMEs. Strategies and policies to connect SMEs of low or medium innovation capability to the research base has been neglected by the literature, missing out a crucial segment of the SME population, namely the SME with no or little innovation capability but with innovation potential. These can be SMEs with some innovation track record but very little experience of connecting with the research base, more 'conventional' SMEs with potentially strong innovation ideas for development or even SME with a great innovation idea but at the first stage of their lifetime.
This paper reports from a large research study undertaken in Europe, looking for good practice policies to support the connection of SMEs with low or medium innovation capability to the research base. Using the data from the Pro Inno database, several good practice schemes have been identified which were investigated in depth. In contrast to the signs of the existing literature, the collected evidence suggests that the practice of developing policies for SMEs of low and medium innovation capability in Europe is well developed with several years of history and experience.
A typology of such schemes is proposed as having the potential to change the behaviour of the relevant SMEs. The typology is based on the generic strategy of engaging with SMEs (those supported by an agent and those based on the formation of managed networks) and the share of SMEs with low and medium innovation capability. The paper also turns to a discussion of the management challenges of these programmes, their common trends and the strategic crossroads they are facing.
The paper is expected to relevant to several regions around the world which keep spending resources in trying to imitate very specific conditions (such as Silicon Valley). The paper suggests that the best way to promote innovation and economic development is to build the next stage up, from the existing strengths and competencies (rather than try to ‘leapfrog’ into the highest forms of innovation and economic activity) which more often than not they are related to SMEs of low and medium Innovation Capability.
Fostering knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship in tertiary education: empirical evidence from engineering schools in Greece
National Technical University of Athens, Laboratory of Industrial and Energy Economics
This paper focuses on the efforts of promoting entrepreneurial activity among students and young university graduates. Stemming mainly from knowledge entrepreneurship policy discussion, we examine the link between entrepreneurship and relative educational programmes in Greece. In this respect, the paper presents empirical evidence regarding the entrepreneurial activities of the Greek engineers using survey work undertaken among graduates of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The paper provides some empirical evidence on the rate of entrepreneurship, the profile of the graduates, the characteristics and the pattern of entrepreneurial ventures undertaken by young engineering graduates in Greece, exploring also the role of tertiary education in supporting them during this process. Results show that despite the knowledge content of the specific activities undertaken and the high educational profile of founders, the entrepreneurial activity undertaken by young NTUA graduates is rather conventional, depending on existing production trajectory of the Greek economy
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.03: Science, technology, innovation policy and development 8|
Session Chair: Panagiotis Panagiotopoulos
Discussant: Michael Kahn
There are sick people around the Ivory Tower: the financing strategy of diabetes research in Mexico
1Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico; 2Cátedras CONACYT, UAM, Mexico; 3Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico; 4Cátedras CONACYT, UAM, Mexico
Diabetes is an urgent problem calling for immediate solutions that could help Mexican people to have better living conditions. Scientific research may play a key role in the generation of required solutions. Unfortunately, knowledge application has not been exploited to its maximum potential, limiting its social impact. The aim of this paper is to analyse knowledge production forms and the types of research undertaken, and discuss the reasons behind the existing profile. Our analysis is based on the consideration of knowledge use and the search of fundamental knowledge, as proposed by Stokes (1997). This paper focuses on the specific case of the diabetes knowledge production, and makes use of a database of 303 research projects, applying structural equation modelling techniques to estimate Stokes’ analytical framework. We found a bias towards basic knowledge production (Bohr Quadrant), and limited presence of Pasteur and Edison type of research. This reduces applications and could delay or inhibited the perception of STI benefits in such an urgent matter. The nature of incentives of the Mexican research system contributes to this research profile.
The Experience of the BNDES in Supporting Innovation and Sustainable Development and its Perspectives in the XXI Century
1RedeSist, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2BNDES, Brazil; 3RedeSist, Brazil
When examining the role of the state development banks, some authors conclude that they subsidize projects that could be funded with other sources of capital, with no positive consistent effect, and can even “disturb the process of economic growth”. Others have emphasized the importance and possibilities of active public policies performed by these development banks as the main pragmatic and strategic use of the “visible hand” of the state. A third group adds that in financing long-term development strategies and other essential projects, these banks are accumulating relevant capabilities and tools, which could even help to reform the financial system. This article addresses this discussion focusing on the role and the experience accumulated by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), examining the alternating emphases given to the importance and extension of government intervention in the two first decades of the 21st century. It focus on the capacity of the bank to act as one of the main government instruments of promoting innovation, inclusive and sustainable development, as well as implementing counter-cyclical policies aimed at reducing and neutralizing anti-social effects of macro-economic cycles and financial crises in the same period.
Linking Technological And Institutional Change To Industrial Transformation In Greece
1National Kapodistrian University of Athens; 2National Technical University of Athens, Greece
The aim of this paper is to examine how industrial policy could contribute to overturn the crisis in Greece.
Our main argument is that in order to achieve industrial recovery in Greece structural and institutional change is required to enable technological development and induce the generation of competitive high added value activities.
Analysis of the recent economic crisis has persistently focused on macro-economic issues but endogenous structural factors interplay with macro imbalances. Recovery was expected to result from consolidation, austerity and deregulation policies (the Washington consensus recipe).
However, the failure to enhance and/or transform its productive basis was a crucial explanation of why Greece was severely hit by the crisis. The Greek economy facing problems in terms of capabilities, structural competitiveness, weak institutions and policy implementation, needs policies dealing with structural and institutional issues of the economy.
In the context of the Greek economic crisis the challenge of an industrial policy to be successful is to accelerate a catching-up process and reverse two distinct but interrelated cumulative trends:
• the long-lasting productive and technological gaps vis-à-vis other advanced economies and
• the loss of production capacity after 2008, the consequent erosion of know-how and capabilities and in general the erosion of what is called ‘industrial commons’.
In short, how to transform a zero or very low growth economy into a growth economy?
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.04: Intellectual property rights, open innovation and development 3|
Session Chair: Mario Scerri
Discussant: Gabriel Yoguel
Intellectual Property Rights, Social Values and Economic Performance: An Econometric Analysis
1Jawaharlal Nehru University, India; 2Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
The era of globalization is often believed to be also the era of Global Standard Institutions (GSI). This enthusiasm to homogenize the internal policy space, however, is often at odds with the conjectures raised by literature on institutions, which suggests that transfer of institutions across societies are burdened with problems of incompatibilities with existing informal institutions and social values. These social values are historically and culturally embedded. Beyond the constraining and enabling roles of informal institutions, scholars have recently highlighted the constitutive role of such institutions as well. At the same time, scholars from evolutionary economics present a complex relationship between economic performance and informal institutions. Given such scenario we can expect a two way causality operating among formal institutions, social values and economic performance. Intellectual Property Rights is perhaps the most talked about GSI, which have received unmatched policy attention and push for homogenisation in the post-WTO era. However, diversity still exists in this institution across countries. This study is an attempt to understand the dynamic inter-relationship between IPR, economic performances and social values using the framework of simultaneous equation system. We find that historical and political contingencies crucially shape the institution of IPR. IPR has complex non-linear impact on various parameters of economic performance.
Brazilian Innovation Paradox- Scientific Production and Patent Performance
The main purpose of the paper is to characterize the existence of a potential paradox between scientific production, measured through technical and scientific publications in specialized journals, and the evolution of patent applications in the country, particularly by residents, as an indicator of the performance and the innovative capability of Brazilian companies. The literature on technical progress associates the evolution of the scientific and innovative capability and the increase of product and income. The literature also records possible paradoxical situations where the evolution of these indicators can occur asymmetrically or even characterize a paradox, such as the known "European paradox" and "Swedish paradox" (European Commission, 1995; Edquist and McKelvey, 1998). Fragkandreas’ (2015) review of these two notorious cases serves as a reference to the analysis of the Brazilian case.
As the main concern is the identification and characterization of a possible paradoxical situation between scientific publications and patent applications, the basic methodology used was the identification of the main quantitative variables to be related, its dimensions and international comparisons, and submitted to data descriptive statistical treatment, with no qualitative evaluation, This was done also due to the large variety of sources and the resulting difficulties in harmonizing and standardizing the data.
The results for the Brazilian case show the existence of great differences in the performance of scientific production and patent applications by residents. In Brazil the top patent applications are predominantly universities and public research institutions, not companies. Patents are increasingly fundamental instruments in the market competition among companies and the contradictory expressive leadership of the educational and research institutions - largely a result of the legal change inspired by the US Bayle-Dole Act - creates a bias with unpredictable results in terms of innovation. Although the Brazilian legislation to encourage research and innovation follow the same lines of developed countries laws, it induces this bias towards a greater participation of the universities and evidences, in absolute and relative terms, a low propensity of the companies to make patent applications in the Country. The evidence of other variables also allows to identify another specific situation of the Brazilian case, such as a greater intensity in patent applicationsby residents in different areas from the great technological waves expressed in patent applications of developed countries.
Knowledge flows, firms' competences and patent citations: the IBM’s trajectory analysis
1Universidade Federal Fluminense - Faculdade de Economia, Brazil; 2Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, qualidade e metrologia (INMETRO), Brazil; 3Universidade de Minas Gerais - Centro de desenvolvimento e planejamento regional (CEDEPLAR), Brazil
In a knowledge economy, the creation, distribution and use of knowledge become decisive factors to reinforce firms' competitiveness. At the firm level, the process of innovation involves, fundamentally, the creation of new knowledge, which implies the integration and recombination of existing knowledge that may come from different sources and locations. The analytical difficulties to deal with this subject generate a literature that tries to quantify and analyze knowledge flows between economic agents using patent citations. Those citations may provide clues for intra and inter-firms knowledge flows. The paper analyses information about patents granted by IBM in the USPTO, which is used to map knowledge flows and to correlate these flows with the evolution of IBM competencies and growth strategies.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.05: Indigenous knowledge, informal sector, innovation and development 4|
Session Chair: Jose E. Cassiolato
Discussant: Ebrahim Souzanchi Kashani
Quantitative Assessment of Farmers’ Ratings of Technology Characteristics and Determinants of Adoption in Senegal – Case of Rice Threshing Technologies
1Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 1; 2Africca Rice Center 2
Rice is the staple diet of the Senegalese with annual domestic milled production averaging 350,000MT in 2015. The aggregate rice consumption was 1,450,000MT and per capita consumption 73 to 93 kg. This constitutes 32% of total caloric consumption and proffers a production-consumption gap at a self-sufficiency ratio of 20%. This demands reversed increased attention towards post-harvest dimensions and greater commercial viability and competitiveness of the rice value chain (Wolfe et al 2009). Senegal policy to develop rice industry led to the development of ASI rice thresher since 1997. ASI technology is credited for high efficiency and has spread to many West African countries. Despite its demonstrated advantages many rice farmers in Senegal still use traditional or other improved threshing technology. We sought to find out the factors determining the adoption of the technology and the intensity of use by inculcating farmers’ assessment of its characteristics. The study used index that fixes in farmers’ ranking of the characteristics of ASI technology and; Regression analysis to estimate the determinants influencing the decision to adopt and use ASI. The study sampled 320 irrigation rice farmers through multi-stage sampling techniques. Result shows the characteristic of ASI that are of importance to the farmers, the satisfaction level farmers demand of ASI and the satisfaction level ASI has provided. The factors influencing adoption include education, accessibility and environmental factors. Intensity of use of ASI is significantly influenced by adopting ASI, and discouraged by farmers rating that female labor is not provided for. The study concludes that attainment of 40% self-sufficiency in Senegal rice by 2020 is attainable using ASI and advocates that government and other stake holders should make the technology available
Keywords Rice processing, ASI thresher technology Senegal , Tobit, Probit, supply and demand indexing
Are African micro and small enterprises misunderstood? Unpacking the “soft” components of innovation
University of Johannesburg, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Scientometrics and Science Technology and Innovation Policy
Mainstream studies on innovation consider African enterprises to be less innovative than counterparts in other regions of the world. This is partly due to the fact that the literature has tended to adopt a rather narrow understanding of innovation, mainly referring to innovations that are “new to the world” and heavily reliant on formal R&D and technological inputs – what are often referred to as the “hard” components of innovation. This paper argues that this literature does not fully capture important dynamics and practices that are central to micro and small enterprises (MSEs) which constitute the majority of Africa’s enterprise base. Therefore, this paper explores the “soft” components of the innovation process among micro and small enterprises in Africa, including internal communication, skills development through interactive learning and linkages with external actors. On the basis of primary data, this study finds that MSEs in Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda despite weak links to formal support institutions are in fact active innovators. Further the results demonstrate that an important basis for the innovativeness of the micro and small enterprises is their use of adaptable employees with an ability to learn on the job and make use of their own ideas in solving daily problems.
Connecting the Dots Between Knowledge Openness, Networking, Partnerships and Innovation Within a Cluster: Otigba Nigeria as a Case Study
1Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 2National Centre for Technology Management, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
The study investigated the role knowledge, openness, networking and partnership on production and innovation within the Otigba ICT cluster in Nigeria. It also established the grade and prevalence of innovations within the cluster. Questionnaire were administered on two hundred (200) purposively selected owners/employees of informal ICT microenterprises in the cluster, The purposively selected enterprises were those having employee size of less than ten and offering ICT-related technical services. The results showed that there were competition and co-operation within the cluster with means of 4.64 and 4.10 respectively. Modes of openness within the cluster were by exchanging information and sharing experience with other technicians with means of 3.45 and 3.20 respectively. Firms were majorly (70%) involved in process and marketing innovations (30%). Openness, networking and partnership played a very significant role on access to information, customers, new domestic market, tools/technology, suppliers of raw materials and inputs among the enterprises. Majority (95%) of the respondent enterprises which exhibited cluster attributes were involved in one form of innovation or the other. The study concluded that openness, networking and partnership had engendered growth among the enterprises.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.06: National, continental and regional innovation system 4|
Session Chair: Jeong-Dong Lee
Discussant: Andrew Roberts Cummings
Economic Cycles, Productive Structure and Macroeconomic Volatility: An Empirical Analysis (1950–2016)
UNU - Merit, Netherlands
This article is a first approach of an effort aimed at analyzing and modeling the links between countries’ productive structures and macroeconomic volatility. It consists in an empirical exercise focused on giving inputs to the understanding of the economic volatility of developing countries’ economies – using developed countries as a benchmark. The paper starts by analyzing the evolution and standard deviation of per capita GDP growth during the period 1950 – 2016 for 132 countries. Data comes originally from the Maddison Project Database. In order to look and analyze stable and recurrent patterns of volatility, the same data is filtered into cyclical components. This filtering methodology consists in the use of an Asymmetric Band Pass-Filter (Christiano and Fitzgerald, 2003). Stable economic cycles emerge from market, investment and technological reasons. In order to capture the distinct explanations for cycles, we decompose data into four types of cycle and a trend according to their time range: the Kitchin cycle (up to 8 years), the Juglar cycle (8-15 years), the Kuznets Swing (15-30 years), the Kondratiev wave (30-60 years), and a structural residual long-run trend. Attributes related to amplitude, duration and the synchronization between cycles (Harding-Pagan index) are computed for each country and time range. Countries are grouped and compared using Cluster Analysis, resulting in a classification of patterns of volatility. The outputs are used as inputs to model how distinct product structures produce different volatility patterns in a model called Chronic Macroeconomic Instability (CMI) that links productive structure (in which innovation systems are included) to macroeconomic volatility.
Innovation and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation of European Countries
1Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly, Greece; 2Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Greece
In this paper we examine the relationship between innovation outcomes and economic growth in a sample of European countries for the period 1980-2015. More specifically, three different types of intellectual property rights are used as indicators of innovation outcomes; patent applications, industrial design applications and trademark applications. Using the Johansen cointegration technique, we investigate possible long-term relationships between these three innovation output indicators and GDP per capita. We employ Granger causality analysis to investigate causal relationships. The empirical findings show that the long-run relationships between innovation and economic growth are country and type of protection specific. The Granger causality test results indicate that patent applications have a stronger causal effect on economic growth rather than industrial design and trademark applications. The results show a unidirectional causal link from economic growth to intellectual property rights in Northern, mainly Nordic, European countries, while in Southern European countries the causal relationship is reverse. The implication of this study is that empirical analysis with emphasis on the combination of innovation output and input indicators may produce more insightful findings on the relationship between innovation and economic growth.
Analysis of the Greek Reformation Program 2007-2013 in terms of Innovativeness and Effectiveness
University of Aegean, Greece
The European Social Fund co-funded a major reformation program of the Greek public sector. The program was called “Operational Program Administrative Reform 2007-2013” and was managed from a Greek public administration’s special authority. During a seven year period, over 500 projects, that carried a budget of almost 600 million euros, were implemented within a risk free environment, in terms of funding, but also within an environment of economic crisis (two factors that are widely considered to amplify innovation in the public sector). We synthesized a research framework that was based on quantitative and qualitative data in order to assess the innovativeness of the reformation program and to find out failure and success factors. We concluded that although the reformation program was designed with intension to promote innovative actions, the effort was weakened and eventually the lower level innovative efforts were the most likely to be implemented. We found interesting correlations among the innovation level of each project and its core characteristics (financial status and number of subprojects).
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.07: Sectoral innovation system, systemic industrial policy and development 5|
Session Chair: Danae C. Diakoulaki
Discussant: Jun Jin
The power of wind: an analysis of a Uruguayan dialogue regarding an energy policy
University of the Republic, Uruguay, Uruguay
This article addresses a dialogue process regarding the implementation of an energy policy based on the development of wind power in Uruguay. This policy is the major component of a national strategy of diversification of the energy matrix based on renewable sources initiated by the Uruguayan government in 2005. We focuse on the development of a cognitive niche regarding wind energy emphasizing a virtuous articulation between academia and government. Results are presented as a narrative of the development of wind energy engaging with the literature on technological transitions and innovation systems. The transition resembles a transformation path in three phases during which relationships among different communities evolved. The analysis addresses the importance of learning spaces on energy related topics and the leading role of the State in the transformation.
Public policies as innovation drivers for The wind power sector
1Federal University o Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Federal Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil
The present article analyzes the main policies instruments that governments of different countries have used to support the wind industry. It is used is the neo-schumpeterian approach of the national innovation system to discuss this issue. A set of six countries representing the most significant policy cases in the wind industry are analyzed: Denmark, the United States, Germany, Spain, India and China. In addition, the historical analysis also puts in perspective the Brazilian case study in comparison to these other countries. The paper confirms the hypothesis that the success of the insertion of wind power source in the energy countries matrix is closely associated with the adoption of systemic and coordinated policies that promote their development. It is important that the policy instruments are connected with the socio-institutional context and the stage of technology and countries’ specificities must be taken into account. Therefore, the difference is that while the analyzed countries developed systemic and coordinated policies, Brazil had a disarticulation between policies that limited the development of scientific capacities and the influence of them on the dynamics of the productive sector and the innovation processes.
Global Inter linkages and Sectoral System of Innovation
Paper tries to explore the effect of global inter linkages on actors in a sectoral system. In the context of globalisation and rapid diffusion of technology, institutions not only affect the pace but rather determine the nature of interlinkages and collaboration. Based on the case study of wind power sector in a developing country like India, it maps the actors, institutions and knowledge base of the sector and how it is transformed by the global interlinkages. Paper highlights the role of collaborations joint venture in development of technology,financing of projects and research in assessment and development of resources by both private and public sector.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.08: Innovation systems, networks, global value chains and foreign direct investments 5|
Session Chair: Frederico Rocha
Discussant: Rajesh Many
Global research collaboration: Networks and partners in South-East Asia
1Ingenio (CSIC-UPV) Universitat Politècnica de València; 2CWTS, Leiden University
This paper is a largely empirical paper that addresses the role of bilateral and multilateral international co-authorships in the six leading science systems among the ASEAN group of countries (ASEAN6). The paper highlights the different ways that bilateral and multilateral co-authorships structure global networks and the collaborations of the ASEAN6. The paper looks at the influence of the collaboration styles of major collaborating countries of the ASEAN6, particularly the USA and Japan. It also highlights the role of bilateral and multilateral co-authorships in the production of knowledge in the leading specialisations of the ASEAN6. The discussion section offers some tentative explanations for major dynamics evident in the results.
The Interface Between Science and Technology in Research Infrastructures
University of São Paulo, Brazil
This study aims to understand the relationship between the scientific and technological collaboration networks of inventors in different types of research infrastructures. Thus, we sought to understand how the organization of scientific and technological production at the collective level affects the inventors position in both networks. The study was based on a sample of 1,756 Brazilian research infrastructures in which 7,714 different researchers are allocated. Firstly, a Multiple Correspondence Analysis was carried out followed by the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis for the proposition of a typology to represent different types of infrastructures. Next, the inventors were mapped, from which two collaborative networks were produced: one including their co-invention links and another including their co-authorship links. From a multinomial logit model with ordered results, we estimated the effects of the infrastructures types to which the inventors are related based on the importance they have in both networks. The results revealed that the characteristics of the infrastructures are associated to the researchers’ collaboration strategies, which in turn are related not only to the levels but also to their ability to articulate scientific and technological production.
The international surveys of FLOSS (free/libre open source software) firms
1Universidad Nacional de Rafaela, Argentina.; 2Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina.
In the last decade there was a substantial growth in the software and IT services sector, which generates an interest in the study of the impact that the expansion of this sector had in the development of emerging economies. At the same time, it is particularly relevant to the study the FLOSS production activity given its contribution to the Knowledge Intensive Services Sector, as software. The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of this activity, presenting a systematization, evaluation and analysis of the design of technological surveys available in the software activity and in FLOSS worldwide, so that it serves as antecedent for a subsequent recommendation in the design of a measuring instrument suited to the needs of the emerging economies. For that, this paper contains a review and systematization of software surveys at international level, surveys on FLOSS activity that take FLOSS developers as a unit of analysis and lastly on the FLOSS surveys at firm level, as a way to propose a questionnaire that allows to measure the particularities of FLOSS.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.09: Entrepreneurship and innovation management 8|
Session Chair: Evangelos Bourelos
Discussant: Qian Wen Gou
Sectoral Innovation Patterns of Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms: a Brazilian Firm-Level Analysis
1Federal University of Goiás, GO, Brazil; 2Federal University of Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
Taxonomies of patterns of innovation that consider the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are scarce in literature, and especially for developing countries. This paper presents a taxonomy that utilizes PINTEC-2008’s microdata, a sample of innovative Brazilian manufacturing firms. The goal, through the use of a non-parametric methodology applied to this database, was to distinguish sectoral patterns for SMEs by identifying whether they influence the innovative behavior of small- and medium-sized firms. Moreover, another objective involves identifying if these influences differ from those affecting large firms. The results obtained reveal that sectoral dynamics are relevant to SMEs’ innovative behavior, similar to what occurs with large companies.
The Greek Crisis and Small-Scale Production
1Panteion University, Athens, Greece; 2Piraeus University, Piraeus, Greece
This paper offers an interpretation of the Greek crisis focusing on the role of small firms in Greek production. Most accounts stress austerity and interpret the crisis purely in macroeconomic terms, as linked to Eurozone membership. This ignores that EZ membership was itself proposed partly as an instrument towards structural change. To address the crisis, it is important to be clear on its causes. If one focuses on the structure of production and, in particular, on the role of small family firms, it is possible to offer an explanation spanning the entire period from the sixties – the transformation of Greece from an emerging economy to EU member and ultimately to the EZ problem child. Far from being an obstacle to growth, dynamic small firms in the past showed resilience and withstood major shocks – entry into the EU, globalization and EZ membership. The distinguishing feature of the present crisis- and the reason why exit is proving so difficult – is that small firms have been hit harder and have yet to recover. Moreover, misdiagnosing the crisis in exclusively macro terms, may make small firms’ situation worse.
The paper conceptualizes a scheme with two types of small firms – one dynamic and outward looking - aiming to compete - and another defensive and inward faced–looking to the State for protection. The latter were key players in clientelistic political economy, while propping them up imposed burdens on dynamic firms and needed persistent borrowing. Dynamic firms were further persistently burdened by a version of the ‘Dutch disease’ – the impact of capital inflows in marginalizing efficient producers – providing a bridge between micro and macro considerations.
Recovery in Greece without dynamic small firms is only possible in the presence of an external Deus Ex Machina –in the form of foreign investment, debt relief or both. Reading the crisis as a crisis of production and not exclusively one of public finance is a first step towards setting a viable exit strategy. Ending austerity may be a necessary, but certainly not a sufficient condition. Industrial Policy towards small enterprise has a crucial role.
Venture capital in India: a critical view from an evolutionary and systemic perspective
1UNGS / UFRJ, Brazil; 2UNGS
The main objective of this essay is to explore the process of emergence and evolution of the Indian venture capital (VC) industry and its institutions from a systemic and critical point of view. We sustain that although the financial and institutional reforms implemented since the 90s have contributed to the development of the Indian venture capital (VC) industry, the role played by the Indian National Innovation System (NIS) and the Computer and Information Services Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (CISEE) have been critical. We will try to show that the Indian VC industry development should be understood in a broader context of: a) a booming economy, b) the stock of capabilities accumulated between the 50s and the 80s, c) the role played by the Indian Diaspora, d) the deregulation process initiated in the 80s and e) the US computer and information services offshoring opportunities.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.10: Creative industries and smart cities 1|
Session Chair: Marcelo Matos
Discussant: Jeffrey Orozco
Creative industry and entrepreneurship for a sustainable economic development: Case of South Africa.
1Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa; 2Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
The creative industries are a major source of job creation that is dynamic, encompassing many traditional professions that are essential for sustainable livelihood and people’s well-being. This paper provides the international business engagement of creative industries in South Africa. The study is addressed to government, policy makers, development experts, students of economic development, business, and also to the business sectors that are concerned with promoting economic growth and innovation through creativity, entrepreneurship and the development of creative communities as a mechanism to alleviate poverty and improve the quality of life, especially in the rural areas. Thus, the question: how does the investing in the creative industries affect sustainable economy in South Africa? This study explores literature on creative industries entrepreneurship, the value of the industry, the development implication, and suggested strategies, policy environment and challenges as affecting the industries. Our findings make available empirical evidence of the positive role of creative industries in economic development. We provide suitable recommendations required to support the sustainable development of these industries in Africa and conclude that creative industry entrepreneurs as an exceptional group of entrepreneur influence the sustainable economy of a country.
Innovation in Cultural and Creative Industries in Semi-industrialized Countries. Reflections Based on the Argentinean Case
Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Argentine Republic,
Limited advances have been accomplished in the study of innovation activities in cultural and creative industries. In this article we propose to analyze this topic and advance the theoretical and methodological discussion of some aspects that seem central from the perspective of developing countries. To do this we will discuss this issue in the context of the cultural and creative industries and, more specifically, in the case of audiovisual production.
This discussion may be placed in the framework of the study of innovation in services, especially in so-called advanced services. The literature has made greater progress in describing and characterizing the processes of innovation in manufacturing but much less in the case of services and even less in the audiovisual production complex (film, TV, advertising). Furthermore, in semi-industrialized countries such as Argentina, , progress in the development of the literature has been even more limited. At the same time, we propose in this paper that audiovisual production and the innovation processes that drive it forward have certain specificities in our countries that warrant a different treatment. Argentina provides a useful case-study since it has and has had a significant film, television and advertising production system.
A Cross-Level Perspective on Creativity: The Role of Learning Goal Orientation, Work Engagement, and Organizational Learning Climate
1Tongji University, China; 2Linyi University,China
Creativity is becoming increasingly vital to organizations in the context of ever-changing environment. This study integrated goal orientation theory, social cognitive theory and person-environment fit theory to construct the impact model of individual learning goal orientation and creativity, as well as discussed the effects of work engagement and organizational learning climate in their relationship. Using regression and hierarchical linear modeling methods, a sample of 765 employees nested in 30 organizations from China was empirically tested. Results indicate that learning goal orientation was positively related to creativity, work engagement partly mediated the relationship between learning goal orientation and creativity, and organizational learning climate had a positive cross-level moderating effect in the relationship of individual learning goal orientation and work engagement. This study also illustrates the contributions to the theory development and practical implications for managers.
|12:10pm - 1:40pm||PS-5.11: Science, technology, innovation and sustainable development goals 4|
Session Chair: Isabel Salavisa
Discussant: Nathalie Lazaric
Innovations Towards Reaching Natural Resource Related SDG – What Are The Starting Positions?
Fraunhofer ISI, Germany
Development along natural resources is linked to the SDG on economic, social, and also ecological dimensions. At the same time, economic and inclusive development requires that countries of the South increasingly develop their own capabilities. The GLOBELICS thematic report on natural resource development has taken up both requirements, and has pointed towards the potential of backward and forward linkages related to natural resources.
The paper addresses the extent to which innovation indicators indicate the level and development of competences with regard to providing linkage of natural resources to other fields important for development. We look at backward linkage to mining technologies, and forward linkages to metal production, renewable raw materials, and material efficiency. Patent and trade indicators reveal that the innovation dynamics in the relevant fields is about average. A heterogeneous picture emerges for the countries within a sample of 24 countries,. Some countries seem not to utilize linkage opportunities yet, others seem to be strong in establishing linkage in one area, other seem to even perform a more integrated approach along the value chain. However, in general, NICS are increasingly building competences especially in areas which are related to supply of natural resources. This increase in competences can be used to move closer to some of the SDGs related to natural resources. On the other hand, the traditional OECD countries are still in the lead especially with regard to the strategy of material efficiency, which is directed at reaching some other natural resource related SDG via a lowering of the demand for primary natural resources. This indicates the necessity of collaboration of North and South on the one hand. On the other, it shows that the different SDGs are not necessarily complementary, but that there will be trade-offs which require a careful balancing.
Barriers and incentives to eco-innovation in Mexico
1Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico; 2TNO, Netherlands; 3Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico
Eco-innovation is currently positioned as a topic of the highest political relevance in developed countries. A number of high-level political forums (UNCTAD, UNFCCC, OECD, UNEP, ASEM) have created manifold expectations around the potential of eco-innovation to become the engine to the green economy and a prime solution to global environmental pressures such as resource degradation, biodiversity loss and climate destabilization. In this context, a better understanding on how to remove barriers to eco-innovation is seen as an area of primary concern for research and policy analysis. For the Mexican case, it is difficult to find explicit policies for eco-innovation support, and as far as our research could go, there is insufficient evidence about the specific incentives to perform eco-innovations in the country.
It is against this backdrop that we present exploratory results from an on-going research project with the aim to identify and to analyze existing incentives and barriers to eco-innovation conditioning the up-take and wider diffusion in Mexico. Incentives and barriers can be classified in some categories: institutional, technological, organizational and behavioral, and those produced by the market dynamic. Regarding the incentives, the authors focus on the set of policy programs sponsoring innovation managed by the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Ministry of Economics. On the side of the barriers, our research focuses on institutional and behavioral ones such as legislation, fiscal regime, intellectual property, company perception of environmental pressures and/or economic risks, etc. The effect of market barriers can be perceived both, as incentive or as a barrier. For the Mexican case, we put forward the hypothesis that the perceived effect might of a barrier. This assumption is due to the low level of development of the so-called national system of innovation and the very insipient market formation of the eco-industry.
The empirical exploration of this article follows a twofold strategy: (1) it attempts to identify the types of eco-innovations developed by companies in different sectors; (2) it looks at the perceived effect of incentives and barriers to eco-innovation in Mexico. Availability of data is rather restricted since there is no statistics for this topic in the country. However, the classification of stages (according to the life cycle of innovation) and scope (incremental vs. radical) of eco-innovation are based on information directly taken from different public programs supporting innovation in firms. Descriptive statistics and content analysis of such information will be presented as part of the exploratory results offered by this paper. Future research will offer further insights on determinants and barriers to eco-innovation in Mexico by analyzing data from in-depth interviews and case studies of companies with eco-innovation potential in a specific sector.
Matching the Urban Needs for Inclusion, Sustainability and Local Value Creation by a Systemic Innovation?
1University of Tampere, Finland; 2VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
This paper will present a case of the Smart Community in Namibia; a systemic innovation that aims at providing a more sustainable model for urban development and housing. The goal is, through an empirical case, to analyze the important concepts of inclusion, sustainability and local economic development and how these could be fostered in the context of Southern African urban development. The paper is also interested in obstacles faced in introducing and implementing systemic innovations, and governance of such undertakings.
|1:40pm - 2:30pm||Lunch Break|
Meeting of the new Globelics Scientific Board (Room 6)
Alumni Meeting (Room 26a)
|2:40pm - 4:15pm||SpS-3.1: Innovating out of the crisis and stagnation: Strategies for Europe|
|2:40pm - 4:15pm||SpS-3.2: Transforming Innovation’: How do ideas about transformative change impact on innovation systems thinking?|
|4:15pm - 5:45pm||Local Industry Panel|
Session Chair: Aggelos Tsakanikas
“The Greek productive system in the post crisis era: A pattern for an effective transformation through innovation and sustainable development”
|5:45pm - 6:30pm||Closing Session|
|6:30pm||Buses leaving to the hotels|
|6:30pm - 6:45pm||Coffee Break|
|6:45pm - 8:45pm||Globelics Start-up Event|
|8:45pm||Buses leaving to the hotels|
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Conference: GLOBELICS 2017
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