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PS-3.07: University relationships with industry and society 1
10:30am - 12:00pm
Session Chair: Carlos Gonzalo Acevedo Peña, Universidad Mayor de San Simón Discussant: Mika Raunio, University of Tampere
Location:Sultan Room (Homann)
Obstacles to Innovation in Brazil: Lack of Qualified Personnel to Implement Innovation and to Establish University–Firm Interactions
Marcia Siqueira Rapini1, Tulio Chiarini2, Pablo Felipe Bittencourt3
1Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2National Institute of Technology, Brazil; 3Federal University of Santa Catarina
Through an investigation of the data available from the Brazilian Innovation Survey (Pesquisa de Inovação – PINTEC) of the ‘Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics’ (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE) and of the data from a national survey on university–firm (U-F) interactions (called the ‘BR Survey’) we show that Brazilian industrial firms lack qualified personnel for two key activities: individuals to promote innovation in Brazilian industrial firms and individuals (in universities and firms) to establish a dialogue between universities and firms in Brazil. Two propositions are then recommended. The first one, called ‘Proposition A’, is related to the first problem and advocates that Brazilian industrial firms’ weaknesses and workforce supply generate scarce (or inadequate) ‘know-why’. The second one, called ‘Proposition B’, is associated with the second problem, and states that the historical construction of a restricted view of Brazilian universities that is interested in creating a more enlightened and educated society and that augments the stock of scientific knowledge vis-à-vis technological development is the root of the weakness of the generation of ‘know-what’ and ‘know-who’. We validate these propositions for the Brazilian case and we stress that different types of knowledge are necessary in the National Systems of Innovation (NSI): knowledge on implementing new process and/or products indoors and knowledge on establishing relations with other agents.
R&D Funding Policy and University-Industry Research Collaboration in Brazil: The Case of Petrobras
Giovanna Gielfi1, André Furtado1, Robert Tijssen2
1University of Campinas, Brazil; 2Leiden University, Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS)
This paper aims to analyze the university-industry collaboration on the technological development of Petrobras, the Brazilian state-controlled oil company. Based on inventors’ names, extracted of patent applications by Petrobras gathered from EPO database, and ancillary information from Lattes Platform, we identify the academic joint-patents within Petrobras’ patent portfolio. Then we analyze the contribution of university collaboration to support the firm’s technological development and its main technical areas. Furthermore, we examine changes in collaboration overtime to explore if the recent R&D funding policy has affected the Petrobras-university interactions. The main findings of this study reveal an upward trend in Petrobras-university inventive collaboration, which is fostered by the R&D funding policy, resulting in an enlargement of the Petrobras’ collaborative network. We have also found that universities make background and niche contributions to Petrobras’ patenting activities, deepening the company’s technical capabilities. The implications of these results to enhance the R&D resources and capabilities of Petrobras, as well as to strengthen the Brazilian system of innovation related to oil and gas activities, are also discussed.
Factors Influencing Academic Entrepreneurship in Nigerian Universities
Caleb Muyiwa Adelowo
National Centre for Technology Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
This paper explored academic entrepreneurship in selected Nigerian universities with a view to understanding important determinants and support structures for promoting innovations in these institutions. With intense pressure on universities to contribute to economic growth and fulfil the ‘third mission’ objective through knowledge transfer activities, it becomes imperative to examine various ways Nigerian academics contribute to this development. This paper argued along the wave of entrepreneurial university and the need to stimulate economic activities through research commercialisation, linkage with industry and other related activities. This paper, premised on the spill-over theory of entrepreneurship, shifted the lens of analysis on scientists and researchers within the universities. Diverse factors influencing their entrepreneurial engagements were examined. Data for the study was collected through questionnaire which was administered on randomly selected 350 faculty members from thirteen universities in Southwest, Nigeria. The response rate was 65.4%. The entrepreneurial engagements of faculty members were divided into five major activities, that is, training and consultancy related, contribution to university’s start-up formation, start-up formation based on owned research, collaboration with industry and teaching-research related activities. Their participation in these activities was measured based on whether they ever engaged in these activities and at what time. The results revealed that most faculty members participated in entrepreneurial activities related to training and consultancy while the incidence of start-up formation was low. The type of research they conduct (whether applied or basic), intellectual property disclosure, entrepreneurship training attended and rewards system in their university were statistically significant to entrepreneurial engagement of faculty members. However, the job position and presence of technology transfer offices or other similar facilities were not significantly correlated with academic entrepreneurship. The study concluded that academic entrepreneurship could be enhanced in the selected universities if the participating faculties were rewarded or recognised for such efforts.